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1

Biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the biocompatibility of glass ionomer cements (GICs) with and without chlorhexidine (CHX) as well as coated with varnish or not using in vitro cytotoxicity test. Materials and Methods: Biocompatibility of Fuji IX, Fuji IX with varnish, Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate and Fuji IX with 1% CHX diacetate with varnish was determined with in vitro cytotoxicity assay by using L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblasts. After 72 h, cell viabilities were evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay to determine the effects of the cements on the mitochondrial function and microscopic images were taken by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test at a significance level of P < 0.05. 72 h after treatment, there were statistically significant differences between Fuji IX and Fuji IX-CHX (P < 0.001). In addition, the reduction of the cytotoxicity by coating the GICs with varnish was indicative and increased the cell viability ratio (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Fuji IX coated with varnish was found to be the most biocompatible one among others. Thus adding CHX significantly reduced the cell viability, it is assumed that, due to the leakage of CHX and the other components of the GICs to the cell culture medium, the cell viabilities were decreased, so it is highly recommended to use varnish not only to reduce the water loss from the GICs, but also to reduce the cytotoxicity of the GICs. PMID:24966735

Iz, Sultan Gulce; Ertugrul, Fahinur; Eden, Ece; Gurhan, S. Ismet Deliloglu

2013-01-01

2

Biocompatibility of various light-curing and one conventional glass-ionomer cement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine and to compare the cellular compatibility of modern light-curing (lc) glass-ionomer cements (GICs) to one conventional (co) GIC. The following materials were investigated: Ionoseal (IS, lc) (VOCO, Germany), Vitrebond (VB, lc) (3M, USA), Compoglass (CG, lc) (Vivadent, FL) and Ketac Fil Applicap (KF, co) (ESPE, Germany). From all GICs, equally sized specimens (height 2 mm, diameter 5 mm) were polymerized or set according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Various extracts of all specimens were obtained by subsequent elutions. Human primary fibroblasts of the attached gingiva (HGF) and permanent mouse fibroblasts (3T3) were used for the experiments. HGF and 3T3 cells were exposed to the extracts of all materials for 48 h. Growth inhibition due to cytotoxic effects was determined by staining the cultures with Hoechst 33342 (determination of DNA and cell vitality). It was found that the material CG induced no growth inhibition in any of the assays. Proliferation of HGF was not, or only slightly, inhibited by the extracts of the materials IS and KF, whereas severe alterations were caused by the extracts of the material VB. Growth of 3T3 cells was only moderately or slightly reduced by the extracts of materials IS and KF respectively, but was severely or totally inhibited by all extracts of VB. From our results we conclude that the GIC VB is very cytotoxic and therefore may also induce alterations in vivo. All other investigated GICs revealed excellent (CG), or good (IS, KF) cellular compatibility. PMID:9645563

Leyhausen, G; Abtahi, M; Karbakhsch, M; Sapotnick, A; Geurtsen, W

1998-03-01

3

Thermal diffusivity of glass-ionomer cements.  

PubMed

Thermal diffusivity, a property related to the thermal insulative efficiency of a material, was measured in nine glass-ionomer cements and compared with results from a silicate and a polycarboxylate cement. Each cement was mixed at various powder-liquid ratios (P/L) and moulded into a rectangular prism of approximate dimensions 2 cm cube with a thermocouple embedded in it. The prism was immersed in a constant-temperature bath at 1 degree C, and the fall in temperature was observed over a period of three min. Except for the initial and later stages, the plot of the logarithmic difference between external and internal temperatures of each block of cement against time showed a straight line in accord with theoretical prediction. From the slope, the thermal diffusivity of the material was calculated. The values for the silicate, polycarboxylate, and glass-ionomer-metal (cermet) showed a marked rise with increasing P/L, whereas at higher P/L, glass ionomer cements showed gradual change, with values being only slightly higher than the thermal diffusivity of dentin. Glass-ionomer cements are good thermal insulators over a wide range of P/L, and close agreement between experimental and theoretical data shows that glass-ionomer cements are homogenous isotropic materials. PMID:3475320

Tay, W M; Braden, M

1987-05-01

4

Long-term F Release from Glass Ionomer Cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride release from three commercial glass ionomer filling cements and three glass ionomer luting cements was measured in the laboratory over a 12-month period. Fluoride release from these glass ionomer cements was compared with that released from a silicate, silicophosphate, and a fluoride-containing polycarboxylate cement. The fluoride released from the glass ionomer cements throughout the one-year period was similar, both

M. L. Swartz; R. W. Phillips; H. E. Clark

1984-01-01

5

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

Wu, Wei

6

In vitro enamel remineralization at orthodontic band margins cemented with glass ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demineralization adjacent to orthodontic bands remains a clinical concern. The release of fluoride from glass ionomer cement has been shown to inhibit demineralization. The purpose of this study was to examine the remineralization effects of a glass ionomer cement adjacent to orthodontic bands. Forty extracted molars were painted with an acid-protective varnish, excluding a 2 × 6 mm window on

Kevin James Donly; Shayne Istre; Todd Istre

1995-01-01

7

Investigation of glass-ionomer cements using differential scanning calorimetry.  

PubMed

Six commercial glass-ionomer cements commonly used for various dental applications have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The heat-flow behaviour and heat capacity of the cements were measured during isothermal (at 37 degrees C) setting reactions. The DSC results show that all materials undergo an exothermic setting process, but with different enthalpies of reactions and different heat capacities; there are no remaining endo- or exothermic reactions after the setting of the cement. All materials examined were found to be effective thermal insulators. PMID:15348851

Khalil, S K; Atkins, E D

1998-09-01

8

Laboratory evaluation of a compomer and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic bonding.  

PubMed

The mean shear debonding force of stainless steel orthodontic brackets with microetched bases bonded with either a compomer or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement was assessed. In addition, the amount of cement remaining on the enamel surface following bracket removal was evaluated. Finally, survival time of orthodontic brackets bonded with these materials was assessed following simulated mechanical stress in a ball mill. Debonding force and survival time data were compared with those obtained for brackets bonded with a chemically cured resin adhesive, a light-cured resin adhesive, and a conventional glass ionomer cement. There were no significant differences in mean shear debonding force of brackets bonded with the compomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, chemically cured resin adhesive, or the light-cured resin adhesive. Brackets bonded with a conventional glass ionomer cement had a significantly lower mean shear debonding force than that recorded for the other materials. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) mode score indicated that significantly less cement remained on the enamel following debonding of brackets cemented with resin-modified or conventional glass ionomers compared with other adhesives. The median survival time for brackets cemented with the compomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, chemically cured resin, or light-cured resin were significantly longer than for brackets cemented with conventional glass ionomer. The compomer and the resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive appear to offer viable alternatives to the more commonly used resin adhesives for bracket bonding. PMID:10022186

Millett, D T; Cattanach, D; McFadzean, R; Pattison, J; McColl, J

1999-02-01

9

Spheroidization of glass powders for glass ionomer cements.  

PubMed

Commercial angular glass powders were spheroidized using both the flame spraying and inductively coupled radio frequency plasma spraying techniques. Spherical powders with different particle size distributions were obtained after spheroidization. The effects of spherical glass powders on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. Results showed that the particle size distribution of the glass powders had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of GICs. Powders with a bimodal particle size distribution ensured a high packing density of glass ionomer cements, giving relatively high mechanical properties of GICs. GICs prepared by flame-spheroidized powders showed low strength values due to the loss of fine particles during flame spraying, leading to a low packing density and few metal ions reacting with polyacrylic acid to form cross-linking. GICs prepared by the nano-sized powders showed low strength because of the low bulk density of the nano-sized powders and hence low powder/liquid ratio of GICs. PMID:15046893

Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Kumar, R

2004-08-01

10

In-vitro Comparison of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with Zinc Phosphate Cements  

PubMed Central

White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Long-lasting antibacterial properties of orthodontic cements can reduce this phenomenon. The aim of this research was to compare antimicrobial activity of three commercial glass ionomer cements with three commercial zinc phosphate cements, over time, against streptococcus mutans and candida albicans. Direct contact test (DCT) was used to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of products after 48 h and 7 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that all the cements presented antibacterial activity but the antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements was more than that of zinc phosphate cements. Counts of C. albicans after 48 h were lower and statistically different in the GIC group in relation to the control groups. But no differences were observed between GIC and control groups at 7 days. Based on the results of this study, the antimicrobial and mainly antifungal effects of all the cements were so short. PMID:25317187

Vahid Dastjerdie, Elaheh; Oskoui, Mahvash; Sayanjali, Elham; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

2012-01-01

11

Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

2014-01-01

12

Glass ionomer cement hardness after different materials for surface protection.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of high viscous glass ionomer cement (GIC) Ketac Molar Easy Mix (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, USA) submitted to different types of compounds for surface protection. Sixty specimens of GIC were made in PVC molds with 7.5 mm diameter and 2.5 mm thickness. Divided in 6 groups: G1, Control (no protection); G2, Cavitine (Copal varnish); G3, Magic bond (Adhesive); G4, Adper Single Bond 2 (Single bottle adhesive); G5, Solid Petroleum Jelly; G6, Nail Varnish. The surface protection was applied after initial setting reaction. The specimens were immersed in deionized water, at 37 degrees C, for 24 h. The surfaces were polished in a rotation machine (Aropol 2V). The hardness test was accomplished in a Digital Microhardness tester HVS-100. In each specimen five indentations were done and repeated after 30 days and 4 months, under the same conditions. The results were submitted to Two-way ANOVA and Tukey Test. The only material that differed from the control group was the nail varnish (p < 0.001), with the other materials showing no significant difference from the control group. It was concluded that the best material for surface protection of GIC was the nail varnish, but because of possible harmful effects, petroleum jelly could be a better option. PMID:19557791

Brito, Cecilia R; Velasco, Leandro G; Bonini, Gabriela A V C; Imparato, José Carlos P; Raggio, Daniela P

2010-04-01

13

Resin-modified glass ionomer cements: fluoride release and uptake.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the short- and long-term fluoride release from resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GIC). The aim was also to determine the effect of fluoride treatment of 9-month-old specimens, consistency of the mix, and pH of the environment on the fluoride release. GIC test specimens were continually exposed to running water, and the fluoride release was measured periodically by storing the specimens in 5 ml deionized water for 1 week and measuring the fluoride content of the solution. After 24 h, 1 month, 9 months, and 11 months in running water four of the six resin-modified GICs released as much as or more fluoride than the auto-curing GIC tested for comparison. Fluoride treatment after 9 months also increased the fluoride release of these four brands, as was the case with the conventional GIC. At 24 h and 1 month two of the resin-modified GICs released smaller amounts of fluoride than the other materials, and the fluoride treatment used on those had no or only a minimal effect. Thin consistency of a mix resulted in higher fluoride release for one resin-modified material than a thick mix. Low pH increased the fluoride release for all materials. PMID:7484103

Forsten, L

1995-08-01

14

Glass ionomer cement in otological microsurgery: experience over 16 years.  

PubMed

A retrospective evaluation of glass ionomer cement (GIC) in middle ear surgery with emphasis on short- and long-term safety was conducted at the tertiary referral center. GIC was applied between 1995 and 2006 in 444 patients in otologic surgery. Technical aspects, safety, benefits and complications due to GIC were analysed until 2011 (follow-up 5-16 years; mean 10 years). GIC was applied in stapes surgery (228 primary, 92 revisions), cochlear implants (108) and implantable hearing aids (7), ossiculoplasty (7), for coverage of opened mastoid air cells towards the external ear canal (1) and inner ear fistula closure (1). GIC turned out to be very handy in stapes surgery for optimal prosthesis fixation at the incus (260) and on the malleus handle (60) without complications. Results suggest that GIC may diminish the danger of incus necrosis in primary stapedotomy. In cochlear implants and implantable hearing aids, GIC was used for casing alone (74), casing and electrode fixation (27) and electrode alone fixation (14). Inflammatory reactions were observed in five cases (4.3 %), mostly after trauma. Broken cement fragments appeared to promote foreign body rejection. In seven cases an incudo-stapedial gap was repaired with GIC with excellent hearing gain; in three cases (43 %) revision surgery was needed due to cement breakage. In one case, GIC was applied for a watertight coverage of opened mastoid cells, and in the other for fistula closure of the lateral semi-circular canal over cartilage, covered with bone pathé; follow-up was uneventful. Targeted use of GIC in middle ear surgery rarely poses problems. GIC cannot be used in neuro-otosurgery in contact with cerebrospinal fluid because of possible aluminium encephalopathy. PMID:25209434

Righini-Grunder, F; Häusler, R; Chongvisal, S; Caversaccio, M

2014-09-10

15

Factors responsible for pulp cell cytotoxicity induced by resin-modified glass ionomer cements.  

PubMed

Resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) are the last generation of GICs commonly used in restorative dentistry. They contain various resins that improve their mechanical properties. These modifications, however, may also affect their biocompatibility. We compared the cytotoxicity of seven biomaterials (five RM-GICs, one metal-reinforced GIC (M-GIC), and a zinc-oxyphosphate cement) using an assay of pulp cell viability in vitro (MTT assay). The most toxic materials appeared to be the M-GIC Hi-Dense and the RM-GIC Vitremer. The less toxic ones appeared to be the RM-GICs Compoglass and Photac-Fil. Attempts made to identify the factors responsible for their cytotoxicity indicated that in vitro cytotoxicity did not seem to be caused by any change in pH of the biomaterial eluates. Adsorption of biomaterial eluates on dentin powder significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of all biomaterials. The concentration of F-, Sr2+, and Al3+ (major ionic elements present in GICs) in the eluate of six glass ionomer containing biomaterials was too low to be cytotoxic. However, Cu2+ and Ag+ (present in alloys of M-GIC) were present in toxic concentrations in Hi-Dense eluates. Unpolymerized monomers leached from resins were identified by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in biomaterial eluates. The monomers hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and poly(acrylic) acid were identified in eluates of Vitremer, Compoglass, and Hi-Dense, respectively. After ethanol elution of HEMA and TEGDMA from Vitremer and Compoglass, respectively, the cytotoxicity of these two RM-GICs was drastically reduced. Our results suggest that the principal compounds responsible for cytotoxicity are unpolymerized resin monomers in the two RM-GICs and Cu2+ and Ag+ in the M-GIC. PMID:10398031

Stanislawski, L; Daniau, X; Lauti, A; Goldberg, M

1999-01-01

16

Dispersive surface properties of glass-ionomer cements determined by inverse gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface properties of several glass-ionomer cements (GIC), restorative dental materials, (GC-Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated for the first time by means of inverse gas chromatography. This method enables characterization of surface activity in dispersive (non-polar) and acid-base interactions. The ability of the surface of glass-ionomers to participate in dispersive interactions was expressed by the use of the dispersive component of surface free energy ?sd. This parameter was determined with satisfactory precision, meaning that the values of ?sd can be further used in the discussion of the influence of the type of GIC, its preparation and the storage time on the surface properties. The greatest capacity for dispersive interactions was revealed by Ketac Molar and the lowest by GC-Fuji. Dispersive interactions in the surface activity of glass-ionomers increased with increasing storage time after cement preparation.

Andrzejewska, E.; Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewski, M.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.

2005-05-01

17

Studies on the Adhesion of Glass-ionomer Cements to Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the bonding mechanisms of glass-ionomer cement to dentin. The approaches included mechanical determination of bond strengths, analysis of surface morphology by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy, and measurement of chemical changes of fracture bond sites by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The highest bond strengths were

A. Lin; N. S. McIntyre; R. D. Davidson

1992-01-01

18

Management of a Large Internal Resorption Lesion with Metal Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cement  

PubMed Central

Mineral trioxide aggregate is the mainstay of treatment of large internal resorption defects. But its cost may be a deterrent to its use in some patients. The present case report describes the successful endodontic management of an extensive internal resorptive lesion in a mandibular molar with metal reinforced glass ionomer cement. PMID:25436156

Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Arora, Suraj; Sethi, Kunal; Kalra, Tarun

2014-01-01

19

Initial sliding wear kinetics of two types of glass ionomer cement: a tribological study.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize the initial wear kinetics of two different types of glass ionomer cement used in dentistry (the conventional glass ionomer cement and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement) under sliding friction after 28-day storing in distilled water or Ringer's solution. Sliding friction was applied through a pin-on-disk tribometer, in sphere-on-plane contact conditions, under 5 N normal load and 120 rotations per minute. The test lasted 7500 cycles and replicas were performed at 2500, 5000 and 7500 cycles. A profilometer was used to evaluate the wear volume. Data were analysed using Student's t-test at a significant level of 5%. There is no statistical significant difference between the results obtained for a given material with the maturation media (P > 0.05). However, for a given maturation medium, there are significant statistical differences between the data obtained for the two materials at each measurement (P < 0.0001). The wear rates of both materials decrease continuously during the running-in period between 0 and 2500 cycles. After 2500 cycles, the wear rate becomes constant and equal for both materials. The resin matrix contained in the resin-modified glass ionomer cement weakens the tribological behaviour of this material. PMID:25093185

Villat, Cyril; Ponthiaux, Pierre; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Colon, Pierre

2014-01-01

20

The Effect of Glass Ionomer and Adhesive Cements on Substance P Expression in Human Dental Pulp  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of glass ionomer and adhesive cements on SP expression in healthy human dental pulp. Study Design: Forty pulp samples were obtained from healthy premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons. In thirty of these premolars a Class V cavity preparation was performed and teeth were equally divided in three groups: Experimental Group I: Glass Ionomer cement was placed in the cavity. Experimental Group II: Adhesive Cement was placed in the cavity. Positive control group: Class V cavities only. The remaining ten healthy premolars where extracted without treatment and served as a negative control group. All pulp samples were processed and SP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: Greater SP expression was found in the adhesive cement group, followed by the glass ionomer and the positive control groups. The lower SP values were for the negative control group. ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between groups (p<0.0001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests showed statistically significant differences in SP expression between negative control group and the 3 other groups (p<0.01). Differences between the cavity-only group and the two experimental groups were also statistically significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). There is also a statistically significant difference between the two experimental groups (p<0.01). Conclusions: These findings suggest that adhesive cements provoke a greater SP expression when compared with glass ionomer. Key words:Glass Ionomer, adhesive cement, Substance P, human dental pulp. PMID:23722145

Ariza-Garcia, German; Camelo, Patricia; Mejia, Monica; Ojeda, Karyn; Azuero-Holguin, Maria M.; Abad-Coronel, Dunia; Munoz, Hugo R.

2013-01-01

21

IR and NMR Analyses of Hardening and Maturation of Glass-ionomer Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the silicate phase as well as the cross-linking of the polycarboxylic acid by aluminum and calcium ions played an important role in the hardening of glass-ionomer cement. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural change during hardening of the cements by means of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

S. Matsuya; T. Maeda; M. Ohta

1996-01-01

22

Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Objective. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. Methods. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on Streptococcus mutans in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive control. Results. Each of the tested materials significantly reduced the number of initially adhered CFUs; this reduction was even more pronounced after prior incubation in saliva. Antimicrobial effects on adherent bacteria were confirmed by live-dead staining. Conclusion. All five luting cements showed an antimicrobial potential which was increased by prior incubation with human saliva, suggesting an enhanced effect in vivo. PMID:24795539

Altenburger, Markus; Spitzmüller, Bettina; Anderson, Annette; Hellwig, Elmar

2014-01-01

23

Analysis of glass ionomer cement with use of scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

In the study, scanning electronmicroscopy and x-ray microanalysis techniques were used to examine a silver-reinforced glass ionomer cement. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate surface topography and microstructure. Microcracking and a bimodal pore distribution were observed. The cement consisted of unreacted glass particles surrounded by a silica gel "halo" and embeded in an organic salt matrix. Back-scattered electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy detected discrete clusters of silver atoms within the material. Other elements, such as calcium and aluminum, were dispersed homogeneously. Wave-length dispersive spectroscopy was used to detect fluoride, which also appeared to be homogeneously distributed. Electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis techniques could prove valuable in clarifying the microstructure and fluoride release mechanisms of glass ionomer cements. Refinement of some aspects, including sample preparation, will be necessary to obtain consistently reliable results. PMID:2118180

Swift, E J; Dogan, A U

1990-08-01

24

Effect of different root caries treatments on the sealing ability of conventional glass ionomer cement restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared the microleakage of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorations following the use of different\\u000a methods of root caries removal. In vitro root caries were induced in 75 human root dentin samples that were divided in five\\u000a groups of 15 each according to the method used for caries removal: in group 1 spherical carbide burs at

Vinicius R. Geraldo-Martins; Cesar P. Lepri; Regina G. Palma-Dibb

25

Structure of bioactive glass and its application to glass ionomer cement.  

PubMed

We prepared a new glass ionomer cement using bioactive CaO-P2O5-SiO2(-MgO) glass and investigated its setting process using FT-IR and MAS NMR analyses. The compressive strengths of the cements depended on the glass composition and a maximum strength of 33.3 +/- 4.7 MPa was obtained using cement with the glass composition of MgO:4.6, CaO:44.9, SiO2:34.2 and P2O5:16.3% in weight. FT-IR analysis showed that the COOH group in the polyacrylic acid decreased and carboxylate ion (COO-Ca2+) increased after the setting reaction. A broad signal appeared around -82 ppm in 29Si MAS-NMR spectra of the glass and a new signal corresponding to hydrated silica gel formation appeared around -102 and -111 ppm after setting. This suggests that Ca2+ was released from the glass powder to form carboxylate salt and that a degree of polymerization in the silicate network increased. The setting mechanism of the cement was found to be essentially the same as in conventional glass ionomer cement. PMID:10786128

Matsuya, S; Matsuya, Y; Ohta, M

1999-06-01

26

Comparative Evaluation of Voids Present in Conventional and Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements Using Two Different Conditioners: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

This in vitro study evaluated the presence of voids in powder-liquid and capsulated glass ionomer cement. 40 cavities were prepared on root surfaces of maxillary incisors and divided into four groups. Cavities were conditioned with glass ionomer cement liquid (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 1 and 3 and with dentin conditioner (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in Groups 2 and 4. Conventional powder-liquid glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used as a restorative material in Groups 1 and 2. Capsulated glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was used in Groups 3 and 4. Samples were sectioned and viewed under stereomicroscope to check for the presence of voids within the cement and at the cement-tooth junction. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Group 4 showed statistically significant results (P < 0.05) when compared to Groups 1 and 2 for voids within the cement. However, for voids at the margins, the results were statistically insignificant. PMID:25544842

Sharma, Roshni; Reddy, Pallavi; Udameshi, Pooja; Vallakuruchi Jayabal, Narmatha

2014-01-01

27

Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements  

PubMed Central

Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC.

Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

2014-01-01

28

Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a

Delia S. Brauer; Eileen Gentleman; David F. Farrar; Molly M. Stevens; Robert G. Hill

2011-01-01

29

Aluminum-free glass-ionomer bone cements with enhanced bioactivity and biodegradability.  

PubMed

Al-free glasses of general composition 0.340SiO2:0.300ZnO:(0.250-a-b)CaO:aSrO:bMgO:0.050Na2O:0.060P2O5 (a, b=0.000 or 0.125) were synthesized by melt quenching and their ability to form glass-ionomer cements was evaluated using poly(acrylic acid) and water. We evaluated the influence of the poly(acrylic acid) molecular weight and glass particle size in the cement mechanical performance. Higher compressive strength (25±5 MPa) and higher compressive elastic modulus (492±17 MPa) were achieved with a poly(acrylic acid) of 50 kDa and glass particle sizes between 63 and 125 ?m. Cements prepared with glass formulation a=0.125 and b=0.000 were analyzed after immersion in simulated body fluid; they presented a surface morphology consistent with a calcium phosphate coating and a Ca/P ratio of 1.55 (similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite). Addition of starch to the cement formulation induced partial degradability after 8 weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer saline containing ?-amylase. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the inclusion of starch increased the cement porosity from 35% to 42%. We were able to produce partially degradable Al-free glass-ionomer bone cements with mechanical performance, bioactivity and biodegradability suitable to be applied on non-load bearing sites and with the appropriate physical characteristics for osteointegration upon partial degradation. Zn release studies (concentrations between 413 ?M and 887 ?M) evidenced the necessity to tune the cement formulations to reduce the Zn concentration in the surrounding environment. PMID:23827583

Gomes, Filipa O; Pires, Ricardo A; Reis, Rui L

2013-04-01

30

Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and composite resin when repairing large furcal perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the sealing ability of different repair materials and the pathway of bacterial penetration after closure of large pulp chamber floor perforations. Materials and methods Perforations were made in the furcation area of extracted human molars and sealed with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), glass ionomer cement or resin composite. The bacterial leakage method was used with Enterococcus

M. Kleivmyr; E. Bruzell; D. Ørstavik; G. Lodiene

2011-01-01

31

Glass ionomer cement as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation defect.  

PubMed

Predicting the prognosis of molars that have experienced furcation invasion, is often a frustrating experience to the dental clinician and disappointing report to the patient involved. Although multiple treatment modalities have been attempted to retain teeth with severe furcation invasion, clinical success has not been predictable. A case report involving the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an occlusive barrier in the management of Class III furcation defect involving mandibular first molar is presented. A literature review on the subject matter was conducted using Medline, Google search engines, and manual library search. GIC restoration of Class III furcation invasion gives a satisfactory result. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are available for the management of the condition. GIC as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation invasion is an economical and less invasive treatment option. It also makes home care easy for the patient. PMID:22124057

Singhal, Rameshwari

2011-01-01

32

Effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hundred premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided into five groups (n = 20). Group 1 (control): enamel was etched with 35 per cent phosphoric acid, a thin layer of adhesive was applied, and the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. Group 2: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Group 3: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with conventional GIC. Group 4: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. Group 5: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours before they were submitted to shear testing. The results demonstrated that bond strength values of group 1 (17.08 ± 6.39 MPa) were significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. Groups 2 (3.43 ± 1.94 MPa) and 3 (3.92 ± 1.57 MPa) presented values below the average recommended in the literature. With regard to adhesive remnant index, the groups in which the enamel was treated with NaOCl showed a behaviour similar to that of the resin composite. It is conclude with enamel treatment with NaOCl increased bonding strength of brackets bonded with GIC and RMGIC, but increased bond strength was not statistically significant when compared to the untreated groups. PMID:22379131

Pereira, Tatiana Bahia Junqueira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

2013-08-01

33

A Comparative Study of Color Stability and Fluoride Release from Glass Ionomer Cements Combined with Chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Restoring carious teeth is one of the major treatment needs of young children. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) systems had become the most important dental restorative and luting materials for use in preschoolers, children and teenagers. Several attempts in developing GIC with antibacterial effects by addition of bactericides, such as chlorhexidine, have been reported. Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the color and fluoride ion release of conventional and resin-modified GICs in combination with 1.25 and 2.5% chlorhexidine diacetate. Materials and methods: The control groups consisted of conventional GIC and resin-modified GIC. The experimental groups consisted of conventional and resin-modified GIC groups, consisting of 1.25 and 2.5% chlorhexidine. A total of six groups were included with each group being allotted 20 specimens for the evaluation of color stability and 10 specimens each were allotted for the evaluation of fluoride release. Color and fluoride release were recorded using spectrophoto-meter and fluoride selective electrode respectively at 24 hours 7 days and 1 month. Results: Resin-modified GIC groups showed less color stability and better fluoride release at the end of the study compared to conventional GIC groups. Conclusion: There was no significant change in color and fluoride release between 1.25 and 2.5% conventional GIC and also between 1.25 and 2.5% resin-modified GIC combined with chlorhexidine diacetate at the end of the study. Conventional GIC showed better color stability and less fluoride release compared to resin-modified GIC. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Pattanshetti K, Sugandhan S. A Comparative Study of Color Stability and Fluoride Release from Glass Ionomer Cements Combined with Chlorhexidine. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):26-29. PMID:25206183

Pattanshetti, Kirti; Sugandhan, S

2013-01-01

34

Effect of Hygroscopic Expansion on the Push-Out Resistance of Glass Ionomer-Based Cements Used for the Luting of Glass Fiber Posts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer (GIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) luting cements to the push-out resistance of fiber posts. Glass fiber posts were luted to post spaces using different cements. Experimental specimens were stored in water, while control specimens were desiccated and stored in mineral oil to eliminate water from intraradicular dentinal tubules and\\/or

Álvaro H. Cury; Cecilia Goracci; Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro; Ricardo M. Carvalho; Fernanda T. Sadek; Franklin R. Tay; Marco Ferrari

2006-01-01

35

Effect of Nanoclay Dispersion on the Properties of a Commercial Glass Ionomer Cement  

PubMed Central

Objective. The reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGV and PGN nanoclay) on Fuji-IX glass ionomer cement was investigated. Materials and Method. PGV and PGV nanoclays (2.0?wt%) were dispersed in the liquid portion of Fuji-IX. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to quantify acid-base reaction and the liquid portion of GIC. The mechanical properties (CS, DTS, FS, and Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured at 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 month. The microstructure was examined by cryo-SEM and TEM. Results. FTIR shows that the setting reaction involves the neutralisation of PAA by the glass powder which was linked with the formation of calcium and aluminium salt-complexes. The experimental GICs (C-V and C-N) exhibited mechanical properties in compliance to ISO standard requirement have higher values than Fuji-IX cement. There was no significant correlation of mechanical properties was found between C-V and C-N. The average Mw of Fuji-IX was 15,700 and the refractive index chromatogram peak area was 33,800. TEM observation confirmed that nanoclays were mostly exfoliated and dispersed in the matrix of GIC. Conclusion. The reinforcement of nanoclays in GICs may potentially produce cements with better mechanical properties without compromising the nature of polyacid neutralisation. PMID:25210518

Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

2014-01-01

36

Effect of nanoclay dispersion on the properties of a commercial glass ionomer cement.  

PubMed

Objective. The reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGV and PGN nanoclay) on Fuji-IX glass ionomer cement was investigated. Materials and Method. PGV and PGV nanoclays (2.0?wt%) were dispersed in the liquid portion of Fuji-IX. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to quantify acid-base reaction and the liquid portion of GIC. The mechanical properties (CS, DTS, FS, and E f ) of cements (n = 20) were measured at 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 month. The microstructure was examined by cryo-SEM and TEM. Results. FTIR shows that the setting reaction involves the neutralisation of PAA by the glass powder which was linked with the formation of calcium and aluminium salt-complexes. The experimental GICs (C-V and C-N) exhibited mechanical properties in compliance to ISO standard requirement have higher values than Fuji-IX cement. There was no significant correlation of mechanical properties was found between C-V and C-N. The average Mw of Fuji-IX was 15,700 and the refractive index chromatogram peak area was 33,800. TEM observation confirmed that nanoclays were mostly exfoliated and dispersed in the matrix of GIC. Conclusion. The reinforcement of nanoclays in GICs may potentially produce cements with better mechanical properties without compromising the nature of polyacid neutralisation. PMID:25210518

Fareed, Muhammad A; Stamboulis, Artemis

2014-01-01

37

Nanoclay addition to a conventional glass ionomer cements: Influence on physical properties  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate the reinforcement effect of polymer-grade montmorillonite (PGN nanoclay) on physical properties of glass ionomer cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: The PGN nanoclay was dispersed in the liquid portion of GIC (HiFi, Advanced Healthcare, Kent, UK) at 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify the polymer liquid of GICs after dispersion of nanoclay. The molecular weight (Mw) of HiFi liquid was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The compressive strength (CS), diametral-tensile strength, flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (Ef) of cements (n = 20) were measured after storage for 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. Fractured surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The working and setting time (WT and ST) of cements was measured by a modified Wilson's rheometer. Results: The FTIR results showed a new peak at 1041 cm?1 which increased in intensity with an increase in the nanoclay content and was related to the Si-O stretching mode in PGN nanoclay. The Mw of poly (acrylic acid) used to form cement was in the range of 53,000 g/mol. The nanoclay reinforced GICs containing <2% nanoclays exhibited higher CS and FS. The Ef cement with 1% nanoclays was significantly higher. The WT and ST of 1% nanoclay reinforced cement were similar to the control cement but were reduced with 2% and 4% nanoclay addition. Conclusion: The dispersion of nanoclays in GICs was achieved, and GIC containing 2 wt% nanoclay is a promising restorative materials with improved physical properties. PMID:25512724

Fareed, Muhammad A.; Stamboulis, Artemis

2014-01-01

38

Surface roughness of glass ionomer cements indicated for uncooperative patients according to surface protection treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Even today, use of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) as restorative material is indicated for uncooperative patients. Aim The study aimed at estimating the surface roughness of different GICs using or not their proprietary surface coatings and at observing the interfaces between cement and coating through SEM. Materials and methods Forty specimens have been obtained and divided into 4 groups: Fuji IX (IX), Fuji IX/G-Coat Plus (IXC), Vitremer (V), Vitremer/Finishing Gloss (VFG). Samples were obtained using silicone moulds to simulate class I restorations. All specimens were processed for profilometric evaluation. The statistical differences of surface roughness between groups were assessed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) (p<0.05). The Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-Way ANOVA) was used to evaluate the influence of two factors: restoration material and presence of coating. Coated restoration specimens (IXC and VFG) were sectioned perpendicular to the restoration surface and processed for SEM evaluation. Results No statistical differences in roughness could be noticed between groups or factors. Following microscopic observation, interfaces between restoration material and coating were better for group IXC than for group VFG. Conclusions When specimens are obtained simulating normal clinical procedures, the presence of surface protection does not significantly improve the surface roughness of GICs. PMID:24611090

Pacifici, Edoardo; Bossù, Maurizio; Giovannetti, Agostino; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio; Polimeni, Antonella

2013-01-01

39

A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer  

PubMed Central

Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the “smart” materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI) cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA). Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications. PMID:24130573

Khoroushi, Maryam; Keshani, Fateme

2013-01-01

40

Fluoride release and uptake from glass ionomer cements and composite resins.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate fluoride release and uptake from 4 glass ionomer cements (GICs)--Vitremer (VIT), Fuji II LC (FII LC), Fuji IX (FIX), Chelon Fill (CHE)--and 2 composite resins (CRs)--Heliomolar (H) and Zeta-100 (Z-100). Eight discs (8 mm x 2 mm) were made of each material and were stored in plastic vials containing artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. In group 1 (N = 3), the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva which was changed daily for 25 days. In group 2 (N = 5), besides receiving the same treatment as group 1, the specimens were immersed, after 24 hours, in a fluoride solution (1% NaF) for 1 min before daily saliva change. An ion-specific electrode (9609 BN-Orion) connected to an ion analyzer (SA-720 Procyon) was used to determine the amount of fluoride released at days 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Friedman's test. GICs released more fluoride during the first day and after this period the mean fluoride released decreased. Composite resin H released fluoride during the first day only and Z-100 did not release fluoride. In terms of NaF treatment, CRs did not show fluoride uptake, whereas the GICs showed fluoride uptake (VIT = FII LC = CHE > FIX). PMID:11210268

Weidlich, P; Miranda, L A; Maltz, M; Samuel, S M

2000-01-01

41

Effect of green propolis addition to physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) combined with propolis as a natural antimicrobial substance Material and Methods Typified green propolis, as an ethanolic extract (EEP) or in the lyophilized form (powder), was incorporated to specimens of Ketac Fil Plus, ChemFlex and Ketac Molar Easymix GICs. For each test, 8 specimens of each material were prepared. For water sorption and solubility tests, specimens were subjected to dehydration, hydration and re-dehydration cycles until a constant mass was obtained for each step. Measurements were recorded using a digital balance of 10-4 g precision. For the diametral tensile strength test, specimens were tested in a universal test machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed after 24 h storage in deionized water. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p<0.05). Results The addition of propolis to GIC clearly increased water sorption compared to pure material. Solubility was material-dependent and was not clearly evident. For the diametral tensile strength test, association with propolis altered negatively only Chemflex. Conclusion It may be concluded that incorporation of propolis to GICs alters some properties in a material-dependent condition. PMID:21552709

TROCA, Valéria Barros Pereira Barbosa; FERNANDES, Karen Barros Parron; TERRILE, Amélia Elena; MARCUCCI, Maria Cristina; de ANDRADE, Flaviana Bombarda; WANG, Linda

2011-01-01

42

Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting  

PubMed Central

Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n = 30): without heating (Group 1), heated with LED lamp of 1400?mW/cm2 for 30?s while setting (Group 2), and heated with LED lamp of 1400?mW/cm2 for 60?s while setting (Group 3). Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1?mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (? = 0.05). Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400?mW/cm2 during setting for 30?s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30?s and 60?s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times. PMID:23841095

Fabián Molina, Gustavo; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Brain Lascano, Laura; Frencken, Jo E.

2013-01-01

43

Effects of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) containing polyelectrolytes on surface properties of conventional glass-ionomer cements (GIC).  

PubMed

It has been found that polyacids containing an N-vinylpyrrolidinone (NVP) comonomer produces a glass inomer cement with improved mechanical and handling properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NVP modified polyelectrolytes on the surface properties and shear bond strength to dentin of glass ionomer cements. Poly(acrylic acid (AA)-co-itaconic acid (IA)-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The terpolymer was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and viscometry for solution properties. The synthesized polymers were used in glass ionomer cement formulations (Fuji II commercial GIC). Surface properties (wettability) of modified cements were studied by water contact angle measurements as a function of time. Work of adhesion values of different surfaces was also determined. The effect of NVP modified polyacid, on bond strength of glass-ionomer cement to dentin was also investigated. The mean data obtained from contact angle and bonding strength measurements were subjected to one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at alpha=0.05. Results showed that NVP modified glass ionomer cements showed significantly lower contact angles (theta=47 degrees) and higher work of adhesion (WA=59.4 erg/cm(2)) in comparison to commercially available Fuji II GIC (theta=60 degrees and WA=50.3 erg/cm(2), respectively). The wettability of dentin surfaces conditioned with NVP containing terpolymer was higher (theta=21 degrees, WA=74.2 erg/cm(2)) than dentin conditioned with Fuji conditioner (theta=30 degrees, WA=69 erg/cm(2)). The experimental cement also showed higher but not statistically significant values for shear bond strength to dentin (7.8 MPa), when compared to control group (7.3 MPa). It was concluded that NVP containing polyelectrolytes are better dentin conditioners than the commercially available dentin conditioner (Fuji Cavity Conditioner, GC). NVP containing terpolymers can enhance the surface properties of GICs and also increase their bond strength to the dentin. PMID:19556000

Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Ansari, Sahar; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Schricker, Scott; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

2009-10-01

44

Residual monomer/additive release and variability in cytotoxicity of light-curing glass-ionomer cements and compomers.  

