Science.gov

Sample records for biodegradable polybutylene succinate

  1. Performance of biodegradable microcapsules of poly(butylene succinate), poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) and poly(butylene terephthalate-co-adipate) as drug encapsulation systems.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Cornelia Theresa; Baran, Erkan Türker; Pinho, Elisabete Duarte; Reis, Rui Luís; Neves, Nuno Meleiro

    2011-06-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu), poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) and poly(butylene terephthalate-co-adipate) (PBTA) microcapsules were prepared by the double emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The effect of polymer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration on the microcapsule morphologies, drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) were all investigated. As a result, the sizes of PBSu, PBSA and PBTA microcapsules were increased significantly by varying polymer concentrations from 6 to 9%. atRA was encapsulated into the microcapsules with an high level of approximately 95% EE. The highest EE and DL of BSA were observed at 1% polymer concentration in values of 60 and 37%, respectively. 4% PVA was found as the optimum concentration and resulted in 75% EE and 14% DL of BSA. The BSA release from the capsules of PBSA was the longest, with 10% release in the first day and a steady release of 17% until the end of day 28. The release of atRA from PBSu microcapsules showed a zero-order profile for 2 weeks, keeping a steady release rate during 4 weeks with a 9% cumulative release. Similarly, the PBSA microcapsules showed a prolonged and a steady release of atRA during 6 weeks with 12% release. In the case of PBTA microcapsules, after a burst release of 10% in the first day, showed a parabolic release profile of atRA during 42 days, releasing 36% of atRA. PMID:21376545

  2. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and characterization of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) copolyesters.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both biodegradable aliphatic neat poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) (P(BS-co-NPGS)) copolyesters with different 1,4-butanediol/neopentyl glycol ratios were synthesized through a two-step process of transesterification and polycondensation using stannous chloride and 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid as the co-catalysts. The structure, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, crystalline morphology and crystal structure of neat PBS and P(BS-co-NPGS) copolyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The Avrami equation modified by Jeziorny and Mo's method was employed to describe the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. The modified Avrami equation could adequately describe the primary stage of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. Mo's method provided a fairly satisfactory description of the non-isothermal crystallization of neat PBS and its copolyesters. Interestingly, the values of 1/t1/2, Zc and F(T) obtained by the modified Avrami equation and Mo's method analysis indicated that the crystallization rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of NPGS content compared that of neat PBS, whereas the crystallization mechanism almost kept unchanged. The results of tensile testing showed that the ductility of PBS was largely improved by incorporating NPGS units. The elongation at break increased remarkably with increasing NPGS content. In particular, the sample with 20% NPGS content showed around 548% elongation at break. PMID:25491999

  3. Dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) matrix.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Vaudreuil, Sébastien; Maazouz, Abderrahim; Bousmina, Mosto

    2006-07-01

    This communication describes the preparation, characterization and properties of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposite. Nanocomposite was prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer and the amount of MWCNTs loading was 3 wt%. State of dispersion-distribution of the MWCNTs in the PBS matrix was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations that revealed homogeneous distribution of stacked MWCNTs in PBS matrix. The investigation of the thermomechanical behavior was performed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Results demonstrated substantial enhancement in the mechanical properties of PBS, for example, at room temperature, storage flexural modulus increased from 0.64 GPa for pure PBS to 1.2 GPa for the nanocomposite, an increase of about 88% in the value of the elastic modulus. The tensile modulus and thermal stability of PBS were moderately improved after nanocomposite preparation with 3 wt% of MWCNTs, while electrical conductivity of neat PBS dramatically increased after nanocomposite formation. For example, the in plane conductivity increased from 5.8 x 10(-9) S/cm for neat PBS to 4.4 x 10(-3) for nanocomposite, an increase of 10(6) fold in value of the electrical conductivity. PMID:17025148

  4. Biodegradability and biodegradation rate of poly(caprolactone)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) biodegradable polymer under aerobic and anaerobic environment.

    PubMed

    Cho, H S; Moon, H S; Kim, M; Nam, K; Kim, J Y

    2011-03-01

    The biodegradability and the biodegradation rate of two kinds biodegradable polymers; poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), were investigated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PCL-starch blend was easily degraded, with 88% biodegradability in 44 days under aerobic conditions, and showed a biodegradation rate of 0.07 day(-1), whereas the biodegradability of PBS was only 31% in 80 days under the same conditions, with a biodegradation rate of 0.01 day(-1). Anaerobic bacteria degraded well PCL-starch blend (i.e., 83% biodegradability for 139 days); however, its biodegradation rate was relatively slow (6.1 mL CH(4)/g-VS day) compared to that of cellulose (13.5 mL CH(4)/g-VS day), which was used as a reference material. The PBS was barely degraded under anaerobic conditions, with only 2% biodegradability in 100 days. These results were consistent with the visual changes and FE-SEM images of the two biodegradable polymers after the landfill burial test, showing that only PCL-starch blend had various sized pinholes on the surface due to attack by microorganisms. This result may be use in deciding suitable final disposal approaches of different types of biodegradable polymers in the future. PMID:21144726

  5. Structure-barrier property relationship of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] nanocomposites: influence of the rigid amorphous fraction.

    PubMed

    Charlon, S; Marais, S; Dargent, E; Soulestin, J; Sclavons, M; Follain, N

    2015-11-28

    Composites composed of polyesters, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) or poly[(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate)] (PBSA), and 5 wt% of montmorillonite (CNa) or organo-modified montmorillonite (C30B) were melt-processed and transformed into films by either compression-molding or extrusion-calendering. XRD, rheological measurements and TEM images clearly indicated that films containing CNa are microcomposites, while nanocomposites were observed for those containing C30B. Using Flash DSC, it was possible, for the first time, not only to measure the heat capacity step at the glass transition of these two materials in their amorphous state, but also to investigate whether the preparation technique influenced the Rigid Amorphous Fraction (RAF) in our PBS- and PBSA-based nanocomposites. In this work, we have successfully shown the correlation between the microstructure of the films and their barrier properties, and especially the role played by the RAF. Indeed, the lowest permeabilities to gases and to water were determined in the films containing the highest RAF in both PBS- and PBSA-based materials. PMID:26489904

  6. Enhanced performance of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, X W; Zhang, C-A; Wang, P L; Zhao, J; Zhang, W; Ji, J H; Hua, K; Zhou, J; Yang, X B; Li, X P

    2012-05-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were facilely prepared via in situ polymerization. The properties of the nanocomposites were studied using FTIR, XRD, and (1)H NMR, and the state of dispersion of GO in the PBS matrix was examined by SEM. The crystallization and melting behavior of the PBS matrix in the presence of dispersed GO nanosheets have been studied by DSC and polarized optical microscopy. Through the mechnical testing machine and DMA, PBS/GO nanocomposites with 3% GO have shown a 43% increase in tensile strength and a 45% improvement in storage modulus. This high performance of the nanocomposites is mainly attributed to the high strength of graphene oxide combined with the strong interfacial interactions in the uniformly dispersed PBS/GO nanocomposites. PMID:22420718

  7. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of poly(butylene succinate) composites with finely dispersed hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Sawako; Hotta, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradability and mechanical properties of aliphatic poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) films with finely dispersed hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were investigated. First, 3.5 wt% of PAA was chemically grafted onto the surface of the PBS films (surface-grafted PBS) by photo grafting polymerization, and then the grafted PAA was homogeneously and finely dispersed into PBS by dissolving the surface-grafted PBS into chloroform before mixing and drying to get solid PAA-dispersed PBS. Degradation of these modified PBS was investigated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and tensile testing. According to the GPC results, it was found that the PAA-dispersed PBS had intermediate biodegradability with the intermediate water intake, and the reaction constant of PAA-dispersed PBS was in between those of untreated PBS and surface-grafted PBS, in fact 25% higher and 17% lower, respectively. The experimental results presented that the biodegradability of PBS could be well controlled by the dispersion of PAA, possibly leading to the widespread use of PBS for biodegradable polymers.

  8. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Biao; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Quanxiang; Ji, Jiajin; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of bone engineering scaffolds are expected to exhibit osteoinductive behavior and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we employed synthesized ordered mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate (om-CMS) and polybutylene succinate (PBSu) to develop a novel scaffold with potential applications in osseous tissue engineering. The characteristics, in vitro bioactivity of om-CMS/PBSu scaffold, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells to the composite were investigated. Our results showed that the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold possesses a large surface area and highly ordered channel pores, resulting in improved degradation and biocompatibility compared to the PBSu scaffold. Moreover, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold exhibited significantly higher bioactivity and induced apatite formation on its surface after immersion in the simulated body fluid. In addition, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold provided a high surface area for cell attachment and released Ca, Mg, and Si ions to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The unique surface characteristics and higher biological efficacy of the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold suggest that it has great potential for being developed into a system that can be employed in osseous tissue engineering. PMID:26604746

  9. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Biao; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Quanxiang; Ji, Jiajin; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of bone engineering scaffolds are expected to exhibit osteoinductive behavior and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we employed synthesized ordered mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate (om-CMS) and polybutylene succinate (PBSu) to develop a novel scaffold with potential applications in osseous tissue engineering. The characteristics, in vitro bioactivity of om-CMS/PBSu scaffold, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells to the composite were investigated. Our results showed that the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold possesses a large surface area and highly ordered channel pores, resulting in improved degradation and biocompatibility compared to the PBSu scaffold. Moreover, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold exhibited significantly higher bioactivity and induced apatite formation on its surface after immersion in the simulated body fluid. In addition, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold provided a high surface area for cell attachment and released Ca, Mg, and Si ions to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The unique surface characteristics and higher biological efficacy of the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold suggest that it has great potential for being developed into a system that can be employed in osseous tissue engineering. PMID:26604746

  10. Multi walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites with biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) and their physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hong, M K; Ko, S W; Park, J H; Choi, H J; Kim, J H

    2011-06-01

    In order to examine the influence of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on physical properties of its biodegradable polymer nanocomposite, biodegradable poly(buthylene succinate) (PBS), which was synthesized from diols and dicarboxylic acids, and MWNT nanocomposites were prepared via a melt-mixing method using a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder. Microstructure of the PBS/MWNT nanocomposites and MWNT were investigated via both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Their rheological properties were also characterized via rotation and oscillation tests using a rotational rheometer with parallel-plate geometry. It was found that shear viscosity, storage modulus and loss modulus of the nanocomposites examined by a rotational rheometer increased with the MWNT content. Especially their sharp increase for MWNT content of ca. 2.0 wt% was observed, indicating its percolation threshold from the rheological viewpoint which was higher than its electrical percolation threshold (1.0 wt%). PMID:21770188

  11. Thermal and rheological properties of biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Jayita; Maity, Arjun; Khatua, Bhanu Bhusan; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2010-07-01

    The thermal and rheological properties of clay-containing poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) nanocomposites are reported. The nanocomposites of PBSA with various weight percentages of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) loadings have been prepared by melt-mixing in a batch-mixer. The melting and crystallization behaviours of PBSA and its nanocomposites have been studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The melt-state rheological properties of pure PBSA and its nanocomposites containing different amounts of OMMT have been studied in detail. The reason for this is that the rheological responses of any nanofilled polymeric materials are strongly related by their dispersed structure and the interfacial characteristic. Results show that the structural strength of all samples remains constant in the examined time interval at an experimental temperature. The dominant viscous behaviour of pure PBSA is getting suppressed up to a certain OMMT loading (4 wt%). Nanocomposite containing 5 wt% OMMT is showing almost "at the gel point" behaviour, suggesting that the material is behaving near the borderline between liquid and solid; while nanocomposite containing 6 wt% OMMT is showing the gel character. The dispersed structure of the clay particles in the PBSA matrix was studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Results show that the stacked and intercalated silicate layers are nicely dispersed in the case of all nanocomposites. However, with a systematic increase in OMMT loading, the dispersed clay structure of the nanocomposites changes from a highly delaminated to a flocculated and then to a stacked-intercalated structure. In the case of all nanocomposites, melt-state rheological properties are in good agreement with the STEM observations. PMID:21128399

  12. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) modified by gas plasmas and their in vitro functions as bone implants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaiyu; Xu, Ming; Wu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Wei; Ji, Junhui; Chu, Paul K

    2012-08-01

    Artificial implants are alternatives to autologous grafts in repairing severe bone damage and in many clinical applications, the artificial implant materials should be biodegradable in order to avoid chronic problems associated with biostable implants. In this study, a biodegradable biopolymer, poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu), is treated by N(2), NH(3) and H(2)O plasmas and investigated as bone replacement materials in vitro to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of osteoblasts on the different plasma-treated materials. N(2), NH(3), and H(2)O plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) produces dominant C-N, C═N, and C-O surface functional groups, respectively rendering the materials with hydrophilic characteristics which favor osteoblast adhesion and early proliferation. In particular, N-containing groups, especially C═N, are more positive to osteogenic differentiation of the seeded osteoblasts than C-O. Among the 3 plasma treatments, NH(3) PIII is the most effective, yielding surface properties that are suitable for artificial bone implants. PMID:22799540

  13. Controlled-release fertilizer prepared using a biodegradable aliphatic copolyester of poly(butylene succinate) and dimerized fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Lubkowski, Krzysztof; Smorowska, Aleksandra; Grzmil, Barbara; Kozłowska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-18

    The preparation and characterization of a controlled-release multicomponent (NPK) fertilizer with the coating layer consisting of a biodegradable copolymer of poly(butylene succinate) and a butylene ester of dilinoleic acid (PBS/DLA) is reported. The morphology and structure of the resulting polymer-coated materials and the thickness of the covering layers were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical properties of these materials were determined with a strength-testing machine. Nutrient release was measured in water using spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and conductivity methods. The results of the nutrient release experiments from these polymer-coated materials were compared with the requirements for controlled-release fertilizers. A conceptual model is presented describing the mechanism of nutrient release from the materials prepared in this study. This model is based on the concentrations of mineral components inside the water-penetrated fertilizer granules, the diffusion properties of the nutrients in water, and a diffusion coefficient through the polymer layer. The experimental kinetic data on nutrient release were interpreted using the sigmoidal model equation developed in this study. PMID:25715823

  14. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite at low carbon nanotubes loading: morphology, crystallization and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Qiu, Zhaobin

    2010-02-01

    Biodegradable nanocomposite based on poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was prepared by solution blending method at 1 wt% MWNTs loading. Scanning electron microscopic observation illustrates a homogeneous distribution of MWNTs in the PBSU matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, and wide angle X-ray diffraction were used to study the nonisothermal crystallization, isothermal crystallization kinetics, spherulitic morphology, and crystal structure of neat PBSU and its nanocomposite. The presence of MWNTs enhances the crystallization of PBSU in the nanocomposite due to the heterogeneous nucleation effect while the crystallization mechanism and crystal structure of PBSU do not change. Moreover, the incorporation of a small quantity of MWNTs has improved significantly the mechanical property of PBSU in the nanocomposite compared with that of neat PBSU. PMID:20352743

  15. Fully biodegradable and biorenewable ternary blends from polylactide, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and poly(butylene succinate) with balanced properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kunyu; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manju

    2012-06-27

    A ternary blend of entirely biodegradable polymers, namely polylactide (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), was first melt-compounded in an effort to prepare novel fully biodegradable materials with an excellent balance of properties. The miscibility, morphology, thermal behavior, mechanical properties, and thermal resistance of the blends were investigated. DMA analysis revealed that PHBV and PLA showed some limited miscibility with each other, but PBS is immiscible with PLA or PHBV. Minor phase-separated structure was observed from SEM for all the blends composition except PHBV/PLA/PBS 60/30/10 blend, which formed a typical mixture of core-shell morphology. The morphologies were verified by analysis of the spreading coefficients. Excellent stiffness-toughness balance was achieved by ternary blends of PLA, PHBV, and PBS. Significant enhancement of the toughness and flexibility of PLA was achieved by the incorporation of PBS and PHBV without sacrificing the strength apparently. Both the stiffness and toughness were improved for PHBV in the ternary blends with PHBV as matrix. The crystallization of the PLA and PBS were enhanced by presence of PHBV in the blends, while the crystallization of PHBV was confined by PLA and PBS phases. Moreover, the thermal resistances and melt flow properties of the materials were also studied by analysis of the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and melt flow index (MFI) value in the work. PMID:22616661

  16. Role of specific interfacial area in controlling properties of immiscible blends of biodegradable polylactide and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate].