PubMed

In previous studies, light-cured glass-ionomer cements have been shown to evoke cytotoxic reactions. It was the purpose of this investigation (a) to determine the nature of the ingredients released into an aqueous medium from 2 light-cured glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and 3 compomers; (b) to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these extracts; and (c) to correlate the extent of the cytotoxic effects with eluted substances. Specimens of 2 light-cured GICs and 3 compomers were prepared and extracted in distilled water or cell culture medium for 24 hrs (surface-liquid ratio 42.4 mm2/mL). The aqueous eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The relative amounts of the components released from various products were compared by means of an internal caffeine standard [%CF]. For evaluation of cytotoxic effects, permanent 3T3 fibroblasts were incubated with medium extracts for 24 hrs. In addition, the ED50 concentration of the photoinitiator diphenyliodoniumchloride (DPICl) was determined. In all extracts, several water-elutable organic substances were found: (Co)monomers (especially HEMA and ethylene glycol compounds), additives (e.g., camphorquinone and diphenyliodoniumchloride), and decomposition products. The extracts of 3 products inhibited cell growth only moderately, whereas the light-cured GIC Vitrebond and the compomer Dyract Cem revealed severe cytotoxic effects. Vitrebond liberated the initiator DPICl, whereas Dyract Cem segregated a relatively high quantity [2966 %CF] of the comonomer TEGDMA in comparison with the other products. The present data show that TEGDMA and DPICl may be regarded as the prime causes for cytotoxic reactions evoked by the investigated light-cured glass-ionomer cements or compomers. Therefore, leaching of these substances should be minimized or prevented. PMID:9839790

Geurtsen, W; Spahl, W; Leyhausen, G

1998-12-01

45

Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (? = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 ?m) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 ?m) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 ?m) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 ?m) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC. PMID:24598500

Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

2014-01-01

46

Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity of new calcium-based cement (Biodentine) compared to MTA and glass ionomer cement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal properties of calcium-based cement, Biodentine (Ca3SiO2), compared to commercial glass ionomer cements (GICs) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: Pellets of GICs, ProRoot MTA, and Biodentine were prepared to test the influence of these cements on the growth of four oral microbial strains: Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans; using agar diffusion method. Wells were formed by removing the agar and the manipulated materials were immediately placed in the wells. The pellets were lodged in seeded plates and the growth inhibition diameter around the material was measured after 24-72 h incubation at 37°C. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test to compare the differences among the three cements at different concentrations. Results: Test indicates that the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine, on all the microorganisms tested, was very strong, showing a mean inhibition zone of 3.2 mm, which extends over time towards all the strains. For Biodentine, GIC, and MTA, the diameters of the inhibition zones for S. mutans were significantly larger than for E. faecalis, Candida, and E. coli (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All materials showed antimicrobial activity against the tested strains except for GIC on Candida. Largest inhibition zone was observed for Streptococcus group. Biodentine created larger inhibition zones than MTA and GIC. PMID:25657526

Bhavana, Vankayala; Chaitanya, Krishna Popuri; Gandi, Padma; Patil, Jayaprakash; Dola, Binoy; Reddy, Rahul B.

2015-01-01

47

Effect of Marginal Sealant on Shear Bond Strength of Glass Ionomer Cement: Used as A Luting Agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Moisture sensitivity and dissolution has been a known drawback of glass ionomer cement (GIC). When used as a luting agent for cementation of casted indirect restoration, the exposed cement at the margins is often a primary factor for marginal leakage and consequent failure of the restoration. The following in vitro study was planned to evaluate the effect of a marginal sealant on GIC used as luting agent. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy extracted premolars were selected and prepared to receive metal-ceramic prosthesis. The prepared restorations were cemented using GIC and were divided randomly into two groups. The specimens in Group A were directly immersed in artificial saliva solution without any protection at the margins, while the exposed cement for Group B specimens was protected using a marginal sealant before immersing it in the artificial saliva solution. The specimens were tested after 24 h using a crown pull test on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength of the cement. Result: The specimens in Group B showed statistically significant difference from the specimens in Group A with the mean shear bond strength of 6.60 Mpa and 5.32 respectively. Conclusion: Protection of GIC exposed at the margins of indirect cast restorations with a marginal sealant can significantly increase the longevity of the prosthesis by reducing the marginal leakage and perlocation of fluids. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Badgujar M, Gaikwad B, Bhanushali S, Nalawade S. Effect of marginal sealant on shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement: Used as a luting agent. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):65-9 PMID:25083035

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Badgujar, Mayura; Gaikwad, Bhushan; Bhanushali, Shilpa; Nalawade, Sumit

2014-01-01

48

Comparison of glass ionomer cement and incus interposition in reconstruction of incus long process defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ossicles may be affected through the mass effect of the pathological tissue in chronic otitis media. Ossicular reconstruction\\u000a may be accomplished using the patients’ own ossicles or with alloplastic materials. Glass ionomer ossiculoplasty is a fast,\\u000a efficient, safe and cost-effective method and it has been used more frequently in recent years. Forty-six patients who had\\u000a surgery for chronic otitis

Huseyin Dere; Fatih Ozdogan; K. Murat Ozcan; Adin Selcuk; Ibrahim Ozcan; Gokhan Gokturk

49

Synthesis of N-vinylpyrrolidone modified acrylic acid copolymer in supercritical fluids and its application in dental glass-ionomer cements.  

PubMed

Compressed fluids such as supercritical CO(2) offer marvellous opportunities for the synthesis of polymers, particularly in applications in medicine and dentistry. It has several advantages in comparison to conventional polymerisation solvents, such as enhanced kinetics and simplified solvent removal process. In this study, poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PAA-IA-NVP), a modified glass-ionomer polymer, was synthesised in supercritical CO(2) (sc-CO(2)) and methanol as a co-solvent. The synthesised polymer was characterized by (1)H-NMR, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and viscometry. The molecular weight of the final product was also measured using static light scattering method. The synthesised polymers were subsequently used in several glass ionomer cement formulations (Fuji II commercial GIC) in which mechanical strength (compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and biaxial flexural strength (BFS)) and handling properties (working and setting time) of the resulting cements were evaluated. The polymerisation reaction in sc-CO(2)/methanol was significantly faster than the corresponding polymerisation reaction in water and the purification procedures were simpler for the former. Furthermore, glass ionomer cement samples made from the terpolymer prepared in sc-CO(2)/methanol exhibited higher CS and DTS and comparable BFS compared to the same polymer synthesised in water. The working properties of glass ionomer formulations made in sc-CO(2)/methanol were comparable and in selected cases better than the values of those made from polymers synthesised in water. PMID:18283531

Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Billington, Richard W; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

2008-07-01

50

An in-vitro study to compare the microhardness of glass ionomer cement set conventionally versus set under ultrasonic waves  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the difference of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement (GIC) set by conventional setting method and under ultrasonically energized method. Method: 20 cylindrical samples measuring 2.5mm (diameter) and 5mm (length) were prepared with type IX GIC. Ten of these samples were allowed to set by conventional setting method and other ten were set under ultrasonic excitation energy. After finishing and polishing of the samples, three indentations were made on each sample using Vicker’s hardness machine with a load of 300 gm for 15 seconds. The surface microhardness of the indents was calculated by Vicker’s hardness formula. Results: Surface microhardness of samples set by ultrasound setting method was significantly higher than samples set by conventional method. Conclusion: This can be beneficial for the dental patients as when used as a restorative material, it will have a long lasting effect and can also be used in posterior load bearing areas. PMID:21475553

Baloch, FA; Mirza, AJ; Baloch, D.

2010-01-01

51

Influence of powder/liquid ratio on the radiodensity and diametral tensile strength of glass ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the influence of P/L ratio on the radiodensity and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods There were 2 factors under study: P/L ratio (manufacturer's recommended P/L ratio and a 50% reduced P/L ratio), and materials (Vitro Molar, Vitro Fil, Vitro Cem conventional GICs and Vitro Fil LC, Ortho Glass LC RMGICs). Five 1-mm-thick samples of each material-P/L ratio were produced for radiodensity evaluation. Samples were x-ray exposed onto Digora phosphor plate and radiodensity was obtained using the software Digora for Windows 2.5 Rev 0. For DTS, five (4.0x8.0 mm) cylinder samples of each material were tested (0.5 mm/min). Data were subjected to one- and two-way ANOVA (5x2) followed by Tukey's HSD test, or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's method. For paired comparisons, t-test or Mann-Whitney test were used (a=0.05). Results There was a significant interaction (P=0.001) for the studied factors (materials vs. P/L ratio). Reduced P/L ratio resulted in significantly lower DTS for the RMGICs, but radiodensity was affected for all materials (P<0.05). Conclusions Reduced P/L ratio affected properties of the tested glass ionomer cements. RMGICs were more susceptible to lower values of DTS, but radiodensity decreased for all materials following P/L ratio reduction. PMID:21308288

FONSECA, Rodrigo Borges; BRANCO, Carolina Assaf; QUAGLIATTO, Paulo Sérgio; GONÇALVES, Luciano de Souza; SOARES, Carlos José; CARLO, Hugo Lemes; CORRER-SOBRINHO, Lourenço

2010-01-01

52

Comparative evaluation of intracanal sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer cement: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) when used over gutta-percha as intracanal sealing materials. The study also evaluated the sealing ability of Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cement and Acroseal sealer. Materials and Methods: Teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using sealer ZOE (group A, C, D) and Acroseal (group B). The groups were further divided into 2 subgroups (15 premolars each) on the basis of intracanal sealing material used: GIC subgroups (A1, B1) and MTA in subgroups (A2, B2). The clearing technique was used in this study for leakage evaluation. Seventy mandibular premolars were prepared using step-back technique and divided into experimental groups A and B (30 premolars each) and the positive and negative control groups C and D (5 premolars each). Statistical analysis used: Coronal microleakage was determined under stereomicroscope using 15X magnification. Data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Post-Hoc Multiple comparison (Bonferroni). Results: MTA group leaked significantly less than GIC group (P < 0.05). Acroseal exhibited better sealing ability than ZOE sealer. Teeth with no intracanal barrier showed almost complete leakage. Conclusions: MTA may be preferred over GIC as an intracanal barrier. PMID:24347890

Malik, Gauri; Bogra, Poonam; Singh, Simranjeet; Samra, Rupandeep K

2013-01-01

53

Comparative evaluation of microleakage of three restorative glass ionomer cements: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomers (conventional and resin modified) with that of recently introduced nanoionomers. Materials and Methods: Standardized class I and class V cavities were prepared on 120 young permanent teeth. Samples were equally divided into group I (class I restorations) and group II (class V restorations), and further divided into subgroups. The subgroups were restored with Fuji IX, Fuji II LC, and newly introduced Ketac™ N 100 (KN 100). Samples were thermocycled and submerged in Acridine dye for 24 h. Samples were sectioned to view under fluorescent microscope and marginal leakage was evaluated by Chi-square and Kruskal — Wallis test. Results: Fuji IX showed the maximum leakage, followed by LC II and the least was observed in KN 100. In class I restorations, there was significant difference while comparing Fuji IX with Fuji LC II and KN 100 and nonsignificant difference between LC II and KN100. In class V restorations, Fuji IX and KN100, KN 100 and LC II showed significant difference. Fuji IX and LC II showed nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, Fuji IX showed the maximum microleakage. KN 100 showed minimum leakage, better sealing ability, and was more consistent. PMID:25097418

Diwanji, Amish; Dhar, Vineet; Arora, Ruchi; Madhusudan, A.; Rathore, Ambika Singh

2014-01-01

54

Comparison of shear bond strength of resin reinforced chemical cure glass ionomer, conventional chemical cure glass ionomer and chemical cure composite resin in direct bonding systems: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The acid pretreatment and use of composite resins as the bonding medium has disadvantages like scratching and loss of surface enamel, decalcification, etc. To overcome disadvantages of composite resins, glass ionomers and its modifications are being used for bonding. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of resin reinforced glass ionomer as a direct bonding system with conventional glass ionomer cement and composite resin. The study showed that shear bond strength of composite resin has the higher value than both resin reinforced glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration and it increased from 1 to 24 hours in all groups. The shear bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement was higher than the conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration. Conditioning with polyacrylic acid improved the bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement significantly but not statistically significant in the case of conventional glass ionomer cement. PMID:23579887

Rao, Kolasani Srinivasa; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Yugandhar, Garlapati; Kumar, B Sunil; Reddy, S N Chandrasekhar; Babu, Devatha Ashok

2013-01-01

55

Microleakage at gingival dentin margins of Class V composite restorations lined with light-cured glass ionomer cement.  

PubMed

This study compared the microleakage of light-cured and auto-set glass ionomer liners used in Class V composite laminated glass ionomer restorations by determining the amount of microleakage at the gingival cementum/dentin margins. Standardized nonundercut V-shaped Class V cavities with gingival margins below the cementoenamel junction were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 molars, establishing a total of 80 cavities, which were randomly divided into four groups. Each was lined with glass ionomers: group 1, Ketac-Bond (ESPE-Premier), which served as the control; group 2, XR-Ionomer (Kerr); group 3, XR-Ionomer with polyacrylic acid (PAA) pretreatment (Kerr); and group 4, Vitrabond (3M). Specimens were thermocycled for 300 cycles in 0.5% aqueous solution of basic fuchsin between 4 and 55 C with a 1-minute dwell time, and individually embedded in an epoxy resin. Statistical analysis indicated no differences among groups using the light-cured glass ionomer (groups 2 to 4), and they showed significantly less leakage than the control (group 1) at P less than 0.00001). Removal of the smear layer using 10% polyacrylic acid solution did not influence microleakage in restorations with light-cured glass ionomer liners. PMID:2277155

Tjan, A H; Dunn, J R

1990-12-01

56

Glass ionomer restoratives.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of the new hybrid (light-cured) glass ionomers, which are a combination of auto-cured glass ionomer and light-cured composite resin. The characteristics of these materials and the different brands available are discussed. A clinical technique for restoration of cervical lesions with these materials is presented. PMID:8040719

Berry, E A

1993-01-01

57

Absence of carious lesions at margins of glass-ionomer cement and amalgam restorations: An update of systematic review evidence  

PubMed Central

Background This article aims to update the existing systematic review evidence elicited by Mickenautsch et al. up to 18 January 2008 (published in the European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry in 2009) and addressing the review question of whether, in the same dentition and same cavity class, glass-ionomer cement (GIC) restored cavities show less recurrent carious lesions on cavity margins than cavities restored with amalgam. Methods The systematic literature search was extended beyond the original search date and a further hand-search and reference check was done. The quality of accepted trials was assessed, using updated quality criteria, and the risk of bias was investigated in more depth than previously reported. In addition, the focus of quantitative synthesis was shifted to single datasets extracted from the accepted trials. Results The database search (up to 10 August 2010) identified 1 new trial, in addition to the 9 included in the original systematic review, and 11 further trials were included after a hand-search and reference check. Of these 21 trials, 11 were excluded and 10 were accepted for data extraction and quality assessment. Thirteen dichotomous datasets of primary outcomes and 4 datasets with secondary outcomes were extracted. Meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were used in combining clinically homogenous datasets. The overall results of the computed datasets suggest that GIC has a higher caries-preventive effect than amalgam for restorations in permanent teeth. No difference was found for restorations in the primary dentition. Conclusion This outcome is in agreement with the conclusions of the original systematic review. Although the findings of the trials identified in this update may be considered to be less affected by attrition- and publication bias, their risk of selection- and detection/performance bias is high. Thus, verification of the currently available results requires further high-quality randomised control trials. PMID:21396097

2011-01-01

58

Calcium silicate cement-induced remineralisation of totally demineralised dentine in comparison with glass ionomer cement: tetracycline labelling and two-photon fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

Two-photon fluorescence microscopy, in combination with tetracycline labelling, was used to observe the remineralising potentials of a calcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine(TM) ) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC:?Fuji?IX) on totally demineralised dentine. Forty demineralised dentine discs were stored with either cement in three different solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with tetracycline, phosphate-free tetracycline, and tetracycline-free PBS. Additional samples of demineralised dentine were stored alone in the first solution. After 8-week storage at 37 °C, dentine samples were imaged using two-photon fluorescence microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Samples were later embedded in PMMA and polished block surfaces studied by 20 kV BSE imaging in an SEM to study variations in mineral concentration. The highest fluorescence intensity was exhibited by the dentine stored with Biodentine(TM) in the PBS/tetracycline solution. These samples also showed microscopic features of matrix remineralisation including a mineralisation front and intra- and intertubular mineralisation. In the other solutions, dentine exhibited much weaker fluorescence with none of these features detectable. Raman spectra confirmed the formation of calcium phosphate mineral with Raman peaks similar to apatite, while no mineral formation was detected in the dentine stored in cement-free or PBS-free media, or with GIC. It could therefore be concluded that Biodentine(TM) induced calcium phosphate mineral formation within the dentine matrix when stored in phosphate-rich media, which was selectively detectable using the tetracycline labelling. PMID:25421432

Atmeh, A R; Chong, E Z; Richard, G; Boyde, A; Festy, F; Watson, T F

2015-02-01

59

Structural and spatially resolved studies on the hardening of a commercial resin-modified glass-ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial photopolymerizable resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC) was studied using a variety of nuclear magnetic\\u000a resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H and 19F stray-field imaging (STRAFI) enabled to follow the acid–base reaction kinetics in self-cured (SC) samples. Gelation and\\u000a maturation processes with 25 min and 40 h average time constants, respectively, were distinguished. In self- & photo-cured\\u000a (SPC) samples, two processes were also

Ricardo A. Pires; Christian Fernandez; Teresa G. Nunes

2007-01-01

60

Evaluation of shear bond strength of two resin-based composites and glass ionomer cement to pure tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine®)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength of methacrylate-based (MB) composites, silorane-based (SB) composites, and glass ionomer cement (GIC) to Biodentine® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Acrylic blocks (n=90, 2 mm high, 5 mm diameter central hole) were prepared. In 45 of the samples, the holes were fully filled with Biodentine® and in the other 45 samples, the holes were fully filled with MTA. The Biodentine® and the MTA samples were randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 15 specimens each: Group-1: MB composite; Group-2: SB composite; and Group-3: GIC. For the shear bond strength (SBS) test, each block was secured in a universal testing machine. Results The highest (17.7±6.2 MPa) and the lowest (5.8±3.2 MPa) bond strength values were recorded for the MB composite-Biodentine® and the GIC-MTA, respectively. Although the MB composite showed significantly higher bond strength to Biodentine (17.7±6.2) than it did to MTA (8.9±5.7) (p<0.001), the SB composite (SB and MTA=7.4±3.3; SB and Biodentine®=8.0±3,6) and GIC (GIC and MTA=5.8±3.2; GIC and Biodentine=6.7±2.6) showed similar bond strength performance with MTA compared with Biodentine (p=0.73 and p=0.38, respectively). Conclusions The new pure tricalcium-based pulp capping, repair, and endodontic material showed higher shear bond scores compared to MTA when used with the MB composite. PMID:25141202

CANTEK?N, Kenan; AVC?, Serap

2014-01-01

61

A novel glass ionomer cement containing MgCO(3 )apatite induced the increased proliferation and differentiation of human pulp cells in vitro.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the in vitro biological response of human dental pulp cells to glass ionomer cement (GIC, Fuji IX GP(®)) containing 2.5% magnesium carbonate apatite (MgCO(3)Ap). MgCO(3)Ap was synthesized by wet method and characterized using FT-IR, XPS, and SEM. Fuji IX GP(®) served as a control. Test and control cements were prepared by encapsulated mixing the powder with Fuji IX-liquid (P/L=3.6:1). Eluates from cements extracted by 1 mL culture medium were collected at day 1, 7 and 14, and used for WST-1 proliferation assay. For ALPase activity, cells were maintained with cements in transwells, harvested and enzyme activity was measured at day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21. We found a higher cell proliferation and increased ALPase activity by pulp cells in the test group compared to the control. This suggests the potential of GIC containing this novel biological apatite as a restorative material for pulp-dentin regeneration. PMID:23037840

Laiteerapong, Arunee; Lochaiwatana, Yossakit; Hirata, Isao; Okazaki, Masayuki; Mori, Kenta; Murakami, Shinya; Poolthong, Suchit

2012-01-01

62

Residual HEMA and TEGDMA release and cytotoxicity evaluation of resin-modified glass ionomer cement and compomers cured with different light sources.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the elution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers from resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and compomers cured with halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). The effect of cured materials on the viability of L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. One RMGIC (Ketac N100) and two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinkystar) were tested. Materials were prepared in teflon disks and light-cured with LED or halogen LCUs. The residual monomers of resin materials in solution were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The fibroblast cells' viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The type of LCU did not have a significant effect on the elution of HEMA and TEGDMA. A greater amount of HEMA than TEGMDA was eluted. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Twinkystar was greater than Dyract Extra (P < 0.05) when cured with a halogen LCU. All material-LCU combinations decreased the fibroblast cells' viability more than the control group (P < 0.01), except for Dyract Extra cured with a halogen LCU (P > 0.05). Curing with the LED LCU decreased the cells' viability more than curing with the halogen LCU for compomers. For Ketac N100, the halogen LCU decreased the cells' viability more than the LED LCU. PMID:24592149

Botsali, Murat Selim; Ku?göz, Adem; Altinta?, Subutay Han; Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Tanriver, Mehmet; Kiliç, Serdar; Ba?ak, Feridun; Ülker, Mustafa

2014-01-01

63

Residual HEMA and TEGDMA Release and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement and Compomers Cured with Different Light Sources  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the elution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers from resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and compomers cured with halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). The effect of cured materials on the viability of L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. One RMGIC (Ketac N100) and two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinkystar) were tested. Materials were prepared in teflon disks and light-cured with LED or halogen LCUs. The residual monomers of resin materials in solution were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The fibroblast cells' viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The type of LCU did not have a significant effect on the elution of HEMA and TEGDMA. A greater amount of HEMA than TEGMDA was eluted. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Twinkystar was greater than Dyract Extra (P < 0.05) when cured with a halogen LCU. All material-LCU combinations decreased the fibroblast cells' viability more than the control group (P < 0.01), except for Dyract Extra cured with a halogen LCU (P > 0.05). Curing with the LED LCU decreased the cells' viability more than curing with the halogen LCU for compomers. For Ketac N100, the halogen LCU decreased the cells' viability more than the LED LCU. PMID:24592149

Botsali, Murat Selim; Ku?göz, Adem; Altinta?, Subutay Han; Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Kiliç, Serdar; Ba?ak, Feridun; Ülker, Mustafa

2014-01-01

64

Influence of air-abrasion executed with polyacrylic acid-Bioglass 45S5 on the bonding performance of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the microtensile bond strength (?TBS), after 6 months of storage in PBS, of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentine pretreated with Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) using various etching and air-abrasion techniques. The RMGIC (GC Fuji II LC) was applied onto differently treated dentine surfaces followed by light curing for 30 s. The specimens were cut into matchsticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.9 mm(2). The ?TBS of the specimens was measured after 24 h or 6 months of storage in PBS and the results were statistically analysed using two-way anova and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (? = 0.05). Further RMCGIC-bonded dentine specimens were used for interfacial characterization, micropermeability, and nanoleakage analyses by confocal microscopy. The RMGIC-dentine interface layer showed no water absorption after 6 months of storage in PBS except for the interdiffusion layer of the silicon carbide (SiC)-abraded/polyacrylic acid (PAA)-etched bonded dentine. The RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG/H(2)O only or with BAG/PAA-fluid followed by etching procedures (10% PAA gel) showed no statistically significant reduction in ?TBS after 6 months of storage in PBS. The abrasion procedures performed using BAG in combination with PAA might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding durability and the healing ability of RMGIC bonded to dentine. PMID:22409224

Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Toledano, Manuel; Nucci, Cesare; Banerjee, Avijit

2012-04-01

65

The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars  

PubMed Central

Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

Kemoli, Arthur M

2014-01-01

66

An evaluation of accelerated Portland cement as a restorative material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct

D. Abdullah; T. R. Pitt Ford; S. Papaioannou; J. Nicholson; F. McDonald

2002-01-01

67

Local and Systemic Responses To Dental Composites and Glass Ionomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, the dental profession worked mainly with rather inert restorative materials that had a limited contact with vital tissue, and the opportunity for local and systemic complications was minimal. However, conditions have changed in recent years where the two leading non-mercury-containing materials, resin composites and glass-ionomer cements, are chemically active compounds and can have detrimental effects on pulp

Harold R. Stanley

1992-01-01

68

Effectiveness of surface protection for glass-ionomer, resin-modified glass-ionomer and polyacid-modified composite resins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of several surface protectors for a glass-ionomer, a resin-modified glass-ionomer, and a polyacid-modified resin cement by determining dye uptake spectrophotometrically. 378 samples, made up of Ionofil U, Vitremer, and Dyract, were prepared and divided into groups of seven each. Positive and negative control specimens remained unprotected while the experimental specimens were protected with Finishing Gloss, Protect-It, LC Varnish, Adper Single Bond, or a nail varnish. The experimental groups and positive controls were immersed in 0.05% methylene blue solution, while the negative controls were immersed in deionized water. Results were evaluated using variance analysis. Of the Ionofil U group, Adper Single Bond exhibited the least effective surface coating among the materials tested, while the best surface protection was obtained with LC Varnish in the Dyract group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the Vitremer group. PMID:19280974

Karao?lano?lu, Serpil; Akgül, Nilgün; Ozdabak, Hatice Nur; Akgül, Hayati Murat

2009-01-01

69

Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10-6 Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. Statistical Analysis: One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. Results: The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 ?m) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 ?m). Conclusion: MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation. PMID:25506146

Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

2014-01-01

70

Acid base surface properties of glass-ionomers determined by IGC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe surface properties of several glass-ionomer restorative dental materials (GC Fuji, Chemadent G-J, Ketac Fil and Ketac Molar) were investigated by means of inverse gas chromatography. The capacity of the surface of glass-ionomers to undergo specific interactions was expressed using the specific component of free energy ? Gs as well as the parameters KA and KD to describe the ability of the cement to act both as an electron acceptor and an electron donor, respectively. The character of the examined surface was expressed with the use of the SC parameter. All these parameters were determined with a high degree of precision. It was found that the surface of glass-ionomer cements had a well-marked acidic character. The ability of the cement surface to take part in specific interactions differed with the various types of commercial products. The surface activity of the glass-ionomers investigated changed with the storage time (up to 6 months) indicating an on-going setting reaction.

Voelkel, A.; Andrzejewska, E.; Limanowska-Shaw, H.; Andrzejewski, M.

2005-05-01

71

Marginal leakage in class V composite resin restorations with glass ionomer liners in vitro.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the use of a glass ionomer lining cement in conjunction with composite resin in class V preparations in terms of marginal sealing ability. Two preparations, the occlusal walls in enamel (etched) and the gingival walls in dentin, were place in each tooth. One contained the etched glass ionomer liner, a dentin bonding agent, and a microfill composite resin. The second contained the dentin bonding agent and the microfill composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled, stained with methylene blue dye, sectioned, and evaluated for leakage at the occlusal and gingival margins on a scale of 0 to 3. No significant leakage was recorded at the occlusal margin for either restoration. Leakage at the gingival margin was significantly reduced for the lined restorations, and in no instance did the dye penetrate beyond the liner, which suggests that the lining cement may significantly decrease leakage at the gingival aspect of composite resins in class V restorations. PMID:2338665

Mathis, R S; DeWald, J P; Moody, C R; Ferracane, J L

1990-05-01

72

Comparison of the intraosseous biocompatibility of Vitremer and Super EBA by implantation into the mandible of rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study compared the intraosseous biocompatibility of Vitremer, a new hydrophilic glass-ionomer cement, to that of Super EBA.Study design. Twenty-two New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized, the mandibular bone exposed, and two holes were drilled through the cortical plate. The materials were loaded into silicone carriers and inserted into the mandibles. Eleven rabbits were killed 4 weeks after implantation, 11

Hervé Tassery; Mireille Remusat; Gilles Koubi; Wilhelm-Joseph Pertot

1997-01-01

73

An ex vivo study to evaluate the remineralizing and antimicrobial efficacy of silver diamine fluoride and glass ionomer cement type VII for their proposed use as indirect pulp capping materials – Part I  

PubMed Central

Aim: Indirect pulp capping (IPC) preserves the pulp vitality by disinfecting and remineralizing remaining carious dentin. In the present study, glass ionomer (GC, FUJI VII) and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) were tested and compared to calcium hydroxide for their antimicrobial efficacy and remineralizing potential. Materials and Methods: Dentin disks prepared from 45 freshly extracted first premolars were divided into three groups (n = 15). Each disk was cut into two equal parts, in which one half formed the control. Thirty dentin samples were used for ion estimation and the other 15 for microhardness testing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetric and potentiometric titration analyses were performed for calcium, phosphate and fluoride ion detection, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy was analyzed using pure culture of Streptococcus mutans and mixed flora. Results: Increase in the levels of calcium and phosphate ions was the highest in calcium hydroxide group. Both SDF and GC VII groups showed significant increase in fluoride ion levels. Samples treated with GC VII showed maximum increase in micro hardness. The highest zone of bacterial inhibition was found with SDF group. Conclusions: This in vitro study documented the remineralizing, re-hardening and antimicrobial efficacy of both SDF and GC VII and hence can act as effective IPC materials. PMID:21814348

Gupta, A; Sinha, N; Logani, A; Shah, N

2011-01-01

74

Fluoride exchange from glass ionomer preventive resin restorations.  

PubMed

The purposes of this in vivo study were to determine if placing a sealant over a glass ionomer restoration modifies its fluoride release, and to examine the effect on glass ionomer of a 4-min application of topical fluoride. Fluoride release from glass ionomer preventive resin restorations placed in 21 bovine teeth was measured before and after removing their sealants. Fuji II, Ketac Silver, and Fuji LC were evaluated, representing the three generations of glass ionomers. Fluoride was extracted from the restorations by incubating the specimens in 5 ml deionized water and was measured by specific ion electrodes at 1 and 2 days, then once weekly for 7 weeks. The results indicated that fluoride release was not significantly different in pattern or quantity in the three types of ionomer (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in fluoride release occurred when the restorations were covered with a sealant when compared with control restorations of the same materials (P < 0.001). After removing the sealant from the glass ionomer preventive resin restorations, a significant release of fluoride occurred when compared with sealed restorations (P < 0.001). After 63 days in water, the unsealed restorations were subjected to a 4-min topical APF treatment and reimmersed in water for an additional 27 days to examine the ability of the various materials to absorb fluoride. The fluoride-depleted restorations treated with fluoride released significantly more fluoride than fresh, untreated ionomer restorations (P < 0.001) or amalgam restorations. As a result of fluoride release, the glass ionomer preventive resin restoration may afford chemical protection to the tooth if sealant loss occurs. PMID:7831138

Kupietzky, A; Houpt, M; Mellberg, J; Shey, Z

1994-01-01

75

Candida albicans Adherence to Glass Ionomer Restorative Dental Material  

PubMed Central

Background and aims It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the coloni-zation and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable infor-mation about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little infor-mation available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. Materials and methods In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with differ-ent incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Stu-dent's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. Results In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes). However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. Conclusion The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ion-omer restorative material. PMID:23230482

Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash

2009-01-01

76

Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant in children with special needs  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this research is to evaluate the retention of sealants of resin and resin-modified ionomeric glass pits and fissures, on first permanent molars of special patients. Material and Methods: The sample was comprised by 32 children. The ages were between 7 and 18 years. The sealing procedure was made with the relative isolation of the molars to be sealed, through the use of cotton rolls. Two molars were sealed with Clinpro Sealant 3M Dental and the others with Vitremer. Checking of the sealants was made after 3 and 6 months of their placement, evaluating with 3 values: TR: Totally Restrained; PR: Partially Restrained; and CL: Completely Lost. Results: 67.18% of the resinous sealants, and 70.31% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful after three months. After six months, 57.81% of the resin-based sealants and 51.56% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful. When performing the Chi-square statistical analysis (P<0.05) no statistical significance was observed after 6 months. Conclusions: The retention of the resin sealant was similar to that of the glass ionomer cement at the end of six months and the retention of sealants on maxillary teeth was higher than on mandibular teeth. Key words:Sealant, glass ionomer, retention, caries, special needs.

Nualart-Grollmus, Zacy-Carola

2014-01-01

77

Marginal leakage of two newer glass-ionomer-based sealant materials assessed using micro-CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo test newer glass-ionomer-based materials as sealant materials. One glass-ionomer sealant was light-cured to obtain an early setting reaction. The null-hypothesis tested was: there is no difference in marginal leakage of sealants produced with high-viscosity glass-ionomer, with and without energy supplied, and that of glass-carbomer, in comparison with resin composite sealants in vitro.

X. Chen; V. M. J. I. Cuijpers; M. Fan; J. E. F. M. Frencken

2010-01-01

78

Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

2014-01-01

79

New polymeric materials for use in glass-ionomer cements.  

PubMed

The polymeric materials currently used in GIC are based on poly(acrylic acid), poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid), or poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid). For the visible light cured (VLC) type GIC, the polymeric material is chemically modified to have pendant free-radical polymerizable double bonds, with the aqueous formulation solution also containing a monomer having methacrylate groups. Exploring ways to improve both conventional and VLC GIC, routes to new acrylic acid copolymers have been explored, where acid groups are made more available for salt-bridge formation. In particular, amino acid modified acrylic acid copolymers have been prepared and shown to provide improved GIC. Also, it was discovered that the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) could be used to modify acrylic acid copolymers to provide a path to improved GIC. A new route to develop VLC GIC, based on the reaction of the acid copolymer, in water, with a cyclic imino ether (oxazoline) functionalized methacrylate monomer was developed. Looking for ways to change the microstructure of the acrylic acid copolymers, as a possible route to improve GIC, acrylic acid copolymers have been prepared under super critical conditions. A review of the aforesaid areas of research is provided in this manuscript. PMID:16574300

Culbertson, B M

2006-09-01

80

Enamel and Cementum Fluoride Uptake from a Glass Ionomer Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction on the facial surfaces of 45 extracted human central maxillary incisors. Enamel samples for analysis were obtained by means of perchloric acid etching from circular areas, 1 mm in diameter, positioned 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 mm from the incisal and apical margins of the restorations, respectively. The preparations were filled

D. H. Retief; E. L. Bradley; J. C. Denton; P. Switzer

1984-01-01

81

Clinical comparison of Class V resin composite and glass ionomer restorations.  

PubMed

Three techniques for restoring abrasion/erosion lesions were evaluated over a 2-year period: 1) glass ionomer restoration (Ketac-Fil); 2) composite restoration with a dentin bonding agent (Silux Plus, Scotchbond 2); 3) composite restoration with glass ionomer liner and a dentin bonding agent (Silux Plus, Vitrebond, Scotchbond 2). There were 116 lesions restored and 115 evaluated for color match, cavosurface discoloration, surface texture, caries development, and retention. Most restorations were rated clinically acceptable for color match, cavosurface discoloration, surface texture, and caries development when measured at 2 years. Glass ionomer restorations and composite restorations with a glass ionomer liner and a dentin bonding agent demonstrated better retention rates, 97.4% and 100% respectively, than the composite restorations with a dentin bonding agent only (86.8%) (Cochrane Q test, P = 0.07). PMID:1299249

Powell, L V; Gordon, G E; Johnson, G H

1992-10-01

82

The measurement of degradation and wear of three glass ionomers following peroxide bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To investigate, for three glass ionomer dental materials, the effects of a hydrogen peroxide solution on the elution of key elements, and the effects of a novel 6% hydrogen peroxide tooth whitening gel on subsequent wear rates with a toothpaste slurry.Methods. Discs specimens of three glass ionomers (ChemFlex, Fuji II and Ketac-Fil) were prepared. One set of discs was

Lawrence Mair; Andrew Joiner

2004-01-01

83

Failure of a Glass Ionomer to Remineralize Apatite-depleted Dentin  

PubMed Central

Remineralization of demineralized dentin lesions adjacent to glass-ionomer cements (GICs) has been reported in the literature. This study tested the hypothesis that a strontium-based GIC can remineralize completely demineralized dentin by nucleation of new apatite crystallites within an apatite-free dentin matrix. Human dentin specimens were acid-etched, bonded with Fuji IXGP, and immersed in a calcium-and-phosphate-containing 1.5X simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1-4 months. Polyacrylic acid and polyvinylphosphonic acid biomimetic analogs were added to the SBFs to create 2 additional remineralization media. Specimens were processed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No apatite deposition could be identified in the completely demineralized dentin in any of the specimens immersed in the 3 remineralization media, despite TEM/EDX evidence of diffusion of ions specific to the strontium-based GIC into the demineralized dentin. The hypothesis was rejected; mineral concentration alone is not a sufficient endpoint for assessing the success of contemporary remineralization strategies. PMID:20110510

Kim, Y.K.; Yiu, C.K.Y.; Kim, J.R.; Gu, L.; Kim, S.K.; Weller, R.N.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.

2010-01-01

84

Retentive characteristics of dental cementation materials.  