    PubMed

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2012-12-01

    Binary blends of two biodegradable polymers: polylactide (PLA), which has high modulus and strength but is brittle, and poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA), which is flexible and tough, were prepared through batch melt mixing. The PLA/PBSA compositions were 100/0, 90/10, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 10/90, and 0/100. Fourier-transform infrared measurements revealed the absence of any chemical interaction between the two polymers, resulting in a phase-separated morphology as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed that PLA-rich blends had smaller droplet sizes when compared to the PBSA-rich blends, which got smaller with the reduction in PBSA content due to the differences in their melt viscosities. The interfacial area of PBSA droplets per unit volume of the blend reached a maximum in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend. Thermal stability and mechanical properties were not only affected by the composition of the blend, but also by the interfacial area between the two polymers. Through differential scanning calorimetry, it was shown that molten PBSA enhanced crystallization of PLA while the stiff PLA hindered cold crystallization of PBSA. Optimal synergies of properties between the two polymers were found in the 70PLA/30PBSA blend because of the maximum specific interfacial area of the PBSA droplets. PMID:23148691

  17. Crystallization kinetics and morphology studies of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaobin; Zhu, Siyu; Yang, Wantai

    2009-08-01

    Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA)/carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) nanocomposites were prepared through solution casting method with different f-MWNTs contents ranging from 0.5 to 2 wt%. Scanning electron microscopic observations reveal a fine dispersion of f-MWNTs throughout the PBSA matrix. Effect of f-MWNTs on the crystallization behavior of PBSA was investigated in detail via various techniques and different crystallization conditions including nonisothermal crystallization at different cooling rates and isothermal crystallization at different crystallization temperatures in this work. For both nonisothermal and isothermal melt crystallization, the addition of f-MWNTs enhances the crystallization of PBSA apparently due to their heterogeneous nucleation effect. However, the crystal structure of PBSA does not change in the nanocomposites. Moreover, an attempt was made to study the effect of the presence of f-MWNTs and their contents on the nucleation activity and crystallizability of PBSA in the nanocomposites quantitatively. PMID:19928174

  18. Rat calvaria osteoblast behavior and antibacterial properties of O(2) and N(2) plasma-implanted biodegradable poly(butylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaiyu; Ji, Junhui; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yihe; Wu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Yumei; Chu, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    Poly(butylene succinate), a novel biodegradable aliphatic polyester with excellent processability and mechanical properties, was modified by O(2) or N(2) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were carried out to reveal the surface characteristics of the treated and control specimens. The in vitro effects of the materials on seeded osteoblasts were detected by cell viability assay, alkaline phosphatase activity test, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Plate counting was performed to investigate the antibacterial properties. Our results show that both PIII treatments significantly improve the hydrophilicity of PBSu, and CO and nitrogen groups (CNH and CNH(2)) can be detected on the PBSu after O(2) and N(2) PIII, respectively. The modified samples exhibit similar compatibility to osteoblasts, which is better than that of the control, but O(2) PIII and N(2) PIII produce different effects according to the osteogenic gene expressions of seeded osteoblasts on the materials. Moreover, the N(2) plasma-modified PBSu exhibits anti-infection effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli but no such effects can be achieved after O(2) PIII. PMID:19631768

  19. Rapid monomerization of poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) by Leptothrix sp.

    PubMed

    Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Toyoshima, Kieko; Saito, Chika; Takaguchi, Hitoshi; Akutsu-Shigeno, Yukie; Sato, Megumi; Miyama, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2009-12-01

    For rapid monomerization of biodegradable plastics, various microorganisms were screened and TB-71 was selected as the best strain. TB-71 degraded solid poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ethylene succinate), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) but not poly(butylene succinate), poly(2-hydroxybutylate-co-valerate) or poly(lactic acid). Esterase activity was observed in the culture broth during PBSA degradation, which was specifically induced by PBSA. Analysis of the degradation products revealed that PBSA was degraded to monomers. PMID:19914585

  20. Poly(butylene succinate) and its copolymers: research, development and industrialization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Guo, Bao-Hua

    2010-11-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and its copolymers are a family of biodegradable polymers with excellent biodegradability, thermoplastic processability and balanced mechanical properties. In this article, production of the monomers succinic acid and butanediol, synthesis, processing and properties of PBS and its copolymers are reviewed. The physical properties and biodegradation rate of PBS materials can be varied in a wide range through copolymerization with different types and various contents of monomers. PBS has a wide temperature window for thermoplastic processing, which makes the resin suitable for extrusion, injection molding, thermoforming and film blowing. Finally, we summarized industrialization and applications of PBS. PMID:21058317

  1. Biodegradation of poly(butylene succinate) powder in a controlled compost at 58°C evaluated by naturally-occurring carbon 14 amounts in evolved CO(2) based on the ISO 14855-2 method.

    PubMed

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-10-01

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 degrees C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled "Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions-Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide-Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test". The evolved CO(2) was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)(2) solution. The trapped BaCO(3) was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the (14)C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO(2) (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO(2) amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO(2). PMID:20057944

  2. Biodegradation of Poly(butylene succinate) Powder in a Controlled Compost at 58 °C Evaluated by Naturally-Occurring Carbon 14 Amounts in Evolved CO2 Based on the ISO 14855-2 Method

    PubMed Central

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions—Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide—Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test”. The evolved CO2 was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)2 solution. The trapped BaCO3 was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the 14C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO2 (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO2 amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO2. PMID:20057944

  3. From Nanofibrillar to Nanolaminar Poly(butylene succinate): Paving the Way to Robust Barrier and Mechanical Properties for Full-Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Films.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Chen, Jing-Bin; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2015-04-22

    The traditional approach toward barrier property enhancement of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is the incorporation of sheet-like fillers such as nanoclay and graphene, unfortunately leading to the sacrificed biocompatibility and degradability. Here we unveil the first application of a confined flaking technique to establish the degradable nanolaminar poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in PLA films based on PLA/PBS in situ nanofibrillar composites. The combination of high pressure (10 MPa) and appropriate temperature (160 °C) during the flaking process desirably enabled sufficient deformation of PBS nanofibrils and retention of ordered PLA channels. Particularly, interlinked and individual nanosheets were created in composite films containing 10 and 20 wt % PBS, respectively, both of which presented desirable alignment and large width/thickness ratio (nanoscale thickness with a width of 428±13.1 and 76.9±8.2 μm, respectively). With the creation of compact polymer "nano-barrier walls", a dramatic decrease of 86% and 67% in the oxygen permeability coefficient was observed for the film incorporated with well-organized 20 wt % PBS nanosheets compared to pure PLA and pure PBS (1.4 and 0.6×10(-14) cm3·cm·cm(-2)·s(-1)·Pa(-1)), respectively. Unexpectedly, prominent increases of 21% and 28% were achieved in the tensile strength and modulus of composite films loaded 20 wt % PBS nanosheets compared to pure PLA films, although PBS intrinsically presents poor strength and stiffness. The unusual combination of barrier and mechanical performances established in the fully degradable system represent specific properties required in packaging beverages, food and medicine. PMID:25826123

  4. Multifunctional Nanobiocomposite of Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] and Clay.

    PubMed

    Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Basahel, Sulaiman Nassir; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The processing and characterization of multifunctional nanobiocomposite of biodegradable poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) and organically modified synthetic fluorine mica (OSFM) are reported. The nanobiocomposite of PBSA with OSFM was prepared using melt- blending, and the structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and material properties measurements showed the concurrent improvement in temperature dependence storage modulus, tensile properties, gas barrier, and thermal stability of neat PBSA after nanocomposite formation. Such improved inherent properties along with the environmentally-friendly feature are expected to widen the use of PBSA for short-term food-packaging applications. PMID:26413685

  5. Binary blends of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and poly(butylene succinate): A new matrix for biocomposites applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuraj, Rajendran; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar Kumar

    2015-05-01

    In this study, biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) binary blends were melt compounded. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the PBAT/PBS blends were investigated. The melt compounded binary PBAT/PBS blends showed balanced mechanical properties (especially in tensile strength and elongation) compared to neat components. The obtained melt flow index (MFI) value of the blends is much higher than PBAT. This may be attributed to PBS phase residual catalyst that can induce thermal degradation of the polymers at higher temperature. The toughness of the PBAT is not significantly affected with addition of 40 wt% PBS in the PBAT/PBS blend. This could be the reason of good compatibility achieved between the PBAT and PBS phase in the blends. The phase morphology and spherulite morphology were also correlated with compatibility between the PBAT and PBS in the blends.

  6. Enhanced performance of alkylated graphene reinforced polybutylene succinate nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, A. S. Zainal; Yusoh, K.; Jamari, S. S.; Abdullah, A. H.; Ismail, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) was being grafted with octadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-ODA) to produce novel PBS/GO-ODA nanocomposites by solution blending technique. Alkylated graphene oxide has superhydrophobic surface thus improved the affinity of the filler with low polar polymer such as PBS. The structure and compatibility of the filler and nanocomposites were being characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Universal tensile machine (UTM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Enhancement of tensile strength and Young's modulus by 30% and 165% respectively was achieved with cooperation of 0.5% GO-ODA loading. The functionalization of GO-ODA in PBS matrix leads to the improvement in the nanocomposites properties.

  7. Stress induced reversible crystal transition in poly(butylene succinate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoming; Zheng, Liuchun; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuncheng; Wang, Dujin

    2015-03-01

    The plastic deformation mechanism of semi-crystalline polymers is a long-studied topic, which is crucial for establishing structure/property relationships. For polymers with stress induced crystal transition, some open questions still need to be answered, such as on which stage of plastic deformation does the crystal transition take place, and more importantly, what happens on the lamellar structure during crystal transition. In this talk, stress-induced reversible crystal transition in poly(butylene succinate) was systematically investigated by in-situ WAXS and SAXS. A ``lamellar thickening'' phenomenon was observed during stretching, which was shown to mainly originated from the reversible crystal transition. This mechanism was shown to be valid in poly(ethylene succinate). The critical stress for the transition was measured in a series of PBS-based crystalline-amorphous multi-block copolymers. Interestingly, these PBS copolymers exhibited identical critical stress independent of amorphous blocks. The universal critical stress for crystal transition was interpreted through a single-microfibril-stretching mechanism. The work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51203170).

  8. Release behaviors of porous poly(butylene succinate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microcapsules containing indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Yun-Mok; Hong, Sung-Kwon

    2006-02-01

    The biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PBS/PCL) microcapsules containing indomethacin were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The morphologies, thermal properties, and release behaviors of PBS/PCL microcapsules were investigated. As a result, the microcapsules exhibited porous and spherical form in the presence of gelatin as a surfactant. From the DSC result, the PBS/PCL microcapsules showed the two exothermic peaks meaning the melting points of PCL and PBS. The results of FT-IR and DSC proved that the PBS and PCL were mixed so that the PBS/PCL microcapsules were composed of two wall-forming materials. And the release rate of indomethacin from the microcapsules was decreased with increasing the PCL content. It was noted that an addition of PCL on the PBS led to the decrease of pore size in the PBS/PCL microcapsules. PMID:16413177

  9. Effect of cellulose structure and morphology on the properties of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Avolio, R; Graziano, V; Pereira, Y D F; Cocca, M; Gentile, G; Errico, M E; Ambrogi, V; Avella, M

    2015-11-20

    Composites based on poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) containing amorphized and crystalline cellulose reinforcements have been prepared and characterized. In order to improve the polymer/filler interfacial adhesion, an efficient compatibilizing agent has been synthesized by chemical modification of PBSA and characterized by FT-IR, FT-NIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Uncompatibilized and compatibilized composites have been tested through morphological, mechanical, calorimetric and thermogravimetric analysis. Moreover, water vapor permeability and biodegradation kinetics of composites have been investigated. The addition to PBSA of cellulose fillers differing from each other by crystallinity degree and morphology, and the use of a compatibilizing agent have allowed modulating tensile and thermal properties, water vapor transmission rate and biodegradation kinetic of the composites. PMID:26344297

  10. Characterization of poly(butylene succinate)/glycerol co-plasticized thermoplastic gelatin prepared by melt blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliviero, Maria; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable thermoplastic poly(butylene succinate)/gelatin (PBS/TPG) blends with various blending ratios were prepared by melt mixing technique. The main goal of these blends is to improve the water sensitivity of thermoplastic gelatin by blending it with a hydrophobic biodegradable polymer obtained also from renewable resources. The incorporation of PBS yielded a decrease in absorbed moisture. Under the relative humidity 50 and 100%, the absorbed moisture obtained values were 19 and 229% for pure TPG, 12.3 and 127% for TPG/PBS(80/20), and 1.7 and 37% for TPG/PBS(20/80), respectively. The water resistance increased only for the samples containing a high value of PBS (>40%wt). Furthermore, mechanical properties and morphological analyses revealed that PBS/TPG blends were immiscible.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of electrospun poly(butylenes succinate) fiber mats containing PVP-capped silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ligang; Wang, Pingli; Zhao, Zhiguo; Ji, Junhui

    2013-12-01

    In this study, biodegradable poly(butylenes succinate) (PBS) fiber mats containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by the electrospinning process. Small AgNPs (<10 nm) were simply synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone as the capping agent as well as the reductant. The morphology of the PBS-AgNPs fiber mats and the distribution of the AgNPs were well characterized by TEM and SEM. The release of Ag from the PBS fiber mats was quantitively determined by ICP. The PBS fiber mats with 0.29 % AgNPs content showed strong antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli with the efficacy as high as 99 %. The effective bactericidal activity on E. coli was demonstrated for a short contacting time with the PBS-AgNPs fiber mats. In addition, the long-term release performance of Ag from the fiber mats can keep inhibiting the bacterial growth in the mats over a long period of time. PMID:24013858

  12. Biodegradation and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Poly(butylene succinate) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Satomi

    Polymer blends were fabricated with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with better mechanical properties and poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) with better biodegradable properties to clarify the effect of the blending ratio on the biodegradable and mechanical properties of the blends. The specimens were heat treated to improve the reduction in stiffness due to blending. Hydrolysis and soil burial tests up to 16 weeks were conducted to investigate the biodegradation properties. Young's modulus increased with increasing contents of PLA, whereas tensile strength is lowest in the PLA/PBSU (50/50) polymer blend before biodegradation because of the immiscibility of PLA and PBSU. Young's modulus kept constant up 16 weeks both in the hydrolysis and the soil burial tests. On the other hand, tensile strength decreased remarkably in the hydrolysis tests. The observation results of the specimen surface and the fracture surface indicate that the surface and bulk degradation occur in hydrolysis and soil burial tests, respectively

  13. Development of poly(butylene succinate) microspheres for delivery of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Krithika; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2013-07-01

    Parkinson's is a major neurodegenerative disorder that occurs due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in basal ganglia. Conventional therapy includes surgery that involves lot of risk and administration of levodopa which is accompanied by poor bioavailability, short half-life, and side effects. In the present study, poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu) microspheres-based drug delivery system to improve the bioavailability of the drug levodopa was evaluated for the first time. Biodegradable porous and smooth PBSu microspheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique (W/O/W) and the effect of solvent and surfactant was studied. The maximum encapsulation efficiency achieved was 53.93% and 62.28% for porous and smooth microspheres, respectively. In vitro drug release was studied in phosphate buffered saline and simulated CSF buffer of pH 7.4. Initially a burst effect followed by sustained release of drug was obtained for about 32 h and 159 h for porous and smooth microspheres, respectively. The release rate was higher in simulated CSF when compared with PBS, due to higher concentration of sodium ions and cations in simulated CSF. PMID:23401377

  14. Enhanced osteogenic activity of a poly(butylene succinate)/calcium phosphate composite by simple alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Arphavasin, Suphakit; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Ngamviriyavong, Patcharee; Janvikul, Wanida; Meesap, Preeyapan; Patntirapong, Somying

    2013-10-01

    Bone engineering offers the prospect of alternative therapies for clinically relevant skeletal defects. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polyester which may possess some limitations in clinical use due to its hydrophobicity. In order to overcome these limitations and increase the bioactivity, a simple and convenient surface hydrolysis of PBSu, PBSu/hydroxyapatite and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) films was performed. The resulting surfaces (i.e., HPBSu, HPBSu/HA and HPBSu/TCP) were tested for their physicochemical property, biocompatibility and osteogenic potency. The results showed that surface hydrolysis significantly increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the composites, with the HPBSu/TCP possessing the most pronounced results. All the materials appeared to be biocompatible and supported in vitro growth and osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs, and the alkaline hydrolysis significantly enhanced the hMSC cell proliferation and the osteogenic potency of PBSu/TCP compared with the non-hydrolyzed sample. In conclusion, the HPBSu/TCP possessed better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and osteogenic potency in vitro, suggesting that this simple and convenient alkaline hydrolysis could be used to augment the biological property of PBSu-based composites for bone engineering in vivo. PMID:24057872

  15. Simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal in an airlift reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yun-Jie; Deng, Ya-Le; Guo, Xi-Shan; Timmons, Michael B; Lu, Hui-Feng; Han, Zhi-Ying; Ye, Zhang-Ying; Shi, Ming-Ming; Zhu, Song-Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an airlift inner-loop sequencing batch reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as the biofilm carrier and carbon source was operated under an alternant aerobic/anoxic strategy for nitrogen removal in recirculating aquaculture system. The average TAN and nitrate removal rates of 47.35±15.62gNH4-Nm(-3)d(-1) and 0.64±0.14kgNO3-Nm(-3)d(-1) were achieved with no obvious nitrite accumulation (0.70±0.76mg/L) and the dissolved organic carbon in effluents was maintained at 148.38±39.06mg/L. Besides, the activities of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and sulfate reduction activities were successfully inhibited. The proteome KEGG analysis illustrated that ammonia might be removed through heterotrophic nitrification, while the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases were enhanced through aeration treatment. The microbial community analysis revealed that denitrifiers of Azoarcus and Simplicispira occupied the dominate abundance which accounted for the high nitrate removal performance. Overall, this study broadened our understanding of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification using biodegradable material as biofilm carrier. PMID:27343453

  16. Viscoelastic Properties of Poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Basahell, Sulaiman Nassir; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the viscoelastic properties of poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites of PBSA with various loadings of organically modified clay were prepared by melt-mixing in a batch-mixer. The solid and melt-state viscoelastic properties of neat PBSA and various nanocomposites were studied in detail. The dynamic mechanical studies demonstrated an increase in the storage modulus of PBSA matrix with organoclay loading. Melt-state rheological properties were found to be modified with organoclay loading changing from liquid-like, to gel-like and then viscoelastic solid-like. Such changes in viscoelastic properties along with the improvements in thermomechanical properties are expected to open opportunities for the use of PBSA extending its applications from the classical field of packaging to new niches such as tissue-engineering. PMID:26413658

  17. Rheological behavior of branch modified poly(butylene succinate) by butyl glycidyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Guo, Baohua

    2016-03-01

    The Butyl Glycidyl Ether (bge) is selected as a branch mononers and correspondingly poly(butylene succinate) PBS-bge copolymers is synthesised by polymerization. In this study, the dynamic viscoelastic is employed to study the rheological properties of homogeneous PBS and PBS-bge copolymers. The results indicated that all copolymers showed high mole weight and well matched the reaction mole ratio. But the PBS-bge copolymers exhibited a higher shear thinning behaviors than homogeneous PBS. And all PBS-bge copolymers exhibited a higher complex viscosity at low frequency indicating network-like structures were formed at the low shear frequency. In addition, the tanδ is remarkable decreased with the introducing of bge, which reflects that the elasticity of polymer is significantly improved. As a result, the branched modification has improved the ductility and toughness of the material obviously, especially when the branched ratio is more than 5%.

  18. Starch grafted poly(butylene succinate) via conjugating reaction and its role on enhancing the compatibility.

    PubMed

    Kanitporn, Suchao-in; Koombhongse, Piyawit; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-02-15

    A single step process of grafting poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) on starch to obtain starch-g-PBS in a heterogeneous system is proposed. Starch-g-PBS is accomplished by a conjugating reaction in chloroform at room temperature between hydroxyl groups of starch and carboxylic acid terminal groups of PBS by using N-N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) conjugating agent. The grafting of PBS at both primary alcohol and secondary alcohol of starch is as high as 20-30% as confirmed by (1)H NMR and HMBC 2D NMR. The grafting of PBS results in a drastic changes of the crystallization as seen from the decrease in size of spherulite. The starch-g-PBS is a good compatibilizer between PBS and starch by promoting strong interfacial adhesion of the blend as evidenced from the improvement of modulus (2 times increase) and the miscibility of the blend in SEM images. PMID:24507260

  19. Poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)/cellulose nanocrystal composites modified with phthalic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong

    2015-12-10

    As a kind of biomass nanofiller for polymers, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has good mechanical properties and reinforcing capability. To improve the compatibility of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA)/CNC composites, phthalic anhydride was used as a compatilizer during melt mixing, leading to the significant improvement of the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites, which is related to the better dispersion of CNC in the composites. The addition of phthalic anhydride could accelerate the crystallization of PBSA component as evidenced by the curves of isothermal crystallization of the composites, but had little effect on the crystalline polymorphs of PBSA component. The addition of phthalic anhydride could strongly improve the hydrophobicity of the composites. The good mechanical properties, fast crystallization and improved hydrophobicity of PBSA/CNC composites with phthalic anhydride are favor to their practical commercial utilization. PMID:26428099

  20. Bone Formation from Porcine Dental Germ Stem Cells on Surface Modified Polybutylene Succinate Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Designing and providing a scaffold are very important for the cells in tissue engineering. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has high potential as a scaffold for bone regeneration due to its capacity in cell proliferation and differentiation. Also, stem cells from 3rd molar tooth germs were favoured in this study due to their developmentally and replicatively immature nature. In this study, porcine dental germ stem cells (pDGSCs) seeded PBS scaffolds were used to investigate the effects of surface modification with fibronectin or laminin on these scaffolds to improve cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation for tissue engineering applications. The osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs on these modified and unmodified foams were examined to heal bone defects and the effects of fibronectin or laminin modified PBS scaffolds on pDGSC differentiation into bone were compared for the first time. For this study, MTS assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of modified and unmodified surfaces. For the characterization of pDGSCs, flow cytometry analysis was carried out. Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, von Kossa staining, real-time PCR, CM-Dil, and immunostaining were applied to analyze osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs. The results of these studies demonstrated that pDGSCs were differentiated into osteogenic cells on fibronectin modified PBS foams better than those on unmodified and laminin modified PBS foams. PMID:27413380

  1. Aerogel Poly(butylene succinate) Biomaterial Substrate for RF and Microwave Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Ullah, M.; Mahadi, W. N. L.; Latef, T. A.

    2015-08-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (ɛr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3-11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively.

  2. Surface reconstruction and hemocompatibility improvement of a phosphorylcholine end-capped poly(butylene succinate) coating.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ni; Wang, Yan-Bing; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Shi, Su-Qing; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2014-09-01

    Control over cell-material surface interactions is the key to many new and improved biomedical devices. In this study, we present a simple yet effective surface modification method that allows for the surface reconstruction and formation of cell outer membrane mimetic structure on coatings that have significantly increased hemocompatibility. To achieve this, a phosphorylcholine end-capped poly(butylene succinate) (PBS-PC) was synthesized and dip-coated on coverslips. The surface structure of the amphiphilic PBS-PC film was reconstructed by heating in a vacuum oven to obtain the less hydrophilic surface and by immersing in hot water to obtain the more hydrophilic surface. Significant changes in the surface element concentration were observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and changes in surface wettability were measured by sensitive dynamic contact angle technique. Scanning electron microscope images showed different morphologies of the reconstructed surfaces. Interestingly, the reconstruction between the less hydrophilic and more hydrophilic surfaces is reversible. More importantly, both the reconstructed surfaces are stable in room condition for more than 6 months, and both the surfaces show significant improvement in hemocompatibility as revealed by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion measurements. This reversible surface reconstruction strategy and the interesting results may be significant for fabricating stable and hemocompatible surfaces on differently shaped biomedical devices. PMID:24115737

  3. Development of micropatterned surfaces of poly(butylene succinate) by micromolding for guided tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Daniela F; Gomes, Manuela E; Neves, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L

    2012-04-01

    Native tissues present complex architectures at the micro- and nanoscale that dictate their biological function. Several microfabrication techniques have been employed for engineering polymeric surfaces that could replicate in vitro these micro- and nanofeatures. In this study, biomimetic surfaces of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were engineered by a micromolding technique. After the optimization of the system parameters, 20 surfaces with different combinations of groove and ridge sizes were developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of the engineered microfeatures over the viability and attachment of human adipose derived adult stem cells (hASCs) was evaluated. hASCs cultured onto the engineered surfaces were demonstrated to remain viable for all tested patterns. SEM and immunostaining showed adequate attachment and spreading of the stem cells for all the patterned groove/ridge combinations. This study indicated that it is possible to engineer micropatterned surfaces of PBS and that the developed structures could have great potential for tissue engineering where cell alignment is an essential requisite. PMID:22266028

  4. Aerogel Poly(butylene succinate) Biomaterial Substrate for RF and Microwave Applications

    PubMed Central

    Habib Ullah, M.; Mahadi, W. N. L.; Latef, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (εr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3–11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively. PMID:26238975

  5. The degradation and adsorption behaviors of enzyme on poly(butylene succinate) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi; Yang, Ju-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Li, Lin

    2009-12-01

    The enzymatic degradation behavior of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) single crystals with a lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia (lipase PS) is monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 and 40 degrees C. In-situ AFM results show that enzymatic degradation of the single crystal starts from the crystal edges rather than the chain-folded surfaces and the lamellar thickness remains constant during the whole degradation process. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is used for the first time to study the adsorption behavior of lipase onto the PBS crystal surface. The results clearly show that the enzyme molecules preferentially adsorb on the lateral surfaces of the single crystal but not on the chain-folded surfaces. AFM force-distance curve measurements and force-volume imaging obtained using a lipase-immobilized AFM tip show that small and large adhesive forces exist in the flat-on and edge-on areas of a PBS banded spherulite, respectively, which correspond to the chain-folded surface and lateral edges of a single crystal. PMID:19953521

  6. Bone Formation from Porcine Dental Germ Stem Cells on Surface Modified Polybutylene Succinate Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Abay, Nergis; Gurel Pekozer, Gorke; Ramazanoglu, Mustafa; Kose, Gamze Torun

    2016-01-01

    Designing and providing a scaffold are very important for the cells in tissue engineering. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has high potential as a scaffold for bone regeneration due to its capacity in cell proliferation and differentiation. Also, stem cells from 3rd molar tooth germs were favoured in this study due to their developmentally and replicatively immature nature. In this study, porcine dental germ stem cells (pDGSCs) seeded PBS scaffolds were used to investigate the effects of surface modification with fibronectin or laminin on these scaffolds to improve cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation for tissue engineering applications. The osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs on these modified and unmodified foams were examined to heal bone defects and the effects of fibronectin or laminin modified PBS scaffolds on pDGSC differentiation into bone were compared for the first time. For this study, MTS assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of modified and unmodified surfaces. For the characterization of pDGSCs, flow cytometry analysis was carried out. Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, von Kossa staining, real-time PCR, CM-Dil, and immunostaining were applied to analyze osteogenic potentials of pDGSCs. The results of these studies demonstrated that pDGSCs were differentiated into osteogenic cells on fibronectin modified PBS foams better than those on unmodified and laminin modified PBS foams. PMID:27413380

  7. Aerogel Poly(butylene succinate) Biomaterial Substrate for RF and Microwave Applications.

    PubMed

    Habib Ullah, M; Mahadi, W N L; Latef, T A

    2015-01-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (εr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3-11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively. PMID:26238975

  8. A Morphological Study of Poly(Butylene Succinate)/Poly(Butylene Adipate) Blends with Different Blend Ratios and Crystallization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Jerold; Wang, Haijun; Gan, Zhigua; Yan, Shouke

    2009-03-01

    Morphologies of blends of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS, m.p. 114 C) with poly(butylene adipate) (PBA, m.p. 60 C) varying in blend ratio and in crystallization temperature of the PBS component were studied using optical and atomic force microscopies. When PBS is crystallized at 75 C, subsequent PBA crystallization occurs only within PBS spherulites. When PBS is crystallized at 100 C, a portion of the PBA is rejected from the growing PBS. The morphological difference is also reflected in the time-dependence of the crystallization kinetics. The difference in behavior at these two temperatures reflects a large change in the diffusion length. Further, the location of PBA crystals within PBS spherulites depends on PBA concentration and on PBS crystallization temperature. Lower PBA concentrations lead to interlamellar segregation, while when PBA is the majority phase, interfibrillar crystallization crystallization dominates. Replace this text with your abstract body.