PubMed

Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, and two resin cements were tested in vitro to cement base and noble metal crowns to prepared extracted teeth. The cements had different retentive characteristics. Among cements, statistically significant tensile resistance to dislodgment in order of decreasing strength was: (1) C & B Metabond (resin); (2) Panavia (resin); (3) Fuji I (glass ionomer); (4) Durelon (polycarboxylate); and (5) Fleck's (zinc phosphate). Tensile resistance to dislodgment did not differ statistically among base and noble metal crowns cemented with glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or zinc phosphate cements. Tensile resistance to dislodgment differed statistically among base and noble crowns cemented with the resin cements (C & B Metabond and Panavia); the base metal crowns had the highest rate of retention. PMID:23087930

Hunsaker, K J; Christensen, G J; Christensen, R P; Cao, D; Lewis, R G

1993-11-01

85

A novel star-shaped poly(carboxylic acid) for resin-modified glass-ionomer restoratives.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel glass-ionomer cement (GIC) system composed of photo-curable star-shaped poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid)s. These polyacids were synthesized via a chain-transfer radical polymerization using a newly synthesized multi-arm chain-transfer agent. The star-shaped polyacids showed significantly lower viscosities in water as compared to the linear polyacids. Due to the lower viscosities, the molecular weight (MW) of the polyacids can be significantly increased for enhancing the mechanical strengths while keeping the ease of mixing and handling. The effects of MW, GM-tethering ratio, P/L ratio, and aging on the compressive properties of the experimental cements were significant. The light-cured experimental cements showed significantly improved mechanical strengths i.e. 49% in yield strength, 41% in modulus, 25% in CS, 20% in DTS, and 36% in FS, higher than commercial Fuji II LC. After aging in water for 1 month, the compressive strength of the novel light-cured experimental cement reached 343?MPa, which was 34% and 42% higher than Fuji II and Fuji II LC, respectively. This one-month aged experimental cement was also 23% higher than itself after one day aging, indicating that aging in water can significantly enhance salt-bridge formation for this novel star-shaped polyacid-comprised GIC. PMID:24865692

Weng, Y; Howard, L; Xie, D

2014-07-01

86

Effect of Vital Bleaching on Disintegration Tendency of Glass Ionomer Restorations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study was designed to assess the effect of two bleaching agents on the disintegration tendency of three types of glass ionomers. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 specimens were prepared by using a split Teflon ring with an internal diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. The tested materials were applied and bleached according to manufacturer’s instructions. Dissolution measurements were made by calculating weight loss through different periods of the test; (one week, one month and three months) and they were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results: All glass ionomer materials exhibited a degree of dissolution. Opalescence Xtra increased the dissolution of Photac Fil and F2000 significantly, while Opalescence Quick had no effect on dissolution of glass ionomer restoratives. Conclusion: Bleaching effect on dissolution of glass ionomers is material and time dependant. Care should be taken by clinicians When bleaching teeth that are restored by glass ionomer, because this dissolution may affect the physical properties of these restorations. PMID:24701538

Baroudi, Kusai; Mahmoud, Rasha Said; Tarakji, Bassel; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran

2014-01-01

87

Microleakage of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restorations With Selective Enamel Etching.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Aim : Bonding of resin-modified glass ionomers to enamel is an important quality, especially when saliva contamination is inevitable. This study evaluated if microleakage of a resin-modified glass ionomer improves with selective enamel etching, with or without saliva contamination. Methods : Class V cavities with the occlusal margin in enamel and the gingival margin on the root were prepared in extracted human permanent teeth and filled with a resin-modified glass ionomer using an acidic primer according to the manufacturer's recommendation or with an additional selective enamel etching step. Preparations were contaminated with saliva before primer application or before restoration placement (n=10). Restored teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 1000 cycles, stained with basic fuchsin, and sectioned. Microleakage distance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance followed by Duncan post hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. Results : Enamel microleakage was highest when saliva contamination occurred before the placement of resin-modified glass ionomer. Microleakage distances were significantly reduced in the selective etching groups regardless of saliva contamination. However, selective etching of enamel increased microleakage in cementum. The increase in cementum leakage was significantly higher when saliva contamination occurred before restoration placement. Conclusion : Selective etching reduces enamel microleakage of a resin-modified glass ionomer even with saliva contamination, but it may increase microleakage at the cementum. The severity of microleakage is affected by the timing of saliva contamination. PMID:24502752

Ludlow, Sw; Farmer, Sn; Donaldson, Me; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A

2014-02-01

88

An ex vivo assessment of resin-modified glass ionomer bonding systems in relation to ceramic bracket debond.  

PubMed

This ex vivo study assessed three new resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Fuji ORTHO LC, Vitremer, and Dyract-Cem) in relation to ceramic bracket removal. It was hypothesized that the use of these cements would facilitate bracket removal and eliminate debond complications Eighty extracted premolar teeth were divided into four groups of 20 teeth and bonded with Intrigue brackets using each of the resin-modified cements (groups 1, 2, and 3), the control group 4 was bonded with Concise chemically-cured adhesive. The teeth were debonded by applying a shear load using an Instron universal testing machine. The mean force to debond was calculated for each group and each tooth was examined under the stereomicroscope to record the site of bond failure and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The results showed that the resin-modified cements were very effective at eliminating ceramic bracket debond problems. Bracket fracture was eliminated compared with a 40 per cent fracture rate with the control and the ARI scores were all reduced. The elimination of debond problems appears to be related to the significantly reduced (P < 0.001 using ANOVA and Tukey tests) mean and maximal debond forces compared with the control. PMID:11099572

Larmour, C J; McCabe, J F; Gordon, P H

2000-12-01

89

The Biocompatibility of Porous vs Non-Porous Bone Cements: A New Methodological Approach  

PubMed Central

Composite cements have been shown to be biocompatible, bioactive, with good mechanical properties and capability to bind to the bone. Despite these interesting characteristic, in vivo studies on animal models are still incomplete and ultrastructural data are lacking. The acquisition of new ultrastructural data is hampered by uncertainties in the methods of preparation of histological samples due to the use of resins that melt methacrylate present in bone cement composition. A new porous acrylic cement composed of polymethyl-metacrylate (PMMA) and ?-tricalcium-phosphate (p-TCP) was developed and tested on an animal model. The cement was implanted in femurs of 8 New Zealand White rabbits, which were observed for 8 weeks before their sacrifice. Histological samples were prepared with an infiltration process of LR white resin and then the specimens were studied by X-rays, histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a control, an acrylic standard cement, commonly used in clinical procedures, was chosen. Radiographic ultrastructural and histological exams have allowed finding an excellent biocompatibility of the new porous cement. The high degree of osteointegration was demonstrated by growth of neo-created bone tissue inside the cement sample. Local or systemic toxicity signs were not detected. The present work shows that the proposed procedure for the evaluation of biocompatibility, based on the use of LR white resin allows to make a thorough and objective assessment of the biocompatibility of porous and non-porous bone cements. PMID:24998920

Dall’Oca, C.; Maluta, T.; Cavani, F.; Morbioli, G.P.; Bernardi, P.; Sbarbati, A.; Degl’Innocenti, D.; Magnan, B.

2014-01-01

90

Comparison of shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer to conditioned and unconditioned mineral trioxide aggregate surface: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer cement to conditioned and unconditioned mineral trioxide aggregate surface. Materials and Method: White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) were used for the study. 60 WMTA specimens were prepared and stored in an incubator at 37° C and 100% humidity for 72 hrs. The specimens were then divided into two groups- half of the specimens were conditioned and remaining half were left unconditioned, subsequent to which RMGIC was placed over MTA. The specimens were then stored in an incubator for 24 hrs at 37° C and 100% humidity. The shear bond strength value of RMGIC to conditioned and unconditioned WMTA was measured and compared using unpaired 't ?’ test. Results: The mean shear bond strength of value of RMGIC to conditioned and unconditioned WMTA was 6.59 MPa and 7.587 MPa respectively. Statistical analysis using unpaired t-test revealed that the difference between values of two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: During clinical procedures like pulp capping and furcal repair, if RMGIC is placed as a base over MTA, then conditioning should be done to increase the bond strength between RMGIC and dentin and any inadvertent contact of conditioner with MTA will not significantly affect the shear bond strength value of RMGIC to MTA. PMID:25298644

Gulati, Shikha; Shenoy, Vanitha Umesh; Margasahayam, Sumanthini Venkatasubramanyam

2014-01-01

91

Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation  

PubMed Central

Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass) as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as “bioactive glass-bioglass.” It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as “bioactive ceramics.” The aim of this article is to give a bird's-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone. PMID:23833747

Krishnan, Vidya; Lakshmi, T.

2013-01-01

92

Sensitivity study in vivo: glass-ionomer versus zinc-phosphate bases beneath amalgam restorations.  

PubMed

This study in vivo evaluated the sensitivity of class 1 and 2 amalgam restorations which had bases of either zinc phosphate or an admix, silver-reinforced glass ionomer. The evaluation of sensitivity was done by providing the patient with five postcard questionnaires to be mailed to the clinic over a period of time from one to 28 days. Teeth restored with amalgam and silver-reinforced glass ionomer were significantly less sensitive to cold than those restored with amalgam and zinc phosphate. PMID:2098729

Scherer, W; Cooper, H; Kaim, J; Hittleman, E; Staffa, J

1990-01-01

93

Biocompatibility and resorption of a brushite calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

A hydraulic calcium phosphate cement with beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) granules embedded in a matrix of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was implanted in experimentally created defects in sheep. One type of defect consisted of a drill hole in the medial femoral condyle. The other, partial metaphyseal defect was located in the proximal aspect of the tibia plateau and was stabilized using a 3.5 mm T-plate. The bone samples of 2 animals each per group were harvested after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Samples were evaluated for cement resorption and signs of immediate reaction, such as inflammation, caused by the cement setting in situ. Differences regarding these aspects were assessed for both types of defects using macroscopical, radiological, histological and histomorphometrical evaluations. In both defects the brushite matrix was resorbed faster than the beta-TCP granules. The resorption front was followed directly by a front of new bone formation, in which residual beta-TCP granules were embedded. Cement resorption occurred through (i) extracellular liquid dissolution with cement disintegration and particle formation, and (ii) phagocytosis of the cement particles through macrophages. Signs of inflammation or immunologic response leading to delayed new bone formation were not noticed at any time. Cement degradation and new bone formation occurred slightly faster in the femur defects. PMID:15701367

Theiss, Felix; Apelt, Detlef; Brand, Bastian; Kutter, Annette; Zlinszky, Katalin; Bohner, Marc; Matter, Sandro; Frei, Christian; Auer, Joerg A; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

2005-07-01

94

Evaluation of inherent toxicology and biocompatibility of magnesium phosphate bone cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is a kind of novel biodegradable bone adhesive for its distinct performance. However, there is few research work concerning on the systemic biocompatibility and genetic toxicological evaluation of MPC. In this study, the investigation on the inherited toxicology of MPC including gene mutation assay (Ames test), chromosome aberration assay (micronucleus test), and DNA damage assay (unscheduled

Yonglin Yu; Jing Wang; Changsheng Liu; Bingwen Zhang; Honghong Chen; Han Guo; Gaoren Zhong; Weidong Qu; Songhui Jiang; Huangyuan Huang

2010-01-01

95

Pulpal response to chemically cured and experimental light-cured glass ionomer cavity liners.  

PubMed

This investigation evaluated the effects of an experimental light-cured glass ionomer (LCGI) cavity liner and chemically cured Ketac-Bond glass ionomer restorative material on the pulpal tissues of monkeys. Class V cavities were prepared in 71 teeth of three adult Macaca mulatta monkeys at 7- and 35-day intervals. Ketac-Bond or LCGI cavity liners were placed in cavities with the smear layer intact (groups I and II) or with the smear layer removed (groups III and IV) and were restored with composite resin. Tissues were acquired, sectioned at 7 microns, stained for microscopic evaluation, or prepared for SEM evaluation. No statistically significant differences between materials existed at either time interval, regardless of smear layer presence. Histopathologic results demonstrated minimal pulpal reactions for groups I through IV. SEM analysis showed tenacious bonding of the LCGI material to prepared cavity walls, with absence of contraction gap formation. The results indicated excellent pulpal responses to both materials. PMID:2051397

Felton, D A; Cox, C F; Odom, M; Kanoy, B E

1991-05-01

96

Interfacial characteristics of resin-modified glass-ionomer materials: a study on fluid permeability using confocal fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

The tooth interface with resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM GICs) is poorly understood. This study examined the interface, especially with dentin. Cervical cavities in extracted teeth were restored with Fuji II LC, Vitremer, Photac-Fil, or a conventional GIC, Fuji Cap II. Fluorescent dye was placed in the pulp chambers for 3 hrs before the specimens were sectioned. Examination of the tooth/material interface with a confocal microscope showed that dye uptake by the restoration varied among materials. A "structureless", non-particulate, highly-stained layer of GIC was observed next to dentin in Fuji II LC. This layer varied in width, was prominent where the dentin tubules were cut "end-on" and in areas closer to the pulp, and was not seen adjacent to enamel. Vitremer showed minimal dye uptake, and the "structureless" layer was barely discernible. Photac-Fil showed more uniform uptake and absence of this layer. Cracking of enamel was also noted with these materials. The conventional GIC did not show any dye uptake, presence of a "structureless" layer, or enamel cracking. We elucidated the potential mechanisms involved in the formation of a "structureless" interfacial layer in Fuji II LC by studying the variables of cavity design, surface pre-treatment, water content of the tooth, time for it to develop, early finishing, and coating of the restoration. This layer, the "absorption layer", is probably related to water flux within the maturing cement, depending on environmental moisture changes and communication with the pulp in a wet tooth. The "micropermeability model" was useful in this study of the interfacial characteristics of RM GICs. PMID:9759672

Sidhu, S K; Watson, T F

1998-09-01

97

(?'(H))-Dicalcium silicate bone cement doped with tricalcium phosphate: characterization, bioactivity and biocompatibility.  

PubMed

The influence of phosphorus doping on the properties of (?'(H))-dicalcium silicate (C(2)S) bone cement was analyzed, in addition to bioactivity and biocompatibility. All the cements were composed of a solid solution of TCP in C(2)S ([Formula: see text]-C(2)S(ss)) as the only phase present. The compressive strength ranged from 3.8-16.3 MPa. Final setting times ranged from 10 to 50 min and were lower for cements with lower L/P content. Calcium silicate hydrate was the principal phase formed during the hydration process of the cements. The cement exhibited a moderate degradation and could induce carbonated hydroxyapatite formation on its surface and into the pores. The cell attachment test showed that the (?'(H))-C(2)SiO(4) solid solution supported human adipose stem cells adhesion and spreading, and the cells established close contacts with the cement after 24 h of culture. The novel (?'(H))-C(2)S(ss) cements might be suitable for potential applications in the biomedical field, preferentially as materials for bone/dental repair. PMID:24218299

de Aza, Piedad N; Zuleta, Fausto; Velasquez, Pablo; Vicente-Salar, Nestor; Reig, Juan A

2014-02-01

98

Phase composition, mechanical performance and in vitro biocompatibility of hydraulic setting calcium magnesium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Brushite (CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O)-forming calcium phosphate cements are of great interest as bone replacement materials because they are resorbable in physiological conditions. However, their short setting times and low mechanical strengths limit broad clinical application. In this study, we showed that a significant improvement of these properties of brushite cement could be achieved by the use of magnesium-substituted beta-tricalcium phosphate with the general formula Mg(x)Ca((3-x))((PO(4))(2) with 0 < x < 3 as cement reactants. The incorporation of magnesium ions increased the setting times of cements from 2 min for a magnesium-free matrix to 8-11 min for Mg(2.25)Ca(0.75)(PO(4))(2) as reactant. At the same time, the compressive strength of set cements was doubled from 19 MPa to more than 40 MPa after 24h wet storage. Magnesium ions were not only retarding the setting reaction to brushite but were also forming newberyite (MgHPO(4) x 3H(2)O) as a second setting product. The biocompatibility of the material was investigated in vitro using the osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. A considerable increase of cell proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase, indicating an osteoblastic differentiation, could be noticed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed an obvious cell growth on the surface of the scaffolds. Analysis of the culture medium showed minor alterations of pH value within the physiological range. The concentrations of free calcium, magnesium and phosphate ions were altered markedly due to the chemical solubility of the scaffolds. We conclude that the calcium magnesium phosphate (newberyite) cements have a promising potential for their use as bone replacement material since they provide a suitable biocompatibility, an extended workability and improved mechanical performance compared with brushite cements. PMID:19837194

Klammert, Uwe; Reuther, Tobias; Blank, Melanie; Reske, Isabelle; Barralet, Jake E; Grover, Liam M; Kübler, Alexander C; Gbureck, Uwe

2010-04-01

99

Compressive strength of two newly developed glass-ionomer materials for use with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in class II cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe null-hypotheses tested were that no difference in compressive strength of ART class II cavities exists between those restored with (1) glass-carbomer and a commonly used glass-ionomer; (2) KMEM and the commonly used glass-ionomer and; (3) glass-carbomer and KMEM.

H. Koenraads; G. Van der Kroon; J. E. F. M. Frencken

2009-01-01

100

Evaluation of inherent toxicology and biocompatibility of magnesium phosphate bone cement.  

PubMed

Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is a kind of novel biodegradable bone adhesive for its distinct performance. However, there is few research work concerning on the systemic biocompatibility and genetic toxicological evaluation of MPC. In this study, the investigation on the inherited toxicology of MPC including gene mutation assay (Ames test), chromosome aberration assay (micronucleus test), and DNA damage assay (unscheduled DNA synthesis test) were carried out. Fracture healing and degradation behavior were explored for the evaluation of the biocompatibility of MPC, using macroscopical histological, histomorphometrical, and scanning electron microscopical methods. The results of mutagenicity and potential carcinogenicity of MPC extracts were negative, and the animal implantation illustrated no toxicity and good resorption. The study suggested that bioresorbable MPC was safe for application and might have potential applications for physiological fracture fixation. PMID:20074920

Yu, Yonglin; Wang, Jing; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Bingwen; Chen, Honghong; Guo, Han; Zhong, Gaoren; Qu, Weidong; Jiang, Songhui; Huang, Huangyuan

2010-04-01

101

In vivo microleakage of luting cements for cast crowns.  

PubMed

Standardized tooth preparations were completed on previously intact human molars in vivo, and castings were made with a precious metal ceramic alloy by conventional techniques. The castings were randomly assigned to the following luting agents: zinc phosphate, composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid, and a composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid with a dentinal bonding agent and were cemented in a standardized manner to periodontally compromised molars. After 6 months the teeth were carefully extracted, stained, embedded, and sectioned, and the in vivo microleakage was measured. ANOVA disclosed significant differences between groups, and a multiple comparisons test revealed that the zinc phosphate group leaked significantly more than other cement groups. PMID:8195995

White, S N; Yu, Z; Tom, J F; Sangsurasak, S

1994-04-01

102

Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0?mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16?mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (? = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. PMID:23008777

Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Ribeiro, João Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

2012-01-01

103

The retention of gold crowns on human dentine preparations--a comparison of eight cements.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to compare the retentive properties of eight dental luting cements, using gold crowns cemented onto human dentine. The order of retention of the cements was: 1 Composite (Panavia-Ex, J & S Davis); 2 Glass-ionomer. (AquaCem, DeTrey); Glass-ionomer (Ketac-Bond, Cottrell); and Polycarboxylate (Bondalcap, Vivadent); 3 Polycarboxylate (Poly F Plus, DeTrey); Zinc phosphate (DeTrey); and Zinc phosphate (Phosphacap, Vivadent); and 4 Zinc oxide/eugenol, alumina, EBA (Opotow, Teledyne Getz). PMID:2697038

Black, S M; Charlton, G

1989-05-01

104

Ion Release from Copper Phosphate Cement and Influence on Streptococcus mutans Growth in vitro: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a black copper cement (BCC), an established restorative material (a conventional glass ionomer cement) and two temporary restorative materials (a zinc phosphate and a zinc polycarboxylate cement) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans in vitro, and to correlate bacterial growth with ion release from each material. Test specimens were

Jennifer Foley; Alison Blackwell

2003-01-01

105

Evaluation of the biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured portland cement: An animal study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of MTA and the experimentally manufactured portland cement (EMPC). Study design: Twenty one Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were allocated to testing of three groups. Group I and Group II included ProRoot MTA and the EMPC. The materials were mixed with distilled water and placed in polyethylene tubes. The tubes were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of the animals. Group III served as control; the implanted polyethylene tubes remained empty. At 7, 14, and 28 days after the implantation, the animals were sacrificed and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues. The specimens were prepared for histological examination to evaluate the inflammatory response. Results: No significant difference was found between tissue reactions against the tested materials (p>0.05). Also, control group showed similar results (p>0.05). Conclusions: Results suggest that the EMPC has the potential to be used in clinical conditions in which ProRoot MTA is indicated. MTA and the EMPC show comparable biocompatibility when evaluated in vivo. Although the results are supportive for the EMPC, more studies are required before the safe clinical use of the EMPC. Key words:Mineral trioxide aggregate, portland cement, subcutanous implantation. PMID:24596630

Erten, Hülya; Baris, Emre; Türk, Serkan; Alaçam, Tayfun

2014-01-01

106

Effect of Tricalcium Aluminate on the Physicochemical Properties, Bioactivity, and Biocompatibility of Partially Stabilized Cements  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was widely used as a root-end filling material and for vital pulp therapy. A significant disadvantage to MTA is the prolonged setting time has limited the application in endodontic treatments. This study examined the physicochemical properties and biological performance of novel partially stabilized cements (PSCs) prepared to address some of the drawbacks of MTA, without causing any change in biological properties. PSC has a great potential as the vital pulp therapy material in dentistry. Methods This study examined three experimental groups consisting of samples that were fabricated using sol-gel processes in C3S/C3A molar ratios of 9/1, 7/3, and 5/5 (denoted as PSC-91, PSC-73, and PSC-55, respectively). The comparison group consisted of MTA samples. The setting times, pH variation, compressive strength, morphology, and phase composition of hydration products and ex vivo bioactivity were evaluated. Moreover, biocompatibility was assessed by using lactate dehydrogenase to determine the cytotoxicity and a cell proliferation (WST-1) assay kit to determine cell viability. Mineralization was evaluated using Alizarin Red S staining. Results Crystalline phases, which were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis, confirmed that the C3A contents of the material powder differed. The initial setting times of PSC-73 and PSC-55 ranged between 15 and 25 min; these values are significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA and post-hoc test) lower than those obtained for MTA (165 min) and PSC-91 (80.5 min). All of the PSCs exhibited ex vivo bioactivity when immersed in simulated body fluid. The biocompatibility results for all of the tested cements were as favorable as those of the negative control, except for PSC-55, which exhibited mild cytotoxicity. Conclusion PSC-91 is a favorable material for vital pulp therapy because it exhibits optimal compressive strength, a short setting time, and high biocompatibility and bioactivity. PMID:25247808

Chang, Kai-Chun; Chang, Chia-Chieh; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Min-Hua; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-Pin

2014-01-01

107

Clinical evaluation of glass ionomers used as fissure sealants: twenty-four-month results.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the twenty-four-month retention and effectiveness in dental caries prevention, of Vitremer and Ketac-Bond glass ionomers used as occlusal sealants. The initial sample consisted of 200 school children ages six to eight years whose permanent first molars were sound. The children were divided into two experimental groups (group 1 Vitremer; group 2 Ketac-Bond) and a control group (group 3 unsealed molars). Statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney test) revealed that there were statistically significant differences between the retention levels of the experimental groups A and B in the three evaluation periods (six-, twelve- and twenty-four-month) with Vitremer showing superior results. As to caries incidence, there was a statistically significant difference (chi 2 test) between the experimental groups (A and B) and the control group indicating that glass ionomers are effective for prevention of caries in the occlusal surfaces. Two independent variables were correlated with the presence of caries or that of a restored tooth after twenty-four months (odds ratio) revealing that children who presented white spots (WS) had a probability of presenting caries or restorations that was 5.0, 3.07 and 1.93 times greater at six, twelve, and twenty-four months, respectively than that of children who did not show WS in the experimental groups A and B and in the control group, respectively. The variable represented by the "dmf" index showed a statistically significant correlation (chi 2 test) in the control group, in which there was a 3.26 times greater probability of children presenting a "dmf" index equal to or greater than 1 in the development of caries or who presented a restored tooth in relation to those who did not have a history of caries ("dmf" = 0). PMID:11697308

Pereira, A C; Pardi, V; Basting, R T; Menighim, M C; Pinelli, C; Ambrosano, G M; García-Godoy, F

2001-01-01

108

In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cements using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of new calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC) was evaluated to understand the effect of HPMC on bone-bonding apatite formation and biocompatibility. In vitro bioactivity was investigated by incubating the CPC samples containing different ratios of HPMC (0%, 2% and 4% HPMC) in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The formation of bone like apatite was confirmed on CPC surfaces by SEM and XRD analysis. Higher HPMC content of CPC showed faster apatite deposition in SBF. A high Ca ion dissolution profile was also reported with an increase of pH in all samples in SBF. The apatite formation ability of these CPC samples was found to be dependent on both surface chemistry and immersion time in SBF. The In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the CPC samples with 4% HPMC were fairly cytocompatible for fibroblast L-929 cells. SEM images showed that MG-63 cells were successfully attached to the CPC samples and well proliferated.

Jyoti, M. Anirban; Thai, Van Viet; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek; Song, Ho-Yeon

2010-12-01

109

Comparative in vitro microradiographic effects of resin-modified and autopolymerizing glass ionomers on demineralization of primary and permanent enamel.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro effects of resin-modified and autopolymerizing glass ionomer restorative materials on demineralization of primary and permanent human enamel. Thirty primary and permanent enamel specimens measuring approximately 3 x 4 x 4 mm were sectioned and plano-paralleled before random placement of materials: Photac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer; Ketac-Fil, an autopolymerizing glass ionomer; and Tytin, a silver amalgam. After incubation for twenty-four hours, the samples were pH cycled for eight hours at pH 5.0 and sixteen hours at pH 7.2 for a total of two weeks, all at 37 degrees C. The specimens were then subjected to an artificial caries challenge at pH 5.0 for 196 hours. The specimens were embeded in Epon 812 and incubated at 55 degrees C for thirty-six hours. Microsections were produced from each sample and subjected to microradiography and quantitative microdensitometry. Data on lesion depth and mineral content were analyzed by Two Way ANOVA and Student Newman-Keuls Pairwise Multiple Comparison tests. There were significant differences in lesion depth and mineral content between groups (p < 0.05) and between permanent and primary enamel. This study demonstrates that Photac-Fil and Ketac-Fil prevent in vitro demineralization at varying levels in primary and permanent enamel. PMID:9740941

Wandera, A; Garcia, G

1998-01-01

110

Effect of a copal varnish, ZOE or glass ionomer cement bases on microleakage of amalgam restorations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of four cavity preparation treatment modalities under amalgam restorations. Class V cavity preparations were placed in 20 extracted teeth and randomly divided into four groups of five teeth each (10 restorations for each group): 1) no liner; 2) two applications of Copalite; 3) a base of IRM; and 4) a base of Chelon-Silver. After assigned cavity preparation treatment was accomplished, the teeth were restored with amalgam. The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling and subsequently stained with basic fuchsin. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned and dye penetration recorded. Amalgam restorations with a Copalite or Chelon-Silver base exhibited significantly less microleakage than those amalgam restorations with an IRM base or no cavity preparation treatment. With the Copalite varnish, microleakage extended beyond the axial wall (toward the pulp chamber through the dentinal tubules) while with the Chelon-Silver base, microleakage was limited to the restoration-tooth interface. PMID:2076225

Manders, C A; Garcia-Godoy, F; Barnwell, G M

1990-04-01

111

Fluoride release from three glass ionomers after exposure to sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate fluoride gels  

PubMed Central

Background: Glass ionomer (GI) restorations exposed to fluoride have the ability to slowly release fluoride. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate fluoride release from three GIs before and after exposure to sodium fluoride (NaF) and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Materials and Methods: Fifteen disc-shaped samples (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) from three GIs (Fuji II, Fuji IX, Chem Flex) were made and suspended in a polypropylene recipient containing 10 mL distilled water and stored at 37°C. At the 13th day, the samples of each GI were randomly divided into 3 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to NaF and APF gels for 4 min and group 3 served as control in distilled water. The fluoride released was measured at day 1, 4, 10, 13, 14, 17, 20 and 23 by potentiometer. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Fluoride release was highest after 24 h for the tested GIs, but Fuji II demonstrated the least amount. Fuji IX showed the highest fluoride release followed by Chem Flex. Exposure to fluoride gels significantly increased fluoride release for all materials (P < 0.05). The amount of fluoride release for the three GIs was significantly higher in APF groups during the test period. Conclusion: Highly viscous conventional GIs (Fuji IX and Chem Flex) released higher quantity of fluoride. PMID:25426154

Ghajari, Masoud Fallahinejad; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Safavi, Nassim; Sohrabi, Azin; Ardakani, Faezeh Fotouhi

2014-01-01

112

Evaluating dentin surface treatments for resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the effect of six surface treatments on the shear bond strength of three resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) to dentin. Occlusal surfaces of caries-free third molars were reduced to expose only dentin. Surface treatments were smear layer intact (negative control), Cavity Conditioner, EDTA, Ketac Primer, Self Conditioner, and etching with 35% phosphoric acid followed by the application of Optibond Solo Plus. Filtek Z250 composite resin bonded with Optibond Solo Plus served as a positive control. Conditioning agents were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. After surface treatments, Fuji II LC, Riva LC, Ketac Nano, and Filtek Z250 were placed in copper-band matrices 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height and were light-cured for 20 seconds. Specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24 hours, after which they were placed in deionized water for 24 hours at 37°C. They were then tested under shear forces in an Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference statistical analyses (p<0.05) indicated significant interaction between RMGIs and conditioning agents. Acid etching followed by Optibond Solo Plus provided highest bond strengths for all three RMGIs, which were not statistically different from the positive control. PMID:23088188

Imbery, T A; Namboodiri, A; Duncan, A; Amos, R; Best, A M; Moon, P C

2013-01-01

113

Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials using a no-rinse conditioner.  

PubMed

A paste-paste resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restorative material has been introduced recently with a new conditioner that requires no rinsing. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of an encapsulated RMGI (Fuji II LC) and a new paste-paste RMGI (Fuji Filling LC) to dentin conditioned with 20% polyacrylic acid (Cavity Conditioner), a new no-rinse conditioner (Self Conditioner,), or no conditioner. Mounted human third molars were flattened and the dentin surface was conditioned. The RMGI restorative materials were mixed and incrementally inserted into a mold and photocured. The specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. Fuji II LC had significantly greater bond strength to dentin than Fuji Filling LC. The use of Cavity Conditioner or Self Conditioner resulted in bond strengths that were not significantly different from each other; however, both produced greater bond strengths than those in the non-conditioned groups. PMID:23220322

Suihkonen, Rian W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Dossett, Jon M

2012-01-01

114

[Dentin bonding of cements. The bonding of cements with dentin in combination with various indirect restorative materials].  

PubMed

The number of both luting agents and restorative materials available on the market has rapidly increased. This study compared various types of luting agents when used to bond different indirect, laboratory restorative materials to dentin. Cylinders were produced of six restorative materials (gold alloy, titanium, feldspathic porcelain, leucite-glass ceramic, zirconia, and an indirect resin composite). Following relevant pretreatment, the end surface of the cylinders were luted to ground, human dentin with eight different luting agents (DeTrey Zinc [zinc phosphate cement], Fuji I [conventional glass ionomer cement], Fuji Plus [resin-modified glass ionomer cement], Variolink II [conventional etch-and-rinse resin cement], Panavia F2.0 and Multilink [self-etch resin cements], RelyX Unicem Aplicap and Maxcem [self-adhesive resin cements]). After water storage at 37 °C for one week, the shear bond strength of the specimens was measured and the fracture mode was examined stereo-microscopically. Restorative material and luting agent both had a significant effect on bond strength and there was a significant interaction between the two variables. The zinc phosphate cement and the glass ionomer cements resulted in the lowest bond strengths, whereas the highest bond strengths were found with the two self-etch and one of the self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:22203577

Peutzfeldt, Anne; Sahafi, Alireza; Flury, Simon

2011-01-01

115

The influence of lithium fluoride on in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium aluminate-pMMA composite cement.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the influence of lithium fluoride on in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of calcium aluminate (CA)-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composite cement exhibiting quick setting time ( < 15 min), low exothermic temperature (< 47 degrees C), and high compressive strength (> 100 MPa). The biocompatibility was measured by examining cytotoxicity tests such as the agar diffusion test with L929 cell line and the hemolysis test with fresh rabbit blood. To estimate the bioactivity of CA-PMMA composite cement, we determined hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation on the surface of composite cement in the simulated body (SBF) solution by using thin-film XRD, XPS, SEM, EPMA and ICP-AES. The results of biocompatibility tests indicated that all experimental compositions of this study had no cytotoxicity and no hemolysis so that there was no cytotoxicity with regard to non-reacted monomers (MMA and TEGDMA) and lithium fluoride. The results of bioactivity tests revealed that CA-PMMA composite cement without lithium fluoride did not form HAp on its surface after 60 days of soaking in the SBF. On the other hand, LiAl2(OH)7 . 2H2O and HAp were formed on the surface of CA-PMMA composite cement including 1.0% by weight of lithium fluoride after 7 and 15 days of soaking in the SBF, respectively. The 5 microm of LiAl2(OH)7 . 2H2O and HAp mixed layers were formed on the surface of specimen after 60 days of soaking in the SBF. PMID:15338588

Oh, S H; Choi, S Y; Choi, S H; Lee, Y K; Kim, K N

2004-01-01

116

Effectiveness of a resin-modified glass ionomer liner in reducing hypersensitivity in posterior restorations  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of this randomized comparative effectiveness study conducted by members of the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network were to determine whether using a resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) liner reduces postoperative hypersensitivity (POH) in dentin-bonded Class I and Class II resin-based composite (RBC) restorations, as well as to identify other factors (putative risk factors) associated with increased POH. Methods PEARL Network practitioner-investigators (P-Is) (n = 28) were trained to assess sensitivity determination, enamel and dentin caries activity rankings, evaluation for sleep bruxism, and materials and techniques used. The P-Is enrolled 341 participants who had hypersensitive posterior lesions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an RBC restoration with or without an RMGI liner before P-Is applied a one-step, self-etching bonding agent. P-Is conducted sensitivity evaluations at baseline, at one and four weeks after treatment, and at all visits according to patient-reported outcomes. Results P-Is collected complete data regarding 347 restorations (339 participants) at baseline, with 341 (98 percent) (333 participants) recalled at four weeks. Treatment groups were balanced across baseline characteristics and measures. RBC restorations with or without an RMGI liner had the same one-week and four-week POH outcomes, as measured clinically (by means of cold or air stimulation) and according to patient-reported outcomes. Conclusions Use of an RMGI liner did not reduce clinically measured or patient-reported POH in moderate-depth Class I and Class II restorations. Cold and air clinical stimulation findings were similar between groups. Practical Implications The time, effort and expense involved in placing an RMGI liner in these moderate-depth RBC restorations may be unnecessary, as the representative liner used did not improve hypersensitivity outcomes. PMID:23904575

Strober, Brad; Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Matthews, Abigail G.; Vena, Donald; Craig, Ronald G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

2014-01-01

117

Microleakage of nano-particle-filled resin-modified glass ionomer using atraumatic restorative technique in primary molars.  

PubMed

This study compared the marginal leakage of nano-particle-filled resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) restorations made using atraumatic restorative technique (ART) and conventional technique. Twenty primary molars with carious dentin on the buccal surfaces were restored with RMGIC using ART. The teeth were thermally cycled, sectioned and stained with methylene blue. Micro-leakage was compared to a second set of teeth restored conventionally. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in leakage was noted between the conventional and ART groups. The authors concluded that ART with RMGIC provides margins that show comparable leakage to conventionally restored primary teeth. PMID:20863039

Wadenya, Rose; Smith, Jennifer; Mante, Francis

2010-01-01

118

Methods and preliminary findings of a cost-effectiveness study of glass-ionomer-based and composite resin sealant materials after 2 yr.  

PubMed

The cost-effectiveness of glass-carbomer, conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) [without or with heat (light-emitting diode (LED) thermocuring) application], and composite resin sealants were compared after 2 yr in function. Estimated net costs per sealant were obtained from data on personnel time (measured with activity sampling), transportation, materials, instruments and equipment, and restoration costs for replacing failed sealants from a community trial involving 7- to 9-yr-old Chinese children. Cost data were standardized to reflect the placement of 1,000 sealants per group. Outcomes were the differences in the number of dentine caries lesions that developed between groups. The average sealant application time ranged from 5.40 min (for composite resin) to 8.09 min (for LED thermocured HVGIC), and the average cost per sealant for 1,000 performed per group (simulation sample) ranged from $US3.73 (for composite resin) to $US7.50 (for glass-carbomer). The incremental cost-effectiveness of LED thermocured HVGIC to prevent one additional caries lesion per 1,000 sealants performed was $US1,106 compared with composite resin. Sensitivity analyses showed that differences in the cost of materials across groups had minimal impact on the overall cost. Cost and effectiveness data enhance policymakers' ability to address issues of availability, access, and compliance associated with poor oral-health outcomes, particularly when large numbers of children are excluded from care, in economies where oral health services are still developing. PMID:24799118

Goldman, Ann S; Chen, Xi; Fan, Mingwen; Frencken, Jo E

2014-06-01

119

Efficiency of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate–Containing Orthodontic Composite and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer on Demineralization Evaluated By a New Laser Fluorescence Device  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP)-containing orthodontic composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets evaluated by a new laser fluorescence device. Methods: Sixty extracted maxillary premolars were used in the present study. Twenty orthodontic brackets were bonded with ACP-containing orthodontic adhesive (Aegis-Ortho), 20 were bonded with RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC) and 20 were bonded with Transbond XT composite as the control. All samples were then cycled for 21 days through a daily procedure of demineralization for 6 hours and remineralization for 17 hours. After this procedure, demineralization evaluations were undertaken by a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNO-dent Pen). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test was used for statistical evaluation, at P<.05 level. Results: According to ANOVA, significant demineralization variations (?D) were determined among groups (F=6.650; P<.01). The ACP-containing composite showed the lowest (mean: 8.98±2.38) and the control composite showed the highest (mean:12.15±3.83) ?D, during 21 days demineralization process (P<.01). Significant difference was also observed between the ?D scores of the RMGIC (mean: 9.24±2.73) and control (P<.05). No significant differences was found in preventive effects of ACP-containing composite and RMGIC (P<.05) against demineralization. Conclusions: The use of both ACP-containing orthodontic composite and RMGIC should be recommended for any at-risk orthodontic patient to provide preventive actions and potentially remineralize subclinical enamel demineralization. PMID:19421393

Uysal, Tancan; Amasyali, Mihri; Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Sagdic, Deniz

2009-01-01

120

The uptake and release of fluoride by ion-leaching cements after exposure to toothpaste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The cariostatic action associated with the glass-ionomer cement (GIC) is usually attributed to its sustained release of fluoride. However the ability of the GIC to act as a fluoride reservoir, taking it up from an external source (e.g. toothpaste, mouthwash) and subsequently releasing it over time, may also be a contributory factor. This study investigated the reservoir effect of

M Rothwell; H. M Anstice; G. J Pearson

1998-01-01

121

Four-year water degradation of a resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive bonded to dentin.  