  9. Chemical synthesis of fully biomass-based poly(butylene succinate) from inedible-biomass-based furfural and evaluation of its biomass carbon ratio.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yuya; Masuda, Takashi; Funabashi, Masahiro; Kunioka, Masao

    2010-10-11

    We have produced fully biomass-based poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) from furfural produced from inedible agricultural cellulosic waste. Furfural was oxidized to give fumaric acid. Fumaric acid was hydrogenated under high pressure with a palladium-rhenium/carbon catalyst to give 1,4-butanediol, and with a palladium/carbon catalyst to give succinic acid. Dimethyl succinate was synthesized from fumaric acid by esterification and hydrogenation under normal pressure. Fully biomass-based PBS was obtained by polycondensation of biomass-based 1,4-butanediol and biomass-based succinic acid or dimethyl succinate. The biomass carbon ratio calculated from (14)C concentrations measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) verified that the PBS obtained in this study contained only biomass carbon. The polycondensation of biomass-based 1,4-butanediol and petroleum-based terephthalic acid or dimethyl terephthalate gave partially biomass-based poly(butylene terephthalate), which is an engineering plastic. PMID:20815381

  10. Stem cell adhesion and proliferation on hydrolyzed poly(butylene succinate)/β-tricalcium phosphate composites.

    PubMed

    Patntirapong, Somying; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Meesap, Preeyapan; Theerathanagorn, Tharinee; Toso, Montree; Janvikul, Wanida

    2015-02-01

    Although poly(butylene succinate)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PBSu/TCP) composites are biocompatible and allow the growth and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, cell attachment and adhesion to the PBSu-based substrates is often limited. To enhance cell adhesion and proliferation, we used a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) hydrolysis technique to generate a different degree of roughness on PBSu/TCP substrates with different PBSu:TCP ratios. The results showed that NaOH hydrolysis increased surface roughness of PBSu/TCP substrates in a concentration-dependent manner. Substrates with higher ratios of TCP:PBSu provided more porous topography after NaOH hydrolysis, with a substrate containing 40 wt % TCP (PBSu/TCP-6040) hydrolyzed with 1.5M NaOH (HPBSu/TCP-6040-1.5) showing the highest degree of roughness. As with the roughness, PBSu/TCP surface hydrophilicity was positively affected by the increasing NaOH concentration and TCP incorporation. Stem cells adhered best on HPBSu/TCP-6040-1.5 with three-dimensionally elongated cell extensions. Moreover, the HPBSu/TCP-6040-1.5 substrate most significantly facilitated stem cell actin cytoskeleton reorganization and vinculin-positive focal adhesion formation when compared with the other substrates tested. HPBSu/TCP-6040-1.5 also demonstrated the greatest increase in cell proliferation when compared with the other substrates studied. In conclusion, the results have shown that among various substrates tested, HPBSu/TCP-6040-1.5 provided the best support for stem cell adhesion and proliferation, suggesting its potential use in bone engineering. PMID:24788123

  11. Enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) biocomposites by matrix esterification using succinic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Siyamak, Samira; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Abdolmohammadi, Sanaz; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamad Zaki Ab

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was used as a source of lignocellulosic filler to fabricate a novel type of cost effective biodegradable composite, based on the aliphatic aromatic co-polyester poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT (Ecoflex™), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix. The aim of this research was to improve the new biocomposites' performance by chemical modification using succinic anhydride (SAH) as a coupling agent in the presence and absence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiators. For the composite preparation, several blends were prepared with varying ratios of filler and matrix using the melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 (wt %) and characterized. The effects of fiber loading and coupling agent loading on the thermal properties of biodegradable polymer composites were evaluated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for morphological studies. The chemical structure of the new biocomposites was also analyzed using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique. The PBAT biocomposite reinforced with 40 (wt %) of EFB fiber showed the best mechanical properties compared to the other PBAT/EFB fiber biocomposites. Biocomposite treatment with 4 (wt %) succinic anhydride (SAH) and 1 (wt %) dicumyl peroxide (DCP) improved both tensile and flexural strength as well as tensile and flexural modulus. The FTIR analyses proved the mechanical test results by presenting the evidence of successful esterification using SAH/DCP in the biocomposites' spectra. The SEM micrograph of the tensile fractured surfaces showed the improvement of fiber-matrix adhesion after using SAH. The TGA results showed that chemical modification using SAH/DCP improved the thermal stability of the PBAT/EFB biocomposite. PMID:22343368

  12. Effect of stretching on the mechanical properties in melt-spun poly(butylene succinate)/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Fan, Mao; Zhao, Yongsheng; Jin, Tianxiang; Fu, Qiang

    2016-04-20

    In order to prepare poly(butylene succinate)/microfibrillated cellulose composites with high performance, in this work, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was first treated by acetylchloride with ball-milling to improve its interfacial compatibility with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS). Then melt stretching processing was adopted to further improve the dispersion and orientation of MFC in as-spun PBS fiber. And the effect of MFC on the crystalline structure and mechanical properties were systematically investigated for the melt-spun fibers prepared with two different draw ratios. The dispersion, alignment of the MFC and interfacial crystalline structure in the composite fibers are significantly influenced by the stretching force during the melt spinning. The possible formation of nanohybrid shish kebab (NHSK) superstructure where aligned MFC as shish and PBS lamellae as kebab has been suggested via SEM and SAXS in the composite fibers prepared at the high draw ratio. Large improvement in tensile strength has been realized at the high draw ratio due to the enhanced orientation and dispersion of MFC as well as the formation of NHSK. PMID:26876865

  13. Poly(L-lactide) and poly(butylene succinate) immiscible blends: from electrospinning to biologically active materials.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Nikoleta; Paneva, Dilyana; Mincheva, Rosica; Toncheva, Antoniya; Manolova, Nevena; Dubois, Philippe; Rashkov, Iliya

    2014-08-01

    For the first time the preparation of defect-free fibers from immiscible blends of high molar mass poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the whole range of the polyester weight ratios is shown. Electrospinning using the solvent-nonsolvent approach proved most appropriate. Moreover, electrospinning revealed crucial for the obtaining of PLA/PBS materials maintaining integrity. DSC and XRD analyses attested for a plasticizing effect and for increased PLA crystallinity at PBS addition to PLA. The mechanical properties of the PLA/PBS mats were controlled by the alignment of the fibers and changed from plastic to brittle materials upon increasing the PBS content. Drug loading and tests against pathogenic microorganisms suggested that the obtained mats can find application as antibacterial fibrous materials. PMID:24907744

  14. Polymer blends of polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene succinate-adipate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenguang

    A series of blends consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and aliphatic succinate polyester (BionolleRTM #3000) had been prepared and investigated. The results of mechanical property investigations showed that using 20 wt% Bionolle#3000 can significantly increase the toughness of PLA. BionolleRTM #3000 also reduces the physical aging rate of PLA so blends remain tough longer. Conversely, the stiffness of BionolleRTM #3000 can be significantly increased by blending in PLA. DMA and DSC results show that PLA/BionolleRTM 3000 blends are not thermodynamically miscible, but are compatible blends. Studies have also been performed to determine the amount and rate of aerobic biodegradation of PLA/aliphatic succinate polyester blends in biologically active composting, enzymatic, and soil environments. The changes in molecular weight, molecular structure and thermal properties in the composting environment were also studied by GPC, NMR and DSC analyses. The research results showed BionolleRTM #3000 had a high degradation rate, while PLA had a low degradation rate. PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends had moderate degradation rates that increased with BionolleRTM #3000 content. The melt flow behavior of PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends has been studied by capillary rheometry. The relationship of the blends' viscosity with their composition, shear stress, shear rate, and temperature has been investigated. Power law index and activation energy of PLA, BionolleRTM #3000 and their blends have been calculated. The experimental and theoretical data can let us understand the processability of PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphological structure of the PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends. Micrographs of the samples made from different methods (blown film, extrudate and compression molding sheet) were taken; their differences in morphology were compared. For comparison, the micrographs of blend PLA/BionolleRTM #6000 was also studied. The

  15. High molecular weight poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene furandicarboxylate) copolyesters: from catalyzed polycondensation reaction to thermomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linbo; Mincheva, Rosica; Xu, Yutao; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Dubois, Philippe

    2012-09-10

    Novel potentially biobased aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene furandicarboxylate) (PBSFs) in full composition range were successfully synthesized from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FA), succinic acid (SA), and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) via an esterification and polycondensation process using tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) or TBT/La(acac)(3) as catalyst. The copolyesters were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (1)H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and their tensile properties were also evaluated. The weight average molecular weight (M(w)) ranges from 39,000 to 89,000 g/mol. The copolyesters are random copolymers whose composition is well controlled by the feed ratio of the diacid monomers. PBSFs have excellent thermal stability. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) increases continuously with φ(BF) and agrees well with the Fox equation. The crystallizability and T(m) decrease with increasing butylene furandicarboxylate (BF) unit content (φ(BF)) from 0 to 40 mol %, but rise again at φ(BF) of 50-100 mol %. Consequently, the tensile modulus and strength decrease, and the elongation at break increases with φ(BF) in the range of 0-40 mol %. At higher φ(BF), the modulus and strength increase and the ultimate elongation decreases. Thus, depending on φ(BF), the structure and properties of PBSFs can be tuned ranging from crystalline polymers possessing good tensile modulus (360-1800 MPa) and strength (20-35 MPa) to nearly amorphous polymer of low T(g) and high elongation (~600%), and therefore they may find applications in thermoplastics as well as elastomers or impact modifiers. PMID:22830993

  16. Biological denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating aquaculture system effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-Ming; Deng, Ya-Le; Ruan, Yun-Jie; Guo, Xi-Shan; Shi, Ming-Ming; Shen, Jia-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53 ± 0.19 kg NO3(-)-N m(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66 ± 0.12 kg NO3(-)-Nm(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance. PMID:26093254

  17. Effect of dissolved oxygen on heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as the carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guozhi; Li, Li; Liu, Qian; Xu, Guimei; Tan, Hongxin

    2014-11-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as the carbon source and biofilm carrier was evaluated in a lab-scale experiment. Aerated, low-oxygen, and anoxic treatment groups were set up, which had average DO concentrations of 5.2±1.0, 1.4±1.2, and 0.5±0.3 mg L(-1), respectively. The NO3(-)-N and total nitrogen (TN) removal rates in the aerated group (37.44±0.24 and 36.24±0.48 g m(-3) d(-1), respectively) were higher than those in the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the low-oxygen and anoxic groups for the NO3(-)-N or TN removal rate. Accumulation of NO2(-)-N reached 5.0 mg L(-1) in the aerated group; no nitrite accumulation was found in the other two treatment groups. Bacterial communities of the low-oxygen and anoxic groups showed high similarity and were significantly different from those of the aerated group. PMID:25194264

  18. Crystallization behavior and thermal stability of poly(butylene succinate)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends prepared by novel vane extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongyuan; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Haichen; Zhang, Guizhen; Qu, Jinping

    2016-03-01

    This work focused on the study of crystallization behavior and thermal stability of degradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends prepared by vane extruder based on elongation force field, which is novel equipment for polymer processing. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was applied in this work as compatibilizer for PBS/PPC blend. Crystallization behavior and melting behavior of the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) testing. Thermal stability of the blends was studied by thermogravimetric (TG) testing. Furthermore, the melt flow indices (MFI) of the blends were examined by a MFI instrument. The results showed that the crystallization temperature of PBS decreased with the addition of PPC and DCP. The glass transition temperature of PPC increased and the melting temperature of the blend increased with the addition of PPC and DCP, which indicated that the entanglement between the molecular chains of PBS and PPC was enhanced. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a two-step decomposition process of the blend occurred due to the different thermal resistance of PBS and PPC, and the addition of PBS reduced the decomposition rate of PPC. Moreover, the addition of PBS improved the melt flow property of PPC.

  19. Strong interfacial attrition developed by oleate/layered double hydroxide nanoplatelets dispersed into poly(butylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Verney, Vincent; Commereuc, Sophie; Chin, In-Joo; Leroux, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanocomposite structure was studied as a function of the filler percentage loading. The resulting state of dispersion was evaluated by XRD and TEM, and the interfacial attrition between PBS chain and lamellar platelets by the melt rheological properties. Hybrid organic inorganic (O/I) layered double hydroxide (LDH) organo-modified by oleate anions was used as filler. It was found that the confinement supplied by the LDH framework forces the interleaved organic molecule to be more distant from each other than in the case of oleate salt, this having as an effect to decrease strongly the homonuclear intermolecular (1)H(1)H dipolar interaction. An additional consequence of this relatively free molecular rotation, affecting the (13)C CPMAS response as well, is to facilitate the delamination of the 2D-stacked layers during extrusion since an quasi-exfoliated PBS:Mg(2)Al/oleate structure is observed for filler loading lower than 5% w/w. This is in association to a non-linear viscoelasticity in the low-omega region and the observed shear-thinning tendency compares better than other PBS:silicate nanocomposite derivatives and is here explained by the presence of a percolated LDH nanoparticle network. Indeed the plastic deformation in the low-omega region is found to be restricted by well-dispersed LDH tactoids in association with a rather strong attrition phenomenon between tethered oleate anions and PBS chains. PMID:20605578

  20. Biocompatibility and drug release behavior of scaffolds prepared by coaxial electrospinning of poly(butylene succinate) and polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Llorens, E; Ibañez, H; Del Valle, L J; Puiggalí, J

    2015-04-01

    Scaffolds constituted by electrospun microfibers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were studied. Specifically, coaxial microfibers having different core-shell distributions and compositions were considered as well as uniaxial micro/nanofibers prepared from mixtures of both polymers. Processing conditions were optimized for all geometries and compositions and resulting morphologies (i.e. diameter and surface texture) characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition, molecular interactions and thermal properties were evaluated by FTIR, NMR, XPS and differential scanning calorimetry. The PEG component of electrospun fibers could be solubilized by immersion of scaffolds in aqueous medium, giving rise to high porosity and hydrophobic samples. Nevertheless, a small amount of PEG was retained in the PBS matrix, suggesting some degree of mixing. Solubilization was slightly dependent on fiber structure; specifically, the distribution of PEG in the core or shell of coaxial fibers led to higher or lower retention levels, respectively. Scaffolds could be effectively loaded with hydrophobic drugs having antibacterial and anticarcinogenic activities like triclosan and curcumin, respectively. Their release was highly dependent on their chemical structure and medium composition. Thus, low and high release rates were observed in phosphate buffer saline (SS) and SS/ethanol (30:70 v/v), respectively. Slight differences in the release of triclosan were found depending on fiber distribution and composition. Antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated for both loaded and unloaded scaffolds. PMID:25686974

  1. Reinforcement effect of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-grafted cellulose nanocrystal on toughened PBS/polylactic acid blends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong

    2016-04-20

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/polylactic acid (PLA) blends modified with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were reinforced by PBS-g-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) through melt mixing. PBS-g-CNC was prepared through in situ polymerization and its structure was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C NMR, XPS and GPC analysis after saponification. The morphological analysis of PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites before and after etched by CH2Cl2 shows that the addition of DCP and PBS-g-CNC could decrease the size of PBS as a dispersed phase in PLA matrix and improve the dispersion of PBS-g-CNC in both PBS and PLA phases, which could affect the crystallization and mechanical properties of composites. The crystallinity of PLA α'-phase crystal in PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites is increased obviously by the addition of PBS-g-CNC, leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the composites. PBS/PLA blends modified by DCP have high Notched Izod impact strength and moduli, and the values are increased by the addition of PBS-g-CNC. Both storage modulus and glass translation temperature of PBS/PLA blend are increased by DCP and PBS-g-CNC, which is proved by DMA results, showing a weak molecular segment mobility of PBS/PLA matrix. The addition of DCP decreases the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of PBS/PLA composite, but increases the thermal stability of composites, mostly because of the crosslink effect of DCP on PBS/PLA matrix. PMID:26876864

  2. Polybutylene succinate adipate/starch blends: a morphological study for the design of controlled release films.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Fadi; Galland, Sophie; Cottaz, Amandine; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    Films made of plasticized starch (PLS)/poly(butylene succinate co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) blends were prepared by thermomechanical processing varying the PBSA proportions in blends to obtain biphasic materials with distinct morphologies. These morphologies were characterized by selective extraction of each phase, microscopic observations, and selective water/oxygen permeation properties. These experiments allowed identifying the blend compositions corresponding to the beginning of partial continuity (cluster partial percolation) until total continuity of each phases. This property was related to the controlled release of model molecule (fluorescein) previously dispersed in the PLS and revealed that its release depended on the tortuosity of the PLS phase tailored by the polymer blends composition and by the limited swelling of the PLS when entrapped in the PBSA phase. Future applications will focus on food preservatives dispersed in PBSA-PLS blends to obtain active antimicrobial packaging put in direct contact with intermediate to high moisture foods. PMID:24751274

  3. Confined growth of poly(butylene succinate) in its miscible blends with poly(vinylidene fluoride): morphology and growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianchang; Li, Huihui; Wang, Feng; Yan, Shouke; Schultz, Jerold M

    2011-06-23

    The morphology and confined crystallization behavior of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in miscible poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/PBS blends has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical and atomic force microscopy (OM and AFM). It was found that PBS crystal lamellae nucleated and grew confined inside the matrix of PVDF spherulites. Crystallized PBS domains grow with an ellipsoidal outline within PVDF spherulites formed at a relatively high PVDF crystallization temperature (T(c,PVDF)), while circular domains, engulfing several PVDF spherulites, are seen when growing in the PVDF spherulites created at lower T(c,PVDF). The growth kinetics of PBS confined in the PVDF matrix was investigated under various conditions. The growth rate of PBS (G(PBS)) increases with decreasing crystallization temperature and increasing PBS content under a given PVDF crystallization temperature (T(c,VDF)). For T(c,PVDF) above 145 °C, G(PBS) decreases with T(c,PVDF) for both 50:50 and 30:70 PVDF/PBS blends. However, for T(c,PVDF) below 145 °C, 50:50 and 30:70 PVDF/PBS blends exhibit the opposite G(PBS) trend; that is, G(PBS) for the 50:50 blend decreases with decreasing T(c,PVDF), while for the 30:70 PVDF/PBS blend G(PBS) increases with decreasing T(c,PVDF). It is shown that this behavior cannot be associated with the effect of crossing the boundary of smaller PVDF spherulites formed at a lower temperature. Rather, the behavior appears to be related to the interleaving growth of PBS lamellae among PVDF lamellae or between bundles of PVDF lamellae (fibrils), as in situ AFM observation shows. It is found that the interconnectedness of the molten pockets within the PVDF spherulites, which depends on the PVDF crystallization temperature, is an important factor determining the growth kinetics of PBS confined within the PVDF scaffold. PMID:21595485

  4. Biodegradation of poly(tetramethylene succinate-co-tetramethylene adipate) and poly(tetramethylene succinate) through water-soluble products.

    PubMed

    Kitakuni, E; Yoshikawa, K; Nakano, K; Sasuga, J; Nobiki, M; Naoi, H; Yokota, Y; Ishioka, R; Yakabe, Y

    2001-05-01

    Poly(tetramethylene succinate-co-tetramethylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly(tetramethylenesuccinate) (PBS) were hydrolyzed experimentally into water-soluble oligomers and monomers by Chromobacterium extracellular lipase. The oligomers were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, which indicated that a total of 28 oligomer species were liberated from PBSA, and that 13 of them were identical to the hydrolysates from PBS. Moreover, 20 of the species were polyester-based compounds of monomer units, and the other 8 species were small amounts of diurethane compounds. Bis(hydroxybutyl) succinate (BSB) and bis(hydroxybutyl) hexamethylene dicarbamate (BHB) were the typical oligomers and were chemically synthesized. Biodegradability of BSB and BHB was examined for 28 d in the activated sludge, and analysis of the results of this study indicated that the final conversion rate of constituent carbon to carbon dioxide was estimated at 80 mol% for BSB and 10 mol% for BHB. The remaining amount of carbon in the undegraded BHB was 20 mol%. In the presence of BSB, the biodegradability of BHB was increased by about 1.5 times. The suggestion was made that BSB induced a growth of microorganisms and helped BHB degradation. This is consistent with the observation that the biodegradation of BHB in native soil for 60 d reached > 60%. PMID:11337881

  5. Unprecedented access to strong and ductile poly(lactic acid) by introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for green packaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Niu, Ben; Ji, Xu; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji

    2014-11-10

    The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications. PMID:25245861

  6. Metastability and transformation of polymorphic crystals in biodegradable poly(butylene adipate).

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhihua; Kuwabara, Kazuhiro; Abe, Hideki; Iwata, Tadahisa; Doi, Yoshiharu

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphism phenomenon of melt-crystallized poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) has been studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It has been found that the isothermal crystallization leads to the formation of PBA polymorphic crystals, simply by changing the crystallization temperature. The PBA alpha crystal, beta crystal, and the mixture of two crystal forms grow at the crystallization temperatures above 32 degrees C, below 27 degrees C, and between these two temperatures, respectively. The relationship between PBA polymorphism and melting behaviors has been analyzed by the assignments of multiple melting peaks. Accordingly, the equilibrium melting temperatures Tm degrees of both alpha and beta crystals were determined by Hoffman-Weeks and Gibbs-Thomson equations for the purpose of understanding the structural metastability. The Tm degrees of the PBA alpha crystal was found to be higher than that of the beta crystal, indicating that the PBA alpha crystal form is a structurally stable phase and that the beta crystal form is a metastable phase. The analysis of growth kinetics of PBA polymorphic crystals indicates that the metastable PBA beta crystal is indeed the kinetically preferential result. Based on the thermal and kinetic results, the phenomenon of stability inversion with crystal size in melt-crystallized PBA was recognized, in terms of the growth mechanisms of PBA alpha and beta crystals and the transformation of beta to alpha crystals. The PBA beta --> alpha crystal transformation takes place at a sufficiently high annealing temperature, and the transformation has been evident to be a solid-solid-phase transition process accompanied by the thickening of lamellar crystals. The molecular motion of polymer chains in both crystalline and amorphous phases has been discussed to understand the thickening and phase transformation behaviors. PMID:15002996

  7. Biobased polyesters with composition-dependent thermomechanical properties: synthesis and characterization of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene azelate).

    PubMed

    Mincheva, Rosica; Delangre, Adrien; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Narayan, Ramani; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-03-11

    Environmentally friendly poly(butylenesuccinate-co-butyleneazelate) (P(BS-co-BAz)s) aliphatic copolyesters with composition-dependent thermomechanical properties were synthesized from succinic acid (SuA), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), and dimethylazelate (DMAz) through a two-step polycondensation reaction. The molar SuA/AzA ratio was varied from 4:1 to 1:4, and the chemical structure and molecular characteristics of resulting (co)polyesters were characterized by NMR and SEC, whereas thermal properties and crystallinity were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analyses (DMTA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A good agreement between theoretical and experimental SuA/AzA molar ratios in the copolyesters was achieved, together with the recovery of semicrystalline random copolymers of uniform composition along the chains. NMR, DSC, DMTA, and XRD results show that depending on their composition the P(BS-co-BAz) copolyesters might find applications from elastomers to high-impact thermoplastics. PMID:23369072

  8. Syntheses and physical characterization of new aliphatic triblock poly(L-lactide-b-butylene succinate-b-L-lactide)s bearing soft and hard biodegradable building blocks.

    PubMed

    Ba, Chaoyi; Yang, Jing; Hao, Qinghui; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Amin

    2003-01-01

    This study presents chemical syntheses and physical characterization of a new aliphatic poly(L-lactide-b-butylene succinate-b-L-lactide) triblock copolyester with soft and hard biodegradable building blocks. First, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) prepolymers terminated with hydroxyl functional groups were synthesized through melt polycondensation from succinic acid and 1,4-butanediol. Further, a series of new PLLA-b-PBS-b-PLLA triblock copolyesters bearing various average PLLA block lengths were prepared via ring opening polymerization of L-lactide with the synthesized hydroxyl capped PBS prepolymer (Mn = 4.9 KDa) and stannous octanoate as the macroinitiator and catalyst, respectively. By means of GPC, NMR, FTIR, DSC, TGA, and wide-angle X-ray diffractometer (WAXD), the macromolecular structures and physical properties were intensively studied for these synthesized PBS prepolymer and PLLA-b-PBS-b-PLLA triblock copolyesters. 13C NMR and GPC experimental results confirmed the formation of sequential block structures without any detectable transesterification under the present experimental conditions, and the molecular weights of triblock copolyesters could be readily regulated by adjusting the feeding molar ratio of L-lactide monomer to the PBS macroinitiator. DSC measurements showed all single glass transitions, and their glass transition temperatures were found to be between those of PLLA and PBS, depending on the lengths of PLLA blocks. It was noteworthy that the segmental flexibilities of the hard PLLA blocks were found to be remarkably enhanced by the more flexible PBS block partner, and the PBS and PLLA building blocks were well mixed in the amorphous regions. Results of TGA analyses indicated that thermal degradation and stabilities of the PLLA blocks strongly depended on the average PLLA block lengths of triblock copolyesters. In addition, FTIR and WAXD results showed the coexistence of the assembled PLLA and PBS crystal structures when the average PLLA block

  9. Active biodegradable films produced with blends of rice flour and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate): effect of potassium sorbate on film characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sousa, G M; Soares Júnior, M S; Yamashita, F

    2013-08-01

    The objective of work was to produce and characterize biodegradable films from rice flour, poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate) (PBAT), glycerol and potassium sorbate, for application as active packaging for fresh lasagna pasta. The films were evaluated with respect to their optical, water vapor barrier, mechanical and microstructural properties. The mechanical properties and microstructure were evaluated after use as packaging material for fresh pasta for 45 days at 7°C. The blends of rice flour, PBAT, glycerol and potassium sorbate showed good processability and allowed for the pilot scale production of films by blow extrusion process. The addition of 1 to 5% potassium sorbate as plasticizer agent of films in place of glycerol did not alter the film mechanical properties and a sorbate concentration greater or equal than 3% reduced the opacity, although increasing the water vapor permeability. The films could be used as active packaging for fresh food pasta, since they remained integral and easy to handle after application. The rice flour was shown to be an excellent material for the formulation of biodegradable films, since it is a low-cost raw material from a renewable source. The addition of potassium sorbate did not affect the extrusion process, and could be used in the production of packaging for use with foods. PMID:23706195

  10. Poly(ω-pentadecalactone-co-butylene-co-succinate) Nanoparticles as Biodegradable Carriers for Camptothecin Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Shengmin; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we show that degradable particles of a hydrophobic polymer can effectively deliver drugs to tumors after i.v. administration. Free-standing nanoparticles with diameters of 100–300 nm were successfully fabricated from highly hydrophobic, biodegradable poly(ω-pentadecalactone- co-butylene-co-succinate) (PPBS) copolyesters. PPBS copolymers with various compositions (20–80 mol% PDL unit contents) were synthesized via copolymerization of ω-pentadecalactone (PDL), diethyl succinate (DES), and 1,4-butanediol (BD) using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as the catalyst. Camptothecin (CPT, 12–22%) was loaded into PPBS nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency (up to 96%) using a modified oil-in-water single emulsion technique. The CPT-loaded nanoparticles had a zeta potential of about −10 mV. PPBS particles were non toxic in cell culture. Upon encapsulation, the active lactone form of CPT was remarkably stabilized and no lactone-to-carboxylate structural conversion was observed for CPT-loaded PPBS nanoparticles incubated in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH = 7.4) and DMEM medium for at least 24 hr. In PBS at 37 °C, CPT-loaded PPBS nanoparticles showed a low burst CPT release (20–30%) within the first 24 hrs followed by a sustained, essentially complete, release of the remaining drug over the subsequent 40 days. Compared to free CPT, CPT-loaded PPBS nanoparticles showed a significant enhancement of cellular uptake, higher cytotoxicity against Lewis lung carcinoma and 9L cell lines in vitro, a longer circulation time, and substantially better antitumor efficacy in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential of PPBS nanoparticles as long-term stable and effective drug delivery systems in cancer therapy. PMID:19632718

  11. Poly(omega-pentadecalactone-co-butylene-co-succinate) nanoparticles as biodegradable carriers for camptothecin delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Shengmin; Saltzman, W Mark

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we show that degradable particles of a hydrophobic polymer can effectively deliver drugs to tumors after i.v. administration. Free-standing nanoparticles with diameters of 100-300 nm were successfully fabricated from highly hydrophobic, biodegradable poly(omega-pentadecalactone-co-butylene-co-succinate) (PPBS) copolyesters. PPBS copolymers with various compositions (20-80 mol% PDL unit contents) were synthesized via copolymerization of omega-pentadecalactone (PDL), diethyl succinate (DES), and 1,4-butanediol (BD) using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as the catalyst. Camptothecin (CPT, 12-22%) was loaded into PPBS nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency (up to 96%) using a modified oil-in-water single emulsion technique. The CPT-loaded nanoparticles had a zeta potential of about -10 mV. PPBS particles were non-toxic in cell culture. Upon encapsulation, the active lactone form of CPT was remarkably stabilized and no lactone-to-carboxylate structural conversion was observed for CPT-loaded PPBS nanoparticles incubated in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH=7.4) and DMEM medium for at least 24 h. In PBS at 37 degrees C, CPT-loaded PPBS nanoparticles showed a low burst CPT release (20-30%) within the first 24 h followed by a sustained, essentially complete, release of the remaining drug over the subsequent 40 days. Compared to free CPT, CPT-loaded PPBS nanoparticles showed a significant enhancement of cellular uptake, higher cytotoxicity against Lewis lung carcinoma and 9L cell lines in vitro, a longer circulation time, and substantially better antitumor efficacy in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential of PPBS nanoparticles as long-term stable and effective drug delivery systems in cancer therapy. PMID:19632718

  12. Toughening of biodegradable polylactide/poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) blends via in situ reactive compatibilization.

    PubMed

    Ojijo, Vincent; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2013-05-22

    Polylactide and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PLA/PBSA) were melt-blended in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP). An increase in the torque during melt mixing was used to monitor the changes in viscosity as compatibilization of the blends occurred. Scanning electron micrographs showed not only a reduction in the dispersed-phase size with increased TPP content but also fibrillated links between the PLA and PBSA phases, signifying compatibilization. Moreover, optimization of parameters such as the mixing sequence and time, TPP content, and PBSA concentration revealed that blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA and 2 wt % TPP, which were processed for 30 min, were optimal in terms of thermomechanical properties. The impact strength increased from 6 kJ/m(2) for PLA to 11 and 16 kJ/m(2) for blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA, respectively, whereas the elongation-at-break increased from 6% for PLA to 20 and 37% for blends containing 30 and 10 wt % PBSA, respectively. Upon compatibilization, the failure mode shifted from the brittle fracture of PLA to ductile deformation, effected by the debonding between the two phases. With improved phase adhesion, compatibilized blends not only were toughened but also did not significantly lose tensile strength and thermal stability. PMID:23627363

  13. The effect of epoxidized soybean oil on mechanical and rheological properties of poly(butylene succinate)/lignin via vane extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanyu; Huang, Zhaoxia; Qu, Jinping; Meng, Cong

    2016-03-01

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) have been used as the compatilizer in the Poly (butylene succinate)/lignin (PBS/lignin) composites. Compatibilized composites were fabricated by a novel vane extruder (VE) which can generate global and dynamic elongational flow. The effects of ESO on the mechanical, rheological properties and morphology of PBS/lignin were studied. The results indicated that the use of ESO had plasticizing effect on the matrix PBS while the addition reduced tensile strength. From SEM micrographs it could be clearly observed that there was a better interfacial adhesion between lignin and matrix. Meanwhile, rheological tests showed the incorporation of ESO improved its Newtonian behavior and can enhance PBS's flexibility.

  14. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

  15. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

  16. Partial Discharge Degradation of Several Biodegradable Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, Norikazu; Fujita, Shinjiro; Hirai, Naoshi; Tanaka, Toshikatsu; Kozako, Masahiro; Kohtoh, Masanori; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    Partial discharge (PD) resistance was examined by applying a constant voltage for four kinds of biodegradable polymers, i.e. poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), polyethylene terephthalate succinate (PETS), poly ε-caprolactone butylene succinate (PCL-BS), and polybutylene succinate (PBS), and the results were compared with those of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked low density polyethylene (XLPE). The PD resistance is determined by the erosion depth and the surface roughness caused by PDs, and is ranked as LDPE ≅ XLPE > PLLA ≅ PETS > PBS > PCL-BS. This means that the sample with a lower permittivity has better PD resistance. Furthermore, observations of the sample surface by a polarization microscope and a laser confocal one reveal that crystalline regions with spherulites are more resistant to PDs than amorphous regions. Therefore, good PD resistance can be achieved by the sample with a high crystallinity and a low permittivity.