PubMed

Glass-ionomers are auto-adhesive to tooth tissue through combined micro-mechanical and chemical bonding. How much each of the two bonding components contributes to the actual bonding effectiveness is, however, not known and there is not much information available on long-term stability. The objective of this study was to assess the bonding effectiveness of a resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive to dentin after 4 yr of water storage. Fuji Bond LC (GC) was applied without (i) and with pretreatment using (ii) a polyalkenoic acid conditioner and (iii) a 37.5% phosphoric acid etchant. The etchant was used to exclude any chemical interaction with hydroxyapatite. The micro-tensile bond strength ( microTBS) to dentin decreased significantly over the 4 yr period in all three experimental groups. After 24 h and 4 yr, the lowest micro TBS was recorded when dentin was not pretreated. The highest micro TBS was obtained following polyalkenoic acid pretreatment, although this was not significantly different from specimens that were pretreated using phosphoric acid. Pretreating dentin with phosphoric acid intensified micromechanical interlocking at the expense of chemical bonding potential to hydroxyapatite. Nevertheless, correlating the micro TBS data with failure analysis through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that combined micro-mechanical and chemical bonding involving pretreatment with the polyalkenoic acid conditioner yielded the most durable bond. PMID:14871197

De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Lambrechts, Paul

2004-02-01

122

Fracture resistance of pin-retained amalgam, composite resin, and alloy-reinforced glass ionomer core materials.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of pins on the fracture resistance of three core materials. Two or four stainless steel pins were incorporated in either amalgam, composite resin, or alloy-reinforced glass ionomer specimens. Half of the pins were surface-treated with mercury, Panavia EX resin, or hydrochloric acid before they were incorporated in the respective materials. The pins were oriented in a direction relative to the tensile stress/axis of the specimen: parallel/perpendicular (PL/PR), perpendicular/parallel (PR/PL), or perpendicular/perpendicular (PR/PR). ANOVA tested significant differences in diametral tensile strength among materials, in number of pins, in pin orientations, in surface treatments, and in other interactions. Incorporation of pins weakened amalgam the most, followed by composite resin. Pins did not weaken amalgam-reinforced glass ionomer. Pin orientation improved the fracture resistance of some specimens by two times that of the controls. Orientation of pins parallel to the tensile stress was most favorable. As the number of pins increased, the fracture resistance of amalgam significantly decreased. Acid treatment of the pin surface enhanced the bond with composite resin. Both treatments resulted in significant improvement in fracture resistance. PMID:1838771

Kao, E C

1991-10-01

123

Effect of the CO2 laser on the microleakage of conventional and laser apicetomized teeth retrofilled with glass ionomer: in vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for further improvement on the level of apical sealing. The use of lasers on apical surgery is still not fully understood, however some good results have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the use of the CO2 laser following conventional apicoectomy and retrofilling with glass ionomer using different combinations

Antonio L. Pinheiro; Sergio B. Martorelli

2000-01-01

124

Clinical attachment level gain and bone regeneration around a glass ionomer restoration on root surface wall of periodontal pocket  

PubMed Central

A case describing perio-restorative management of an accidental trauma in the mid portion of root on an upper left canine tooth following an ostectomy surgery is presented here. The traumatized root area was undergoing fast resorption and a chronic periodontal abscess had developed in relation to the lesion. The article illustrates the clinical and radiographic photo series of a periodontal flap surgery done to gain access into a subgingival region for the placement of Glass ionomer restoration on the root and its periodic follow up. The clinical condition of the area suggests 8 mm clinical attachment gain over the restoration and the review radiographs at definite intervals up to 18 months revealed evidence of consistent bone regeneration around the restoration. The article also highlights the various other possibilities, where this restorative material can be effectively used in conjunction with periodontal surgical procedures. PMID:23162344

Biniraj, K. R.; Sagir, Mohammed; Sunil, M. M.; Janardhanan, Mahija

2012-01-01

125

Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods White Portland cement (WPC) was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6). The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p<0.05). Results The results showed an increase of the pH level after 15 days, followed by a slight increase after 30 days and a decrease after 60 days. There were no significant statistical differences among the groups (p>0.05). For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05). Conclusions The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated. PMID:25141197

MARCIANO, Marina Angélica; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; MINOTTI, Paloma Gagliardi; MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; GUIMARÃES, Bruno Martini; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

2014-01-01

126

Phase composition, mechanical performance and in vitro biocompatibility of hydraulic setting calcium magnesium phosphate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O)-forming calcium phosphate cements are of great interest as bone replacement materials because they are resorbable in physiological conditions. However, their short setting times and low mechanical strengths limit broad clinical application. In this study, we showed that a significant improvement of these properties of brushite cement could be achieved by the use of magnesium-substituted ?-tricalcium phosphate with the

Uwe Klammert; Tobias Reuther; Melanie Blank; Isabelle Reske; Jake E. Barralet; Liam M. Grover; Alexander C. Kübler; Uwe Gbureck

2010-01-01

127

In vivo skeletal response and biomechanical assessment of two novel polyalkenoate cements following femoral implantation in the female New Zealand White rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass-ionomer cements (GIC) offer several advantages over the conventional acrylic-based bone cements. The formation of an adhesive bond with bone and metals, a low setting exotherm and no systemic or local toxicity are some of the advantages cited. This study examines the in vivo biological and biomechanical behavior of two polyalkenoate cements (LG26 and LG30) implanted for 6 wk into

M. C. Blades; D. P. Moore; P. A. Revell; R. Hill

1998-01-01

128

Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.

2009-09-01

129

Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer and Composite Resin to Three Pulp Capping Agents  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Present study was designed to compare the bonding strength of resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA mixed with Na2HPO4 (NAMTA), and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and methods. Thirty specimens of each CEM, NAMTA, and MTA were prepared. Composite and RMGI restorations were then placed on the samples (15 samples in six subgroups). Shear bond strength was assessed using universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test. To compare the bond strength in subgroups, one-away ANOVA was applied. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results. Bond strength was significantly higher to composite samples compared to RMGI samples (p<0.001). The difference in bond strength of composite samples between MTA and CEM subgroups (P=0.026) as well as MTA and NAMTA subgroups (P= 0.019) was significant, but the difference between NAMTA and CEM subgroups (P=0.56) was not significant. The differences in bond strength in subgroups of RMGI group were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion. Regarding shear bond strength to the tested substrates, composite was shown to be superior to RMGI. The bond of resin composite to MTA was weaker than that to CEM and NAMTA. PMID:24082988

Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Abed Kahnamoui, Mehdi; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Daneshpooy, Mehdi

2013-01-01

130

Comparison of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restoration in Primary Teeth Prepared by Er: YAG Laser and the Conventional Method  

PubMed Central

Objective: One of the main criteria in evaluating the restorative materials is the degree of microleakage. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomer restored cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or turbine and bur. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted caries-free deciduous posterior teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups for cavity preparation. Cavities in group one were prepared by high speed turbine and bur. In the second group, Er:YAG laser with a 3W output power, 300 mJ energy and 10 Hz frequency was used. Cavities were restored with GC Fuji II LC. After thermocycling, the samples were immersed into 0.5% methylene blue solution. They were sectioned for examination under optic microscope. Results: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed no significant difference between microleakage of the laser group and the conventional group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Er:YAG laser with its advantages in pediatric dentistry may be suggested as an alternative device for cavity preparation. PMID:23119130

Ghandehari, M.; Mighani, G.; Shahabi, S.; Chiniforush, N.; Shirmohammadi, Z.

2012-01-01

131

Effects of environmental calcium and phosphate on wear and strength of glass ionomers exposed to acidic conditions.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of environmental calcium and phosphate on wear resistance, strength, and surface morphology of highly viscous glass-ionomers (HVGICs) (Fuji IX Fast [FN] and KetacMolar [KM]) when exposed to acidic conditions. Fabricated specimens were randomly divided into five groups and kept in acidic solutions (pH 3) with varied levels of calcium and phosphate ranging from 0 to 2.4 mM. After 4 weeks of conditioning, the specimens were subjected to wear testing, shear punch, and surface roughness testing as well as SEM evaluation. Multiple comparisons of wear depth (microm), shear strength (MPa), and surface roughness (Ra) between acidic conditions were performed using ANOVA/post-hoc Scheffe's test (p < 0.05). Results showed that FN and KM exposed to acidic conditions had varied wear resistance, shear strength, surface roughness, and structure depending on environmental phosphate level. Increased level of environmental phosphate led to rougher surface, greater wear resistance, and strength of FN and KM than the controls (acid of pH 3). Under SEM, the surface of both FN and KM specimens were covered by numerous small particles when environmental phosphate was high. Results suggest that environmental phosphate may improve wear resistance and shear strength of HVGICs when challenged by acids. PMID:18506830

Wang, X Y; Yap, Adrian U J

2009-02-01

132

Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review.  

PubMed

The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician's understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

2014-02-01

133

Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review  

PubMed Central

The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

2014-01-01

134

Evaluation of shear strength at the cement-endodontic post interface.  

PubMed

The strength characteristics of the cement-implant interface were evaluated for smooth-tapered, threaded, and porous-surfaced endodontic implants with the use of different cements. Specifically, tensile and torsional shear strengths were measured for zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass-ionomer, silicophosphate, and AH-26 cements. The results indicated superior shear strength characteristics for threaded endodontic implants on axial loading. However, this strength was diminished when torsional forces were applied. Porous-surfaced endodontic implants showed strong resistance to both axial and torsional loading. PMID:3042961

Maniatopoulos, C; Pilliar, R M; Smith, D C

1988-06-01

135

[Thermal diffusivity of dental cements].  

PubMed

Thermal insulative efficiency, is one of the desirable properties of the dental cements. In this study, the thermal diffusivity of three types of dental cements, were measured. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the following method. Two thermo-couples were used and connected to a chart record, the first was embedded in the cylindrical block of the cement specimen and the other in a mixing of ice and water (reference thermocouple). All them were set in a apparatus consisting of a double cooling bath. Calculation of thermal diffusivity were based on the curve provided of the record during cooling of the cement and a theoretical mathematic model. Values were ranged from 2,985 to 3,934 cm2.sec-1. ZOE cement exhibited the highest value, the glass-ionomers the lowest and the poly-carboxylates were average. The results showed that the thermal diffusivity of the cements is dependent from the type of the cement but the differences between them were not statistically significant. Additionally, the values obtained were about the same as the dentin, so the dental cements may consider as good thermal insulators. PMID:2130338

Paroussis, D; Kakaboura, A; Chrysafidis, C; Mauroyiannakis, E

1990-08-01

136

Bioactive glass incorporation in calcium phosphate cement-based injectable bone substitute for improved in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo bone regeneration.  

PubMed

In this work, we fabricated injectable bone substitutes modified with the addition of bioactive glass powders synthesized via ultrasonic energy-assisted hydrothermal method to the calcium phosphate-based bone cement to improve its biocompatibility. The injectable bone substitutes was initially composed of a powder component (tetracalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium sulfate dehydrate) and a liquid component (citric acid, chitosan and hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose) upon which various concentrations of bioactive glass were added: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Setting time and compressive strength of the injectable bone substitutes were evaluated and observed to improve with the increase of bioactive glass content. Surface morphologies were observed via scanning electron microscope before and after submersion of the samples to simulated body fluid and increase in apatite formation was detected using x-ray diffraction machine. In vitro biocompatibility of the injectable bone substitutes was observed to improve with the addition of bioactive glass as the proliferation/adhesion behavior of cells on the material increased. Human gene markers were successfully expressed using real time-polymerase chain reaction and the samples were found to promote cell viability and be more biocompatible as the concentration of bioactive glass increases. In vivo biocompatibility of the samples containing 0% and 30% bioactive glass were evaluated using Micro-CT and histological staining after 3 months of implantation in male rabbits' femurs. No inflammatory reaction was observed and significant bone formation was promoted by the addition of bioactive glass to the injectable bone substitute system. PMID:23470354

Sadiasa, Alexander; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Franco, Rose Ann; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong Taek

2014-01-01

137

Effects of curing mode of resin cements on the bond strength of a titanium post: An intraradicular study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post. Background: Dual-cured resin cements have been found to be less polymerized in the absence of light; thus the bond strength of cements would be compromised due to the absence of light with a metallic post. Materials and Methods: Ten extracted teeth were prepared for cement titanium PARAPOST, of five specimens each, with Panavia F [dual-cured (PF)] and Rely×Luting 2 [self-cured resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (RL)]; the push-out bond strength (PBS) at three different levels of the sectioned roots was measured. The failure modes were observed and the significance of the differences in bond strength of the two types of cement at each level and at different levels of the same type was analyzed with non-parametric tests. Results: The push-out bond strength of the RL group was greater at all the three levels; with significant differences at the coronal and middle levels (P<0.05). No significant differences in PBS at different levels of the same group were observed. Cement material around the post was obvious in the PF group. The failure mode was mostly adhesive between the post and resin cement in the RL group. Conclusion: Bond strength was greater with self-cured, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, using titanium post. PMID:22557808

Reza, Fazal; Lim, Siau Peng

2012-01-01

138

In vitro shear bond strength of resin-based luting cements to dentin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine how resin cement, self-adhesive resin cement, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement affected shear bond strength to dentin. Sixty composite resin disks (3 mm in diameter x 3 mm in length) were prepared and divided into four groups (n = 15): Group 1, composite disk bonded to dentin with composite resin and a bonding agent; Group 2, composite disk bonded to dentin with a self-adhesive resin cement; Group 3, composite disk bonded to dentin with a different self-adhesive resin cement; and Group 4, composite disk bonded to dentin with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The composite resin was loaded into a syringe (internal diameter 3 mm), photocured in an oven, and cut into 3 mm slices with a low-speed saw. The samples were bonded to dentin per the manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 degrees C) for 24 hours. The shear bond strength test was conducted using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Conventional resin cement and a bonding agent exhibited significantly higher shear bond strength values than all other materials tested. PMID:22782054

Santos, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; Driessen, Cornel H; de Freitas, Anderson Pinheiro; Rizkalla, Amin S; Santos, Gildo C

2012-01-01

139

Fatigue and biocompatibility properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) of varied functionality (unfunctionalised and carboxyl and amine functionalised) with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were prepared for use as a bone cement. The MWCNT loadings ranged from 0.1 to 1.0wt.%. The fatigue properties of these MWCNT–PMMA bone cements were characterised at MWCNT loading levels of 0.1 and 0.25wt.% with the type and wt.% loading of

Ross Ormsby; Tony McNally; Peter O’Hare; George Burke; Christina Mitchell; Nicholas Dunne

140

Microleakage and marginal gap of adhesive cements for noble alloy full cast crowns.  

PubMed

Very limited comparative information about the microleakage in noble alloy full cast crowns luted with different types of adhesive resin cements is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage and marginal gap of two self-adhesive resin cements with that of other types of adhesive luting cements for noble alloy full cast crowns. Fifty noncarious human premolars and molars were prepared in a standardized manner for full cast crown restorations. Crowns were made from a noble alloy using a standardized technique and randomly cemented with five cementing agents as follows: 1) GC Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer cement, 2) Panavia F 2.0 resin cement, 3) Multilink Sprint self-adhesive resin cement, 4), Rely X Unicem self-adhesive resin cement with pretreatment, and 5) Rely X Unicem with no pretreatment. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for two weeks and then subjected to thermocycling. They were then placed in a silver nitrate solution, vertically cut in a mesiodistal direction and evaluated for microleakage and marginal gap using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn multiple range test at a p<0.05 level of significance. The Rely X Unicem (with or with no pretreatment) exhibited the smallest degree of microleakage at both tooth-cement and cement-crown interfaces. The greatest amount of microleakage was found for Panavia F 2.0 resin cement followed by GC Fuji Plus at both interfaces. No statistically significant difference in the marginal gap values was found between the cementing agents evaluated (p>0.05). The self-adhesive resin cements provided a much better marginal seal for the noble alloy full cast crowns compared with the resin-modified glass ionomer or dual-cured resin-based cements. PMID:21740242

Hooshmand, T; Mohajerfar, M; Keshvad, A; Motahhary, P

2011-01-01

141

A biocompatible and bioactive replacement for dentine: is this a reality? The properties and uses of a novel calcium-based cement.  

PubMed

As part of the continuing evolution towards conservative dentistry there has been a drive to push further and investigate the possibility of inducing the repair and regeneration of lost dental hard tissue. Until recently, the prospect of repair and regeneration had been confined to laboratory studies and hypothesised scientific models. In 2009, a new product was launched claiming to be a revolutionary material capable of offering a bioactive and biocompatible replacement for dentine. The calcium-based cement is reported to preserve pulp vitality, promote pulp healing and provide a natural substitute for dentine through bioactive stimulation of the dentino-pulpal complex. Its clinical indications are extensive, described as a restorative material suitable for use wherever dentine replacement is required. In this article the physical, mechanical, chemical and biological properties of this novel material are presented, together with the results of experimental laboratory-based investigations and on-going clinical in vivo investigations. PMID:23348482

Bachoo, I K; Seymour, D; Brunton, P

2013-01-01

142

Evaluation of Tensile Retention of Y-TZP Crowns Cemented on Resin Composite Cores: Effect of the Cement and Y-TZP Surface Conditioning.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (?=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate. PMID:25162722

Rippe, Mp; Amaral, R; Amaral, Regina; Oliveira, Fs; Cesar, Pf; Scotti, R; Valandro, Lf; Bottino, Ma

2014-08-27

143

Bonding of hybrid ionomers and resin cements to modified orthodontic band materials.  

PubMed

Orthodontic bands often fail clinically at the band-cement interface. Hybrid ionomer and resin cements and a glass ionomer control were bonded to photo-etched and standard band materials, both of which were tested in as-received and air-abraded conditions. Cements were placed in a 3 mm diameter mold at the bonding interface and bonded to 6 x 6 mm stainless steel band specimens mounted to acrylic blocks. Specimens were stored in water for 24 hours at 37 degreesC and debonded in tension on a testing machine at 0.05 cm/minutes. Bond strengths (MPa) were calculated and data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Bond strengths to as-received bands were less than 3.4 MPa for cements tested, whereas bond strengths to air-abraded bands ranged from 7.1 to 17.7 MPa, except for the glass ionomer control. Air abrasion of band materials provides highly increased bond strength of hybrid ionomer and resin cements. PMID:9971924

Mennemeyer, V A; Neuman, P; Powers, J M

1999-02-01

144

Effect of the CO2 laser on the microleakage of conventional and laser apicetomized teeth retrofilled with glass ionomer: in vitro study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for further improvement on the level of apical sealing. The use of lasers on apical surgery is still not fully understood, however some good results have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the use of the CO2 laser following conventional apicoectomy and retrofilling with glass ionomer using different combinations of power and types of emission 'In Vitro.' Seventy extracted human upper anterior teeth were used on this study. The teeth after conventional apicoectomy were retrofilled with VitremerTM. The samples were randomized into seven groups of 10, Group I acted as negative control. Groups II, III and IV were lased on defocused mode with superpulsed CO2 laser on CW with power output of 0,5; 3 and 7 Watts during 5 seconds respectively. Groups V, VI e VII were lased on defocused mode with continuous emission on CW mode with power output of 1, 10 and 20 Watts during 5 seconds respectively. All specimens were immersed on 2% Methylene Blue solution during 48 h, washed in running tap water and longitudinally sectioned. Three calibrated examiners regarding apical infiltration graded the samples. The results showed difference between groups, where Group II showed smaller level of apical infiltration. It is concluded that improving on apical sealing is better achieved by using 0.5 W on superpulsed on CW.

Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Martorelli, Sergio B. F.

2000-03-01

145

Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and glass ionomer show distinct effects in the remineralization of proximal artificial caries lesion in situ.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the ability of casein-phosphopeptide amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP) and glass-ionomer (GI) in remineralizing proximal artificial caries lesions (ACLs). Molar enamel-slabs were divided into: original-lesion control, intra-oral controls, and experimental (CPP-ACP or GI) groups. Specimens received ACLs and were bonded on subject maxillary first molars. After 4-weeks, mineral density (MD) was analyzed by ?CT. Compared to control, CPP-ACP increased MD at 0-38/68-84 microns and the GI group had an increase at 0-68 microns, with a greater increase in MD compared to the CPP-ACP group from 0-53 microns. The mean percent remineralization (%R) showed differences between the GI, CPP-ACP groups and their paired controls. GI tended to increase remineralization more than CPP-ACP. In conclusion, CPP-ACP and GI demonstrated distinct remineralizing ability. GI induced greater remineralization in the superficial lesion, while CPP-ACP remineralized the lesion body. Their effects on percent remineralization and reducing lesion depth of proximal ACLs were similar. PMID:23903649

Thepyou, Rathapong; Chanmitkul, Wanvipa; Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Hamba, Hidenori; Chob-Isara, Wanwalai; Trairatvorakul, Chutima; Tagami, Junji

2013-01-01

146

Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.  

PubMed

Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion. PMID:11203860

Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

2000-01-01

147

Composition-structure-property relationships for non-classical ionomer cements formulated with zinc-boron germanium-based glasses.  

PubMed

Non-classical ionomer glasses like those based on zinc-boron-germanium glasses are of special interest in a variety of medical applications owning to their unique combination of properties and potential therapeutic efficacy. These features may be of particular benefit with respect to the utilization of glass ionomer cements for minimally invasive dental applications such as the atruamatic restorative treatment, but also for expanded clinical applications in orthopedics and oral-maxillofacial surgery. A unique system of zinc-boron-germanium-based glasses (10 compositions in total) has been designed using a Design of Mixtures methodology. In the first instance, ionomer glasses were examined via differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and (11)B MAS NMR spectroscopy to establish fundamental composition - structure-property relationships for the unique system. Secondly, cements were synthesized based on each glass and handling characteristics (working time, Wt, and setting time, St) and compression strength were quantified to facilitate the development of both experimental and mathematical composition-structure-property relationships for the new ionomer cements. The novel glass ionomer cements were found to provide Wt, St, and compression strength in the range of 48-132?s, 206-602?s, and 16-36?MPa, respectively, depending on the ZnO/GeO2 mol fraction of the glass phase. A lower ZnO mol fraction in the glass phase provides higher glass transition temperature, higher N4 rate, and in combination with careful modulation of GeO2 mol fraction in the glass phase provides a unique approach to extending the Wt and St of glass ionomer cement without compromising (in fact enhancing) compression strength. The data presented in this work provide valuable information for the formulation of alternative glass ionomer cements for applications within and beyond the dental clinic, especially where conventional approaches to modulating working time and strength exhibit co-dependencies (i.e. the enhancement of one property comes at the expense of the other) and therefore limit development strategies. PMID:25391445

Zhang, Xiaofang; Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Boyd, Daniel

2014-11-12

148

Effect of Different Luting Cements on Fracture Resistance in Endodontically Treated Teeth  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three types of luting cements used for post cementation on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars, restored with resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred intact single-rooted human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into 5 groups of 20 each. In groups 2-5, post spaces were prepared after root canal treatment and clinical crown reduction up to 1.5 mm above the CEJ. Teeth were divided in groups as follows: Group 1: intact teeth, Group 2: active prefabricated metallic posts (PMP), Group 3: PMP cemented with zinc phosphate luting cement, Group 4: PMP cemented with glass ionomer luting cement and Group 5: PMP cemented with resin luting cement. In groups 2-5 the teeth were restored with resin composite. Following thermocycling, the palatal cusp of each specimen was loaded to compression at an angle of 150? to its longitudinal axis at a strain rate of 2 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test. Chi-square test was used for comparison of failure mode. RESULTS: There were significant differences in fracture resistance between the test groups (P<0.001). The differences between group 2 with groups 1, 4 and 5 were statistically significant (P<0.05); whereas there were no significant differences in fracture resistance between the two other groups (P>0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the mode of failure between the 5 groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Zinc phosphate, glass ionomer and resin luting cements showed similar behaviors and achieved fracture resistance comparable to intact teeth. However, the use of active post (without cement) adversely affected the fracture resistance of root canal treated teeth. PMID:24082900

Mohammadi, Narmin; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rezaei Aval, Mojdeh

2008-01-01

149

Comparison of Marginal Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restorations in Primary Molars Prepared by Chemo-mechanical Caries Removal (CMCR), Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum-Garnet (Er:YAG) Laser and Atraumatic Restorative Technique (ART)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: It is important to emphasize that the aspects of pretreatment techniques, as well as the composition and mechanism of adhesion, may decisively influence the effectiveness of the restorative materials in sealing cavity margins and preventing marginal leakage. Aims: This study assessed the in vitro influence of surface preparation techniques on the microleakage of glass ionomer restorations in primary teeth. Materials and methods: The study groups were divided into three different techniques: (1) The chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) method using the Apacaries gel, (2) the erbium:yttrium aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser method and (3) the atraumatic restorative technique (ART). The teeth restored with a glass ionomer restorative material (Fuji IX GP capsule, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The dye penetration was measured in micrometers using a polarized light microscope and specific computer software. Results: The results showed that the mean microleakage level after was lowest with the CMCR method using Apacaries gel and highest with the Er:YAG laser. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the mean microleakage level between the group with the CMCR method using Apacaries gel and the Er:YAG laser. Conclusion: Marginal leakage was significantly higher with preparations made using the Er:YAG laser than with the CMCR method using Apacaries gel and spoon excavator (p < 0.05). How to cite this article: Juntavee A, Juntavee N, Peerapattana J, Nualkaew N, Sutthisawat S. Comparison of Marginal Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restorations in Primary Molars Prepared by Chemomechanical Caries Removal (CMCR), Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum-Garnet (Er:YAG) Laser and Atraumatic Restorative Technique (ART). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):75-79. PMID:25206196

Juntavee, Niwut; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Nualkaew, Nartsajee; Sutthisawat, Sitikorn

2013-01-01

150

A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.  

PubMed

Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure. PMID:24604997

Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

2014-03-01

151

Clinical evaluation of giomer- and resin-modified glass ionomer cement in class V noncarious cervical lesions: An in vivo study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate and compare the clinical performance of Giomer (Beautifil II) and RMGIC (Fuji II LC) in noncarious cervical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two subjects with one or two pairs of noncarious cervical lesions were included in the study. Each pair of lesion was restored with either giomer or RMGIC assigned randomly. Clinical evaluation of restorations was done using USPHS criteria. Data was formulated in a predesigned format and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi square test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between RMGIC and Giomer with respect to surface roughness with P value <0.001. Conclusion: Giomer showed superior surface finish compared to RMGIC. Both Giomer and RMGIC showed equal retention ability. PMID:22144814

Jyothi, KN; Annapurna, S; Kumar, Anil S; Venugopal, P; Jayashankara, CM

2011-01-01

152

Mutagenic potentials of dental cements as detected by the Salmonella/microsome test.  

PubMed

The potential mutagenicity of a zinc phosphate (Poscal), a polycarboxylate (Aqualox) and glass ionomer cements with (Argion) and without (Meron) silver reinforcement were characterized by employing the Ames Salmonella/microsome test. The materials were eluted in dimethyl sulphoxide or physiologic saline and the aliquots were used either immediately or after an incubation period of 24h at 37 degrees C. Mutagenic effects of the materials were tested on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 1535 using the standard plate incorporation assay, and in the presence or absence of S9 fraction from rat liver. Poscal and Aqualox elicited mutagenic effects on S. typhimurium TA 98 and TA 1535, whereas Meron exhibited mutagenic effects on S. typhimurium TA 98. No mutagenic effects were detected for Argion. The type of solvent, dose of the material and incubation as well as the interactions between these factors exhibited varying degrees of influences on the mutagenic activities of the cements (P<0.05 and P<0.1). We conclude that zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, and glass ionomer cements may have possible mutagenic activities. PMID:15046892

Kaplan, Cigdem; Diril, Nuran; Sahin, Saime; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

2004-08-01

153

Microleakage of light-cured resin and resin-modified glass-ionomer dentin bonding agents applied with co-cure vs pre-cure technique.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dentin bonding agents in reducing microleakage after three months in Class V restorations restored with Z100 resin composite. Materials tested were three types of resin-based dentin bonding agents: a multi-step (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose); a one-step (Scotchbond One-Step); a self-etching, self-priming (Clearfil Liner Bond) and a resin-modified glass ionomer (GC Fuji Bond LC). Class V cavity preparations with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in cementum were prepared both on labial and lingual surfaces of extracted premolar teeth. Restorations (two per tooth) were distributed randomly into nine test groups (n = 10) consisting of the various DBAs applied with co-cure and pre-cure techniques, and no dentin bonding as a negative control group. Samples were stored in saline for three months, thermocycled, stained with silver nitrate, then sectioned through the middle of the preparation to facilitate the removal of the composite resin restoration. For groups treated with the pre-cure technique, the differences between the enamel leakage values of SBMP-control, CFLB-control and SB1S-control subgroups were significant (p < 0.05). For enamel leakage values of groups treated with the co-cure technique, the differences between the SBMP-control, SB1S-control, CFLB-control and Fuji LC-control subgroups were significant (p < 0.05). For cementum leakage values of groups treated with pre-cure technique, the difference between the CFLB-control and the Fuji, SBMP and SB1S groups was significant (p < 0.05). No significant differences could be detected between the cementum leakage values of groups treated with the co-cure technique (p > 0.05). The differences between the values obtained with application of CFLB with the pre-cure and co-cure techniques at the cementum margins were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.02). No statistically significant differences could be detected between the pre-cure and co-cure values of the other test materials. Generally for every group, cementum microleakage values were greater than enamel microleakage values (p < 0.05). The use of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Scotchbond One-Step and Fuji Bond LC with the co-cure technique to decrease the application time did not cause any significant increase in microleakage. Only pre-curing using Clearfil Liner Bond provided better microleakage properties than the other pre-cured adhesives. PMID:11203833

Tulunoglu, O; Uçta?h, M; Alaçam, A; Omürlü, H

2000-01-01

154

Finite element analysis estimates of cement microfracture under complete veneer crowns.  

PubMed

Long-term clinical failures of complete veneer crowns are commonly attributed to microleakage of the cement. Excessive stress or fatigue cycling may create cement microfractures and promote microleakage. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis (FEA) was selected to determine stress levels and distributions on dental cements resulting from 10 MPa occlusal loads on single-unit complete artificial veneer crowns during various clinical conditions. Sixteen 2D-FEA computer models were generated for a mandibular first premolar to study the effects of (1) marginal configuration (shoulder for all-ceramic crown versus chamfer for type III gold alloy crown), (2) four types of cement (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer and composite resin), and (3) two thicknesses of cement (25 and 100 microns) for single-cycle loads and fatigue loading. There was almost no difference between a chamfer and shoulder marginal configuration except at the edge of the margin where the chamfer finish lines reached 2 to 8 times greater stresses. There were minimal effects for thickness of cement and marginal configurations. Stresses were slightly less for thicker cement. Fatigue analysis was based on estimated stress versus number of cycle curves for cements and resulted in stresses below the estimated endurance limit. If the average occlusal loading levels were 10 MPa, there did not appear to be a risk of microfracture in dental cement because of mechanical loading. PMID:8006836

Kamposiora, P; Papavasilious, G; Bayne, S C; Felton, D A

1994-05-01

155

Biocompatibility of resin-modified filling materials.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of resin-based dental restorations have been placed over the past decade. During this same period, the public interest in the local and especially systemic adverse effects caused by dental materials has increased significantly. It has been found that each resin-based material releases several components into the oral environment. In particular, the comonomer, triethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (TEGDMA), and the 'hydrophilic' monomer, 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), are leached out from various composite resins and 'adhesive' materials (e.g., resin-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs] and dentin adhesives) in considerable amounts during the first 24 hours after polymerization. Numerous unbound resin components may leach into saliva during the initial phase after polymerization, and later, due to degradation or erosion of the resinous restoration. Those substances may be systemically distributed and could potentially cause adverse systemic effects in patients. In addition, absorption of organic substances from unpolymerized material, through unprotected skin, due to manual contact may pose a special risk for dental personnel. This is borne out by the increasing numbers of dental nurses, technicians, and dentists who present with allergic reactions to one or more resin components, like HEMA, glutaraldehyde, ethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA), and dibenzoyl peroxide (DPO). However, it must be emphasized that, except for conventional composite resins, data reported on the release of substances from resin-based materials are scarce. There is very little reliable information with respect to the biological interactions between resin components and various tissues. Those interactions may be either protective, like absorption to dentin, or detrimental, e.g., inflammatory reactions of soft tissues. Microbial effects have also been observed which may contribute indirectly to caries and irritation of the pulp. Therefore, it is critical, both for our patients and for the profession, that the biological effects of resin-based filling materials be clarified in the near future. PMID:11021634

Geurtsen, W

2000-01-01

156

A clinical retrospective evaluation of 2 orthodontic band cements.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the time to first failure of stainless steel orthodontic first permanent molar bands cemented with either a modified composite (Band-Lok, Reliance Orthodontic Products) or a conventional glass ionomer cement (AquaCem, De Trey Dentsply). The effect of patient sex, patient age at the start of treatment, the presenting malocclusion, treatment mechanics, and the operator proficiency on band survival was also assessed. Data for 219 bands cemented with Band-Lok in 108 patients and for 395 bands cemented with AquaCem in 183 patients were analyzed. For each case, a single molar band, either the band that was first to fail or the band that had the shortest follow-up time, was chosen for analysis. For each cement, whether headgear was used or not, there was no significant difference in time to first band failure (P = .398). Twenty-six percent of patients had at least one band failure with Band-Lok, and 30% of patients had at least one band failure with AquaCem, representing an 18% band failure rate for each cement. There was no significant difference in time to first band failure for either cement with respect to sex of the patient (P = .842), patient age at the start of treatment (P = .257), presenting malocclusion (P = .319), or operator proficiency (P = .062). The use of headgear, however, reduced significantly the time to first band failure irrespective of cement type (P = .0069). Headgear use was identified as a predictor of first permanent molar band survival. Clinical performance of bands cemented with either cement appears to be similar and was influenced significantly by the use of headgear. PMID:11771786

Millett, D T; Hallgren, A; McCluskey, L A; McAuley, F; Fornell, A C; Love, J; Christie, H

2001-12-01

157

Finite element analysis of stresses in fixed prosthesis and cement layer using a three-dimensional model  

PubMed Central

Context: To understand the effect of masticatory and parafunctional forces on the integrity of the prosthesis and the underlying cement layer. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress pattern in the cement layer and the fixed prosthesis, on subjecting a three-dimensional finite element model to simulated occlusal loading. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element model was simulated to replace missing mandibular first molar with second premolar and second molar as abutments. The model was subjected to a range of occlusal loads (20, 30, 40 MPa) in two different directions – vertical and 30° to the vertical. The cements (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and composite) were modeled with two cement thicknesses – 25 and 100 ?m. Stresses were determined in certain reference points in fixed prosthesis and the cement layer. Statistical Analysis Used: The stress values are mathematic calculations without variance; hence, statistical analysis is not routinely required. Results: Stress levels were calculated according to Von Mises criteria for each node. Maximum stresses were recorded at the occlusal surface, axio-gingival corners, followed by axial wall. The stresses were greater with lateral load and with 100-?m cement thickness. Results revealed higher stresses for zinc phosphate cement, followed by composites. Conclusions: The thinner cement interfaces favor the success of the prosthesis. The stresses in the prosthesis suggest rounding of axio-gingival corners and a well-established finish line as important factors in maintaining the integrity of the prosthesis. PMID:23066295

Sangeetha, Arunachalam; Padmanabhan, Thallam Veeravalli; Subramaniam, R.; Ramkumar, Vivekanandan

2012-01-01

158

Effect of a calcium-silicate-based restorative cement on pulp repair.  

PubMed

In cases of pulp injury, capping materials are used to enhance tertiary dentin formation; Ca(OH)(2) and MTA are the current gold standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a new calcium-silicate-based restorative cement to induce pulp healing in a rat pulp injury model. For that purpose, cavities with mechanical pulp exposure were prepared on maxillary first molars of 27 six-week-old male rats, and damaged pulps were capped with either the new calcium-silicate-based restorative cement (Biodentine), MTA, or Ca(OH)(2). Cavities were sealed with glass-ionomer cement, and the repair process was assessed at several time-points. At day 7, our results showed that both the evaluated cement and MTA induced cell proliferation and formation of mineralization foci, which were strongly positive for osteopontin. At longer time-points, we observed the formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge at the injury site, secreted by cells displaying an odontoblastic phenotype. In contrast, the reparative tissue induced by Ca(OH)(2) showed porous organization, suggesting a reparative process different from those induced by calcium silicate cements. Analysis of these data suggests that the evaluated cement can be used for direct pulp-capping. PMID:22983409

Tran, X V; Gorin, C; Willig, C; Baroukh, B; Pellat, B; Decup, F; Opsahl Vital, S; Chaussain, C; Boukpessi, T

2012-12-01

159

Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept.  

PubMed

The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode to determine changes in chloride ion concentration with time. This technique showed that the additive was released when the cured cement was placed in water, with release occurring by a diffusion mechanism for the first 3 h, but continuing beyond that for up to 1 week. Diffusion coefficients were in the range 5.62 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 1% concentration) to 10.90 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 3% concentration). Up to 3% of the total loading of benzalkonium chloride was released from the zinc polycarboxylate after a week, which is similar to that found in previous studies with glass-ionomer cement. It is concluded that zinc polycarboxylate cement is capable of acting as a useful material for the controlled release of active organic compounds. PMID:19967407

Ali, Mohammad Naseem; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W

2010-04-01

160

Injectable bone cement based on mineralized collagen.  

PubMed

A novel injectable bone cement based on mineralized collagen was reported in this paper. The cement was fabricated by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O, CSH) into nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC). The workability, in vitro degradation, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of the cement (nHAC/CSH) were studied. The comparative tests via in vitro and in vivo showed that the nHAC/CSH composite cement processed better biocompatibiltiy than that of pure CSH cement. The results implied that this new injectable cement should be very promising for bone repair. PMID:20336741

Liu, Xi; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Chen, Zonggang; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Liu, Huan-Ye; Mao, Keya; Wang, Yan

2010-07-01

161

Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report  

PubMed Central

The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth. PMID:24303363

Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

2013-01-01

162

Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report.  

PubMed

The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth. PMID:24303363

Villat, Cyril; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

2013-11-01

163

Novel experimental cements for use on the dentin-pulp complex.  

PubMed

This aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and biological properties of novel experimental cements (Hybrid, Paste and Resin) based on synergistic combinations of existing materials, including pH, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and cytotoxicity comparing them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA - Angelus®) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC) developed at our laboratory. For the physicochemical and biological tests, specimens with standard dimensions were produced. pH measurements were performed with digital pH meter at the following time intervals: 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. For the DTS test, cylindrical specimens were subjected to compressive load until fracture. The MTT assay was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Paste group showed pH values similar to MTA, and Hybrid group presented pH values similar to GIC (p>0.05). The tested materials showed pH values ranging from alkaline to near neutrality at the evaluated times. MTA and GIC showed similar DTS values. The lowest and highest DTS values were seen in the Paste and Resin groups, respectively (p<0.05). Cell viability for MTA and experimental Hybrid, Paste and Resin groups was 49%, 93%, 90% and 86%, respectively, when compared with the control group. The photo-cured experimental resin cement showed similar or superior performance compared with the current commercial or other tested experimental materials. PMID:23207847

Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

2012-01-01

164

Laser treatment of dental ceramic/cement layers: transmitted energy, temperature effects and surface characterisation.  