  17. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid). PMID:22678026

  18. Engineered biosynthesis of biodegradable polymers.

    PubMed

    Jambunathan, Pooja; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-08-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in the rapid development of biobased plastics and the major drivers for this expansion are rising environmental concerns of plastic pollution and the depletion of fossil-fuels. This paper presents a broad view on the recent developments of three promising biobased plastics, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS), well known for their biodegradability. The article discusses the natural and recombinant host organisms used for fermentative production of monomers, alternative carbon feedstocks that have been used to lower production cost, different metabolic engineering strategies used to improve product titers, various fermentation technologies employed to increase productivities and finally, the different downstream processes used for recovery and purification of the monomers and polymers. PMID:27260524

  19. Modification of biodegradable polymers by radiation crosslinking technique with polyfunctional monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Suhartini, Meri; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Mitomo, Hiroshi; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-08-01

    Poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) were electron beam-irradiated in the presence of five different polyfunctional monomers at ambient temperature. Trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC) has been found to greatly enhance the radiation crosslinking of PCL and PBSA. It was pointed out that the optimum yield of gel fraction can be achieved when the polymers were irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy in the presence of 1% TMAIC. High gel fraction largely improves heat stability of PBSA, while biodegradability evaluated by soil burial test of the crosslinked polymers is slightly retarded, however they are effectively destroyed with a slightly smaller rate.

  20. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  1. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions. PMID:22856640

  2. Degradation of biodegradable plastic mulch films in soil environment by phylloplane fungi isolated from gramineous plants.

    PubMed

    Koitabashi, Motoo; Noguchi, Masako T; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2012-01-01

    To improve the biodegradation of biodegradable plastic (BP) mulch films, 1227 fungal strains were isolated from plant surface (phylloplane) and evaluated for BP-degrading ability. Among them, B47-9 a strain isolated from the leaf surface of barley showed the strongest ability to degrade poly-(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) and poly-(butylene succinate) (PBS) films. The strain grew on the surface of soil-mounted BP films, produced breaks along the direction of hyphal growth indicated that it secreted a BP-degrading enzyme, and has directly contributing to accelerating the degradation of film. Treatment with the culture filtrate decomposed 91.2 wt%, 23.7 wt%, and 14.6 wt% of PBSA, PBS, and commercially available BP polymer blended mulch film, respectively, on unsterlized soil within 6 days. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the transition of soil microbial community during film degradation revealed that the process was accompanied with drastic changes in the population of soil fungi and Acantamoeba spp., as well as the growth of inoculated strain B47-9. It has a potential for application in the development of an effective method for accelerating degradation of used plastics under actual field conditions. PMID:22856640

  3. Purification, characterization, and cloning of the gene for a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Paraphoma-related fungal strain B47-9.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ken; Noguchi, Masako Tsujimoto; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2014-05-01

    Paraphoma-related fungal strain B47-9 secreted a biodegradable plastic (BP)-degrading enzyme which amounted to 68 % (w/w) of the total secreted proteins in a culture medium containing emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) as sole carbon source. The gene for this enzyme was found to be composed of an open reading frame consisting of 681 nucleotides encoding 227 amino acids and two introns. Southern blot analysis showed that this gene exists as a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequence suggested that this enzyme belongs to the cutinase (E.C.3.1.1.74) family; thus, it was named P araphoma-related fungus cutinase-like enzyme (PCLE). It degraded various types of BP films, such as poly(butylene succinate), PBSA, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate), poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(DL-lactic acid). It has a molecular mass of 19.7 kDa, and an optimum pH and temperature for degradation of emulsified PBSA of 7.2 and 45 °C, respectively. Ca(2+) ion at a concentration of about 1.0 mM markedly enhanced the degradation of emulsified PBSA. PMID:24384748

  4. Affinity purification and characterization of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from a yeast isolated from the larval midgut of a stag beetle, Aegus laevicollis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ken; Sakamoto, Hironori; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tabata, Jun; Watanabe, Takashi; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Fujii, Takeshi; Tsushima, Seiya; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-09-01

    Two yeast strains, which have the ability to degrade biodegradable plastic films, were isolated from the larval midgut of a stag beetle, Aegus laevicollis. Both of them are most closely related to Cryptococcus magnus and could degrade biodegradable plastic (BP) films made of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) effectively. A BP-degrading enzyme was purified from the culture broth of one of the isolated strains employing a newly developed affinity purification method based on the binding action of the enzyme to the substrate (emulsified PBSA) and its subsequent degradative action toward the substrate. Partial amino acid sequences of this enzyme suggested that it belongs to the cutinase family, and thus, the enzyme was named CmCut1. It has a molecular mass of 21 kDa and a degradative activity for emulsified PBSA which was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) at a concentration of about 2.5 mM. Its optimal pH was 7.5, and the optimal temperature was 40 °C. It showed a broad substrate specificity for p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-fatty acid esters ranging from pNP-acetate (C2) to pNP-stearate (C18) and films of PBSA, PBS, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid). PMID:23224497

  5. A study on reactive blending of (poly lactic acid) and poly (butylene succinate co adipate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureepukdee, C.; Suttiruengwong, S.; Seadan, M.

    2015-07-01

    This research aims to study the blending of Polylactic acid (PLA) and Polybutylene succinate co adipate (PBSA) in order to understand the role of peroxide in free radical reaction on the compatibilization between these two biodegradable polyesters. Various ratios of PLA/PBSA blends with and without reactive agents were prepared in the twin screw extruder. Two types of peroxides, Di (tert-butylperoxyisopropyl) benzene (DTBP) and 2, 5-Dimethyl-2, 5-(t-butylperoxy) hexane (DTBH), were used with various concentrations to compare. From the torques measurement, DTBP was more reactive with PLA and PBSA than DTBH. PLA and PBSA 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 20:80% by weight were melt-blended in a twin screw extruder. The reactive polymer blends were also prepared for the same ratios of the blends with addition of 0.08 and 0.1 phr of DTBP. The mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological properties were investigated. The impact strengths of the non-reactive blend increased with the increasing in PBSA content. The optimal impact strength was obtained at 40%wt of PBSA with 0.1 phr of DTBP. Adding 0.08 and 0.1 phr of DTBP led to the co continuous phase morphology of PLA/PBSA blends. The per cent crystallinity of PLA increased when blended with PBSA. PBSA might induce the crystallization of PLA.

  6. Enhancement of Biodegradable Plastic-degrading Enzyme Production from Paraphoma-like Fungus, Strain B47-9.

    PubMed

    Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Koitabashi, Motoo; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-03-01

    To improve the productivity of Paraphoma-like fungal strain B47-9 for biodegradable plastic (BP)-degrading enzyme (PCLE), the optimal concentration of emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) in the medium was determined. Emulsified PBSA was consumed as a sole carbon source and an inducer of PCLE production by strain B47-9. Among the various concentrations of emulsified PBSA [0.09-0.9% (w/v)] used in flask cultivation, 0.27% yielded the maximum enzyme activity within a short cultivation period. To evaluate the residual concentration of emulsified PBSA in culture, emulsified PBSA in aliquots of culture supernatant was digested in vitro, and the concentration of released monomerised succinic acid was determined. Regardless of the initial concentration of emulsified PBSA in medium, PCLE activity was detected after residual succinic acid decreased below 0.04 mg/mL in culture broth. Jarfermentation was performed at a 0.27% PBSA concentration. Among the various airflow rates tested, 1 LPM resulted in a PCLE production rate of 1.0 U/mL/day. The enzyme activity in the resulting culture filtrate (4.2 U/2 mL) was shown to degrade commercial BP films (1 × 1 cm, 20 µm thickness) within 8 hours. PMID:26876678

  7. Formulation of iron oxides by nanoparticles of poly-lactide- co-D-α-tocopherol-polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate biodegradable polymer for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Dipak, Maity; Chang-Tong, Yang; Kai-Hsiang, Chuang; Jun, Ding; Si-Shen, Feng

    2010-05-01

    Iron oxide nanocrystals of superparamagnetic nature provide diverse applications, which are extended for assessing and treating diseases in humans. Such nanocrystals are usually coated with a hydrophilic layer which enhances the property of the particles in vivo. In the current study, we have used a novel amphiphilic copolymer, poly-lactide-co-D-α-tocopherol-polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate to encapsulate Iron oxide nanocrystals to form polymer nanospheres with high encapsulation efficiency; the magnetic study of the nanoparticles showed that the iron oxide nanocrystals retained their magnetic property with a slight loss in the magnetic saturation. The relaxivity study performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that such nanoparticles formulation of iron oxides are useful for T2 weighted imaging, which is thus of great potential for MRI with better imaging effects and less clinical side effects. The particles were tested for the contrast enhancement in an in vivo model.

  8. Effect of nanoclay loading on the thermal and mechanical properties of biodegradable polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] blend composites.

    PubMed

    Ojijo, Vincent; Sinha Ray, Suprakas; Sadiku, Rotimi

    2012-05-01

    Polylactide/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PLA/PBSA)-organoclay composites were prepared via melt compounding in a batch mixer. The weight ratio of PLA to PBSA was kept at 70:30, while the weight fraction of the organoclay was varied from 0 to 9%. Small angle X-ray scattering patterns showed slightly better dispersion in PBSA than PLA, and there was a tendency of the silicate layers to delaminate in PBSA at low clay content. Thermal analysis revealed that crystallinity was dependent on the clay content as well its localization within the composite. On the other hand, thermal stability marginally improved for composites with <2 wt % clay content in contrast to the deterioration observed in composites with clay content >2 wt %. Tensile properties showed dependence on clay content and localization. Composite with 2 wt % clay content showed slight improvement in elongation at break. Overall, the optimum property was found for a composite with 2 wt % of the organoclay. This paper therefore has demonstrated the significance of the clay content and localization on the properties of the PLA/PBSA blends. PMID:22496491

  9. Crystallization kinetics and thermal resistance of bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumsorn, S.; Srisawat, N.; On, J. Wong; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hamada, H.

    2014-05-01

    Bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites were prepared in this study. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was blended with bamboo fiber in a twin screw extruder with varied bamboo content from 20-0wt%. PBS/bamboo fiber composites were fabricated by compression molding process. The effect of bamboo fiber contents on properties of the composites was investigated. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study of the composites was investigated based on Avrami equation. The kinetic parameters indicated that bamboo fiber acted as heterogeneous nucleation and enhanced crystallinity of the composites. Bamboo fiber was well dispersed on PBS matrix and good adhered with the matrix. Tensile strength of the composites slightly deceased with adding bamboo fiber. However, tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased when increasing bamboo fiber contents. It can be noted that bamboo fiber promoted crystallization and crystallinity of PBS in the composites. Therefore, the composites were better in impact load transferring than neat PBS, which exhibited improving on impact performance of the composites.

  10. Recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Tanja; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Succinic acid is of high interest as bio-feedstock for the chemical industry. It is a precursor for a variety of many other chemicals, e.g. 1,4-butandiol, tetrahydrofuran, biodegradable polymers and fumaric acid. Besides optimized production strains and fermentation processes it is indispensable to develop cost-saving and energy-effective downstream processes to compete with the current petrochemical production process. Various methods such as precipitation, sorption and ion exchange, electrodialysis, and liquid-liquid extraction have been investigated for the recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth and are reviewed critically here. PMID:19898782

  11. UV photolysis for accelerating pyridine biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongming; Chang, Ling; Yan, Ning; Tang, Yingxia; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Pyridine, a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, is slowly biodegradable, and coupling biodegradation with UV photolysis is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation and mineralization. The initial steps of pyridine biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. We employed an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor for pyridine biodegradation following three protocols: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P+B), and biodegradation with succinic acid added (B+S). Succinic acid was the main UV-photolysis product from pyridine, and its catabolic oxidation generates internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of pyridine biodegradation. Compared with direct biodegradation of pyridine (B), the removal rate for the same concentration of photolyzed pyridine (P+B) was higher by 15 to 43%, depending on the initial pyridine concentrations (increasing through the range of 130 to 310 mg/L). Adding succinic acid alone (B+S) gave results similar to P+B, which supports that succinic acid was the main agent for accelerating the pyridine biodegradation rate. In addition, protocols P+B and B+S were similar in terms of increasing pyridine mineralization over 10 h: 84% and 87%, respectively, which were higher than with protocol B (72%). The positive impact of succinic acid-whether added directly or produced via UV photolysis-confirms that its catabolism, which produced intracellular electron carriers, accelerated the initial steps of pyridine biotransformation. PMID:24364496

  12. Synthesis, characterization and nanocomposite formation of poly(glycerol succinate-co-maleate) with cellulose nanowhiskers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel biodegradable polymer based on glycerol, succinic anhydride and maleic anhydride, poly(glycerol succinate-co-maleate), poly(GlySAMA), was synthesized by melt polycondensation and tested as a matrix for composites with cellulose nanowhiskers. This glycerol-based polymer is thermally stable as...

  13. The functional TiO2-biodegradable plastic composite material produced by HVOF spraying process.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur; Lee, Yoon-Ki

    2007-11-01

    Photocatalytic TiO2 coatings on bio-degradable plastic(polybutylene succinate: PBS) were prepared by HVOF spraying using three kinds of agglomerated powders (P200: 200 nm, P30: 30 nm, P7: 7 nm). The microstructures of the coatings were characterized with SEM and XRD analysis, and the photocatalytic efficiency of the coatings was evaluated by photo degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde. For both the HVOF sprayed P200 and P30 coatings, high anatase ratio of 100% was achieved, regardless of the fuel gas pressure. On the other hand, for the HVOF sprayed P7 coating, the anatase ratio decreased from 100% to 49.1% with increasing fuel gas pressure. This decrease may be attributed to the much higher susceptibility to heat of the 7 nm agglomerated powders than the 30 nm and 200 nm agglomerated powders. In terms of the photocatalytic efficiency, HVOF sprayed P200 and P30 coatings seemed to outperform the P7 coatings because of their higher anatase ratios. However, the HVOF sprayed P7 coatings did not show photocatalytic activity possibly because of the extremely small reaction surface area to the photo-catalytic activity and low anatase ratio. Therefore, the present study found that functional PBS plastic with photocatalytic performance could be produced by spraying of ceramics such as TiO2. PMID:18047069

  14. Surface modification of a biodegradable composite by UV laser ablation: in vitro biological performance.

    PubMed

    Martins, Albino; Gang, Wu; Pinho, Elisabete D; Rebollar, Esther; Chiussi, Stefano; Reis, Rui L; León, Betty; Neves, Nuno M

    2010-08-01

    Melt blends of chitosan and biodegradable aliphatic polyester have been physically and biologically studied, presenting great potential for biomedical applications. Structurally, poly(butylene succinate)-chitosan (PBS/Cht) composite scaffolds are covered by a thin PBS layer, preventing the desired interaction of cells/tissues with the chitosan particules. In the present work, a selective and controlled ablation of this skin layer was induced by UV laser processing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data demonstrated an increment of chitosan components and others resulting from the laser ablation process. The biological activity (i.e. cell viability and proliferation) on the inner regions of the composite scaffolds is not significantly different from those of the external layer, despite the observed differences in surface roughness (determined by interferometric optical profilometry) and wettability (water contact angle). However, the morphology of human osteoblastic cells was found to be considerably different in the case of laser-processed samples, since the cells tend to aggregate in multilayer columnar structures, preferring the PBS surface and avoiding the chitosan-rich areas. Thus, UV laser ablation can be considered a model technique for the physical surface modification of biomaterials without detrimental effects on cellular activity. PMID:20112276

  15. Biodegradable nanofibers-reinforced microfibrous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Martins, Albino; Pinho, Elisabete D; Correlo, Vítor M; Faria, Susana; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L; Neves, Nuno M

    2010-12-01

    Native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex hierarchical fibrous composite structure, resulting from the assembling of collagen fibrils at several length scales, ranging from the macro to the nanoscale. The combination of nanofibers within microfibers after conventional reinforcement methodologies seems to be a feasible solution to the rational design of highly functional synthetic ECM substitutes. The present work aims at the development of bone ECM inspired structures, conjugating electrospun chitosan (Cht) nanofibers within biodegradable polymeric microfibers [poly(butylene succinate)-PBS and PBS/Cht], assembled in a fiber mesh structure. The nanofibers-reinforced composite fiber mesh scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and cultured under osteogenic differentiation conditions. These nanofibers-reinforced composite scaffolds sustained ECM deposition and mineralization, mainly in the PBS/Cht-based fiber meshes, as depicted by the increased amount of calcium phosphates produced by the osteogenic differentiated hBMSCs. The osteogenic genotype of the cultured hBMSCs was confirmed by the expression of osteoblastic genes, namely Alkaline Phosphatase, Osteopontin, Bone Sialoprotein and Osteocalcin, and the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix, all involved in different stages of the osteogenesis. These data represent the first report on the biological functionality of nanofibers-reinforced composite scaffolds, envisaging the applicability of the developed structures for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20666612

  16. The Succinated Proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Merkley, Eric D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John; Frizell, Norma

    2014-03-30

    Succination is a chemical modification of cysteine in protein by the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, yielding S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Intracellular fumarate concentration and succination of proteins are increased by hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in concert with mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in adipocytes grown in high glucose medium and in adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. Increased succination of proteins is also detected in the kidney of a fumarase conditional knock-out mouse which develops renal tumors. Keap1, the gatekeeper of the antioxidant response, was identified as a major succinated protein in renal cancer cells, suggesting that succination may play a role in activation of the antioxidant response. A wide range of proteins is subject to succination, including enzymes, adipokines, cytoskeletal proteins and ER chaperones with functional cysteine residues. There is also significant overlap between succinated and glutathionylated proteins, and with proteins containing cysteine residues that are readily oxidized to the sulfenic (cysteic) acid. Succination of adipocyte proteins is inhibited by uncouplers, which discharge the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and by ER stress inhibitors. 2SC serves as a biomarker of mitochondrial stress or dysfunction in chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cancer, and recent studies suggest that succination is a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and ER stress, and cellular progression toward apoptosis. In this article, we review the history of the succinated proteome and the challenges associated with measuring this non-enzymatic post-translational modification of proteins by proteomics approaches.