PubMed

In the present paper, we investigate the behaviour of different dental materials under laser irradiation. We have used e.max Ceram, e.max ZirCAD, and e.max Press dental ceramics and glass ionomer cement Ketac Cem in the present study. The dental ceramics were prepared in the form of samples with thickness of 0.5-2 mm. We used two lasers [solid-state laser (Er:YAG, Fidelis III+, Fotona) and an 810-?nm diode laser (FOX, A.R.C)] for the transillumination of ceramic samples. It has been shown that the laser energy transmitted through the ceramic material decreases to 30-40 % of the original values along with an increase in the thickness of the irradiated sample. Pigmented ceramic samples show more laser energy loss compared to the samples containing no pigment. We investigated the temperature evolution in composite sandwiched ceramic/cement samples under laser treatment. The increase in the irradiation time and laser power led to a temperature increase of up to 80 °C. The surfaces of irradiated ceramic samples were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to evaluate changes in chemical composition, such as a decrease in the C signal, accompanied by a strong increase in the Zr peak for the Er:YAG laser, while the 810-nm diode laser showed no change in the ratio of elements on the surface. PMID:23793369

Pich, Olena; Franzen, René; Gutknecht, Norbert; Wolfart, Stefan

2015-02-01

165

Ion release from copper phosphate cement and influence on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a black copper cement (BCC), an established restorative material (a conventional glass ionomer cement) and two temporary restorative materials (a zinc phosphate and a zinc polycarboxylate cement) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans in vitro, and to correlate bacterial growth with ion release from each material. Test specimens were eluted in either 0.1 M lactic acid, pH 4, or 0.1 M sodium chloride, pH 7. At 2 days, 7 days, 28 days and 6 months, eluates were inoculated with S. mutans and bacterial growth was recorded. Metal ion (Cu(2+), Zn(2+ )and Mg(2+)) and fluoride release were measured. At most immersion times, the different materials had a statistically significant inhibitory effect on bacterial growth compared to the respective control, at both pH levels. The inhibitory effect decreased with time and in most cases was associated with high levels of ion release at the beginning of the experimental period, followed by significantly lower levels. For BCC, there were statistically significant relationships between the median rates of growth of S. mutans in the presence of BCC eluates and the median values for release of copper and zinc, although not magnesium. Of the different materials, BCC demonstrated greatest antibacterial activity. PMID:14571119

Foley, Jennifer; Blackwell, Alison

2003-01-01

166

Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at ?=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

2014-01-01

167

Mineral trioxide aggregate and portland cement for direct pulp capping in dog: a histopathological evaluation.  

PubMed

Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at ?=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

2014-01-01

168

Microdrilling of Biocompatible Materials  

E-print Network

This research studies microdrilling of biocompatible materials including commercially pure titanium, 316L stainless steel, polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and aluminum 6061-T6. A microdrilling technique that uses progressive pecking and micromist...

Mohanty, Sankalp

2012-02-14

169

Adhesion of conventional and simplified resin-based luting cements to superficial and deep dentin.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the bond strengths of conventional (chemically and dual-polymerized) and simplified resin-based luting cements with their corresponding adhesives to superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Recently extracted third molars (N = 70, n = 10 per group) were obtained and prepared for testing procedures. After using their corresponding etchants, primers, and/or adhesive systems, the conventional and simplified cements (Variolink II [group A, conventional], Bifix QM [group B, conventional], Panavia F2.0 [group C, conventional], Multilink Automix [group D, simplified], Superbond C&B [group E, conventional], Clearfil Esthetic Cement [group F, simplified], Ketac-Fil [group G, conventional]) were adhered incrementally onto the dentin surfaces using polyethylene molds (inner diameter 3.5 mm, height 5 mm) and polymerized accordingly. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) acted as the control material. Shear bond strengths (1 mm/min) were determined after 500 times of thermocycling. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data (? = 0.05). Bond strength (MPa) results were significantly affected by the cement types and their corresponding adhesive systems (p ? 0.05). The shear bond strengths (MPa ± SD) for groups A-G were 14.6 ± 3.8, 18.9 ± 3.9, 5.5 ± 4.5, 3.1 ± 3.6, 1.1 ± 2.5, 15.5 ± 2.6, 7 ± 4.3 and 7.1 ± 5.8, 15.1 ± 7.8, 8.4 ± 7.3, 7.5 ± 7.3, 4.9 ± 5.1, 12.5 ± 2.1, 6 ± 2.6 for SD and DD, respectively. The level of dentin depth did not decrease the bond strength significantly (p > 0.05) for all cements, except for Variolink II (p < 0.05). On the SD, bond strength of resin cements with "etch-and-rinse" adhesive systems (Variolink II, Bifix QM, Super-Bond C&B) showed similar results being higher than those of the simplified ones. Simplified cements and RMGIC as control material showed inferior adhesion to superficial and deep dentin compared to conventional resin cements tested. PMID:21833482

Özcan, Mutlu; Mese, Ayse

2012-08-01

170

Biocompatibility of Titanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium is the material of choice for orthopaedic applications because of its known biocompatibility. In order to enhance osteogenic properties of the Ti implants, it is necessary to understand the origin of its biocompatibility. We addresses the origin of Ti biocompatibility through (1) theoretical modeling, (2) the precise determination of Ti surface chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), (3) and the study of fibronectin adsorption as a function of Ti (near) surface chemistry by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We compare the protein adsorption on Ti with the native oxide layer and the one coated by TiO2 in anatase phase using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). We show that the thin native sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide layer is crucial for biocompatibility of Ti surface. This is due to the enhancement of the non-specific adsorption of proteins which mediate cell adhesion. Improving the surface oxide quality, i.e. fabricating stoichiometric TiO2 (using IBAD) as well as nanoengineering the surface topology that matches its dimensions to that of adhesive proteins, is crucial for increased protein adsorption and, as a result, further increases biocompatibility of Ti implant materials.

Namavar, Fereydoon; Sabirianov, Renat; Marton, Denes; Rubinstein, Alexander; Garvin, Kevin

2012-02-01

171

Asphalt cement  

MedlinePLUS

... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. This is ... Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Note: This list may not include all uses of asphalt.

172

Bone cement  

PubMed Central

The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc.

Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

2013-01-01

173

Shear Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate to Composite Resin with Two Different Adhesive Systems  

PubMed Central

Objective: Immediate restoration after vital pulp therapy is essential in order to create and maintain effective coronal seal. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of recently used pulp capping materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture cement (CEM) to composite resin with the use of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems and compare them with the bond strength of commonly used resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens from each test material were fabricated, measuring 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth. The specimens of each material were divided into 2 groups of 20 specimens according to the adhesive system (Single Bond vs. Clearfil SE Bond) used for bonding of resin composite. The shear bond strength values were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min and fractured surfaces were examined. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: Analysis of data showed a significantly higher bond strength for RMGI compared to MTA and CEM (P<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the bond strength values of MTA and CEM (P=0.9). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in relation to the type of the adhesive system irrespective of the type of the material used (P=0.95) All the failures were of cohesive type in RMGI, MTA and CEM. Conclusion: Bond strength of RMGI cement to composite resin was higher than that of MTA or CEM cement irrespective of the type of the adhesive system.

Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Motahhari, Paria; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

2014-01-01

174

Rigidity and retention of ceramic root canal posts.  

PubMed

Ceramic root-canal posts offer potential advantages over other types with respect to aesthetics and biocompatibility. Any post must be sufficiently rigid and retentive to withstand functional forces. Ceraposts (1.2 mm coronal diameter, ceramic, tapering, smooth posts) and Paraposts (1.25 mm, stainless-steel, parallel, serrated posts) were tested for rigidity by means of a three-point bending test. To test retention in roots, ceramic posts were cemented using one of three protocols: (1) glass-ionomer cement, (2) silane coupling agent and resin cement, or (3) sandblasted post surface, silane coupling agent, and resin cement. Stainless-steel posts were cemented with resin. The tensile force required to dislodge the posts, following four weeks of storage in water, was recorded. Data were compared using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U analysis. Ceraposts were significantly more rigid than Paraposts (p < 0.001). Paraposts cemented with resin were significantly more strongly retained than Ceraposts following any cementation protocol (p < 0.001). Retention of the ceramic posts was significantly greater with a silane coupling agent and resin cement than with glass-ionomer cement (p < 0.001). Sandblasting the ceramic posts produced variable results and needs further investigation before it could be recommended. PMID:11203820

Purton, D G; Love, R M; Chandler, N P

2000-01-01

175

Biocompatibility of composite resins  

PubMed Central

Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

2011-01-01

176

Setting Reaction and Hardening of an Apatitic Calcium Phosphate Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of self-setting and biocompatibility makes calcium phosphate cements potentially useful materials for a variety of dental applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the setting and hardening mechanisms of a cement-type reaction leading to the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite at low temperature. Reactants used were a-tricalcium phosphate containing 17 wt% ?-tricalcium phosphate, and 2 wt% of

M. P. Ginebra; E. Fernández; E. A. P. De Maeyer; R. M. H. Verbeeck; M. G. Boltong; J. Ginebra; F. C. M. Driessens; J. A. Planell

1997-01-01

177

Clinical case reports using a novel calcium-based cement.  

PubMed

A novel calcium-based cement was launched in 2009 claiming to be a revolutionary material capable of offering a bioactive and biocompatible replacement for dentine. The calcium-based cement has been reported to encourage the repair and regeneration of lost dental tissue, preserve pulp vitality, promote pulp healing and provide a bioactive substitute for natural dentine. This article looks at two clinical cases using this new material for endodontic purposes. PMID:23348450

Bachoo, I K; Seymour, D; Brunton, P

2013-01-01

178

Investigating calcium polyphosphate addition to a conventional calcium phosphate cement for bone-interfacing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are of great interest in bone regeneration applications because of their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and as delivery vehicles for therapeutics; however, delivery applications have been limited by adverse interactions between therapeutics and the cement setting reaction. Amorphous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) yields a biodegradable material with a demonstrated drug delivery capacity following appropriate processing. The incorporation of

Jennifer Lynn Krausher

2010-01-01

179

Types of Fillings  

MedlinePLUS

... the mold. During a second visit, your dentist cements this filling into place. Used for: Small and ... for: Glass ionomer is used most commonly as cement for inlay fillings. It also is used for ...

180

Tooth Abfraction Lesions  

MedlinePLUS

... Choices include a composite material or glass ionomer cement . A tooth with abfraction lesions may be more ... need treatment. For others, filling the areas with cement or composite solves the problem. Additional Info American ...

181

In vitro studies of calcium phosphate silicate bone cements.  

PubMed

A novel calcium phosphate silicate bone cement (CPSC) was synthesized in a process, in which nanocomposite forms in situ between calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The cement powder consists of tricalcium silicate (C(3)S) and calcium phosphate monobasic (CPM). During cement setting, C(3)S hydrates to produce C-S-H and calcium hydroxide (CH); CPM reacts with the CH to precipitate HAP in situ within C-S-H. This process, largely removing CH from the set cement, enhances its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The testing results of cell culture confirmed that the biocompatibility of CPSC was improved as compared to pure C(3)S. The results of XRD and SEM characterizations showed that CPSC paste induced formation of HAP layer after immersion in simulated body fluid for 7 days, suggesting that CPSC was bioactive in vitro. CPSC cement, which has good biocompatibility and low/no cytotoxicity, could be a promising candidate as biomedical cement. PMID:23114635

Zhou, Shuxin; Ma, Jingzhi; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Ruse, N Dorin; Yang, Quanzu; Troczynski, Tom

2013-02-01

182

BoneSource? hydroxyapatite cement: A novel biomaterial for craniofacial skeletal tissue engineering and reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BoneSource TM-hydroxyapatite cement is a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement biomaterial. Its unique and innovative physical chemistry coupled with enhanced biocompatibility make it useful for craniofacial skeletal reconstruction. The general prop- erties and clinical use guidelines are reviewed. The biomaterial and surgical applications offer insight into improved outcomes and potential new uses for hydroxyapatite cement systems. q 1998 John Wiley

Craig D. Friedman; Peter D. Costantino; Shozo Takagi; Lawrence C. Chow

1998-01-01

183

Biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this manuscript encompasses a merger of two research directions: a study of aqueous nanoparticle colloids and a study of biological polyelectrolytes. The majority of biomedical applications of nanoparticles require stable aqueous colloids of nanoparticles as a starting point. A new one-step method of preparation of aqueous solutions of ultra-fine ferroelectric barium titanate nanoparticles was developed and generalized to the preparation of stable aqueous colloids of semiconductor nanoparticles. This high-energy ball milling technique is low cost, environmentally friendly, and allows for control of nanoparticle size by changing milling time. Aqueous colloids of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are stable over time, maintain ferroelectricity and can be used as second harmonic generating nanoprobes for biomedical imaging. Biopolyelectrolytes exhibit a variety of novel liquid-crystalline phases in aqueous solutions where their electrolytic nature is a driving force behind phase formation. We study medically relevant mixtures of F-actin, DNA and oppositely charged ions (such as multivalent salts and antibiotic drugs) and map out phase diagrams and laws that govern phase transitions. We combine these research directions in studies of the condensation behavior in aqueous solutions of biocompatible nanoparticles and biopolyelectrolytes.

Zribi, Olena

184

Fully injectable calcium phosphate cement--a promise to dentistry.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are self setting and biocompatible bone substitute materials with potential applications in dentistry. However, its clinical use has been challenged by poor rheological properties. A novel formulation of CPC has been developed, which gives a fully injectable and cohesive paste. This work investigates the suitability of the new "fully injectable calcium phosphate cement" (FI-CPC) for dental applications. The cementing properties, material characteristics, and the rheological properties were tested using a battery of material characteristics methods. The biocompatibility was also evaluated as per ISO 7405. The setting time (20 min) and compressive strength (>11 Mpa) of FI-CPC satisfy the clinical requirements. It underwent setting without any exothermic reaction, keeping good dimensional stability. The cement paste could be extruded through a 18-gauge needle, easily and fully. It showed excellent cohesion when immersed in water. FI-CPC was seen to set into a micro-porous mass of hydroxyapatite, the mineral part of human dentin. It showed good attachment to dentin walls, when filled in tooth perforations. FI-CPC was found non-toxic, non-allergic, non-pyrogenic, and soft-tissue compatible. The study shows that FI-CPC provides a self setting bio-compatible paste with excellent rheological properties for surgical applications. The set cement provides good and stable sealing. The osteoconductive property is an added advantage. FI-CPC proves to be an ideal material for endodontic sealing/filling and periodontic repair. PMID:15915629

Komath, Manoj; Varma, H K

2004-01-01

185

Lunar cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

Agosto, William N.

1992-01-01

186

Method of making biocompatible electrodes  

DOEpatents

A process of improving the sensing function of biocompatible electrodes and the product so made are disclosed. The process is designed to alter the surfaces of the electrodes at their tips to provide increased surface area and therefore decreased contact resistance at the electrode-tissue interface for increased sensitivity and essentially includes rendering the tips atomically clean by exposing them to bombardment by ions of an inert gas, depositing an adhesion layer on the cleaned tips, forming a hillocked layer on the adhesion layer by increasing the temperature of the tips, and applying a biocompatible coating on the hillocked layer. The resultant biocompatible electrode is characterized by improved sensitivity, minimum voltage requirement for organ stimulation and a longer battery life for the device in which it is employed.

Wollam, John S. (Acton, MA)

1992-01-01

187

Sculpting with Cement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cement offers many creative possibilities for school art programs. Instructions are given for sculpting with fiber-cement and sand-cement, as well as for finishing processes and the addition of color. Safety is stressed. (IS)

Olson, Lynn

1983-01-01

188

Biocompatibility of implantable biomedical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical devices have been broadly used to treat human disease, especially chronic diseases where pharmaceuticals are less effective. Heart valve and artificial joint are examples. Biomedical devices perform by delivering therapies such as electric stimulations, mechanical supports and biological actions. While the uses of biomedical devices are highly successful they can trigger adverse biological reactions as well. The property that medical devices perform with intended functions but not causing unacceptable adverse effects was called biocompatibility in the early time. As our understanding of biomaterial-biological interactions getting broader, biocompatibility has more meanings. In this talk, I will present some adverse biological reactions observed with implantable biomedical devices. Among them are surface fouling of implantable sensors, calcification with vascular devices, restenosis with stents, foreign particle migration and mechanical fractures of devices due to inflammation reactions. While these effects are repeatable, there are very few quantitative data and theories to define them. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce this biocompatibility concept to biophysicists to stimulate research interests at different angles. An open question is how to quantitatively understand the biocompatibility that, like many other biological processes, has not been quantified experimentally.

Lyu, Suping

2008-03-01

189

Stretchable biocompatible electronics by embedding electrical circuitry in biocompatible elastomers.  

PubMed

Stretchable and curvilinear electronics has been used recently for the fabrication of micro systems interacting with the human body. The applications range from different kinds of implantable sensors inside the body to conformable electrodes and artificial skins. One of the key parameters in biocompatible stretchable electronics is the fabrication of reliable electrical interconnects. Although very recent literature has reported on the reliability of stretchable interconnects by cyclic loading, work still needs to be done on the integration of electrical circuitry composed of rigid components and stretchable interconnects in a biological environment. In this work, the feasibility of a developed technology to fabricate simple electrical circuits with meander shaped stretchable interconnects is presented. Stretchable interconnects are 200 nm thin Au layer supported with polyimide (PI). A stretchable array of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is embedded in biocompatible elastomer using this technology platform and it features a 50% total elongation. PMID:23367298

Jahanshahi, Amir; Salvo, Pietro; Vanfleteren, Jan

2012-01-01

190

Portland cements characterized, evaluated  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses behavior during placement in the well and longterm stability after the cement has set, with emphasis on the chemical and physical nature of the cement itself. Presents graphs showing particle size distribution and hydration of CâS vs. time. Summarizes the current understanding of cement chemistry as applied to oil well cementing. Points out that the principal deficiencies

1983-01-01

191

Alex Benson Cement Plants  

E-print Network

Alex Benson ATOC 3500 Cement Plants 4 Step Production Line: o Mine the Limestone: Cement plants usually located near quarries to lower transportation costs. o Cement Kiln: Limestone is mixed with sand with steel balls which grind mix into a fine powder -> Final Cement Product Associated Air Pollution: o From

Toohey, Darin W.

192

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

Fred Sabins

2002-07-30

193

CEMENT RELATED RESEARCH HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY GROUP  

E-print Network

CEMENT RELATED RESEARCH HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY GROUP Josep M. Soler Jordi Cama Carles Ayora Ana Trapote.soler@idaea.csic.es #12;NOMECLATURE cement + water = hardened cement paste cement + water + sand = mortar cement + waterC) clinker + gypsum portland cement PORTLAND CEMENT #12;GTS-HPF Core Infiltration Experiment Experimental

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

194

Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement.  

E-print Network

??Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs)… (more)

Ding, Zhu

2005-01-01

195

Liquid-Solid Phase Transition Alloy as Reversible and Rapid Molding Bone Cement  

E-print Network

Bone cement has been demonstrated as an essential restorative material in the orthopedic surgery. However current materials often imply unavoidable drawbacks, such as tissue-cement reaction induced thermal injuries and troublesome revision procedure. Here we proposed an injectable alloy cement to address such problems through its liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. The cement is made of a unique alloy BiInSnZn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5{\\deg}C. This property enables its rapid molding into various shapes with high plasticity. Some fundamental characteristics including mechanical strength behaviors and phase transition-induced thermal features have been measured to demonstrate the competence of alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. Further biocompatible tests showed that this material could be safely employed in vivo. In addition, experiments also found the alloy cement capability as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging. Particularly, the proposed alloy...

Yi, Liting; Liu, Jing

2013-01-01

196

Biocompatibility of plasma nanostructured biopolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many areas of medicine such as tissue engineering requires not only mastery of modification techniques but also thorough knowledge of the interaction of cells with solid state substrates. Plasma treatment can be used to effective modification, nanostructuring and therefore can significantly change properties of materials. In this work the biocompatibility of the plasma nanostructured biopolymers substrates was studied. Changes in surface chemical structure were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology pristine and modified samples were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface wettability was determined by goniometry from contact angle. Biocompatibility was determined by in vitro tests, the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultivated on the pristine and plasma modified biopolymer substrates. Their adhesion, proliferation, spreading and homogeneous distribution on polymers was monitored. It was found that the plasma treatment leads to rapid decrease of contact angle for all samples. Contact angle decreased with increasing time of modification. XPS measurements showed that plasma treatment leads to changes in ratio of polar and non-polar groups. Plasma modification was accompanied by a change of surface morphology. Biological tests found that plasma treatment have positive effect on cells adhesion and proliferation cells and affects the size of cell's adhesion area. Changes in plasma power or in exposure time influences the number of adhered and proliferated cells and their distribution on biopolymer surface.

Slepi?ková Kasálková, N.; Slepi?ka, P.; Ba?áková, L.; Sajdl, P.; Švor?ík, V.

2013-07-01

197

Do cement nanotubes exist?  

PubMed

Using atomistic simulations, this work indicates that cement nanotubes can exist. The chemically compatible nanotubes are constructed from the two main minerals in ordinary Portland cement pastes, namely calcium hydroxide and a calcium silicate hydrate called tobermorite. These results show that such nanotubes are stable and have outstanding mechanical properties, unique characteristics that make them ideally suitable for nanoscale reinforcements of cements. PMID:22589176

Manzano, H; Enyashin, A N; Dolado, J S; Ayuela, A; Frenzel, J; Seifert, G

2012-06-26

198

Thermcoat Cement INSTRUCTION  

E-print Network

CO and COL Thermcoat Cement INSTRUCTION SHEET M0101/0801 OMEGA® Thermcoat CO and COL consists of a powder (CO) and a liquid (COL) which, upon proper mixing, will yield a strong, insoluble cement. It has, which means it generates heat. For this reason, the heat must be dissipated or the cement will set too

Kleinfeld, David

199

Corrosion and biocompatibility of orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing number of orthodontic treatments using devices containing nickel and the growing prevalence of nickel allergy in the average population, biocompatibility studies of these devices have become a topic of major interest. The corrosion behavior of orthodontic wires is a decisive factor determining their biocompatibility. Therefore four nickel–titanium guiding arches, a titanium–molybdenum and a stainless steel wire were

F. Widu; D. Drescher; R. Junker; C. Bourauel

1999-01-01

200

Nanostructure of biocompatible titania/hydroxyapatite coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes prospective composite biocompatible titania coatings modified with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and obtained on intraosseous implants fabricated from commercially pure titanium VT1-00. Consistency changes of morphological characteristics, crystalline structure, physical and mechanical properties and biocompatibility of experimental titanium implant coatings obtained by the combination of oxidation and surface modification with hydroxyapatite during induction heat treatment are defined.

Fomin, Aleksandr A.; Rodionov, Igor V.; Steinhauer, Aleksey B.; Fomina, Marina A.; Petrova, Natalia V.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.; Skaptsov, Aleksandr A.; Gribov, Andrey N.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.

2014-01-01

201

Polycrystalline Silicon: a Biocompatibility Assay  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) layers were functionalized through the growth of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) on their surface. HA is the mineral component of bones and teeth and thus possesses excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on both HA-coated and un-coated poly-Si surfaces for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days and toxicity, proliferation and cell morphology were investigated. The results revealed that the poly-Si layers were bioactive and compatible with the osteoblast-like cells. Nevertheless, the HA coating improved the cell interactions with the poly-Si surfaces based on the cell affinity to the specific chemical composition of the bone-like HA and/or to the higher HA roughness.

Pecheva, E.; Fingarova, D.; Pramatarova, L.; Hikov, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Laquerriere, P.; Bouthors, Sylvie [NSERM, ERM 0203 (labo des biomateriaux), IFR53, Reims (France); Dimova-Malinovska, D. [Central Laboratory of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Montgomery, P. [1 Institut d'Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7163, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

2010-01-21

202

Enhanced Biocompatibility of Porous Nitinol  

PubMed Central

Porous Nitinol (PNT) has found vast applications in the medical industry as interbody fusion devices, synthetic bone grafts, etc. However, the tendency of the PNT to corrode is anticipated to be greater as compared to solid nitinol since there is a larger surface area in contact with body fluids. In such cases, surface preparation is known to play a major role in a material’s biocompatibility. In an effort to check the effect of surface treatments on the in vitro corrosion properties of PNT, in this investigation, they were subjected to different surface treatments such as boiling in water, dry heating, and passivation. The localized corrosion resistance of alloys before and after each treatment was evaluated in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS) using cyclic polarization tests in accordance with ASTM F 2129-08. PMID:19956797

Munroe, Norman; Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Haider, Waseem

2009-01-01

203

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

Fred Sabins

2001-04-15

204

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job.

Fred Sabins

2001-07-18

205

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, and shear bond. Testing to determine the effect of temperature cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. In addition, the stress-strain behavior of the cement types was studied. This report discusses a software program that is being developed to help design ULHS cements and foamed cements.

Fred Sabins

2002-04-29

206

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.

Fred Sabins

2002-10-31

207

Mineral of the month: cement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic cement is a virtually ubiquitous construction material that, when mixed with water, serves as the binder in concrete and most mortars. Only about 13 percent of concrete by weight is cement (the rest being water and aggregates), but the cement contributes all of the concrete’s compressional strength. The term “hydraulic” refers to the cement’s ability to set and harden underwater through the hydration of the cement’s components.

van Oss, Hendrik G.

2006-01-01

208

[Allergy of calcium phosphate cement material following skull reconstruction: a case report].  

PubMed

The paste form of calcium phosphate cement is often used in skull reconstruction because of the biocompatibility and early handling of these cements. Although it had rarely been shown to produce a foreign body reaction, we encountered a patient who experienced an allergic reaction to calcium phosphate cements(Biopex®. A patch test was performed and a positive reaction to magnesium phosphate was obtained. Biopex® contains magnesium phosphate, so we diagnosed this case as allergic reaction. Pathological analysis revealed infiltration of plasmacytes in the bone flap around the calcium phosphate cement. The postoperative course was uneventful 3 years after surgery. Allergy to calcium phosphate cements is rare, but must be considered in differential diagnosis of its side effects. PMID:23542795

Mizowaki, Takashi; Miyake, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Yoshitaka; Akiyama, Sou

2013-04-01

209

[SEM evaluation of a new system of intracanal anchorage for reconstruction of endodontically treated anterior teeth].  

PubMed

The Authors investigated a new kind of parallel-sided cylindrical posts used for anterior teeth (Triax--Whaledent Inc.--New York NY). Twenty-four freshly extracted maxillary incisors were selected for the study. Root canal therapy was performed and post-space prepared to receive the prefabricated post. Cementation of the posts was carried out using zinc phosphate cement and silver glass ionomer cement. Light cured composite, self curing composite and silver glass ionomer cement were used as cores materials. The specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. These new prefabricated posts luted with silver glass ionomer cement presented a gap at the dentin-cement and post interface similar to the cast posts luted with zinc-phosphate cement. The core material was in all the three different types of construction well adapted to the post head. PMID:2133809

Castagnola, M; Testori, T

1990-01-01

210

Mechanical and fracture behavior of calcium phosphate cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite-based calcium phosphate cements are currently employed to a limited extent in the biomedical and dental fields. They present significant potential for a much broader range of applications, particularly as a bone mineral substitute for fracture fixation. Specifically, hydroxyapatite (HA) is known for its biocompatibility and non-immunogenicity, attributed to its similarity to the mineral phase of natural bone. The advantages of a cement-based HA include injectability, greater resorbability and osteoconductivity compared to sintered HA, and an isothermal cement-forming reaction that avoids necrosis during cement setting. Although apatite cements demonstrate good compressive strength, tensile properties are very weak compared to natural bone. Applications involving normal weight-bearing require better structural integrity than apatite cements currently provide. A more thorough understanding of fracture behavior can elucidate failure mechanisms and is essential for the design of targeted strengthening methods. This study investigated a hydroxyapatite cement using a fracture mechanics approach, focusing on subcritical crack growth properties. Subcritical crack growth can lead to much lower load-bearing ability than critical strength values predict. Experiments show that HA cement is susceptible to crack growth under both cyclic fatigue-crack growth and stress corrosion cracking conditions, but only environmental, not mechanical, mechanisms contribute to crack extension. This appears to be the first evidence ever presented of stress corrosion crack growth behavior in calcium phosphate cements. Stress corrosion cracking was examined for a range of environmental conditions. Variations in pH have surprisingly little effect. Behavior in water at elevated temperature (50°C) is altered compared to water at ambient temperature (22°C), but only for crack-growth velocities below 10-7 m/s. However, fracture resistance of dried HA cement in air increases significantly compared to in water. Based on observed trends, mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking are considered. Strengthening methods using proteins as second phase additions to HA cement were also investigated. Critical flexure strength of these composites increases to a limited extent, primarily due to bridging of the fracture surfaces by organic phases. Despite the increase for critical values, stress corrosion crack growth of cement-albumin composites remains similar to unreinforced cement. This discrepancy between critical and subcritical behavior is discussed.

Jew, Victoria Chou

211

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project.

Fred Sabins

2001-01-15

212

Evaluation of four biodegradable, injectable bone cements in an experimental drill hole model in sheep.  

PubMed

Four cement applications were tested in this investigation. Two dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD-brushite) hydraulic cements, an apatite hydraulic fiber loaded cement, and a calcium sulfate cement (Plaster of Paris) were implanted in epiphyseal and metaphyseal cylindrical bone defects in sheep. The in vivo study was performed to assess the biocompatibility and bone remodeling of four cement formulations. After time periods of 2, 4, and 6 months, the cement samples were clinically and histologically evaluated. Histomorphometrically, the amount of new bone formation, fibrous tissue, and bone marrow and the area of remaining cement were measured. In all specimens, no signs of inflammation were detectable either macroscopically or microscopically. Cements differed mainly in their resorption time. Calcium sulfate was already completely resorbed at 2 months and showed a variable amount of new bone formation and/or fibrous tissue in the original drill hole over all time periods. The two DCPD cements in contrast were degraded to a large amount at 6 months, whereas the apatite was almost unchanged over all time periods. PMID:23680585

von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Génot, Oliver R; Nuss, Katja; Galuppo, Larry; Fulmer, Mark; Jacobson, Evan; Kronen, Peter; Zlinszky, Kati; Auer, Jörg A

2013-09-01

213

How polysulfone dialysis membranes containing polyvinylpyrrolidone achieve excellent biocompatibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysulfone (PS) dialysis membranes hydrophilized by blending polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are well known to have excellent biocompatibility in clinical use. The objective of the present study is thus to clarify how PVP improves biocompatibility of PS membranes and furthermore to develop a patient-friendly PS dialysis membrane with higher biocompatibility. Biocompatibility based on both lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and amount of protein

Masayo Hayama; Ken-ichiro Yamamoto; Fukashi Kohori; Kiyotaka Sakai

2004-01-01

214

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

Fred Sabins

2003-01-31

215

Cement grinding optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current world consumption of cement is about 1.5 billion tonnes per annum and it is increasing at about 1% per annum. The electrical energy consumed in cement production is approximately 110kWh\\/tonne, and around 40% of this energy is consumed for clinker grinding. There is potential to optimise conventional cement clinker grinding circuits and in the last decade significant progress

Alex Jankovic; Walter Valery; Eugene Davis

2004-01-01

216

Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal), despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. Methods In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm) were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Results 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. Conclusions There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells. PMID:23088559

2012-01-01

217

SURFACE CHEMISTRY INFLUENCE IMPLANT BIOCOMPATIBILITY  

PubMed Central

Implantable medical devices are increasingly important in the practice of modern medicine. Unfortunately, almost all medical devices suffer to a different extent from adverse reactions, including inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis and infection. To improve the safety and function of many types of medical implants, a major need exists for development of materials that evoked desired tissue responses. Because implant-associated protein adsorption and conformational changes thereafter have been shown to promote immune reactions, rigorous research efforts have been emphasized on the engineering of surface property (physical and chemical characteristics) to reduce protein adsorption and cell interactions and subsequently improve implant biocompatibility. This brief review is aimed to summarize the past efforts and our recent knowledge about the influence of surface functionality on protein:cell:biomaterial interactions. It is our belief that detailed understandings of bioactivity of surface functionality provide an easy, economic, and specific approach for the future rational design of implantable medical devices with desired tissue reactivity and, hopefully, wound healing capability. PMID:18393890

Thevenot, Paul; Hu, Wenjing; Tang, Liping

2011-01-01

218

Well cementing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method of cementing a pipe by jetting a slurry of cement against the well bore wall while continuously moving the pipe in the well bore. After a jetting tool is placed on the drill pipe, tubing, casing, first string of multiple casing settings or other pipe, it is then positioned below the deepest possible production zone in

Havens

1968-01-01

219

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

Fred Sabins

2002-01-23

220

Matrix control cementing slurry  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of cementing a well bore. The method consists of 1.) mixing together at ambient temperatures at the well surface a hydraulic cement, water, in an effective amount to produce a pumpable slurry, and a polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer, which is insoluble in the slurry at ambient temperatures. The polymer has a greater than about 95 percent acetate groups converted to hydroxyl groups. The polymer is heated to actuable solubilization in the cement slurry at temperatures above about 120/sup 0/F. The solubilizing of the polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer in the slurry prior to the setting of the slurry by pumping the cement slurry to a desired location in the well bore. This action increases the temperature of the slurry; and 2.) allows the cement slurry to harden to a solid mass.

Arpenter, R.B.

1986-02-11

221

Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.  

PubMed

Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 373-380, 2015. PMID:24895094

Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

2015-02-01

222

Magnesium-based bone cement and bone void filler: preliminary experimental studies.  

PubMed

Bone cement has great potential in craniofacial surgery in the repair of osseous defects secondary to surgery or trauma. This includes the use of bone cement as a bone void filler for full-thickness cranial defects and as augmentation of deficient bones. Ideally, this material should be easily available, biocompatible, resorbable, bone inductive, and have adhesive qualities to bone. Calcium-based bone cements have some of these qualities but have a higher than desirable failure rate. OsteoCrete, a new magnesium-based bone cement and bone void filler, was compared to Norian in critical-sized skull defects and cementing bone flaps in rabbits. Both materials were successful; however, OsteoCrete had a faster resorption and replacement by bone rate than Norian. Bone flap position and apparent stability were also superior with OsteoCrete. There were no adverse reactions to either cement. A magnesium-based bone cement presents with advantages when compared with a comparator calcium-based cement in craniofacial surgery. PMID:19305245

Schendel, Stephen A; Peauroi, John

2009-03-01

223

Liquid-solid phase transition alloy as reversible and rapid molding bone cement.  

PubMed

Acrylic bone cement has been an essential non-metallic implant used as fixing agent in the cemented total joint arthroplasty (THA). However, the currently available materials based mainly on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still encounter certain limitations, such as time-consuming polymerization, thermal and chemical necrosis and troublesome revision procedure. Here from an alternative way, we proposed for the first time to adopt the injectable alloy cement to address such tough issues through introducing its unique liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. A typical cement along this way is thus made of an alloy Bi/In/Sn/Zn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5 °C, which enables its rapid molding into various desired shapes with high plasticity and ultimate metallic behaviors. The fundamental characteristics including the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and phase transition-induced thermal effects have been clarified to demonstrate the importance of such alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. In addition, we also disclosed its advantage as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging on the bone interior structure which is highly beneficial for guiding the surgery and monitoring the therapeutic effects. Particularly, the proposed alloy cement with reversible phase transition feature significantly simplifies the revision of the cement and prosthesis. This study opens the way for employing the injectable alloy materials as reversible bone cement to fulfill diverse clinical needs in the coming time. PMID:25239039

Yi, Liting; Jin, Chao; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-12-01

224

Comparison of shear bond strength of aesthetic restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Aim: The present study was conducted to determine and compare the shear bond strengths of Conventional glass ionomer; Resin-modified glass ionomer; Polyacid-modified composite and Composite Resin, and to assess and determine the mode of failure (adhesive, cohesive, mixed). Materials and Methods: Occlusal dentin of 40 extracted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups of ten teeth, each based on the restorative materials tested as follows: Group I: Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (Control); Group II: Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement; Group III: Polyacid-modified Composite Resin; Group IV: Hybrid Composite Resin. The bonded materials were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing in a Instron Universal Testing Machine (UTM) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The bond failure location was examined by the use of a stereomicroscope at 10× magnification. The mean SBS of Groups I–IV obtained was 3.81, 9.71, 11.96 and 18.16 MPa, respectively. Comparison of mean shear bond strengths of all groups was done by one way ANOVA test and comparison of means in between groups by the Student's t test. Conclusion: It is concluded that the compomer restorative materials show higher shear bond strength than conventional glass-ionomer and resin-modified glass-ionomer, but less than composite resin. PMID:22557892

Nujella, B. P. Suryakumari; Choudary, Manisha T.; Reddy, Satyanarayana P.; Kumar, M. Kiran; Gopal, T.

2012-01-01

225

In vivo biocompatibility of bacterial cellulose.  

PubMed

The biocompatibility of a scaffold for tissue engineered constructs is essential for the outcome. Bacterial cellulose (BC) consists of completely pure cellulose nanofibrils synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum. BC has high mechanical strength and can be shaped into three-dimensional structures. Cellulose-based materials induce negligible foreign body and inflammatory responses and are considered as biocompatible. The in vivo biocompatibility of BC has never been evaluated systematically. Thus, in the development of tissue engineered constructs with a BC scaffold, it is necessary to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility. BC was implanted subcutaneously in rats for 1, 4, and 12 weeks. The implants were evaluated in aspects of chronic inflammation, foreign body responses, cell ingrowth, and angiogenesis, using histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. There were no macroscopic signs of inflammation around the implants. There were no microscopic signs of inflammation either (i.e., a high number of small cells around the implants or the blood vessels). No fibrotic capsule or giant cells were present. Fibroblasts infiltrated BC, which was well integrated into the host tissue, and did not elicit any chronic inflammatory reactions. The biocompatibility of BC is good and the material has potential to be used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. PMID:16278860

Helenius, Gisela; Bäckdahl, Henrik; Bodin, Aase; Nannmark, Ulf; Gatenholm, Paul; Risberg, Bo

2006-02-01

226

Evaluation of the retention of endodontic implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the retentive strength of endodontic implants measured by forced removal (pull-out or push-out tests) as a function of implant design and cement type. Smooth-tapered, threaded, and an innovative porous-surfaced implant were evaluated. Specimens were cemented in single-rooted human teeth with five different cements: zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, silicophosphate, or AH-26. The results indicated superior retention for the threaded and porous-surfaced implants, and stronger retention with glass-ionomer and AH-26 cements. PMID:3162990

Maniatopoulos, C; Pilliar, R M; Smith, D C

1988-04-01

227

Preparation, Physical-Chemical Characterization, and Cytocompatibility of Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Cements  

PubMed Central

Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control). Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5–12?min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications. PMID:21941551

Khashaba, Rania M.; Moussa, Mervet; Koch, Christopher; Jurgensen, Arthur R.; Missimer, David M.; Rutherford, Ronny L.; Chutkan, Norman B.; Borke, James L.

2011-01-01

228

Phosphate based oil well cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement

Ramkumar Natarajan

2005-01-01

229

Cement penetration after patella venting  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement–bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration.Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or

Christopher W. Jones; Li-On Lam; Adam Butler; David J. Wood; William R. Walsh

2009-01-01

230

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the eleventh quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in unacceptable erosion of the test specimens. In subsequent tests, a different expansion procedure was implemented and an alternate curing method for cements formulated with TXI Lightweight cement was employed to prevent sample failure caused by thermal shock. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but data for some compositions were still questionable. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement were implemented and testing is ongoing.

Fred Sabins

2003-07-31

231

Timing of syntaxial cement  

SciTech Connect

Echinodermal fragments are commonly overgrown in ancient limestones, with large single crystals growing in optical continuity over their skeletal hosts (i.e., syntaxial overgrowths). Such syntaxial cements are usually considered to have precipitated from meteoric pore waters associated with a later stage of subaerial exposure. Although several examples have been reported from ancient carbonates where petrographic relationships may indicate an early submarine formation of syntaxial cement, no occurrences have been noted in Holocene submarine-cemented rocks. Syntaxial cements of submarine origin have been found in Bermuda beachrock where isopachous high-magnesian calcite cements merge with large optically continuous crystals growing on echinodermal debris. Examination of other Holocene sediments cemented by magnesian calcite indicates that echinodermal fragments are not always overgrown syntaxially, but may be rimmed by microcrystalline calcite. The reason for this difference is not clear, although it may be a function of the spacing of nucleation sites and rates of crystal growth. A review of syntaxial cements from several localities in ancient carbonate sequences reveals that many are best interpreted as having formed in the submarine setting, whereas it is more clear that others formed from meteoric precipitation. These occurrences suggest that care should be exercised in inferring meteoric diagenesis from syntaxial overgrowths and that the possibility of submarine formation should be considered.

Perkins, R.D.

1985-02-01

232

Cement and concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To produce lunar cement, high-temperature processing will be required. It may be possible to make calcium-rich silicate and aluminate for cement by solar heating of lunar pyroxene and feldspar, or chemical treatment may be required to enrich the calcium and aluminum in lunar soil. The effects of magnesium and ferrous iron present in the starting materials and products would need to be evaluated. So would the problems of grinding to produce cement, mixing, forming in vacuo and low gravity, and minimizing water loss.

Corley, Gene; Haskin, Larry A.

1992-01-01

233

?-Tricalcium phosphate cements modified with ?-dicalcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate: Physicochemical characterization, in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Biocompatibility, injectability and in situ self-setting are characteristics of calcium phosphate cements which make them promising materials for a wide range of clinical applications in traumatology and maxillo-facial surgery. One of the main disadvantages is their relatively low strength which restricts their use to nonload-bearing applications. ?-Tricalcium phosphate (?-C3 P) cement sets into calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), which is biocompatible and plays an essential role in the formation, growth and maintenance of tissue-biomaterial interface. ?-Dicalcium silicate (?-C2 S) and tricalcium aluminate (C3 A) are Portland cement components, these compounds react with water to form hydrated phases that enhance mechanical strength of the end products. In this study, setting time, compressive strength (CS) and in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility were evaluated to determine the influence of addition of ?-C2 S and C3 A to ?-C3 P-based cement. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate phase composition and morphological changes in cement samples. Addition of C3 A resulted in cements having suitable setting times, but low CS, only partial conversion into CDHA and cytotoxicity. However, addition of ?-C2 S delayed the setting times but promoted total conversion into CDHA by soaking in simulated body fluid and strengthened the set cement over the limit strength of cancellous bone. The best properties were obtained for cement added with 10 wt % of ?-C2 S, which showed in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility, making it a suitable candidate as bone substitute. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 103B: 72-83, 2015. PMID:24764271

Correa, Daniel; Almirall, Amisel; Carrodeguas, Raúl García; Dos Santos, Luis Alberto; De Aza, Antonio H; Parra, Juan; Morejón, Lizette; Delgado, José Angel

2015-01-01

234

Improvement of casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Part 2: Oilfield cements and cement additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oilfield cements and cement additives were investigated in order to improve the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Characterization and evaluation of the main oil field cements commercially available were studied. The testing was carried out according to American Petroleum Institute API standards and nonstandardized test methods (dynamic modulus of elasticity, expansion\\/shrinkage), especially the rheology, thickening time and the

K. H. Arens; M. Akstinat

1982-01-01

235

Thermodynamics and cement science  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

Damidot, D., E-mail: damidot@ensm-douai.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France (France); EM Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, Douai (France); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Lab. Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Herfort, D. [Cementir Holding (Denmark); Glasser, F.P. [Chemistry Department, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

236

Preparation of small bio-compatible microspheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such a hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

1979-01-01

237

Biocompatible Polysaccharide?Based Electrorheological Suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the polysaccharide family and its modified forms, chitosan, cellulose phosphate, and potato starch phosphate have been adopted as anhydrous electrorheological (ER) fluids to improve the shortcomings of the corresponding pristine hydrous polysaccharides of cellulose and potato starch, including temperature limitation and density difference between dispersed particles and the oil medium. The biocompatible polysaccharides with polar organic modifications containing electronic

J. H. Sung; H. J. Choi

2005-01-01

238

Characterization of modified calcium-silicate cements exposed to acidic environment  

SciTech Connect

Portland cement which is used as a binder in concrete in the construction industry has been developed into a biomaterial. It is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate and is used in dentistry. This material has been reported to be very biocompatible and thus its use has diversified. The extended use of this material has led to developments of newer versions with improved physical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acidic environments found in the oral cavity on fast setting calcium silicate cements with improved physical properties using a combination of techniques. Two fast setting calcium silicate cements (CSA and CFA) and two cement composites (CSAG and CFAG) were assessed by subjecting the materials to lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer gel for a period of 28 days. At weekly intervals the materials were viewed under the tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The two prototype cements exhibited changes in their internal chemistry with no changes in surface characteristics. Since the changes observed were mostly sub-surface evaluation of surface characteristics of cement may not be sufficient in the determination of chemical changes occurring. - Research Highlights: {yields} An acidic environment affects modified fast setting calcium silicate-based cements. {yields} No surface changes are observed in acidic environment. {yields} An acidic environment causes sub-surface changes in the material chemistry which are only visible in fractured specimens. {yields} A combination of techniques is necessary in order to evaluate the chemical changes occurring.

Camilleri, Josette, E-mail: josette.camilleri@um.edu.mt

2011-01-15

239

Foamed cement: A second generation. [Foamed cement slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology in design and implementation of stable foamed cement systems now offers new solutions to critical oil-field cementing problems well beyond the original utility of lightweight slurries in reducing hydrostatic pressure across fracture-sensitive zones. Implications of new high-performance foamed cement capabilities are discussed for specialized applications such as thermal recovery, deep cementing in a narrow annular gap, lost-circulation control

Loeffler

1984-01-01

240

Cement composition and method of cement casing in a well  

SciTech Connect

A novel cement composition for the preparation of a novel aqueous slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising cement, a hydroxyethylcellulose ether or a mixture of a hydroxyethylcellulose ether and a hydroxypropylcellulose ether a polysaccharide produced as a result of microbial action and a dispersant.

Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

1984-07-31

241

Cement composition and method of cement casing in a well  

SciTech Connect

A novel cement composition for the preparation of a novel aqueous slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising cement, a hydroxyethylcellulose ether having a critical viscosity or a mixture of a hydroxyethylcellulose ether having a critical viscosity and of a hydroxypropylcellulose ether having a critical viscosity and a dispersant.

Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

1984-07-31

242

Self-setting bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement with high strength and degradability for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, poor mechanical properties and a low biodegradation rate limit any further applications. Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is characterized by fast setting, high initial strength and relatively rapid degradation in vivo. In this study, MPC was combined with CPC to develop novel calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC). The setting time, compressive strength, phase composition of hardened cement, degradation in vitro, cells responses in vitro by MG-63 cell culture and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of CMPC in bone defect of rabbits were investigated. The results show that CMPC has a shorter setting time and markedly better mechanical properties than either CPC or MPC. Moreover, CMPC showed significantly improved degradability compared to CPC in simulated body fluid. Cell culture results indicate that CMPC is biocompatible and could support cell attachment and proliferation. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis, the CMPC samples were implanted into bone defects in rabbits. Histological evaluation showed that the introduction of MPC into CPC enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation. CMPC also exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results obtained suggest that CMPC, having met the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering, might have a significant clinical advantage over CPC, and may have the potential to be applied in orthopedic, reconstructive and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:18662897

Wu, Fan; Wei, Jie; Guo, Han; Chen, Fangping; Hong, Hua; Liu, Changsheng

2008-11-01

243

Synthesis of biocompatible surfaces by nanotechnology methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of the surface of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyurethane (PU) by means of the pulsed ion-plasma\\u000a deposition of nanostructural carbon coatings at 20–60°C has been studied. The effect of this low-temperature treatment on\\u000a the biocompatibility of the LDPE and PU has been assessed. Optimum technological parameters for the formation of mosaic carbon\\u000a nanostructures with a thickness of 0.3–15

A. P. Alekhin; G. M. Boleiko; S. A. Gudkova; A. M. Markeev; A. A. Sigarev; V. F. Toknova; A. G. Kirilenko; R. V. Lapshin; E. N. Kozlov; D. V. Tetyukhin

2010-01-01

244

Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

245

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOEpatents

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03

246

Communication Cement-based thermocouples  

E-print Network

Communication Cement-based thermocouples Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Received 31 May 2000; accepted 4 August 2000 Abstract A cement-based thermocouple in the form of a junction between dissimilar cement pastes and exhibiting thermocouple sensitivity 70 7 mV/°C is provided

Chung, Deborah D.L.

247

Reducing cement's CO2 footprint  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

van Oss, Hendrik G.

2011-01-01

248

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOEpatents

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1989-01-01

249

Cement-Lock for Decontaminating  

E-print Network

Cement-Lock® Technology for Decontaminating Dredged Estuarine Sediments Topical Report N O L O G Y I N S T I T U T E Cement-Lock Demo Plant Prepared by: Michael C. Mensinger GAS conducted as part of the overall program "Cement-Lock®1 Technology for Decontaminating Dredged Estuarine

Brookhaven National Laboratory

250

Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The

Zhu Ding

2005-01-01

251

Performance Cements Focus on Sustainability  

E-print Network

. Production and quality control of limestone cements Limestone grinds more easily than clinker OverallPerformance Cements Focus on Sustainability Tim Cost, P.E. Senior Technical Service Engineer tim.cost@holcim.com NCC Meeting Baton Rouge April 9, 2008 #12;2 High Limestone Cements 5/21/08 Cost Holcim (US) Inc

252

Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair.  

PubMed

A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

2013-01-01

253

Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair  

PubMed Central

A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

2013-01-01

254

Modelling cement grinding circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling and simulation studies were carried out at 26 cement clinker grinding circuits including tube mills, air separators and high pressure grinding rolls in 8 plants. The results reported earlier have shown that tube mills can be modelled as several mills in series, and the internal partition in tube mills can be modelled as a screen which must retain coarse

H. Benzer; L. Ergun; A. J. Lynch; M. Oner; A. Gunlu; I. B. Celik; N. Aydogan

2001-01-01

255

Effect of using self-etching primer for bonding orthodontic brackets.  

PubMed

Questions over the use of self-etching primers with composite resin adhesives in the bonding of orthodontic brackets remain unsolved. In addition, there are no previous reports on the efficacy of self-etching primers with resin-modified glass ionomer cements for bonding orthodontic brackets in orthodontic dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets bonded with one of four protocols: (1) a composite resin adhesive used with 40% phosphoric acid, (2) the same composite resin used with Megabond self-etching primer, (3) a resin-modified glass ionomer cement adhesive used with 10% polyacrylic acid enamel conditioner, and (4) the same resin-modified glass ionomer cement used with Megabond self-etching primer. The appearance of the tooth surfaces after acid etching or priming was observed with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). When used with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Megabond self-etching primer gave no significantly different shear bond strength compared with polyacrylic acid etching. But when used with composite resin adhesive, Megabond self-etching primer gave significantly lower shear bond strength than phosphoric acid etching. However, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite resin adhesive after Megabond priming was almost the same as that of brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement after polyacrylic acid etching. FE-SEM observation revealed that Megabond self-etching primer produced less dissolution of enamel surface than did phosphoric acid and polyacrylic acid etching. Megabond self-etching primer may be a candidate for bonding orthodontic brackets using the resin-modified glass ionomer cement for minimizing the amount of enamel loss. PMID:12518948

Yamada, Rieko; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kasai, Kazutaka

2002-12-01

256

New developments in the filter test system for cytotoxicity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was (1) to improve the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) staining procedure of the filter test system, and (2) to study the suitability of hydrolases as markers for cell vitality by means of fluorescein diacetate, instead of SDH. The test materials included zinc phosphate cements, conventional and light-cured glass ionomer cements, a composite resin, and methylmethacrylate monomer.

G. Schmalz; K.-A. Hiller; F. Dörter-Aslan

1994-01-01

257

Biological responses of brushite-forming Zn- and ZnSr- substituted beta-tricalcium phosphate bone cements.  

PubMed

The core aim of this study was to investigate zinc (Zn)- and zinc and strontium (ZnSr)-containing brushite-forming beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cements for their effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cell line) as well as for their in vivo behaviour in trabecular bone cylindrical defects in a pilot study. In vitro proliferation and maturation responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic-like cells to bone cements were studied at the cellular and molecular levels. The Zn- and Sr-containing brushite cements were found to stimulate pre-osteoblastic proliferation and osteoblastic maturation. Indeed, MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to the powdered cements had increased proliferative rates and higher adhesiveness capacity, in comparison to control cells. Furthermore, they exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased Type-I collagen secretion and fibre deposition into the extracellular matrix. Proliferative and collagen deposition properties were more evident for cells grown in cements doped with Sr. The in vivo osteoconductive propertiesof the ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements were also pursued. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed at 1 and 2 months after implantation, using carbonated apatite cement (Norian SRS) as control. There was no evidence of cement-induced adverse foreign body reactions, and furthermore ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements revealed better in vivo performance in comparison to the control apatite cement. Additionally, the presence of both zinc and strontium resulted in the highest rate of new bone formation. These novel results indicate that the investigated ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements are both biocompatible and osteoconductive, being good candidate materials to use as bone substitutes. PMID:20821372

Pina, S; Vieira, S I; Rego, P; Torres, P M C; da Cruz e Silva, O A B; da Cruz e Silva, E F; Ferreira, J M F

2010-01-01

258

76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to...

2011-12-08

259

Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

van Oss, Hendrik G.

2012-01-01

260

Biocompatibility and biofunctionality of implanted materials.  

PubMed

The mechanical and chemical properties of metals, such as titanium, titanium-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys, and ceramics, such as Bioglass and calcium phosphate, make them suitable for implant applications. However, several factors affect the biologic response to these implanted materials. The predominant tissue found at the implant interface is affected by implant stability, material biocompatibility, and implant design and implant placement into the surgical site. Improvements in implant design and surface preparation may improve implant longevity and fixation for all implants materials. PMID:1308341

Cook, S D; Dalton, J E

1992-01-01

261

Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements. PMID:15875256

Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

2005-05-01

262

Thermal Shock-resistant Cement  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

2012-02-01

263

Comparison of rotary cement kiln identified models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotary cement kiln is the main part of a cement plant that clinker is produced in it. Clinker is the main ingredient of cement. Continual and prolonged operation of rotary cement kiln is vital in cement factories. However, prolonged operation of the kiln is not possible and periodic repairs of the refractory lining would become necessary, due to non-linear phenomena

G. Noshirvani; A. Fatehi; B. Araabi; M. Shirvani; M. Azizi

2009-01-01

264

The ART approach using glass-ionomers in relation to global oral health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries is the most prevalent non-communicable disease in the world. Its management in high-income countries over the last four decades has resulted in relatively low caries prevalence in child and adolescent populations. In low- and middle-income countries, caries management is virtually non-existent and this may lead to serious physical and mental complications, particularly in children. Toothache is predominantly treated

J. E. F. M. Frencken

2010-01-01

265

Biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum  

PubMed Central

Porous tantalum has been reported to be a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, the biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum were studied in vitro and in vivo. The morphology of porous tantalum was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts were cultured with porous tantalum, and cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation were investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, porous tantalum rods were implanted in rabbits, and osteogenesis was observed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and hard tissue slice examination. The osteoblasts were observed to proliferate over time and adhere to the tantalum surface and pore walls, exhibiting a variety of shapes and intercellular connections. The porous tantalum rod connected tightly with the host bone. At weeks 2 and 4 following implantation, new bone and small blood vessels were observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. At week 10 after the porous tantalum implantation, new bone tissue was observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. By week 12, the tantalum-host bone interface and pores were covered with new bone tissue and the bone trabeculae had matured and connected directly with the materials. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that porous tantalum is non-toxic, biocompatible and a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering applications.

WANG, QIAN; ZHANG, HUI; LI, QIJIA; YE, LEI; GAN, HONGQUAN; LIU, YINGJIE; WANG, HUI; WANG, ZHIQIANG

2015-01-01

266

Microleakage of core materials for complete cast gold crowns.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the microleakage patterns of complete cast-gold crowns cemented onto teeth rebuilt with pin-retained cores made from cast gold, amalgam, composite resin, and silver-reinforced glass ionomer by using three different cements (zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and resin cement). Crowns cemented onto unrebuilt tooth preparations with zinc phosphate cement served as controls. The cemented specimens were thermocycled between 4 degrees and 50 degrees C in waterbaths. They were then embedded in epoxy resin and sectioned. The extent of marginal microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope and scored. The findings indicated that the type of luting agent used appeared to affect microleakage more than the core material. No significant differences in the degree of microleakage were found under crowns cemented onto teeth rebuilt with the four core materials when cemented with the same luting cement. PMID:2657020

Tjan, A H; Chiu, J

1989-06-01

267

Biomimetic Calcium-Silicate Cements Support Differentiation Of Human Orofacial Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human orofacial bone mesenchymal stem cells (OFMSCs) from maxilla and mandible have robust osteogenic regenerative properties based on our previous reports that demonstrate phenotypic and functional differences between jaw and axial bone mesenchymal stem cells in same individuals. Furthermore, a combination of OFMSCs with bioactive calcium-releasing cements can potentially improve OFMSC multi-lineage differentiation capacity, but biocompatibility of calcium silicate cements with OFMSCs is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that material extracts of calcium-releasing calcium-silicate cements support biomimetic microenvironment for survival and differentiation of human OFMSCs. Methods Two experimental calcium-silicate cements 1) calcium-silicate mineral powder (wTC) containing di- and tricalcium-silicate, calcium sulphate, and calcium chloride and 2) wTC doped with alpha-tricalcium phosphate (wTC-?TCP) were designed and prepared. Cement setting times were assessed by Gilmore needles, ability to release calcium and hydroxyl ions was assessed by potentiometric methods and OFMSC attachment to calcium-silicate discs was assessed. Calcium-silicate material extracts were tested for ability to support OFMSCs survival and in vitro/in vivo differentiation. Results Fewer OFMSCs attached to calcium-silicate discs relative to tissue culture plastic (p=0.001). Extracts of calcium-silicate cements sustained OFMSC survival, maintained steady state levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, alkaline phosphatase and bone sialoprotein while upregulating their respective gene transcripts. Adipogenic and in vivo bone regenerative capacities of OFMSCs were also unaffected by calcium-silicate extracts. Conclusions Ion-releasing calcium-silicate cements support a biomimetic microenvironment conducive to survival and differentiation of OFMSCs. Combination of OFMSCs and calcium-silicate cement can potentially promote tissue regeneration in periapical bone defects. PMID:21763902

Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Shah, Sara N.; Feng, Ruoxue; Prati, Carlo; Akintoye, Sunday O.

2011-01-01

268

Cement penetration after patella venting.  

PubMed

There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

2009-01-01

269

Inflammatory studies on bone cement.  

E-print Network

?? Simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, has the capacity to stimulate bone formation along with having anti-inflammatory effects. Incorporating simvastatin to the calcium phosphate cement… (more)

Modugu, Asha

2012-01-01

270

Speciality cements with advanced properties  

SciTech Connect

The subject matter, specialty cements with advanced properties, highlight some of the recent progress in the non-standard cementitious systems. The topic was intended to be broad enough to include MDF and DSP cement, as well as phosphate-based and other binders. The response to this broad request resulted in a wide variational sampling of potential binder systems, which included calcium phosphates, magnesium phosphates, silica systems derived from sodium fluosilicates, stratlingite glasses, alkali-activated blended cements, and aluminophosphates. Presentations also addressed in depth, the underlying processing and fundamental insight into macro defect cements and DSP.

Scheetz, B.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Landers, A.G. (Armstrong World Industries, Lancaster, PA (US)); Odler, I. (Technische Univ., Clausthal (DE)); Jennings, H. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

271

Biodegradation and biocompatibility of PLA and PLGA microspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental understanding of the in vivo biodegradation phenomenon as well as an appreciation of cellular and tissue responses which determine the biocompatibility of biodegradable PLA and PLGA microspheres are important components in the design and development of biodegradable microspheres containing bioactive agents for therapeutic application. This chapter is a critical review of biodegradation, biocompatibility and tissue\\/material interactions, and selected

James M Anderson; Matthew S Shive

1997-01-01

272

Three-dimensional laser micromachining and imaging of biocompatible polymers  

E-print Network

Three-dimensional laser micromachining and imaging of biocompatible polymers Amy L. Oldenburg, John in biocompatible elastomers with a femtosecond laser oscillator is demonstrated. This technique may be applicable of America OCIS codes: (220.4000) Microstructure fabrication; (180.6900) 3D microscopy; (140.3440) Laser

Oldenburg, Amy

273

A fully biocompatible single-mode distributed feedback laser.  

PubMed

A fully biocompatible laser would be attractive in many aspects of biomedical research. Here we report a single-mode biocompatible distributed feedback laser consisting of silk, riboflavin and silver in the form of a freestanding film. The distributed feedback structure has a large surface area and flexibility. The fabricated laser exhibited single-mode lasing at a wavelength of 495 nm. PMID:25427444

Choi, Yunkyoung; Jeon, Heonsu; Kim, Sunghwan

2015-01-22

274

The characteristics of a hydroxyapatite-chitosan-PMMA bone cement.  

PubMed

In this study, we propose a new bioactive bone cement (BBC), composed of natural bone powder (hydroxyapatite; HA), chitosan powder, and the currently available polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, for use in orthopedic surgeries such as vertebroplasty or as bone filler. Three types of BBCs (BBC I, BBC II, and BBC III) were prepared with different composition ratios. In vitro tests and animal studies were performed with the new BBCs, and with a currently available commercial PMMA bone cement. Surface morphology, chemical composition, changes in pH over time, exothermic temperatures, intrusion, and cellular responses were investigated in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and radiological and histological examinations were performed in animal studies. The results showed that the major components of the BBCs were C, O, Ca, P, Cl, Si, S, Ba, and Mg. The pH values of the BBCs decreased after 1 day, but eventually recovered to 7.2-7.4. The water absorbency, weight loss, and porosity of the BBCs were higher than those of pure PMMA, but the compressive Young's modulus and the ultimate compressive strength (UCS) of the BBCs were lower than those of pure PMMA. The exothermic temperatures of the BBCs were considerably lower than that of pure PMMA. BBC II and III required longer times to solidify than did pure PMMA. Intrusion tests showed that the BBCs were more intrusive than was pure PMMA. Cell proliferation tests demonstrated that BBC II was preferable to pure PMMA for cell attachment and proliferation. No cytotoxic characteristics were found associated with any of the BBCs. In animal tests, BBC II was more biocompatible and osteoconductible than was pure PMMA. The results of in vitro and animal studies indicated that the proposed BBCs have potential clinical application as replacements for the pure PMMA bone cements currently in use. PMID:15147817

Kim, Seok Bong; Kim, Young Jick; Yoon, Taek Lim; Park, Su A; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, In Ae; Shin, Jung-Woog

2004-11-01

275

Study of two MTA cements  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To determine and compare the pH, conductivity and calcium release of an experimental Portland cement (PE) consisting of trioxid mineral aggregate and a comercially available modified Portland cement (C.P.M.) after 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 15 and 30 days. Material and Methods: Cements were mixed following the manufacturer’s instructions, with a powder: liquid ratio of 3:1. Each cement was placed in 12 PVC tubes 1 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length and allowed to set. Four empty tubes were used as negative controls. Tubes were submerged in plastic flasks containing 10 ml deionized water and stored at 37ºC and 100% humidity. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 15 and 30 days tubes were removed from the flasks and these were refilled with deionized water. We measured pH, conductivity and calcium content of the recovered solution. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: pH was 0.3 units more alkaline with PE cement (p=0.023). pH experienced a slight decrease with time (p<0.001), independently of the cement type (p>0.05). Conductivity of PE and CPM cements diminished at 4 days and almost recovered at 30 days (p<0.001). PE cement had a higher conductivity (p<0.001). Calcium release diminished from the first day and recovered at 30 days (p<0.001) similarly for both cements (p>0.05). Conclusions: PE cement raised pH slightly more and had higher conductivity than CPM. Calcium release diminished after the first day and recovered at 30 days, similarly for both cements. Key words:Mineral trioxide aggregate, pH, electrical conductivity, periapical surgery. PMID:25350596

Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Faus, Vicente; Ballester, María-Luisa; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

2014-01-01

276

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

277

Biphasic products of dicalcium phosphate-rich cement with injectability and nondispersibility.  

PubMed

In this study, a calcium phosphate cement was developed using tetracalcium phosphate and surface-modified dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). This developed injectable bone graft substitute can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ through the piping system that has an adequate mechanical strength, non-dispersibility, and biocompatibility. The materials were based on the modified DCPA compositions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC), where the phase ratio of the surface-modified DCPA is higher than that of the conventional CPC for forming dicalcium phosphate (DCP)-rich cement. The composition and morphology of several calcium phosphate cement specimens during setting were analyzed via X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy system. The compressive strength of DCP-rich CPCs was greater than 30MPa after 24h of immersion in vitro. The reaction of the CPCs produced steady final biphasic products of DCPs with apatite. The composites of calcium phosphate cements derived from tetracalcium phosphate mixed with surface-modified DCPA exhibited excellent mechanical properties, injectability, and interlocking forces between particles, and they also featured nondispersive behavior when immersed in a physiological solution. PMID:24863195

Ko, Chia-Ling; Chen, Jian-Chih; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Tien, Yin-Chun; Chen, Wen-Cheng

2014-06-01

278

Si-based Nanoparticles: a biocompatibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) may occur in professional working conditions or for people undergoing a diagnostic screening test. Despite the fact that silicon is known as a non-toxic material, in the first case the risk is mostly related to the inhalation of nanoparticles, thus the most likely route of entry is across the lung alveolar epithelium. In the case of diagnostic imaging, nanoparticles are usually injected intravenously and Si-NPs could impact on the endothelial wall. In our study we investigated the interaction between selected Si-based NPs and an epithelial lung cell line. Our data showed that, despite the overall silicon biocompatibility, however accurate studies of the potential toxicity induced by the nanostructure and engineered surface characteristics need to be accurately investigated before Si nanoparticles can be safely used for in vivo applications as bio-imaging, cell staining and drug delivery.

Rivolta, I.; Lettiero, B.; Panariti, A.; D'Amato, R.; Maurice, V.; Falconieri, M.; Herlein, N.; Borsella, E.; Miserocchi, G.

2010-10-01

279

Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility  

SciTech Connect

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration.

Cheng, H.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Shyng, Y.-C.; Ou, K.-L. [School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)and Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China) and Department of Emergency Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kaohsiung Military General Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oral Sciences, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

2006-10-23

280

Speciality cements with advanced properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject matter, specialty cements with advanced properties, highlight some of the recent progress in the non-standard cementitious systems. The topic was intended to be broad enough to include MDF and DSP cement, as well as phosphate-based and other binders. The response to this broad request resulted in a wide variational sampling of potential binder systems, which included calcium phosphates,

B. E. Scheetz; A. G. Landers; I. Odler; H. Jennings

1991-01-01

281

Calculator programs replace cementing tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two programs written for use on the two most popular programmable calculators solve routine volume and fill problems using data available on the drill floor. And while those familiar books of cementing tables should be kept for special jobs, the programs given here provide quick solutions to everyday cementing problems. Programs are presented for the solution of annular volume and

Landry

1987-01-01

282

Cement brand and preparation effects cement-in-cement mantle shear strength.  

PubMed

Creating bi-laminar cement mantles as part of revision hip arthroplasty is well-documented but there is a lack of data concerning the effect of cement brand on the procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the shear strength of bi-laminar cement mantles using various combinations of two leading bone cement brands.Bi-laminar cement mantles were created using Simplex P with Tobramycin, and Palacos R+G: Simplex-Simplex (SS); Simplex-Palacos (SP); Palacos-Simplex (PS); and Palacos-Palacos (PP). Additionally, specimens were produced by rasping (R) the surface of the original mantle, or leaving it unrasped (U), leading to a total of eight groups (n = 10). Specimens were loaded in shear, at 0.1 mm/min, until failure, and the maximum shear strength calculated.The highest mean shear strength was found in the PSU and PSR groups (23.69 and 23.89 MPa respectively), and the lowest in the PPU group (14.70 MPa), which was significantly lower than all but two groups. Unrasped groups generally demonstrated greater standard error than rasped groups.In a further comparison to assess the effect of the new cement mantle brand, irrespective of the brand of the original mantle, Simplex significantly increased the shear strength compared to Palacos with equivalent preparation.It is recommended that the original mantle is rasped prior to injection of new cement, and that Simplex P with Tobramycin be used in preference to Palacos R+G irrespective of the existing cement type. Further research is needed to investigate more cement brands, and understand the underlying mechanisms relating to cement-in-cement procedures. PMID:25044271

Holsgrove, Timothy P; Pentlow, Alanna; Spencer, Robert F; Miles, Anthony W

2015-02-10

283

Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

2013-03-01

284

Corrosion resistant cemented carbide  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof.

Hong, J.

1990-10-16

285

Development of an injectable bioactive bone filler cement with hydrogen orthophosphate incorporated calcium sulfate.  

PubMed

Calcium sulfate cement (CSC) has emerged as a potential bone filler material mainly because of the possibility of incorporating therapeutic agents. Delivery of the cement through a needle or cannula will make it more useful in clinical applications. However, it was not possible to make CSC injectable because of the inherent lack of viscosity. The present work demonstrates the design development of a viscous and fully-injectable CSC by incorporating hydrogen orthophosphate ions, which does not hamper the biocompatibility of the material. The effect of addition of hydrogen orthophosphate on the rheological properties of the CSC paste was studied using a custom made capillary rheometer. The physicochemical changes associated with cement setting process were examined using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the thermal changes were measured through isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. Micromorphological features of different compositions were observed in environmental scanning electron microscopy and the presence of phosphate ions was identified with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that HPO4 (2-) ions have profound effects on the rheological properties and setting of the CSC paste. Significant finding is that the HPO4 (2-) ions are getting substituted in the calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals during setting. The variations of setting time and compressive strength of the cement with the additive concentration were investigated. An optimum concentration of 2.5 % w/w gave a fully-injectable cement with clinically relevant setting time (below 20 min) and compressive strength (12 MPa). It was possible to inject the optimised cement paste from a syringe through an 18-gauge needle with thumb pressure. This cement will be useful both as bone filler and as a local drug delivery medium and it allows minimally invasive bone defect management. PMID:25578708

Sony, Sandhya; Suresh Babu, S; Nishad, K V; Varma, Harikrishna; Komath, Manoj

2015-01-01

286

Evaluation of injectable strontium-containing borate bioactive glass cement with enhanced osteogenic capacity in a critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defect model.  

PubMed

The development of a new generation of injectable bone cements that are bioactive and have enhanced osteogenic capacity for rapid osseointegration is receiving considerable interest. In this study, a novel injectable cement (designated Sr-BBG) composed of strontium-doped borate bioactive glass particles and a chitosan-based bonding phase was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive glass provided the benefits of bioactivity, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and the ability to stimulate osteogenesis, while the chitosan provided a cohesive biocompatible and biodegradable bonding phase. The Sr-BBG cement showed the ability to set in situ (initial setting time = 11.6 ± 1.2 min) and a compressive strength of 19 ± 1 MPa. The Sr-BBG cement enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro when compared to a similar cement (BBG) composed of chitosan-bonded borate bioactive glass particles without Sr. Microcomputed tomography and histology of critical-sized rabbit femoral condyle defects implanted with the cements showed the osteogenic capacity of the Sr-BBG cement. New bone was observed at different distances from the Sr-BBG implants within eight weeks. The bone-implant contact index was significantly higher for the Sr-BBG implant than it was for the BBG implant. Together, the results indicate that this Sr-BBG cement is a promising implant for healing irregularly shaped bone defects using minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25591177

Zhang, Yadong; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

2015-02-01

287

Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications.  

PubMed

Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

Utneja, Shivani; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

2015-02-01

288

Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications  

PubMed Central

Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage.

Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

2015-01-01

289

Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability and Pore  

E-print Network

Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability, 2004 #12;OutlineOutline Cement Manufacturing and StructureCement Manufacturing and Structure ofofCalcinated in rotaryin rotary kiln at 1500 C for 30kiln at 1500 C for 30-- 40 minutes40 minutes Produces Cement

Petta, Jason

290

Guidelines for ultrasonic cement-sheath evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of cement-sheath evaluation devices is to define the presence of set cement in the annulus, regardless of its density, compressive strength, or quality. Accepting the premise that any set cement in the annulus with a compressive strength greater than 0 psi cannot be replaced by squeeze cementing emphasizes that necessity of recognizing ultralow-compressive-strength cement ({lt}100 psi) from cement-sheath evaluation devices. Typically, most bond logging instruments cannot define satisfactorily the presence of these generally low-density, low-compressive-strength cements (such as foamed cement, cements filled with sponge-like microspheres, cements containing hydrogen for control of annular influx, or any cement contaminated with gas percolation). The ultrasonic cement evaluation instruments can define these gas contaminated, unset, or low-quality cements, provided the computing parameters are set and the tools calibrated correctly. This paper provides the mechanisms and data required to calibrate the ultrasonic cement evaluation devices correctly and the correct computing parameters for cement-sheath evaluation. Correct interpretation of the cement quality and quantity in the annulus permits the formulation of intelligent annular squeeze decisions.

Goodwin, K.J. (Mobil E and P Services Inc. (US))

1992-08-01

291

A novel antimicrobial orthodontic band cement with in situ-generated silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To develop an antimicrobial orthodontic band cement for the prevention of white spot lesions using a novel process that generates silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in situ. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven groups of AgNP-loaded Opal Band Cement (OBC) and two control groups were formulated with varying concentrations of additional benzoyl peroxide (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 wt%) and 2,2-(p-Tolylimino) diethanol (0.5 or 1 wt%). Rockwell15T hardness and near-infrared FTIR were used to assess degree of cure, three-point bending was used to determine modulus and ultimate transverse strength (UTS), and Ag(+) ion release was measured for up to 4 months in vitro using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was tested in vitro by counting colony-forming units for up to 28 days. Biocompatibility was evaluated following ISO specifications 7405 (2008), 10993-3 (2003), 10993-5 (2009), and 10993-10 (2010). Results: Most of the experimental groups had hardness, modulus, and UTS values similar to those of the control group. Ag(+) ion release was observed for all AgNP-loaded groups for up to 4 months. Increase in Ag loading increased Ag(+) ion release and in vitro antimicrobial effect. The biocompatibility of the optimal AgNP-loaded OBC was comparable to that of negative controls. Conclusion: A novel antimicrobial orthodontic band cement was developed that has comparable mechanical properties to controls, controlled and sustained Ag(+) ion release, significant bacterial inhibition in vitro, and excellent biocompatibility. PMID:25098188

Moreira, Danna Mota; Oei, James; Rawls, Henry Ralph; Wagner, Jeffrey; Chu, Lianrui; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Wu; Whang, Kyumin

2014-08-01

292

Cement pressurisation in the acetabulum  

PubMed Central

Cement pressurisation is an important step in total hip arthroplasty that determines the long-term integration at the cement-bone interface. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of a new pressuriser designed by us against the standard existing pressurisers in an in vitro experimental set-up using two parameters: cement penetration and cement pressurisation. A polypropylene cup model was designed to represent the acetabulum. DePuy’s T-handle, Exeter and our own plunger type pressuriser were each tested for cement pressurisation in this acetabular model. Cement penetration and pressures were measured. The cement intrusion into the capillaries with the DePuy pressuriser was found to vary between 2 and 8 mm (mean: 5 mm at the pole and 4.6 mm at the rim), with the Exeter pressuriser it varied between 3 and 9 mm (mean: 5.8 mm at the pole and 7.8 mm at the rim) and with the plunger type pressuriser it varied between 4 and 6 mm (mean 5.2 mm at the pole and 4.8 mm at the rim). The peak pressure achieved with the DePuy pressuriser was 60 kPa whereas it was 70 kPa with the plunger type pressuriser. The mean penetration with the plunger type pressuriser was found to be better than the other types. The penetration was found to be more uniform with equal penetration at the rim as well as at the pole. PMID:16639594

Wadia, F.; Leonard, D.; Porter, M. L.

2006-01-01

293

Crown and bridge cements: clinical applications.  

PubMed

Cement selection can be confusing because factors such as substrate, the type of restoration, and patient needs must be considered. Some substrates require additional treatment before cementation. This article describes the most commonly used traditional crown and bridge cements (GI and RMGI) used for metal and metal-ceramic restorations, and resin cements used for all-ceramic restorations. Advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications of cements have been reviewed. Recommended uses of cements for metal, ceramic, and laboratory composite restorations have been presented. General guidelines for surface treatment ot silica- and zirconia-based restorations when using resin cements have been discussed. PMID:23350265

Bunek, Sabiha S; Powers, John M

2012-12-01

294

Change in Surface Roughness of Esthetic Restorative Materials after Exposure to Different Immersion Regimes in a Cola Drink  

PubMed Central

Context. An in vitro study carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of Cola drink on surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials. Purpose. To compare the effect of different immersion regimes in a Cola drink on surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials. Method. Two hundred samples were grouped into 4 equal groups of 50 samples each: Group I: conventional glass ionomer, Group II: resin modified glass ionomer, Group III: polyacid-modified resin composite, Group IV: Composite resin. Each group was further subdivided into 5 subgroups of 10 samples each. Subgroup A (Control Subgroup). Samples were kept immersed in artificial saliva. Subgroup B. Samples were immersed in Cola drink once a day. Subgroup C. Samples were immersed in Cola drink, 3 times a day. Subgroup D. Samples were immersed in Cola drink 5 times a day. Subgroup E. Samples were immersed in Cola drink 10 times a day. Each immersion lasted 5 minutes. The immersion protocol was repeated for 7 days. Results. Maximum surface roughness was seen in Group I conventional glass ionomer cement, followed by Group II resin modified glass ionomer, Group III polyacid modified resin composite, and Group IV composite resin samples. Conclusion. Resistance to change in surface roughness is more in resin based restorative materials as compared to glass ionomer based materials. PMID:25006464

Bajwa, Navroop Kaur; Pathak, Anuradha

2014-01-01

295

Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers Demonstrate Functional Biocompatibility  

E-print Network

Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers Demonstrate Functional Biocompatibility In Vitro Maricel-vitro cytotoxicity of these resins to be comparable to commercial medical grade polyurethanes.[7,16] The Mitsubishi

Simon, Scott I.