  17. THE SUCCINATED PROTEOME

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Eric D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John W.; Frizzell, Norma

    2014-01-01

    The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cysteine residues include oxidation, S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and succination, all of which modify protein function or turnover in response to a changing intracellular redox environment. Succination is a chemical modification of cysteine in proteins by the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, yielding S-(2-succino) cysteine (2SC). Intracellular fumarate concentration and succination of proteins are increased by hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in concert with mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in 3T3 adipocytes grown in high glucose medium and in adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes in mice. Increased succination of proteins is also detected in the kidney of a fumarase deficient conditional knock-out mouse which develops renal cysts. A wide range of proteins are subject to succination, including enzymes, adipokines, cytoskeletal proteins, and ER chaperones with functional cysteine residues. There is also some overlap between succinated and glutathionylated proteins, suggesting that the same low pKa thiols are targeted by both. Succination of adipocyte proteins in diabetes increases as a result of nutrient excess derived mitochondrial stress and this is inhibited by uncouplers, which discharge the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and relieve the electron transport chain. 2SC therefore serves as a biomarker of mitochondrial stress or dysfunction in chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer, and recent studies suggest that succination is a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and ER stress, and cellular progression toward apoptosis. In this article, we review the history of the succinated proteome and the challenges associated with measuring this non-enzymatic PTM of proteins by proteomics approaches. PMID:24115015

  18. Electron beam-induced crosslinking of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Kuk, In-Seol; Choi, Jae-Hak; Nho, Young-Chang

    2010-11-01

    Biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was crosslinked by electron beam irradiation and their properties were investigated in this research. PBAT films prepared by a solution casting method were crosslinked by electron beam under various absorbed doses ranging 20-200 kGy and their properties were characterized by using a crosslinking degree measurement, a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), universal testing machine (UTM), dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), and thermal mechanical analyzer (TMA). The results of the crosslinking degree measurement revealed that the PBAT could be crosslinked by electron beam irradiation and its crosslinking degree was dependant on the absorbed dose. In addition, the results of the UTM, DMA, TMA, and TGA analyses revealed that the thermal and mechanical properties of the crosslinked PBS was much improved in comparison to those of the control PBAT.

  19. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL. PMID:26512003

  20. Succinic anhydrides from epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Geoffrey W; Rowley, John M

    2014-12-30

    Catalysts and methods for the double carbonylation of epoxides are disclosed. Each epoxide molecule reacts with two molecules of carbon monoxide to produce a succinic anhydride. The reaction is facilitated by catalysts combining a Lewis acidic species with a transition metal carbonyl complex. The double carbonylation is achieved in single process by using reaction conditions under which both carbonylation reactions occur without the necessity of isolating or purifying the product of the first carbonylation.

  1. Succinic anhydrides from epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Geoffrey W.; Rowley, John M.

    2013-07-09

    Catalysts and methods for the double carbonylation of epoxides are disclosed. Each epoxide molecule reacts with two molecules of carbon monoxide to produce a succinic anhydride. The reaction is facilitated by catalysts combining a Lewis acidic species with a transition metal carbonyl complex. The double carbonylation is achieved in single process by using reaction conditions under which both carbonylation reactions occur without the necessity of isolating or purifying the product of the first carbonylation.

  2. Contribution of soil esterase to biodegradation of aliphatic polyester agricultural mulch film in cultivated soils.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between degradation speed of soil-buried biodegradable polyester film in a farmland and the characteristics of the predominant polyester-degrading soil microorganisms and enzymes were investigated to determine the BP-degrading ability of cultivated soils through characterization of the basal microbial activities and their transition in soils during BP film degradation. Degradation of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) film was evaluated in soil samples from different cultivated fields in Japan for 4 weeks. Both the degradation speed of the PBSA film and the esterase activity were found to be correlated with the ratio of colonies that produced clear zone on fungal minimum medium-agarose plate with emulsified PBSA to the total number colonies counted. Time-dependent change in viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and esterase activities were monitored in soils where buried films showed the most and the least degree of degradation. During the degradation of PBSA film, the viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and the esterase activities in soils, which adhered to the PBSA film, increased with time. The soil, where the film was degraded the fastest, recorded large PBSA-degrading fungal population and showed high esterase activity compared with the other soil samples throughout the incubation period. Meanwhile, esterase activity and viable counts of PBSA-degrading fungi were found to be stable in soils without PBSA film. These results suggest that the higher the distribution ratio of native PBSA-degrading fungi in the soil, the faster the film degradation is. This could be due to the rapid accumulation of secreted esterases in these soils. PMID:25852987

  3. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite of maleated poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with organoclay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jung-Hung; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were prepared via melt blending. Natural MMT was modified by either octadecylamine (ODA) or dihexylamine (DHA). Neat PBAT was grafted with maleic anhydride via melt grafting process. Intercalation of the organoclay in the PBAT matrix was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the results of transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dispersion of ODA-modified MMT in the PBAT matrix was more homogeneous than that of neat MMT. The addition of organoclay can increase the cooling crystallization temperature of PBAT, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the results of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) showed that the addition of ODA-modified MMT can improve the thermal stability of PBAT nanocomposites. The tensile strength was little affected, while the Young's modulus was increased with the addition of nanoclays. The grafting of PBAT with MA resulted in improved interaction between polymer matrix and the silicate layer due to the formation of chemical/physical bonds, thus the dispersion of organoclays was enhanced. By grafting PBAT with MA, the enzymatic biodegradation of the nanocomposite was increased, while the photodegradation of PBAT was little affected. Furthermore, the transmission of water vapor was reduced by the addition of organically modified MMT. PMID:25491991

  4. The role of electron donors generated from UV photolysis for accelerating pyridine biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yingxia; Zhang, Yongming; Yan, Ning; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor (ICBBR), we evaluated the mechanisms by which photolysis accelerated the biodegradation and mineralization of pyridine (C5 H5 N), a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound. We tested the hypothesis that pyridine oxidation is accelerated because a key photolysis intermediate, succinate, is as electron donor that promotes the initial mono-oxygenation of pyridine. Experimentally, longer photolysis time generated more electron-donor products (succinate), which stimulated faster pyridine biodegradation. This pattern was confirmed by directly adding succinate, and the stimulation effect occurred similarly with addition of the same equivalents of acetate and formate. Succinate, whether generated by UV photolysis or added directly, also accelerated mono-oxygenation of the first biodegradation intermediate, 2-hydroxyl pyridine (2HP). 2HP and pyridine were mutually inhibitory in that their mono-oxygenations competed for internal electron donor; thus, the addition of any readily biodegradable donor accelerated both mono-oxygenation steps, as well as mineralization. PMID:25854706

  5. Xylose induces the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica to produce a cutinase-like enzyme which efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Fujii, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Hiroko Kuze

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to speed up the degradation of used agricultural mulch films that are made of biodegradable plastics (BPs) in the field. Treating them with BP-degrading enzymes could be a solution to this problem. A cutinase-like enzyme of yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) has wide specificity of BPs degradation, but needs to be produced efficiently. Here we report that the production of PaE by P. antarctica can be increased by using xylose as carbon source. BP-degradation activity was analyzed using a polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion as the substrate. Strain P. antarctica GB-4(1)W was found to be the best PaE producer among the tested strains. Using a 5-L jar fermentor with xylose fed-batch cultivation, high PaE productivity could be maintained and about 21 U/ml of PaE was obtained in 120 h. This amount was 100 times higher than the amount that we obtained previously (0.21 U/ml by flask cultivation using glycerol as carbon source). Under repeated xylose fed-batch cultivation with 24 h intervals, the maximum PaE production rate (0.34 U/ml/h) was maintained and the highest PaE productivity (28,000 U/2 L/d) was repeatedly obtained for 7 intervals. The activity of filtered jar-culture (crude PaE) was stable over 12 weeks at 4°C. Commercially available BP mulch films (20 μm thickness, cut into 1-cm-squares) were completely degraded by submerging them in crude PaE (2 U/ml) at 30°C in 24 h. These results indicated that concentrated PaE can rapidly degrade the strength of BP mulch films in the field so that they do not interfere with plowing. PMID:24095046

  6. Succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  7. Production and characterization of novel starch and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)-based materials and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagner, Jacqueline Ann

    This work focuses on the production and characterization of blends of maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate) and their application for use as thermoformed objects, films, and foams. First, by the production and characterization of maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) synthesized by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder, a better understanding of MTPS was gained. This reactive thermoplastic starch was prepared with glycerol as the plasticizer, maleic anhydride (MA), and free-radical initiator, 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox 101). Dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), soxhlet extraction in acetone, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were performed to determine the effect of maleation, extrusion temperature, initiator concentration, and maleic anhydride concentration on the resulting MTPS. Next, maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) were reactively blended in a twin-screw extruder with a biodegradable polyester, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). The blends were extruded to produce thermoformable sheets. The mechanical properties of the sheets were characterized by tensile and puncture tests. Proof of grafting was determined by soxhlet extraction in dichloromethane and FTIR analysis. Observations of the thermal properties were made using DSC, while the surface of the sheets was imaged using ESEM. Blends of MTPS and PBAT were also extruded to produce films. Mechanical testing (tensile and puncture tests) and barrier performance testing (carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor permeability) were performed on the films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image the blends and to view the dispersion of the various phases. Finally, blends of MTPS and PBAT were extruded with an endothermic chemical blowing agent to produce foams. The foams were

  8. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Succinic acid. 582.1091 Section 582.1091 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Product. Succinic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. Preparation and characterization of crosslinked poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocomposite by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Jung, Chan-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Choi, Jae-Hak

    2013-01-01

    The electron beam-induced crosslinking of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocomposites was investigated in this study. PBAT/POSS nanocomposites prepared by a solution blending with various compositions were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation at various absorbed doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy and their properties were characterized in terms of their degree of crosslinking, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, and biodegradability. The results of the degree of crosslinking measurements revealed that PBAT/POSS nanocomposites were more effectively crosslinked than the pure PBAT and that the degree of crosslinking was dependent on the absorbed dose and POSS content. From the results of the FE-SEM and EDX analyses, the POSS was found to be uniformly dispersed in the PBAT matrix. Based on the results of the UTM, DMA, and TMA, the crosslinked PBAT/POSS nanocomposites exhibited much higher thermal and mechanical properties compared to those of the pure PBAT.

  14. Evaluation of biodegradable plastics for rubber seedling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansor, Mohd Khairulniza; Dayang Habibah A. I., H.; Kamal, Mazlina Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    The main negative consequence of conventional plastics in agriculture is related to handling the wastes plasticand the associated environmental impact. Hence, a study of different types of potentially biodegradable plastics used for nursery applications have been evaluated on its mechanical,water absorption propertiesand Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Supplied samples from different companies were designated as SF, CF and CO. Most of the polybags exhibited mechanical properties quite similar to the conventional plastics (polybag LDPE). CO polybag which is based on PVA however had extensively higher tensile strength and water absorption properties. FTIR study revealed a characteristics absorbance of conventional plastic, SF, CF and CO biodegradable polybag are associated with polyethylene, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) structures respectively.

  15. Improved Succinate Production by Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke-Ke; Wang, Gen-Yu; Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Jian-An

    2013-01-01

    Succinate is a promising chemical which has wide applications and can be produced by biological route. The history of the biosuccinate production shows that the joint effort of different metabolic engineering approaches brings successful results. In order to enhance the succinate production, multiple metabolical strategies have been sought. In this review, different overproducers for succinate production, including natural succinate overproducers and metabolic engineered overproducers, are examined and the metabolic engineering strategies and performances are discussed. Modification of the mechanism of substrate transportation, knocking-out genes responsible for by-products accumulation, overexpression of the genes directly involved in the pathway, and improvement of internal NADH and ATP formation are some of the strategies applied. Combination of the appropriate genes from homologous and heterologous hosts, extension of substrate, integrated production of succinate, and other high-value-added products are expected to bring a desired objective of producing succinate from renewable resources economically and efficiently. PMID:23691505

  16. Organoclay nanocomposites of post-industrial waste poly(butylene terephthalate) from automotive parts.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Noe B; Fernandes, Elizabeth G; Zanata, Fernanda; Bartoli, Julio R; Souza, Diego H S; Ito, Edson N

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are novel materials of huge interest owing to their favourable cost/performance ratio with low amount of nanofillers, improved thermal resistance, flame retardancy and mechanical properties in relation to their matrices. In this work, composites based on post-industrial waste or primary recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) and 5 wt.% of organic modified montmorillonite clays were melt compounded using a twin-screw extruder. A 2(2) factorial experimental design was used to study the compounding and processing variables: Organic modified montmorillonite with one or two hydrogenated tallow (initial basal spacing) and screw speed of the extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a partial exfoliation of the organoclay in the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) matrix was achieved for organic modified montmorillonite with lower initial basal spacing. On the other hand, formulations containing organic modified montmorillonite with higher initial basal spacing showed only intercalated structure. The recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite nanocomposites did not drip flaming material during burning tests. Storage of dynamic-mechanical, tensile and flexural moduli of the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite were improved when compared with both virgin and recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)s, mainly for nanocomposites formulated at a lower initial basal spacing organoclay. This could be related to a better diffusion of polymer into organic modified montmorillonite layers compared with the higher initial basal spacing organoclay. The improvements on the physical properties of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) showed the feasibility to add value to primary recycled engineering thermoplastics with a very small amount of organic modified montmorillonite. PMID:26341637

  17. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and....1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared...