296

Fabrication and Biocompatibility of Electrospun Silk Biocomposites  

PubMed Central

Silk fibroin has attracted great interest in tissue engineering because of its outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and minimal inflammatory reaction. In this study, two kinds of biocomposites based on regenerated silk fibroin are fabricated by electrospinning and post-treatment processes, respectively. Firstly, regenerated silk fibroin/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) hybrid nanofibers with high hydrophilicity are prepared, which is superior for fibroblast attachment. The electrospinning process causes adjacent fibers to ‘weld’ at contact points, which can be proved by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The water contact angle of silk/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) composites shows a sharper decrease than pure regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber, which has a great effect on the early stage of cell attachment behavior. Secondly, a novel tissue engineering scaffold material based on electrospun silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) biocomposites is prepared by means of an effective calcium and phosphate (Ca–P) alternate soaking method. nHA is successfully produced on regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber within several min without any pre-treatments. The osteoblastic activities of this novel nanofibrous biocomposites are also investigated by employing osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cell line. The cell functionality such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is ameliorated on mineralized silk nanofibers. All these results indicate that this silk/nHA biocomposite scaffold material may be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24957869

Wei, Kai; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Ick-Soo

2011-01-01

297

Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements  

PubMed Central

The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

2010-01-01

298

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2010-04-01

299

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2014-04-01

300

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2012-04-01

301

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2013-04-01

302

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2011-04-01

303

Graphite-reinforced bone cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chopped graphite fibers added to surgical bone cement form bonding agent with mechanical properties closely matched to those of bone. Curing reaction produces less heat, resulting in reduced traumatization of body tissues. Stiffness is increased without affecting flexural strength.

Knoell, A. C.

1976-01-01

304

Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.  

PubMed

The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted ?-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals. PMID:25428098

Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

2013-01-01

305

The effect of dental restorative materials on dental biofilm.  

PubMed

To investigate the arrangement of biofilms formed in vivo, volunteers wore splints with slabs of six different dental materials inserted to collect smooth surface plaque. After 5 d of undisturbed plaque accumulation, the specimens were vital stained and analyzed by the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to evaluate the percentage of vital biofilm microflora (VF percentage). Further parameters were the area of the specimens covered by plaque (surface coating; SC, %) and the height of the biofilms (BH, pm). The metals amalgam and gold, the compomer, as well as the glass-ionomer cement harboured an almost entirely dead biofilm (VF <8%). Resin composite led to vitality values between 4 and 21%, while a very thin biofilm on ceramic revealed the highest vitality values (34-86%). SC varied from 6% on glass-ionomer cement to 100% on amalgam. BH reached its highest value on amalgam and gold of 17 and 11 microm, respectively, while heights of between 1 and 6 microm were found on the ceramic, resin composite, compomer and the glass-ionomer cement. Within their limits, the present findings indicate that amalgam, gold, compomer and glass-ionomer cement exert an influence against the adhering biofilm. No general relationship could be established between the different parameters VF percentage, SC percentage and BH (microm). PMID:11878760

Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Brecx, Michel; Reich, Elmar; Sculean, Anton; Netuschil, Lutz

2002-02-01

306

In Vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation of a Novel Root Repair Material  

E-print Network

substitute material (Biodentine) on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts. Methods: Bio- dentine, White ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and glass ionomer cement were evaluated. Human gingival cytometry, and the adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts to the surface of the set materials was as- sessed

Zheng, Yufeng

307

Analysis of bioactive fluoride-containing calcium aluminosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different decomposition methods in aqueous solutions were evaluated on their accuracy and reproducibility for the quantitative determination of the constituents of bioactive fluoride-containing glasses used in dental glass ionomer cements. The concentrations of metals can be determined rapidly and accurately by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after degrading the sample in hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acid. The latter degradation method is also suited

E. A. P De Maeyer; R. M. H Verbeeck

1998-01-01

308

Biocompatible Dispersion Methods for Carbon Black  

PubMed Central

The biological activity of particles is largely dependent on their size in biological systems. Dispersion in the aqueous phase has been both a critical impediment to and a prerequisite for particle studies. Carbon black has been used as a surrogate to investigate the biological effects of carbonaceous particles. Here, biocompatible methods were established to disperse carbon black into ultrafine and fine particles which are generally distinguished by the small size of 100 nm. Carbon black with a distinct particle size, N330 and N990 were suspended in blood plasma, cell culture media, Krebs-Ringer’s solution (KR), or physiological salt solution (PSS). Large clumps were observed in all dispersion preparations; however, sonication improved dispersion - averaged particle sizes for N330 and N990 were 85.0 ± 42.9 and 112.4 ± 67.9 nm, respectively, in plasma; the corresponding sizes in culture media were 84.8 ± 38.4 and 164.1 ± 77.8 nm. However, sonication was not enough to disperse N330 less than 100 nm in either KR or PSS. Application of Tween 80 along with sonication reduced the size of N330 to less than 100 nm, and dispersed N990 larger than 100 nm (73.6 ± 28.8 and 80.1 ± 30.0 nm for N330 and 349.5 ± 161.8 and 399.8 ± 181.1 nm for N990 in KR and PSS, respectively). In contrast, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) exhibited little effect. Electron microscopy confirmed the typical aciniform structure of the carbon arrays; however, zeta potential measurement failed to explain the dispersibility of carbon black. The methods established in this study could disperse carbon black into ultrafine and fine particles, and may serve as a useful model for the study of particle toxicity, particularly size-related effects. PMID:24278612

Kim, Hwa; Park, Kwangsik

2012-01-01

309

Reconstruction of the immature craniofacial skeleton with a carbonated calcium phosphate bone cement: interaction with bioresorbable mesh.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements have been recently introduced for use in craniofacial reconstruction. In the clinical setting, however, pulsations of the underlying brain and dura may interfere with the crystallization of these cements, thereby rendering their use in cranioplasty problematic. To circumvent such problems, many clinicians have interposed synthetic resorbable plates or mesh between the dura and the cement. At the present time, however, little is known about the influence of such materials or their breakdown products on the fate of calcium phosphate cements. The specific aim of this project was to evaluate the biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and remodeling capacity of a calcium phosphate cement after implantation into experimental calvarial defects when combined with a resorbable mesh underlay. Four 10-mm diameter full-thickness calvarial defects (two frontal, two parietal) were created in each of six 3-week-old Yorkshire pigs. The defects were treated as follows: 1) empty control, 2) macroporous polylactic acid (70/30 L/DL polylactic acid [PLA]) mesh, 3) Norian CRS calcium phosphate cement, and 4) Norian CRS over PLA mesh underlay. Animals were divided into two groups. Half of the animals were killed 30 days after surgery, and half were killed 180 days after surgery, and the graft recipient sites were examined histologically. At 30 days, minimal bone ingrowth was observed in untreated calvarial defects or in those that were treated with PLA plates alone. Defects treated with the cement alone demonstrated a modest amount of new woven bone deposition, primarily at the periphery of the implants. Defects treated with calcium phosphate cement over PLA mesh underlays were characterized by remodeling and woven bone deposition at 30 days, with complete or near-complete osseous bridging of the ectocranial implant surfaces. Progressive bone ingrowth was noted in all defects at 180 days, with near-complete replacement of all Norian CRS implants by host bone. The PLA mesh remained incompletely resorbed at 180 days. No inflammatory response to the implants was observed at either time point. Calcium phosphate cement may be safely used for craniofacial reconstruction in the presence of PLA implants without compromise to its biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, or remodeling capacity. PMID:12544233

Losee, Joseph E; Karmacharya, Jagajan; Gannon, Francis H; Slemp, Alison E; Ong, Grace; Hunenko, Oksana; Gorden, Ashley D; Bartlett, Scott P; Kirschner, Richard E

2003-01-01

310

The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface  

PubMed Central

The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage, or micro cracks, and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered; ‘only creep’, ‘only damage’ or ‘creep and damage’. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

2010-01-01

311

Communication Damage monitoring of cement paste by electrical resistance measurement  

E-print Network

.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY cement paste (consisting of just cement and water), (ii) silica-fume cement paste (consisting of cement, water, and silica fume), and (iii) latex cement paste (consisting of cement, water, latex, and antifoam

Chung, Deborah D.L.

312

Bone-cement interface of the glenoid component: Stress analysis for varying cement thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although shoulder arthroplasty is an accepted treatment for osteoarthritis, loosening of the glenoid component, which mainly occurs at the bone-cement interface, remains a major concern. Presently, the mechanical effect of the cement mantel thickness on the bone-cement interface is still unclear. Methods. Finite element analysis of a prosthetic scapula was used to evaluate the effect of cement thickness on

Alexandre Terrier; Philippe Buchler; Alain Farron

2005-01-01

313

Retention of adhesive cement on the tooth surface after crown cementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Adhesive cements increase crown retention, but it is unknown if traces of cement remain undetected on the tooth surface after clinical removal of excess cement, which could exacerbate plaque retention. Purpose. This study measured the surface area, volume, mean depth, and maximum depth of a resin composite and a compomer luting cement left adherent on the tooth

Christina A. Mitchell; Maria R. Pintado; Lindsay Geary; William H. Douglas

1999-01-01

314

Influence of cement and admixture on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been proved that autogenous shrinkage is considerably large for highstrength concrete. In this study influences of cement, chemical admixture, mineral admixture and water-cement ratio on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste were experimentally studied. It was proved that autogenous shrinkage could be estimated form mineral composition of cement. Some admixtures which were able to reduce autogenous shrinkage were

Ei-ichi Tazawa; Shingo Miyazawa

1995-01-01

315

Preparation of a biocompatible magnetic film from an aqueous ferrofluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very promising nanoparticles for biomedical applications or in medical drug targeting are superparamagnetic nanoparticles based on a core consisting of iron oxides (SPION) that can be targeted through external magnets. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a unique synthetic biocompatible polymer that can be chemically cross-linked to form a gel. Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites. In this paper we report the synthesis of an aqueous ferrofluid and the preparation of a biocompatible magnetic gel with polyvinyl alcohol and glutharaldehyde (GTA). HClO 4 was used to induce the peptization since this kind of ferrofluid does not have surfactant. The magnetic gel was dried to generate a biocompatible film.

Albornoz, Cecilia; Jacobo, Silvia E.

2006-10-01

316

Interfacial properties of three different bioactive dentine substitutes.  

PubMed

Three different bioactive materials suitable as dentine substitutes in tooth repair have been studied: glass-ionomer cement, particulate bioglass, and calcium-silicate cement. On 15 permanent human molars, Class V cavities were prepared and the bottom of each cavity was de-mineralized by an artificial caries gel. After the de-mineralization, the teeth were restored with: (1) Bioglass®45S5 and ChemFil® Superior; (2) Biodentine™ and ChemFil® Superior; and (3) ChemFil® Superior for a complete repair. The teeth were stored for 6 weeks in artificial saliva, then cut in half along the longitudinal axis: the first half was imaged in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the other half was embedded in resin and analyzed by SEM using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The glass-ionomer and the bioglass underwent ion exchange with the surrounding tooth tissue, confirming their bioactivity. However, the particle size of the bioglass meant that cavity adaptation was poor. It is concluded that smaller particle size bioglasses may give more acceptable results. In contrast, both the glass-ionomer and the calcium-silicate cements performed well as dentine substitutes. The glass-ionomer showed ion exchange properties, whereas the calcium silicate gave an excellent seal resulting from its micromechanical attachment. PMID:24148964

Gjorgievska, Elizabeta S; Nicholson, John W; Apostolska, Sonja M; Coleman, Nichola J; Booth, Samantha E; Slipper, Ian J; Mladenov, Mitko I

2013-12-01

317

Emission Factors of Cement Industry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM, SO2, NO2 and CO emissions were measured by Turkish Cement Manufacturers' Association (TCMA) in cement plants by using standard techniques and equipment since 1997.Emission factors (EF) were calculated by using these availabledata for the cement sector. The emission factors were found bothfor cement and grinding-packing plants separately. The results of the study were compared with international emission factors.It was

Baris R. Canpolat; Aysel T. Atimtay; Ismet Munlafalioglu; Ersan Kalafatoglu; Ekrem Ekinci

2002-01-01

318

Cementing oil and gas wells  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cement composition for cementing in a well penetrating subterranean formations and having an aqueous drilling fluid containing at least one cement retarder. It comprises a major proportion of the drilling fluid from the well as it was drilled the fluid having a density in the range of about 9.0 - 18.0 ppg; water; a lesser proportion of dry cementitious material; about 0.5 to about 10.0 ppb of a dispersant selected from the group consisting of sulfonated styrene maleic anhydride, sulfonated styrene imide, and sulfonate styrene itaconic acid; and a compatible accelerator selected from the group consisting of acetic acid; the first 4 carbon esters thereof; acetamide; monoethanolamine; and diethanolamine.

Bloys, J.B.; Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.

1991-12-31

319

Biocompatibility of Ti-alloys for long-term implantation.  

PubMed

The design of new low-cost Ti-alloys with high biocompatibility for implant applications, using ubiquitous alloying elements in order to establish the strategic method for suppressing utilization of rare metals, is a challenge. To meet the demands of longer human life and implantation in younger patients, the development of novel metallic alloys for biomedical applications is aiming at providing structural materials with excellent chemical, mechanical and biological biocompatibility. It is, therefore, likely that the next generation of structural materials for replacing hard human tissue would be of those Ti-alloys that do not contain any of the cytotoxic elements, elements suspected of causing neurological disorders or elements that have allergic effect. Among the other mechanical properties, the low Young's modulus alloys have been given a special attention recently, in order to avoid the occurrence of stress shielding after implantation. Therefore, many Ti-alloys were developed consisting of biocompatible elements such as Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Ta, and showed excellent mechanical properties including low Young's modulus. However, a recent attention was directed towards the development of low cost-alloys that have a minimum amount of the high melting point and high cost rare-earth elements such as Ta, Nb, Mo, and W. This comes with substituting these metals with the common low cost, low melting point and biocompatible metals such as Fe, Mn, Sn, and Si, while keeping excellent mechanical properties without deterioration. Therefore, the investigation of mechanical and biological biocompatibility of those low-cost Ti-alloys is highly recommended now lead towards commercial alloys with excellent biocompatibility for long-term implantation. PMID:23507261

Abdel-Hady Gepreel, Mohamed; Niinomi, Mitsuo

2013-04-01

320

The quantification of biocompatibility: toward a new definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implantable medical devices, and the biomaterials that comprise them, form a 100B business worldwide. Medical devices save lives and/or improve the quality of life for millions. Tissue engineering also makes extensive use of biomaterials -- biomaterials are an enabling technology for tissue engineering. A central word to understanding the effectiveness of such materials and devices is biocompatibility. The word ``biocompatible'' is widely used in reference to biomaterials and medical devices and most everyone has some value understanding of its meaning. Many formal definitions have been proposed for this word, but it is still largely used in an imprecise manner. Four descriptions or definitions of biocompatibility will be reviewed: a widely adopted definition from a consensus conference, a surgeon's perspective on this word, the regulatory agency view and the factors that clearly influence biocompatibility. In this talk, the classical definition of biocompatibility will be contrasted to a newer definition embracing molecular concepts and the understanding of normal wound healing. The biological data on the in vivo healing responses of mammals to implants will be described. A strategy to improve the healing of biomaterials will be presented. It is based upon surface molecular engineering. First, non-specific protein adsorption must be inhibited. Strategies to achieve this design parameter will be presented. Then methods to deliver the specific protein signals will be addressed. Matricellular proteins such as osteopontin, thrombospondin 2 and SPARC will be introduced with an emphasis on exploiting the special reactivity of such proteins. A discussion of the influence of surface textures and porosities will also be presented. Finally a new scheme based upon macrophage phenotypic pathways will be proposed that may allow a quantitative measure of extent of biocompatibility.

Ratner, Buddy

2008-03-01

321

Effects of Biocompatible versus Standard Fluid on Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The clinical benefits of using “biocompatible” neutral pH solutions containing low levels of glucose degradation products for peritoneal dialysis compared with standard solutions are uncertain. In this multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, we randomly assigned 185 incident adult peritoneal dialysis patients with residual renal function to use either biocompatible or conventional solution for 2 years. The primary outcome measure was slope of renal function decline. Secondary outcome measures comprised time to anuria, fluid volume status, peritonitis-free survival, technique survival, patient survival, and adverse events. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in the rate of decline of renal function between the two groups as measured by the slopes of GFR: ?0.22 and ?0.28 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month (P=0.17) in the first year in the biocompatible and conventional groups, respectively, and, ?0.09 and ?0.10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month (P=0.9) in the second year. The biocompatible group exhibited significantly longer times to anuria (P=0.009) and to the first peritonitis episode (P=0.01). This group also had fewer patients develop peritonitis (30% versus 49%) and had lower rates of peritonitis (0.30 versus 0.49 episodes per year, P=0.01). In conclusion, this trial does not support a role for biocompatible fluid in slowing the rate of GFR decline, but it does suggest that biocompatible fluid may delay the onset of anuria and reduce the incidence of peritonitis compared with conventional fluid in peritoneal dialysis. PMID:22440906

Brown, Fiona G.; Clarke, Margaret; Boudville, Neil; Elias, Tony J.; Foo, Marjorie W.Y.; Jones, Bernard; Kulkarni, Hemant; Langham, Robyn; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; Schollum, John; Suranyi, Michael; Tan, Seng H.; Voss, David

2012-01-01

322

Cement equivalence factors for fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been carried out into the cement equivalence factors for fly ash in concrete. The work was part of a prenormative research aimed at taking the contribution of fly ash to strength development and the other properties of concrete into account on the minimum cement content and maximum water-cement ratio required to achieve these properties as by the

J. Bijen; R. van Selst

1993-01-01

323

Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement

Turner, Mason

324

SCHEDULING CEMENT PLANTS WITH ENERGY CONSTRAINTS  

E-print Network

SCHEDULING CEMENT PLANTS WITH ENERGY CONSTRAINTS Pedro M. Castro Ignacio E. Grossmann Iiro K Meeting 4 #12;5 ABB PROJECT #12;INTRODUCTION Cement producers currently under pressure to produce Contracts agreed between electricity supplier and cement plants (planning level) Energy cost [$/k

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

325

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2011-04-01

326

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2012-04-01

327

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2010-04-01

328

Economic analysis of the European cement industry  

E-print Network

Economic analysis of the European cement industry Marcel Boyer1 and JeanPierre Ponssard2 December 2013. The methodology is applied to the European cement industry over the period 20042012 (Part I) and over the next and industry experts. Key words: return on assets, capital intensive industry, business cycle, European cement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste  

E-print Network

Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

Langendoen, Koen

330

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2013-04-01

331

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2014-04-01

332

Blended cement using volcanic ash and pumice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of investigation to assess the suitability of volcanic ash (VA) and pumice powder (VPP) for blended cement production. Tests were conducted on cement where Portland cement (PC) was replaced by VA and VPP within the range of 0 to 50%. The physical and chemical properties of VA and VPP were critically reviewed to evaluate the

Khandaker M. Anwar Hossain

2003-01-01

333

Autonomic healing of acrylic bone cement.  

PubMed

Self-healing in orthopedic bone cement is demonstrated with a novel thermoplastic solvent-bonding approach. Low toxicity solvent-filled microcapsules, embedded in a commercial acrylic bone cement matrix, enable recovery of up to 80% of the virgin fracture toughness of the cement at room and body temperature conditions without external stimuli or human intervention. PMID:25116439

Gladman, A Sydney; Celestine, Asha-Dee N; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R

2015-01-01

334

Premixed calcium phosphate cements: Synthesis, physical properties, and cell cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a promising material for dental, periodontal, and craniofacial repairs. However, its use requires on-site powder–liquid mixing that increases the surgical placement time and raises concerns of insufficient and inhomogeneous mixing. The objective of this study was to determine a formulation of premixed CPC (PCPC) with rapid setting, high strength, and good in vitro cell viability. Methods PCPCs were formulated from CPC powder + non-aqueous liquid + gelling agent + hardening accelerator. Five PCPCs were thus developed: PCPC-Tartaric, PCPC-Malonic, PCPC-Citric, PCPC-Glycolic, and PCPC-Malic. Formulations and controls were compared for setting time, diametral tensile strength, and osteoblast cell compatibility. Results Setting time (mean ± S.D.; n = 4) for PCPC-Tartaric was 8.2 ± 0.8 min, significantly less than the 61.7 ± 1.5 min for the Premixed Control developed previously (p < 0.001). On 7th day immersion, the diametral tensile strength of PCPC-Tartaric reached 6.5 ± 0.8 MPa, higher than 4.5 ± 0.8 MPa of Premixed Control (p = 0.036). Osteoblast cells displayed a polygonal morphology and attached to the nano-hydroxyapatite crystals in the PCPCs. All cements had similar live cell density values (p = 0.126), indicating that the new PCPCs were as cell compatible as a non-premixed CPC control known to be biocompatible. Each of the new PCPCs had a cell viability that was not significantly different (p > 0.1) from that of the non-premixed CPC control. Significance PCPCs will eliminate the powder–liquid mixing during surgery and may also improve the cement performance. The new PCPCs supported cell attachment and yielded a high cell density and viability. Their mechanical strengths approached the reported strengths of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants and cancellous bone. These nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite cements may be useful in dental, periodontal, and craniofacial repairs. PMID:16678895

Xu, Hockin H.K.; Carey, Lisa E.; Simon, Carl G.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.

2009-01-01

335

Biocompatibility of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions: an animal study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions on experimental animals. Nine rabbits were subjected to acute eye irritation/corrosion tests, nine rabbits to acute dermal irritation/corrosion and 30 rats to acute oral toxicity (LD50) tests. No significant negative effects were noted. Considering the relatively high levels of exposure of the animals to the solutions and the low levels in the anticipated real clinical situation it is argued that these solutions are indeed biocompatible. PMID:11901580

Marais, J T

2002-01-01

336

[Study on biocompatibility of MIM 316L stainless steel].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of metal powder injection molding (MIM) 316L stainless steel. The percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of MIM 316L stainless steel, and titanium implant materials for clinical application were used as control. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out. The statistical analyses show that there are no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05), which demonstrate that MIM 316L stainless steel has good biocompatibility. PMID:17591253

Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Yanzhong; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Boyun

2007-04-01

337

Biocompatible fluorescent organic nanoparticles derived from glucose and polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) were facilely prepared from polyethylenimine and glucose at mild reaction condition, and further utilized for cell imaging with various fluorescent wavelengths. The as-prepared PEI-Glu FONs were fully characterized by a series of techniques including 1H NMR spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, UV-vis absorption spectrum, and fluorescence spectra. Such FONs were demonstrated with intense fluorescence and high water dispersibility. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell uptake behavior of these FONs were further investigated, which proved excellent biocompatibility and made them promising for cell imaging. PMID:25454666

Zhang, Xiqi; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Bin; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qiaomei; Wei, Yen

2014-11-01

338

The fracture properties of glass polyalkenoate cements as a function of cement age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture properties of two glass polyalkenoate cements based on a short chain-length and on a long chain-length poly (acrylic acid) have been studied as a function of the cement age. The stress intensity factor, KI, increases with cement age for both cements. The un-notched fracture strength sf increases with cement age, largely as a result of an increase in

R. G. Hill

1993-01-01

339

ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further their deterioration was a major impediment in expediting the development of geothermal energy resources.

SUGAMA,T.

2007-01-01

340

Solidification of “Cement-Glass”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement-glass, which is a mixture of sodium silicate (kNa2O·mSiO2nH2O), silicon phosphate (P2O5·2SiO2) and cement, was developed to solidify radioactive waste pellets in containers. The optimum molar ratio of Si(OH)4, NaOH and P2O52SiO2 was found to be 2:2:1, based on compressive strength measurement of solidified samples. The compressive strength of solidified sodium silicate with silicon phosphate was increased when the amount

Susumu HORIUCHI; Makoto KIKUCHI; Koichi CHINO; Tsutomu BABA; Hideo YUSA; Hiroyuki NAITOH

1989-01-01

341

Preparation, characterization, release kinetics, and in vitro cytotoxicity of calcium silicate cement as a risedronate delivery system.  

PubMed

Injectable bone cements have been well characterized and studied in non-load bearing bone fixation and bone screw augmentation applications. Current calcium phosphate cement or poly(methyl methacrylate) cement have drawbacks like low mechanical strength and in situ exothermic properties. This leads especially in patients with osteoporosis to worsening contact between implant and bone and can finally lead to implant failure. To improve these properties, a calcium silicate cement (CSC) was prepared, which additionally contained the bisphosphonate risedronate (RA) to promote osteoblast function. Cement setting rate and compressive strength were measured and found to be reduced by RA above 0.5 wt%. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and porosity measurements by gas sorption revealed that RA reduces calcium silicate hydrate gel formation and changes the cement's microstructure. Cumulative release profiles of RA from CSC up to 6 months into phosphate buffer solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the results were compared with theoretical release curves obtained from the Higuchi equation. Fourier transform infrared spectra measurements and drug release studies indicate that calcium-RA formed within the cement, from which the drug can be slowly released over time. An investigation of the cytotoxicity of the RA-CSC systems upon osteoblast-like cells showed no toxic effects of concentrations up to 2%. The delivery of RA from within a CSC might thus be a valuable and biocompatible new approach to locally deliver RA and to reconstruct and/or repair osteoporosis-related bone fractures. PMID:23946228

Gong, Tianxing; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Yubiao; Sun, Changshan; Yang, Quanzu; Troczynski, Tom; Häfeli, Urs O

2014-07-01

342

Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prosthesis: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Desired retrievability of cemented implant-supported fixed prosthesis makes the retentive strength of cementing agents an important consideration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the retentiveness of purposely designed implant cement and compare its retentiveness with dental cements that are commonly used with implant systems. Ten implant analogs were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks and titanium abutments were attached to them. Fifty standardized copings were waxed directly on the abutment and casted. The cements used were: (1) resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement, (2) purposely designed implant cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using universal testing machine and loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test. The mean values (± SD) of loads at failure (n = 10) for various cements were as follows (N): resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement 394.62 (± 9.76), Premier implant cement 333.86 (± 18.91), zinc phosphate cement 629.30 (± 20.65), zinc polycarboxylate cement 810.08 (± 11.52), and glass ionomer cement 750.17 (± 13.78). The results do not suggest that one cement type is better than another, but they do provide a ranking order of the cements regarding their ability to retain the prosthesis and facilitate easy retrievability. PMID:25506659

Garg, Pooja; Pujari, Malesh; Prithviraj, D R; Khare, Sumit

2014-12-01

343

Microfluidic Fabrication of Monodisperse Biocompatible and Biodegradable Polymersomes with Controlled Permeability  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Fabrication of Monodisperse Biocompatible and Biodegradable Polymersomes monodisperse polymersomes with biocompatible and biodegradable diblock copolymers for efficient encapsulation into vesicle structures. These polymersomes can be used to encapsulate small hydrophilic solutes. When

344

One-step continuous synthesis of biocompatible gold nanorods for optical coherence tomography  

E-print Network

We present a novel one-step flow process to synthesize biocompatible gold nanorods with tunable absorption and biocompatible surface ligands. Photothermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human breast tissue is ...

Sebastián, Víctor

345

N-acetyl cysteine prevents polymethyl methacrylate bone cement extract-induced cell death and functional suppression of rat primary osteoblasts.  

PubMed

This study examines the cytotoxicity of bone cement extract to osteoblasts and the potential detoxification and restoration of osteoblastic function by an antioxidant amino acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The osteoblastic cells derived from rat femurs were cultured with extract from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement. The calcein and ethidium homodimer staining of the cells after 24-h incubation showed that 23.0% of the cells were dead in the culture with bone cement extract, while the addition of 5 mM NAC into the culture reduced the percentage to 4.3%. Annexin V and propidium iodide-based flow cytometric analysis also revealed that the apoptotic cells present at 15.8% in the culture with bone cement extract was reduced to 2.4% in the culture cotreated with bone cement extract and NAC. Severely suppressed alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization in the culture with bone cement extract (reduced to 10% and 5%, respectively, compared with the control culture) were restored to a normal level when treated with 5 mM NAC. The bone cement extract-induced, downregulated expression of osteoblastic genes, such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen I, and osteocalcin, was also restored to the baseline level by cotreatment with NAC. The data indicated that the addition of NAC into acrylic bone cement extract remarkably ameliorated the cytotoxicity to osteoblasts and restored their phenotype and function to a biologically significant degree, suggesting the potential usefulness of NAC in developing more biocompatible acrylic bone cement. PMID:19189384

Aita, Hideki; Tsukimura, Naoki; Yamada, Masahiro; Hori, Norio; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Sato, Naoko; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Ogawa, Takahiro

2010-01-01

346

Inclined cement tests improve measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the effects of free water on setting cement, a free water test procedure was added to API Specification 10 in 1964. The API free water test placed more emphasis on the evaluation and control of free water rather than on all aspects of slurry stability (such as particle settling). For particle settling (density segregation), the procedure used only

R. P. Matson; M. Rogers; V. G. Boncan; R. G. Gandy

1993-01-01

347

Process for cementing geothermal wells  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

Eilers, Louis H. (Inola, OK)

1985-01-01

348

In vitro evaluation of biocompatibility of different wound dressing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro biocompatibility of newly developed wound dressings consisting of different chitosan salts (chitosan lactate, glutamate and chloride) and a chitosan derivative (methylpyroolidinone chitosan) was compared with three commercially available wound dressings made of collagen, calciumalginate, and gelatin, by evaluation in a fibroblast cell culture system. Three experimental models which reflect relevant stages of wound healing were used, and

P. C. Berscht; B. Nies; A. Liebendörfer; J. Kreuter

1995-01-01

349

Fullerenol-based electroactive artificial muscles utilizing biocompatible polyetherimide.  

PubMed

Two essential functional requirements for electroactive artificial muscles, which can be used for biomedical active devices, are biocompatibility and sufficient range of motion. Fullerenol nanoparticles and their derivatives have been validated as potential candidates to be used for nanobiomaterials and biomedical applications because of their excellent proton conductivity, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility. We developed fullerenol-based electroactive artificial muscles utilizing biocompatible polyetherimide. By using a solvent recasting method, present ionic networking membranes have been successfully synthesized with homogeneous dispersion of polyhydroxylated fullerene (PHF) nanoparticles into a sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. In comparison with pure SPEI membranes, the PHF-SPEI nanocomposite membranes show much higher water uptake and proton conductivity, which are both essential characteristics for high-performance ionic polymer actuators. The developed PHF-SPEI actuator shows over three times larger motion ranges and two times higher blocking forces than the pure SPEI actuator. The excellent biocompatibility of PHF and SPEI makes these actuators promising candidate materials for biomedical devices such as active stents and catheters. PMID:21332175

Rajagopalan, Mahendran; Oh, Il-Kwon

2011-03-22

350

Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans improve toughness of biocompatible double network hydrogels.  

PubMed

Based on the molecular stent concept, a series of tough double-network hydrogels (St-DN gels) made from the components of proteoglycan aggregates - chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (1), chondroitin sulfate (2), and sodium hyaluronate (3) - are successfully developed in combination with a neutral biocompatible polymer. This work demonstrates a promising method to create biopolymer-based tough hydrogels for biomedical applications. PMID:24431128

Zhao, Yu; Nakajima, Tasuku; Yang, Jing Jing; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Liu, Jian; Lu, Jishun; Mizumoto, Shuji; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Daniels, A U D; Gong, Jian Ping

2014-01-22

351

Biocompatibility of phosphorylcholine coated stents in normal porcine coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo improve the biocompatibility of stents using a phosphorylcholine coated stent as a form of biomimicry.INTERVENTIONSImplantation of phosphorylcholine coated (n = 20) and non-coated (n = 21) stents was performed in the coronary arteries of 25 pigs. The animals were killed after five days (n = 6), four weeks (n = 7), and 12 weeks (n = 8), and the

D. M. Whelan; W J van der Giessen; S C Krabbendam; E A van Vliet; P D Verdouw; P W Serruys; H M M van Beusekom

2000-01-01

352

Biocompatibility and biofouling of MEMS drug delivery devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocompatibility and biofouling of the microfabrication materials for a MEMS drug delivery device have been evaluated. The in vivo inflammatory and wound healing response of MEMS drug delivery component materials, metallic gold, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon, and SU-8TM photoresist, were evaluated using the cage implant system. Materials, placed into stainless-steel cages, were implanted subcutaneously in a rodent model.

Gabriela Voskerician; Matthew S. Shive; Rebecca S. Shawgo; Horst von Recum; James M. Anderson; Michael J. Cima; Robert Langer

2003-01-01

353

Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films.  

PubMed

Presented in this paper is a study of the biocompatibility of an atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) thin film and an ALD hydrophobic coating on standard glass cover slips. The pure ALD alumina coating exhibited a water contact angle of 55 degrees +/- 5 degrees attributed, in part, to a high concentration of -OH groups on the surface. In contrast, the hydrophobic coating (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-octyl-methyl-bis(dimethylamino)silane) had a water contact angle of 108 degrees +/- 2 degrees. Observations using differential interference contrast microscopy on human coronary artery smooth muscle cells showed normal cell proliferation on both the ALD alumina and hydrophobic coatings when compared to cells grown on control substrates. These observations suggested good biocompatibility over a period of 7 days in vitro. Using a colorimetric assay technique to assess cell viability, the cellular response between the three substrates can be differentiated to show that the ALD alumina coating is more biocompatible and that the hydrophobic coating is less biocompatible when compared to the control. These results suggest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups can control cell growth. This patterning can further enhance the known advantages of ALD alumina, such as conformality and excellent dielectric properties for bio-micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators, and microfluidics devices. PMID:18085647

Finch, Dudley S; Oreskovic, Tammy; Ramadurai, Krishna; Herrmann, Cari F; George, Steven M; Mahajan, Roop L

2008-10-01

354

Development of biocompatible synthetic extracellular matrices for tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue engineering may provide an alternative to organ and tissue transplantation, both of which suffer from a limitation of supply. Cell transplantation using biodegradable synthetic extracellular matrices offers the possibility of creating completely natural new tissues and so replacing lost or malfunctioning organs or tissues. Synthetic extracellular matrices fabricated from biocompatible, biodegradable polymers play an important role in the formation

Byung-Soo Kim; David J Mooney

1998-01-01

355

Functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with biosurfactants and biocompatibility studies.  

PubMed

We present methodologies to functionalize iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with biosurfactants and biocompatibility results. Positively charged Fe3O4 nanoparticles of average hydrodynamic size -26 nm is functionalized with four different molecules of interest, viz., surfactin, rhamnolipid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran. The functionalization results in dramatic alterations in surface potential and hydrodynamic size due to the presence of coated moieties on the nanoparticle interface. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirm the presence of adsorbed moieties on nanoparticles. The phase contrast microscopy studies show the formation of reversible chains of functionalized nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. Cell viability studies using L929 mouse fibroblast cell line show that pure surfactin, rhamnolipid and dextran exhibit cytotoxicity with increase in concentration, whereas, pure PEG exhibit biocompatibility at different concentrations. Accordingly, surfactin and rhamnolipid coated nanoparticles are found to be cytotoxic with increase in concentration and PEG coated nanoparticles are found to be biocompatible. Dextran coated nanoparticles do not exhibit significant increase in biocompatibility. PMID:23802405

Sangeetha, J; Thomas, Susha; Arutchelvi, J; Doble, Mukesh; Philip, John

2013-05-01

356

Usefulness verification of biocompatible microneedle patch for transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issues in the development of a microneedle patch as a tool for transdermal drug delivery are safety and delivery performance in addition to economical production. In this paper, a novel fabrication method for an inexpensive microneedle patch made of biocompatible polymer is reported, along with verifications for the fabricated microneedle patch. For microneedle patch fabrication, we combined the

Chun Yan Jin; Man Hee Han; S. S. Lee; Yo Han Choi

2009-01-01

357

Mechanical biocompatibilities of titanium alloys for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young’s modulus as well as tensile strength, ductility, fatigue life, fretting fatigue life, wear properties, functionalities, etc., should be adjusted to levels that are suitable for structural biomaterials used in implants that replace hard tissue. These factors may be collectively referred to as mechanical biocompatibilities. In this paper, the following are described with regard to biomedical applications of titanium alloys:

Mitsuo Niinomi

2008-01-01

358

Dynamic In Vivo Biocompatibility of Angiogenic Peptide Amphiphile Nanofibers  

PubMed Central

Biomaterials that promote angiogenesis have great potential in regenerative medicine for rapid revascularization of damaged tissue, survival of transplanted cells, and healing of chronic wounds. Supramolecular nanofibers formed by self-assembly of a heparin-binding peptide amphiphile and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans were evaluated here using a dorsal skinfold chamber model to dynamically monitor the interaction between the nanofiber gel and the microcirculation, representing a novel application of this model. We paired this model with a conventional subcutaneous implantation model for static histological assessment of the interactions between the gel and host tissue. In the static analysis, the heparan sulfate-containing nanofiber gels were found to persist in the tissue for up to 30 days and revealed excellent biocompatibility. Strikingly, as the nanofiber gel biodegraded, we observed the formation of a de novo vascularized connective tissue. In the dynamic experiments using the dorsal skinfold chamber, the material again demonstrated good biocompatibility, with minimal dilation of the microcirculation and only a few adherent leukocytes, monitored through intravital fluorescence microscopy. The new application of the dorsal skinfold model corroborated our findings from the traditional static histology, demonstrating the potential use of this technique to dynamically evaluate the biocompatibility of materials. The observed biocompatibility and development of new vascularized tissue using both techniques demonstrates the potential of these angiogenesis-promoting materials for a host of regenerative strategies. PMID:19683342

Ghanaati, Shahram; Webber, Matthew J.; Unger, Ronald E.; Orth, Carina; Hulvat, James F.; Kiehna, Sarah E.; Barbeek, Mike; Rasic, Angela; Stupp, Samuel I.; Kirkpatrick, C. James

2009-01-01

359

Biocompatible Polymer Needle Coating For Improved Patient Safety  

E-print Network

Biocompatible Polymer Needle Coating For Improved Patient Safety The University of Florida, increasing patient safety and offering valuable competitive and market advantage Technology Researchers a needle is used to extract cells from a lump or mass for microscopic evaluation. One safety concern

Slatton, Clint

360

Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

2014-08-01

361

Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement that contained medium C4A3 S¯ and C2S contents showed good dimensional stability, sulfate resistance, and compressive strength development and was considered the optimum phase composition for calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement in terms of comparable performance characteristics to portland cement. Furthermore, two calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers were successfully synthesized from natural and waste materials such as limestone, bauxite, flue gas desulfurization sludge, Class C fly ash, and fluidized bed ash proportioned to the optimum calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. Waste materials composed 30% and 41% of the raw ingredients. The two calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cements synthesized from natural and waste materials showed good dimensional stability, sulfate resistance, and compressive strength development, comparable to commercial portland cement.

Chen, Irvin Allen

362

Bone cement based on vancomycin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle and calcium sulfate composites.  

PubMed

A novel bone cement pellet, with sustained release of vancomycin (VAN), was prepared by mixing VAN loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) and calcium sulfate ?-hemihydrate (CS) together. To improve the VAN loading ability, MSN was functionalized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) to give APS-MSN. The VAN loading content and entrapment efficiency of APS-MSN could reach up to 45.91±0.81% and 84.88±1.52%, respectively, much higher than those of MSN, which were only 3.91% and 4.07%, respectively. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement results demonstrated that most of the VAN were in the pores of APS-MSN. The CS/VAN@APS-MSN composite pellet showed a strongly drug sustained release effect in comparison with CS control pellet. The in vitro cell assays demonstrated that CS/APS-MSN composite was highly biocompatible and suitable to use as bone cement. Furthermore, CS/VAN@APS-MSN pellet showed no pyrogenic effect and meet the clinical requirements on hemolytic reaction. These results imply that CS/VAN@APS-MSN was an ideal candidate to replace CS bone cement in the treatment of open fractures. PMID:25686941

Li, Hanwen; Gu, Jisheng; Shah, Luqman Ali; Siddiq, Mohammad; Hu, Jianhua; Cai, Xiaobing; Yang, Dong

2015-04-01

363

Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product in MPSC is MgKPO4·6H2O (MKP), which has both crystalline and amorphous phases. There are many unreacted magnesia grains in the hardened MPSC paste. They act as nucleus of the hardened framework. The hydrates grow around the magnesia grains rims, fill in the voids among the magnesia grains and bond unreacted magnesia part into a solid continuum. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Ding, Zhu

364

Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique  

PubMed Central

Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of gap formation in the interface metal-to-bone cement (p < 0.05). Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health. PMID:16262888

Marx, Rudolf; Qunaibi, Mutaz; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Niethard, Fritz Uwe; Mumme, Thorsten

2005-01-01

365

Performance of Concrete Made With Slag Cement and  

E-print Network

Performance of Concrete Made With Slag Cement and Portland-Limestone Blended Cement Philadelphia;Today's Discussion ! The materials ! Slag cement ! Portland-limestone cement ! Use in concrete is slag cement? #12;! Non-metallic product of an iron blast furnace ! Granulated ! Ground ! Cementitious

366

Mud to cement technology proven in offshore drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem with conventional cements is the incompatibility of Portland cement and the drilling mud. Expensive preflushes and spacer fluids have been used, often with limited success, to attempt to separate mud and Portland cement effectively. Under downhole conditions, most spacers are ineffective in preventing high viscosities and cement contamination problems which lead to poor primary cement jobs. One solution

K. Javanmardi; K. D. Flodberg; J. J. Nahm

1993-01-01

367

In vitro cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements on human monocytes, a colorimetric MTT assay  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements at different storage times after mixing. Materials and Methods Capillary tubes were filled with Biodentine (Septodont), Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM cement, BioniqueDent), Tech Biosealer Endo (Tech Biosealer) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Empty tubes and tubes containing Dycal were used as negative and positive control groups respectively. Filled capillary tubes were kept in 0.2 mL microtubes and incubated at 37?. Each material was divided into 3 groups for testing at intervals of 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day after mixing. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cocultered with 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day samples of different materials for 24 and 48 hr. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Results In all groups, the viability of monocytes significantly improved with increasing storage time regardless of the incubation time (p < 0.001). After 24 hr of incubation, there was no significant difference between the materials regarding monocyte viability. However, at 48 hr of incubation, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were less cytotoxic than CEM cement and Biosealer (p < 0.01). Conclusions Biodentine and ProRoot MTA had similar biocompatibility. Mixing ProRoot MTA with PBS in place of distilled water had no effect on its biocompatibility. Biosealer and CEM cement after 48 hr of incubation were significantly more cytotoxic to on monocyte cells compared to ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. PMID:25110637

Khedmat, Sedigheh; Dehghan, Somayyeh; Hadjati, Jamshid; Masoumi, Farimah; Dummer, Paul Michael Howell

2014-01-01

368

Lunar cement and lunar concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

Lin, T. D.

1991-01-01

369

Calculator programs replace cementing tables  

SciTech Connect

Two programs written for use on the two most popular programmable calculators solve routine volume and fill problems using data available on the drill floor. And while those familiar books of cementing tables should be kept for special jobs, the programs given here provide quick solutions to everyday cementing problems. Programs are presented for the solution of annular volume and pipe and hole capacity problems using the TI-59 or any of the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators. The TI program was written for use with the PC-100C printer to prompt for input data and label output. A procedure is presented to modify this for hand-held operation using storage register numbers for prompts and to recall output information from storage registers. The program using the printer is discussed first.

Landry, W.E.

1987-01-01

370

The density of cement phases  

SciTech Connect

The densities of principal crystalline phases occurring in Portland cement are critically assessed and tabulated, in some cases with addition of new data. A reliable and self-consistent density set for crystalline phases was obtained by calculating densities from crystallographic data and unit cell contents. Independent laboratory work was undertaken to synthesize major AFm and AFt cement phases, determine their unit cell parameters and compare the results with those recorded in the literature. Parameters were refined from powder diffraction patterns using CELREF 2 software. A density value is presented for each phase, showing literature sources, in some cases describing limitations on the data, and the weighting attached to numerical values where an averaging process was used for accepted data. A brief discussion is made of the consequences of the packing of water to density changes in AFm and AFt structures.

Balonis, M. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.balonis@abdn.ac.uk; Glasser, F.P. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

371

Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale   

E-print Network

Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption...

Skibsted, Joergen; Hall, Christopher

372

New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with bromine-containing monomer.  

PubMed

Bromine-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the bromine-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of bromine-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque. PMID:18197369

Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M

2008-07-01

373

Bagasse-reinforced cement composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is abundantly available in many countries as a by-product from sugar mills and is being mostly used as fuel or disposed of by incineration. An attempt has been made to convert this byproduct into useful eco-friendly cement-bonded composites, which can be used for various internal and external applications in buildings. The investigations include optimization of parameters such as bagasse

L. K. Aggarwal

1995-01-01

374

Sustainable cement production-present and future  

SciTech Connect

Cement will remain the key material to satisfy global housing and modern infrastructure needs. As a consequence, the cement industry worldwide is facing growing challenges in conserving material and energy resources, as well as reducing its CO{sub 2} emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, the main levers for cement producers are the increase in energy efficiency and the use of alternative materials, be it as fuel or raw materials. Accordingly, the use of alternative fuels has already increased significantly in recent years, but potential for further increases still exists. In cement, the reduction of the clinker factor remains a key priority: tremendous progress has already been made. Nevertheless, appropriate materials are limited in their regional availability. New materials might be able to play a role as cement constituents in the future. It remains to be seen to what extent they could substitute Portland cement clinker to a significant degree.

Schneider, M., E-mail: sch@vdz-online.de [VDZ, Duesseldorf (Germany); Romer, M.; Tschudin, M. [Holcim Group Support Ltd, Holderbank (Switzerland); Bolio, H. [CEMEX, Monterrey (Mexico)

2011-07-15

375

Cement compositions containing a polysaccharide and a salt and method of cementing casing in a well  

SciTech Connect

A cement composition is described for the preparation of an aqueous cement slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising a cement selected from Class A through Class H; at least one polysaccharide or mixture of polysaccharides having a solution time greater than about 10 minutes; and at least one salt and wherein the amount of the polysaccharide or mixture of polysaccharides is sufficient so that the viscosity of the aqueous slurry increases with an increase in temperature.

Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

1987-05-05

376

Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty: an analysis of clinical and biomechanical literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The number of revision hip arthroplasties is increasing but several aspects of this procedure could be improved. One method\\u000a of reducing intra-operative complications is the cement-in-cement technique. This procedure entails cementing a smaller femoral\\u000a prosthesis into the existing stable cement mantle. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a concise overview of the\\u000a existing historical, operative, biomechanical and

P. Keeling; P. J. Prendergast; A. B. Lennon; P. J. Kenny

2008-01-01

377

A cementation method of loose particles based on microbe-based cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbe-based cement has been widely reported in recent literatures. It is a new method of consolidating loose fine particles,\\u000a which relies on the bacterially induced formation of a compatible carbonate precipitation around individual particles and\\u000a at particle-particle contacts. Materials and cementation procedure are two major factors that influence the cementation performance\\u000a of microbe-based cement. Besides, there are some other factors

Hui Rong; ChunXiang Qian; RuiXing Wang

2011-01-01

378

Curcumin/xanthan-galactomannan hydrogels: rheological analysis and biocompatibility.  

PubMed

Curcumin, a lipophilic compound found in the plant Curcuma longa L., exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activity; however, its therapeutic use has been limited because of its low bioavailability following oral administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viscoelastic characteristics and biocompatibility of a curcumin/xanthan:galactomannan hydrogel (X:G) system after topical application on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a system established with a view toward curcumin nasal or topical pharmaceutical applications or possible administration in cosmetics or foods. A rheological analysis indicated that incorporation of curcumin did not alter the viscoelastic characteristics of the X:G hydrogel, suggesting that there was no change in the structure of the gel network. X:G hydrogels did not induce CAM tissue injury and the curcumin/X:G hydrogel system was also highly biocompatible. We conclude that the X:G hydrogel represents a potential matrix for curcumin formulations. PMID:23465931

Da-Lozzo, Eneida Janiscki; Moledo, Ricardo Cambaúva Andrukaisti; Faraco, Cloris Ditzel; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

2013-03-01

379

Method for making a bio-compatible scaffold  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a three-dimensional, biocompatible, porous scaffold structure using a solid freeform fabrication technique (referred to herein as robocasting) that can be used as a medical implant into a living organism, such as a human or other mammal. Imaging technology and analysis is first used to determine the three-dimensional design required for the medical implant, such as a bone implant or graft, fashioned as a three-dimensional, biocompatible scaffold structure. The robocasting technique is used to either directly produce the three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure or to produce an over-sized three-dimensional, porous scaffold lattice which can be machined to produce the designed three-dimensional, porous scaffold structure for implantation.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer G. (Champaigne, IL); Jamison, Russell D. (Urbana, IL)

2006-01-31

380

Cellular Uptake and Biocompatibility of Bismuth Ferrite Harmonic Advanced Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Bismuth Ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles (BFO-NP) display interesting optical (nonlinear response) and magnetic properties which make them amenable for bio-oriented applications as intra- and extra membrane contrast agents. Due to the relatively recent availability of this material in well dispersed nanometric form, its biocompatibility was not known to date. In this study, we present a thorough assessment of the effects of in vitro exposure of human adenocarcinoma (A549), lung squamous carcinoma (NCI-H520), and acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell lines to uncoated and poly(ethylene glycol)-coated BFO-NP in the form of cytotoxicity, haemolytic response and biocompatibility. Our results support the attractiveness of the functional-BFO towards biomedical applications focused on advanced diagnostic imaging.

Staedler, Davide; Magouroux, Thibaud; Rogov, Andrii; Maguire, Ciaran Manus; Mohamed, Bashir M; Schwung, Sebastian; Rytz, Daniel; Jüstel, Thomas; Hwu, Stéphanie; Mugnier, Yannick; Dantec, Ronan Le; Volkov, Yuri; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Prina-Melloc, Adriele; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

381

Biodegradation and biocompatibility of mechanically active magnetoelastic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoelastic (ME) materials have many advantages for use as sensors and actuators due to their wireless, passive nature. This paper describes the application of ME materials as biodegradable implants with controllable degradation rates. Experiments have been conducted to show that degradation rates of ME materials are dependent on the material compositions. In addition, it was shown that the degradation rates of the ME materials can be controlled remotely by applying a magnetic field, which causes the ME materials to generate low-magnitude vibrations that hasten their degradation rates. Another concern of ME materials for medical applications is biocompatibility. Indirect cytotoxicity analyses were performed on two types of ME materials: Metglas™ 2826 MB (FeNiMoB) and iron-gallium alloy. While results indicate Metglas is not biocompatible, the degradation products of iron-gallium materials have shown no adverse effects on cell viability. Overall, these results present the possibility of using ME materials as biodegradable, magnetically-controlled active implants.

Holmes, Hal R.; DeRouin, Andrew; Wright, Samantha; Riedemann, Travor M.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ghee Ong, Keat

2014-09-01

382

Spectrophotometric Analysis of All-ceramic Materials and Their Interaction with Luting Agents and Different Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two All-Ceramic (AC) materials—Empress 2 (EMP) (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and In-Ceram ALUMINA (ICA) (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany)—were analyzed, along with the effects of 3 luting agents—viz. Zinc Phosphate cement (ZNPO, PhospaCEM PL, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC, Ketac-Cem Radiopaque, ESPE Dental AG, Seefeld, Germany), and Compolute (COMP, ESPE Dental AG,

V. S. Barath; F.-J. Faber; S. Westland; W. Niedermeier

2003-01-01

383

S Sppeeccttrroopphhoottoommeettrriicc A Annaallyyssiiss o off A Allll-c ceerraammiicc MMaatteerriiaallss a anndd T Thheeiirr IInntteerraaccttiioonn w wiitthh LLuuttiinngg A Aggeennttss a anndd D Diiffffeerreenntt B Baacckkggrroouunnddss  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two All-Ceramic (AC) materials— Empress 2 (EMP) (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and In-Ceram ALUMINA (ICA) (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany)—were analyzed, along with the effects of 3 luting agents—viz. Zinc Phosphate cement (ZNPO, PhospaCEM PL, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC, Ketac-Cem Radiopaque, ESPE Dental AG, Seefeld, Germany), and Compolute (COMP, ESPE Dental

V. S. Barath; F.-J. Faber; S. Westland; W. Niedermeier

384

Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit positive values (up to 68 ?V\\/°C) of the absolute thermoelectric power. A steel fiber content of 1.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass cement, in addition to yielding more reversibility and linearity in the

Sihai Wen; D. D. L Chung

2000-01-01

385

Modification of cement systems with oxalic aldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental results of physical-chemical properties of composite materials on the basis of cement and wood waste modified by an aquatic solution of oxalic aldehyde are presented in this paper. The injection of a chemical addition agent being in optimal concentration is shown to result in the increase of compressive strength of a cement stone by 30%, that of wood-cement composition – in 7 times. IR spectroscopy investigations, microphotographs of structures, kinetics of samples strength changes are shown.

Subbotina, N. V.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Naumova, L. B.; Minakova, T. S.

2015-01-01

386

The nature of CSH in hardened cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) are the main binding phases in all Portland cement-based systems. This paper considers the morphology, composition, and nanostructure of C-S-H in a range of hardened cements. Inner product (Ip) C-S-H present in larger Portland cement grains typically has a fine-scale and homogeneous morphology with pores somewhat under 10 nm in diameter. Ip from larger slag grains

I. G Richardson

1999-01-01

387

Cement industry: sustainability, challenges and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement-based materials, such as concrete and mortars, are used in extremely large amounts. For instance, in 2009 concrete\\u000a production was superior to 10 billion tons. Cement plays an important role in terms of economic and social relevance since\\u000a it is fundamental to build and improve infrastructure. On the other hand, this industry is also a heavy polluter. Cement production\\u000a releases

F. A. Rodrigues; I. Joekes

2011-01-01

388

Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

Co?kun, Tuba; Acat, Murat; Onaran, Hilal; Gül, ?ule; Çetinkaya, Erdo?an

2014-01-01

389

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect

Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1980-06-01

390

Biocompatibility study for PVP wound dressing obtained in different conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogels composed of PVP, PEG and agar, produced by simultaneous crosslinking and package sterilization by ionizing radiation, are used mainly as wound dressing. In this study, membranes prepared in different conditions were tested for their properties including in vitro biocompatibility. The results showed that the mechanical properties were in an acceptable range of values and that the membranes can be considered as non toxic and non hemolytic to the cells.

Higa, O. Z.; Rogero, S. O.; Machado, L. D. B.; Mathor, M. B.; Lugão, A. B.

1999-08-01

391

Concepts in biocompatibility testing of dental restorative materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the diversity of adverse biological effects which might be caused by dental restorative materials, biocompatibility\\u000a assessment cannot rely on a single test but has to be based on a planned and structured approach (concept). First, the possible\\u000a harm evoked by the material, the known data, and suitable biological and other test methods available must be taken into consideration.

G. Schmalz

1998-01-01

392

Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of biocompatible carbon dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon Dots (CDs) are a new promising type of small (5 nm), biocompatible and multicolor luminescent nanoparticle. Here, we demonstrate super-resolution imaging of CDs at the nanoscale through STimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy. In addition, we report the application of STED for detection of CD localization in both fixed and living cells, achieving a spatial resolution down to 30 nm, far below the diffraction limit, showing great promise for high resolution visualization of cellular dynamics.

Leménager, Godefroy; de Luca, Elisa; Sun, Ya-Ping; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2014-07-01

393

Biocompatibility of silicone-coated oxygenator in cardiopulmonary bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study was designed to analyze the biocompatibility of silicone-coated oxygenators using inflammatory response as the outcome measure, and to investigate whether the silicone-coated oxygenators perform better in terms of postoperative organ dysfunction.Methods. The 32 patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were divided into 3 groups: group A (n = 10), heparin-coated circuit with silicone-coated oxygenator; group B (n

Akira Shimamoto; Shinji Kanemitsu; Kazuya Fujinaga; Motoshi Takao; Koji Onoda; Takatsugu Shimono; Kuniyoshi Tanaka; Hideto Shimpo; Isao Yada

2000-01-01

394

Acoustic evaluation of cementing quality using obliquely incident ultrasonic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic cement bond logging is a widely used method for evaluating cementing quality. Conventional ultrasonic cement bond logging uses vertical incidence and cannot accurately evaluate lightweight cement bonding. Oblique incidence is a new technology for evaluating cement quality with improved accuracy for lightweight cements. In this study, we simulated models of acoustic impedance of cement and cementing quality using ultrasonic oblique incidence, and we obtained the relation between cementing quality, acoustic impedance of cement, and the acoustic attenuation coefficient of the A0-mode and S0-mode Lamb waves. Then, we simulated models of different cement thickness and we obtained the relation between cement thickness and the time difference of the arrival between the A0 and A0' modes.

Duan, Wen-Xing; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Che, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Hui

2014-09-01

395

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2011-04-01

396

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2013-04-01

397

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2011-04-01

398

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2012-04-01

399

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2014-04-01

400

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2014-04-01

401

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2010-04-01

402

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2010-04-01

403

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2012-04-01

404

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2013-04-01

405

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2012-04-01

406

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2013-04-01

407

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2014-04-01

408

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2010-04-01

409

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2011-04-01

410

New polymer additives for mortar cement  

SciTech Connect

Mortar cement is a hydraulic cement similar to masonry cement in use and function, introduced to enhance one or more of the latter's properties, such as workability, durability, and water retention. In addition, mortar cement must have lower air content and it has minimum flexural bond strength requirements. In response to fulfilling these needs, a new family of water soluble polymers has been developed. The new polymer additives are designed to optimize air void distribution and rheology of wet mortar, allowing improved workability with low air content. Furthermore, these polymers impart high water retention to the mortar, and allow the production of mortar with enhanced board life and flexural bond strength.

Chu, S.G.; Podlas, T.J.; Young, T.S.

1999-07-01

411

Supply chain management in the cement industry .  

E-print Network

??Traditionally supply chain management has played an operational role within cement and mineral extraction commodity companies. Recently, cost reduction projects have brought supply chain management… (more)

Agudelo, Isabel

2009-01-01

412

Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures. PMID:24955636

Rodrigues, Susana; Dionísio, Marita; Remuñán López, Carmen; Grenha, Ana

2012-01-01

413

Biocompatible two-layer tantalum/titania-polymer hybrid coating.  

PubMed

Using a two-step procedure, radiopaque and biocompatible coatings were obtained, consisting of a tantalum layer deposited by sputtering technique and of an upper organic-inorganic hybrid layer synthesized via sol-gel. As shown by radiographic images, tantalum confers to plastic substrates good X-ray visibility, adjustable via control of deposition time, but its adhesion to the substrate is poor and manipulation easily damages the metal layer. Polymer-titania hybrid coatings, synthesized using poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) or carboxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as organic precursors, were applied on the metal layer as biocompatible protective coatings. Biocompatibility is demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests conducted using vascular wall resident-mesenchymal stem cells (VW-MSCs). Both coatings show very good adhesion to the substrate, showing no sign of detachment upon large substrate deformations. Under such conditions, SEM observations show that the PCL-containing hybrid forms cracks, whereas the PDMS-based hybrid does not crack, suggesting possible applications of the latter material as a protective layer of sputtered tantalum radiopaque markers for flexible medical devices. PMID:20831278

Cortecchia, Elisa; Pacilli, Annalisa; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Scandola, Mariastella

2010-09-13

414

Cytotoxicity evaluation of perforation repair materials on human periodontal ligament cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Perforation of a tooth structure resulting in communication of the pulp space with periodontium occasionally occurs during endodontic therapy. For the best prognosis, the perforation area must be sealed as soon as possible. Because these materials will be in direct contact with periodontal tissues, their cytotoxic potential must be evaluated before clinical use. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytocompatibility of three perforation repair materials (amalgam, resin, and glass ionomer). Cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were used to evaluate the cellular response resulting from these materials by cell viability and proliferation assays. Twenty-seven 5 x 4 mm cylinders of each material were fabricated for this study. All tested materials were cytotoxic to human PDL cells. Both types of material and time affected cell viability and proliferation. Resin exhibited the most cytotoxic effects followed by glass ionomer and amalgam during a 14-day incubation period. Amalgam and glass ionomer slightly inhibited cell viability and growth in the first 24 hr, compared with the control. Amalgam or glass ionomer may initially react more favorably to PDL cells than resin. The present model of cultured human PDL cells is simple, relatively cheap, and easily established and propagated under standardized conditions in any laboratory. Furthermore, this method allows long-term observation of human cellular reactions and thus might be a preliminary screening test for initial biocompatibility of dental materials. PMID:11199763

Tai, K W; Chang, Y C

2000-07-01

415

Experimental investigation of second interface cement bond evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement bond model wells (1:10 scaled-down) were made with a gradually degrading cement annulus for cement bond evaluation\\u000a of the first interface (between the casing and the cement annulus) and the second interface (between the cement annulus and\\u000a the formation). Experimental simulation on cement bond logging was carried out with these model wells. The correlation of\\u000a acoustic waveforms, casing wave

Che Xiaohua; Qiao Wenxiao

2007-01-01

416

Pullout strength of pedicle screws with cement augmentation in severe osteoporosis: A comparative study between cannulated screws with cement injection and solid screws with cement pre-filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pedicle screws with PMMA cement augmentation have been shown to significantly improve the fixation strength in a severely osteoporotic spine. However, the efficacy of screw fixation for different cement augmentation techniques, namely solid screws with retrograde cement pre-filling versus cannulated screws with cement injection through perforation, remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the difference in pullout strength between

Lih-Huei Chen; Ching-Lung Tai; De-Mei Lee; Po-Liang Lai; Yen-Chen Lee; Chi-Chien Niu; Wen-Jer Chen

2011-01-01

417

Overcoming interpretation problems of gas-contaminated cement using ultrasonic cement logs  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of cement sheath evaluation logs is to determine whether the production or injection zones, as well as other critical zones, are hydraulically isolated. Ultrasonic measurements have been used in cement evaluation since the early 1980s. Ultrasonic tools evaluate the cement sheath by measuring the acoustic impedance of the material outside the casing. Cement has a higher acoustic impedance than drilling fluids or water, and gas has an acoustic impedance near zero. Gas-contaminated cement poses the main problem in interpretation of ultrasonic cement tools. To understand the problem, the acoustic impedance of what might be in the casing-to-formation annulus must be considered. The acoustic impedance of cement can range from slightly over 3.0 MRayl to about 7.0 MRayl. Drilling fluids can be 1.5 MRayl to 3.0 MRayl. Water has an acoustic impedance of 1.5, and gas has an acoustic impedance of less than 0.04 MRayl. As long as there is sufficient difference between the acoustic impedance of the cement and the acoustic impedance of the liquid phase, channels in the cement can quickly be identified. In the case of gas-cut cement the texture of the material tends to be that of a honeycomb. This paper proposes a technique for using high-resolution ultrasonic data to identify gas-contaminated cement, while maintaining nearly the same vertical and radial resolution, thus allowing the identification of liquid-and gas-filled channels. The proposed technique allows improved interpretation of the high-resolution ultrasonic data when gas-contaminated cement is encountered. Even when attenuation-type logs are run, this technique will aid the interpretation. The results to date indicate that this technique can be applied to eliminate unnecessary cement squeeze jobs caused by misinterpretation of the ultrasonic data. Examples are shown to compare the technique to other cement log data and cement squeeze results.

Butsch, R.J.

1995-12-31

418

Engineering biocompatible implant surfaces. Part I: Materials and surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent decades vast and continuously increasing numbers of biomedical implants have been introduced for continuous use in the human body. Since the early cemented hip replacements in the 1960s there has been a constant spread of new materials, and ever more complex designs are being used in these implant devices. But still the rate of failure and loss of

S. a Bauer; P.a Schmuki; K. b von der Mark; J. c Park

2012-01-01

419

A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 ?M) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the synthesis of monodispersed, biocompatible, and soluble AuNPs with an average size of 20 nm using Ganoderma spp. This study opens up new possibilities of using an inexpensive and non-toxic mushroom extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of size-controlled, large-scale, biocompatible, and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:24940177

2014-01-01

420

A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 ?M) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the synthesis of monodispersed, biocompatible, and soluble AuNPs with an average size of 20 nm using Ganoderma spp. This study opens up new possibilities of using an inexpensive and non-toxic mushroom extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of size-controlled, large-scale, biocompatible, and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-05-01

421

Characterization of bone repair in rat femur after treatment with calcium phosphate cement and autogenous bone graft  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, the biocompatibility, stability and osteotransductivity of a new cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) were investigated in a bone repair model using a rat model. Methods The potential of alpha-TCP on bone repair was compared to autogenous bone grafting, and unfilled cavities were used as negative control. Surgical cavities were prepared and designated as test (T), implanted with alpha-TCP blocks; negative control (C - ), unfilled; and positive control (C + ), implanted with autogenous bone graft. Results were analyzed on postoperative days three, seven, 14, 21 and 60. Results The histological analyses showed the following results. Postoperative day three: presence of inflammatory infiltrate, erythrocytes and proliferating fibroblasts in T, C - and C + samples. Day seven: extensive bone neoformation in groups T and C + , and beginning of alpha-TCP resorption by phagocytic cells. Days 14 and 21: osteoblastic activity in the three types of cavities. Day 60: In all samples, neoformed bone similar to surrounding bone. Moderate interruption on the ostectomized cortical bone. Conclusions Bone neoformation is seen seven days after implantation of alpha-TCP and autogenous bone. Comparison of C - with T and C + samples showed that repair is faster in implanted cavities; on day 60, control groups presented almost complete bone repair. Alpha-TCP cement presents biocompatibility and osteotransductivity, besides stability, but 60 days after surgery the cavities were not closed. PMID:20579394

2010-01-01

422

Glass ionomer ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in fissure caries prevention – results from a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background The relative performance of ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant in preventing fissure caries in permanent molars was compared in a randomized clinical trial conducted in southern China (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01829334). Methods After obtaining ethical approval, healthy schoolchildren who had permanent first molars with occlusal fissures which were sound but deep or presented with only incipient caries were recruited for the study. Included molars were randomly allocated into one of four parallel study groups in units of left/right teeth per mouth. Two of the four groups adopted the methods of ART or fluoride-releasing resin sealant placement while the other two groups adopted the topical fluoride application methods. Fissure status of the molars in each group was evaluated every 6 months. Development of dentine caries and sealant retention over 24 months in the molars in the two sealant-using groups was compared in this report. Outcome on cost-effectiveness of all four groups over 36 months will be reported elsewhere. Results At baseline, a total of 280 children (383 molars) with mean age 7.8 years were involved for the two sealant groups. After 24 months, 261 children (357 molars) were followed. Proportions of molars with dentine caries were 7.3% and 3.9% in the ART sealant and fluoride-releasing resin sealant groups, respectively (chi-square test, p?=?0.171). Life-table survival analysis showed that sealant retention (full and partial) rate over 24 months for the resin sealant (73%) was significantly higher than that (50%) for the ART sealant (p?

2014-01-01

423

Quartz cement in sandstones: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz cement as syntaxial overgrowths is one of the two most abundant cements in sandstones. The main factors that control the amount of quartz cement in sandstones are: framework composition; residence time in the "silica mobility window"; and fluid composition, flow volume and pathways. Thus, the type of sedimentary basin in which a sand was deposited strongly controls the cementation process. Sandstones of rift basins (arkoses) and collision-margin basins (litharenites) generally have only a few percent quartz cement; quartzarenites and other quartzose sandstones of intracratonic, foreland and passive-margin basins have the most quartz cement. Clay and other mineral coatings on detrital quartz grains and entrapment of hydrocarbons in pores retard or prevent cementation by quartz, whereas extremely permeable sands that serve as major fluid conduits tend to sequester the greatest amounts of quartz cement. In rapidly subsiding basins, like the Gulf Coast and North Sea basins, most quartz cement is precipitated by cooling, ascending formation water at burial depths of several kilometers where temperatures range from 60° to 100° C. Cementation proceeds over millions of years, often under changing fluid compositions and temperatures. Sandstones with more than 10% imported quartz cement pose special problems of fluid flux and silica transport. If silica is transported entirely as H 4SiO 4, convective recycling of formation water seems to be essential to explain the volume of cement present in most sandstones. Precipitation from single-cycle, upward-migrating formation water is adequate to provide the volume of cement only if significant volumes of silica are transported in unidentified complexes. Modeling suggests that quartz cementation of sandstones in intracratonic basins is effected by advecting meteoric water, although independent petrographic, isotopic or fluid inclusion data are lacking. Silica for quartz cement comes from both shale and sandstone beds within the depositional basin, including possibly deeply buried rocks undergoing low-grade metamorphism, but the relative importance of potential sources remains controversial and likely differs for different formations. The most likely important silica sources within unmetamorphosed shales include clay transformation (chiefly illitization of smectite), dissolution/pressure solution of detrital grains, and dissolution of opal skeletal grains; the most likely important sources of silica within unmetamorphosed sandstones include pressure solution of detrital quartz grains at grain contacts and at stylolites, feldspar alteration/dissolution, and perhaps carbonate replacement of silicate minerals and the margins of some quartz grains. Silica released by pressure solution in many sandstones post-dates the episode of cementation by quartz; thus, this silica must migrate and cement shallower sandstones in the basin or escape altogether. Some quartz-cemented sandstones are separated vertically from potential silica source beds by a kilometer or more, requiring silica transport over long distances. The similarity of diagenetic sequences in sandstones of different composition and ages apparently is the result of the normal temperature and time-dependent maturation of sediments, organic matter and pore fluids during burial in sedimentary basins. Silica that forms overgrowths is released by one or more diagenetic processes that apparently are controlled by temperature and time. Most cementation by quartz takes place when sandstone beds were in the silica mobility window specific to a particular sedimentary basin. Important secondary controls are introduced by compartmentalized domains produced by faults (e.g., North Sea) or overpressure boundaries (e.g., Gulf Coast Tertiary). Shallow meteoric water precipitates only small amounts of silica cement (generally less than 5% in most fluvial and colian sandstones), except in certain soils and at water tables in high-flux sand aquifers. Soil silcretes are chiefly cemented by opal and microcrystalline quartz, whereas water-tab

McBride, Earle F.

424

Liquid antibiotics in bone cement  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the elution characteristics, antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) loaded with powdered antibiotic, powdered antibiotic with inert filler (xylitol), or liquid antibiotic, particularly focusing on vancomycin and amphotericin B. Methods Cement specimens loaded with 2 g of vancomycin or amphotericin B powder (powder group), 2 g of antibiotic powder and 2 g of xylitol (xylitol group) or 12 ml of antibiotic solution containing 2 g of antibiotic (liquid group) were tested. Results Vancomycin elution was enhanced by 234% in the liquid group and by 12% in the xylitol group compared with the powder group. Amphotericin B elution was enhanced by 265% in the liquid group and by 65% in the xylitol group compared with the powder group. Based on the disk-diffusion assay, the eluate samples of vancomycin-loaded ALBC of the liquid group exhibited a significantly larger inhibitory zone than samples of the powder or the xylitol group. Regarding the ALBCs loaded with amphotericin B, only the eluate samples of the liquid group exhibited a clear inhibitory zone, which was not observed in either the xylitol or the powder groups. The ultimate compressive strength was significantly reduced in specimens containing liquid antibiotics. Conclusions Adding vancomycin or amphotericin B antibiotic powder in distilled water before mixing with bone cement can significantly improve the efficiency of antibiotic release than can loading ALBC with the same dose of antibiotic powder. This simple and effective method for preparation of ALBCs can significantly improve the efficiency of antibiotic release in ALBCs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:246–51. PMID:25104836

Chang, Y. H.; Tai, C. L.; Hsu, H. Y.; Hsieh, P. H.; Lee, M. S.; Ueng, S. W. N.

2014-01-01

425

Development of corn cob ash blended cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to convert waste product into useful material for the construction industry, this research considered the use of corn cob ash (CCA) as a pozzolan in cement production. The study investigated the chemical composition of CCA. Factory production of the CCA – blended cement was carried out by replacing 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and

D. A. Adesanya; A. A. Raheem

2009-01-01

426

Delaware Basin Cementing - Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probably the most important decision facing the drilling engineer on Delaware basin wells is the selection of casing points. After the casing points have been chosen, the next problem is designing an effective cementing program. Careful evaluation of formation conditions, integrated design of slurry properties and mechanical methods, and complete control of placement are necessary for successful cementing design in

Max Gibbs

1966-01-01

427

Cardiovascular Effects of Implanted Acrylic Bone Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study has shown that there is usually but not invariably a fall in systemic arterial blood pressure within 90 seconds of implanting acrylic cement into the femoral shaft during hip arthroplasty. There is usually no change in arterial blood pressure on implanting acrylic cement into the acetabulum. The observed hypotension may be due to absorption of monomer or

Hugh Phillips; Peter V. Cole; Alan W. F. Lettin

1971-01-01

428

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

WESSON, CARL E.

429

CELLULOSE CEMENT COMPOSITE MODIFIED BY POLYMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The durability of the cellulose-cement composites is a deciding factor to introduce such material in the market. Several researches have been developed aiming to avoid the degradation of vegetable fiber-cement, some using chemically treated fibers and others modifying the matrix. Polymers have been used in concrete and mortar production to increase its durability. The goal of this work is to

L. L. Pimentel; A. L. Beraldo; H. Savastano Jr

430

Radiological changes in asbestos cement workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To explore associations between exposure to asbestos cement dust and radiographic findings in lung parenchyma and pleura. METHODS--Radiographs from 174 blue collar workers and 29 white collar workers from an asbestos cement plant formed one part of the study. Progression of small opacities was further studied in those 124 blue collar workers, for whom two radiographs taken after the end

K Jakobsson; U Strömberg; M Albin; H Welinder; L Hagmar

1995-01-01

431

Surgical repair of invasive cervical root resorption with calcium-enriched mixture cement: a case report.  

PubMed

Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) occurs in the cervical area of the teeth due to the formation of a soft tissue that progressively resorbs dentin. The disease is asymptomatic unless the pulp is exposed. This article presents a case involving a mandibular canine that was treated with a calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After a full mucoperiosteal flap was performed, the soft tissue was curetted away and the cavity filled with CEM biomaterial. One week later, the supragingival surface of the CEM was polished and covered with composite resin. At a 1-year follow-up visit, the pulp was healthy and the gingival probing depth decreased from >3 mm to 1 mm, showing attachment gain. As a biocompatible material, CEM has proven its ability in dentinogenesis, cementogenesis, and osteogenesis; it may prove to be a suitable biomaterial for treating ICR cases. PMID:25574717

Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

2015-01-01

432

Basic studies on hydroxy apatite cement: I. Setting reaction.  

PubMed

Self-setting cements, alpha D-Cement and alpha DT-Cement, were prepared. They consisted of only the calcium phosphates alpha-TCP, TTCP and DCPA. These cements reacted and hardened in a moist environment at 37 degrees C. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns were taken to examine the conversion of their reactions as a function of time. The cements reacted and produced hydroxyapatite. The optimum powder/liquid ratio of alpha D-Cement was 2.0 and that of alpha DT-Cement was 1.8. The initial setting time of alpha D-Cement was 87.5 m and that of alpha DT-Cement was 107.5 m. The component and the product of these cements are calcium phosphates which are the putative minerals in teeth and bones. Therefore, these cements are useful for oral surgery as bone-filling materials. PMID:9680764

Fukase, Y; Wada, S; Uehara, H; Terakado, M; Sato, H; Nishiyama, M

1998-06-01

433

Fabrication of Novel Biocompatible Surfaces by Two-Photon Absorption Technique Using Femtosecond Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the preparation of biocompatible patterned surfaces by a two-photon absorption technique. We have synthesized poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) copolymers, which exhibit biocompatibility and photocrosslinking moiety. Fabrication resolution can be controlled in the sub-micrometer range by changing the laser power, photoinitiator concentration, and scanning speed. The patterned surfaces showed excellent human platelet compatibility. Biocompatible patterned surfaces can be used in

Masaru Tanaka; Hirokazu Sato; Yugo Sasaya; Suguru Horinouchi; Jun-ichi Hotta; Yasutaka Matsuo; Kuniharu Ijiro; Keiji Sasaki; Masatsugu Shimomura

2009-01-01

434

Inclined cement tests improve measurement  

SciTech Connect

Because of the effects of free water on setting cement, a free water test procedure was added to API Specification 10 in 1964. The API free water test placed more emphasis on the evaluation and control of free water rather than on all aspects of slurry stability (such as particle settling). For particle settling (density segregation), the procedure used only a visual, subjective review without a quantitative measurement. In 1978, a possible relationship between flow after cementing and changes in hydrostatic pressure because of the accumulation of free water was studied. Most of the research up to this point was conducted without consideration of the effects of increased temperature, pressure, and deviation. Later research found a large increase (up to 8%) in free water at high temperatures compared to tests conducted at 80 F according to API Section 6. Furthermore, when the effects of deviation were included, the vertical API test was found to be optimistic. Procedural modifications were suggested in include a test for free water at a 45[degree] angle. In early 1990, BP International Ltd. developed a new method of testing free water slurry stability and established a quantitative method of evaluation. This method combined aspects of temperature, pressure, and deviation in a unique chamber. The paper describes this test procedure and effects of deviation angle, temperature, and pressure.

Matson, R.P.; Rogers, M.; Boncan, V.G.; Gandy, R.G. (BJ Services Co., Tomball, TX (United States))

1993-03-08

435