  2. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments. PMID:24522729

  3. Functional analysis of FarA transcription factor in the regulation of the genes encoding lipolytic enzymes and hydrophobic surface binding protein for the degradation of biodegradable plastics in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Sharon Marie; Kitamoto, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Akira; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2012-05-01

    FarA is a Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) transcription factor which upregulates genes required for growth on fatty acids in filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans. FarA is also highly similar to the cutinase transcription factor CTF1α of Fusarium solani which binds to the cutinase gene promoter in this plant pathogen. This study determines whether FarA transcriptional factor also works in the regulation of genes responsible for the production of cutinase for the degradation of a biodegradable plastic, poly-(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA), in Aspergillus oryzae. The wild-type and the farA gene disruption strains were grown in minimal agar medium with emulsified PBSA, and the wild-type showed clear zone around the colonies while the disruptants did not. Western blot analysis revealed that the cutinase protein CutL1 and a hydrophobic surface binding protein such as HsbA were produced by the wild-type but not by the disruptants. In addition, the expressions of cutL1, triacylglycerol lipase (tglA), and mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (mdlB) genes as well as the hsbA gene were significantly lower in the disruptants compared to the wild-type. These results indicated that the FarA transcriptional factor would be implicated in the expression of cutL1 and hsbA genes that are required for the degradation of PBSA as well as lipolytic genes such as mdlB and tglA for lipid hydrolysis. PMID:22280964

  4. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  5. Single motoneuron succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, G R; Edgerton, V R

    1989-07-01

    We have developed a quantitative histochemical assay for measurement of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in single motoneurons. A computer image processing system was used to quantify the histochemical enzyme reaction product and to follow the time course of the reaction. The optimal concentration for each of the ingredients of the incubation medium for the SDH reaction was determined and the importance of using histochemical "blanks" in the determination of enzymatic activity was demonstrated. The enzymatic activity was linear with respect to reaction time and tissue thickness. The procedure described meets the criteria generally considered essential for establishment of a quantitative histochemical assay. The assay was then used to examine the SDH activity of cat and rat motoneurons. It was found that motoneurons with a small soma size had a wide range of SDH activity, whereas those with a large soma size were restricted to low SDH activity. PMID:2732457

  6. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chemical that transmits signals in the brain (neurotransmitter) called gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). The primary ... Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Pediatric Neurotransmitter Disease Association GeneReviews (1 link) Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase ...

  8. Biodegradable Polydepsipeptides

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yakai; Guo, Jintang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the synthesis, characterization, biodegradation and usage of bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides. The ring-opening polymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives using organic Sn and enzyme lipase is discussed. The dependence of the macroscopic properties of the block copolymers on their structure is also presented. Bioresorbable polymers based on polydepsipeptides could be used as biomaterials in drug controlled release, tissue engineering scaffolding and shape-memory materials. PMID:19333423

  9. Super-Robust Polylactide Barrier Films by Building Densely Oriented Lamellae Incorporated with Ductile in Situ Nanofibrils of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Ji, Xu; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Remarkable combination of excellent gas barrier performance, high strength, and toughness was realized in polylactide (PLA) composite films by constructing the supernetworks of oriented and pyknotic crystals with the assistance of ductile in situ nanofibrils of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). On the basis that the permeation of gas molecules through polymer materials with anisotropic structure would be more frustrated, we believe that oriented crystalline textures cooperating with inerratic amorphism can be favorable for the enhancement of gas barrier property. By taking full advantage of intensively elongational flow field, the dispersed phase of PBAT in situ forms into nanofibrils, and simultaneously sufficient row-nuclei for PLA are induced. After appropriate thermal treatment with the acceleration effect of PBAT on PLA crystallization, oriented lamellae of PLA tend to be more perfect in a preferential direction and constitute into a kind of network interconnecting with each other. At the same time, the molecular chains between lamellae tend to be more extended. This unique structure manifests superior ability in ameliorating the performance of PLA film. The oxygen permeability coefficient can be achieved as low as 2 × 10(-15) cm(3) cm cm(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), combining with the high strength, modulus, and ductility (104.5 MPa, 3484 MPa, and 110.6%, respectively). The methodology proposed in this work presents an industrially scalable processing method to fabricate super-robust PLA barrier films. It would indeed push the usability of biopolymers forward, and certainly prompt wider application of biodegradable polymers in the fields of environmental protection such as food packaging, medical packaging, and biodegradable mulch. PMID:26959220

  10. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine; Duchampt, Adeline; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Mithieux, Gilles

    2016-07-12

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, dietary succinate improved glucose and insulin tolerance in wild-type mice, but those effects were absent in mice deficient in IGN. Conventional mice colonized with the succinate producer Prevotella copri exhibited metabolic benefits, which could be related to succinate-activated IGN. Thus, microbiota-produced succinate is a previously unsuspected bacterial metabolite improving glycemic control through activation of IGN. PMID:27411015

  11. Conductance Studies of Aqueous Succinic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Barthel, Josef

    1992-03-01

    Conductance measurements of aqueous solutions of succinic acid and of di-sodium succinate were performed from 278.15 to 308.15 K and the limiting conductances λ0 (1/2 Succ2- ) are reported. The Waiden product is independent of temperature: λ0(1/2 Succ2-)*η(T) = 0.503 ± 0.001. The salt conductances closely obey the Onsager limiting law. The evaluation of the equilibrium constants for the primary and secondary steps of dissociation, K1 and K2, and the limiting conductances of the hydrosuccinate ion, λ0(HSucc-), are discussed using the Quint and Viallard conductance equation

  12. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  13. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  14. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  15. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1884 - Prednisolone sodium succinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium succinate injection. 522.1884... § 522.1884 Prednisolone sodium succinate injection. (a) Chemical name. 11 beta, 17, 21-Trihydroxypregna-1, 4-diene-3, 20-dione 21-succinate sodium salt. (b) Specifications. Each milliliter of...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1884 - Prednisolone sodium succinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium succinate injection. 522.1884... § 522.1884 Prednisolone sodium succinate injection. (a) Chemical name. 11 beta, 17, 21-Trihydroxypregna-1, 4-diene-3, 20-dione 21-succinate sodium salt. (b) Specifications. Each milliliter of...

  18. Biological denitrification using poly(butanediol succinate) as electron donor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiqiang; Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-07-01

    Poly(butanediol succinate) (PBS), a biodegradable polymer, was used as both solid carbon source and biofilm carrier for biological nitrate removal process, in which PBS was filled in a packed-bed bioreactor. The denitrification performance and the microbial diversity of biofilm attached on the surface of PBS were investigated. The experimental results showed that the volumetric denitrification rate was 0.60 kg m(-3) day(-1) when NO3-N loading rate was 0.63 kg m(-3) day(-1), and the average NO2-N concentration was below 0.20 mg L(-1). The effluent pH value decreased slightly from a range of 6.98-7.87 to 6.46-7.18. The analysis of microbial community structure of biofilm by pyrosequencing method showed that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (89.87 %), and β-Proteobacteria represented the most abundant class. Among the 76 identified genera, Dechloromonas (10.26 %), Alicycliphilus (9.15 %), Azospira (8.92 %), and Sinobacteraceae-uncultured (8.75 %) were the abundant genera. PBS, as a promising alternative carbon source, is a suitable solid carbon source and biofilm carrier for nitrate removal. PMID:26960320

  19. Degradation studies of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) - bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Bio composite scaffolds prepared from polymer and bio glass provide necessary sites for bone tissue regeneration. In the presented work, bioactive glass scaffolds have been prepared from 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) with different amount of bioactive glass powder by solvent casting method. Prepared scaffolds have been characterized by XRD, FTIR and FESEM techniques. Effect of content of bioactive glass on biodegradability has been investigated in detail.

  20. Succinate transport by free-living forms of Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, C F; Lepo, J E

    1983-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the transport of succinate into the cells of Rhizobium japonicum strains USDA 110 and USDA 217 is severely inhibited by cyanide, azide, and 2,4-dinitrophenol, but not by arsenate. These results suggest an active mechanism of transport that is dependent on an energized membrane, but does not directly utilize ATP. The apparent Km for succinate was 3.8 microM for strain USDA 110 and 1.8 microM for strain USDA 217; maximal transport velocities were 1.5 and 3.3 nmol of succinate per min per mg of protein, respectively. The expression of the succinate uptake activity was inducible rather than constitutive, with succinate and structurally related compounds being the most effective inducers. The mechanism showed some specificity for succinate and similar organic acids; fumarate and L-malate were classical competitive inhibitors of the system. In general, the best competing compounds were also the best carbon substrates for induction of succinate uptake activity. EDTA inhibited the transport of succinate, implying a role for divalent cations in the system. When various divalent cations were used to reconstitute EDTA-inhibited activity, Ca2+ was most effective, followed by Mg2+, which restored activity at about half the efficiency of Ca2+. Growth media that were supplemented with increased Ca2+ concentration supported more rapid growth with succinate as the carbon substrate, and cells from such media showed higher specific activities of succinate transport. PMID:6402487

  1. Enhanced succinate production from glycerol by engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, an engineered strain Escherichia coli MLB (ldhA(-)pflB(-)) was constructed for production of succinate from glycerol. The succinate yield was 0.37mol/mol in anaerobic culture, however, the growth and glycerol consumption rates were very slow, resulting in a low succinate level. Two-stage fermentation was performed in flasks, and the succinate yield reached 0.93mol/mol, but the succinate titer was still low. Hence, overexpression of malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PCK) from E. coli, and pyruvate carboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum in MLB was investigated for improving succinate production. Overexpression of PCK resulted in remarkable enhancement of glycerol consumption and succinate production. In flask experiments, the succinate concentration reached 118.1mM, and in a 1.5-L bioreactor the succinate concentration further increased to 360.2mM. The highest succinate yield achieved 0.93mol/mol, which was 93% of the theoretical yield, in the anaerobic stage. PMID:27371794

  2. Neuropathology in Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Knerr, Ina; Gibson, K. Michael; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Salomons, Gajja S.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Combs, Susan; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2010-01-01

    Reported here is the novel finding of neuropathology in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, an inherited disorder of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism characterized by intellectual deficiency, hypotonia, and epilepsy, with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria and abnormalities of the globus pallidus on neuroimaging. A 19-year-old woman of European origin with a neurodevelopmental disorder and epilepsy died unexpectedly in 1998. A postmortem examination was performed, with a final diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients. Eight years later, her sister with a neurodevelopmental disorder presented at 13 years of age with seizures and was diagnosed with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. In the decedent, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency was established at the molecular level, 10 years after her death, using genomic DNA from brain tissue specimens. The neuropathologic findings revealed striking discoloration of the globi pallidi, leptomeningeal congestion, and a scar in the frontal cortex. After detection of the pathogenic homozygous mutation c.1226G>A, p.Gly409Asp in the living sister, it was confirmed in the decedent. An underlying metabolic disease may be an additional risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients. PMID:20304328

  3. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Gu, Meng-Li; Ji, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. However, there are still 10%-15% of GISTs lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations, called wild-type GISTs (WT GISTs). Among these so-called WT GISTs, a small subset is associated with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency, known as SDH-deficient GISTs. In addition, GISTs that occur in Carney triad and Carney-Stratakis syndrome represent specific examples of SDH-deficient GISTs. SDH-deficient GISTs locate exclusively in the stomach, showing predilection for children and young adults with female preponderance. The tumor generally pursues an indolent course and exhibits primary resistance to imatinib therapy in most cases. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B expression and overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) are common features of SDH-deficient GISTs. In WT GISTs without succinate dehydrogenase activity, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α may lead to increased growth signaling through IGF1R and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). As a result, IGF1R and VEGFR are promising to be the novel therapeutic targets of GISTs. This review will update the current knowledge on characteristics of SDH-deficient GISTs and further discuss the possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis and clinical management of SDH-deficient GISTs. PMID:25741136

  4. BIODEGRADATION PROBABILITY PROGRAM (BIODEG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biodegradation Probability Program (BIODEG) calculates the probability that a chemical under aerobic conditions with mixed cultures of microorganisms will biodegrade rapidly or slowly. It uses fragment constants developed using multiple linear and non-linear regressions and d...

  5. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(butylenes succinate) composites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenmin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers have attracted much attention nowadays, and more and more researches have been done on biodegradable polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were melt-mixing with poly (butylenes succinate) (PBS) to prepare the material, which could be used in the biomedical industry. To develop high-performance PBS for cryogenic engineering applications, it is necessary to investigate the cryogenic mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of HA/PBS composites. Cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the composites were studied in terms of tensile and impact strength at the glass transition temperature (-30°C) and compared to their corresponding behaviors at room temperature. With the increase of HA content, the crystallization of HA/PBS composites decreased and crystallization onset temperature shifted to a lower temperature. The diameter of spherulites increased at first and decreased with a further HA content. At the same time, the crystallization rate became slow when the HA content was no more than 15wt% and increased when HA content reached 20wt%. In all, the results we obtained demonstrate that HA/PBS composites reveal a better tensile strength at -30°C in contrast to the strength at room temperature. HA particles with different amount affect the crystallization of PBS in different ways. PMID:23348918

  6. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  7. Performance and environmental impact of biodegradable polymers as agricultural mulching films.

    PubMed

    Touchaleaume, François; Martin-Closas, Lluís; Angellier-Coussy, Hélène; Chevillard, Anne; Cesar, Guy; Gontard, Nathalie; Gastaldi, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    In the aim of resolving environmental key issues such as irreversible soil pollution by non-biodegradable and non-recoverable polyethylene (PE) fragments, a full-scale field experiment was set up to evaluate the suitability of four biodegradable materials based on poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) to be used as sustainable alternatives to PE for mulching application in vineyard. Initial ultimate tensile properties, functional properties during field ageing (water vapour permeability and radiometric properties), biodegradability and agronomical performance of the mulched vines (wood production and fruiting yield) were studied. In spite of their early loss of physical integrity that occurred only five months after vine planting, the four materials satisfied all the requested functional properties and led to agronomic performance as high as polyethylene. In the light of the obtained results, the mulching material lifespan was questioned in the case of long-term perennial crop such as grapevine. Taking into account their mulching efficiency and biodegradability, the four PBAT-based studied materials are proven to constitute suitable alternatives to the excessively resistant PE material. PMID:26386433

  8. Purification process for succinic acid produced by fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Glassner, D.A.; Elankovan, P.; Beacom, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Succinic acid is a versatile four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. It can be used commercially as an intermediate chemical for the manufacture of 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, and many other chemicals. Succinic acid can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates. A complete process for the production and purification of succinic acid from carbohydrates has been developed. The process includes fermentation, desalting electrodialysis, water-splitting electrodialysis, and crystallization to produce a pure crystalline succinic acid. This article will present experimental work performed in the development of this process.

  9. Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL-20

    PubMed Central

    Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F.; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20. PMID:12620886

  10. [The application of succine in sports].

    PubMed

    S V, Okovityi; S V, Rad'Ko

    2015-01-01

    The development of energy deficiency in the course of physical exercises that eventually leads to serious derangement of the energy metabolism is an important component of the deterioration of physical and intellectual working capacity. The most promising approach to the correction of impaired physical and intellectual working capacity associated with energy deficiency consists in the application of pharmaceutical preparations containing intermediate products of the tricarbonic acid cycle. Of great promise in this context is succinic acid by virtue of its oxidation in endogenous reactions that constitutes the physiological adaptive mechanism by which resistance of the organism to oxygen deficiency is promoted. PMID:26841533

  11. Materials and methods for efficient succinate and malate production

    DOEpatents

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Haupt, Mark John; Zhang, Xueli; Moore, Jonathan C; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2014-04-08

    Genetically engineered microorganisms have been constructed to produce succinate and malate in mineral salt media in pH-controlled batch fermentations without the addition of plasmids or foreign genes. The subject invention also provides methods of producing succinate and malate comprising the culture of genetically modified microorganisms.

  12. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug...

  13. 21 CFR 522.784 - Doxylamine succinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate injection. 522.784 Section 522.784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.784 Doxylamine succinate injection....

  14. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase by succination in fumarate hydratase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ternette, Nicola; Yang, Ming; Laroyia, Mahima; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; O'Flaherty, Linda; Wolhulter, Kathryn; Igarashi, Kaori; Saito, Kaori; Kato, Keiko; Fischer, Roman; Berquand, Alexandre; Kessler, Benedikt M; Lappin, Terry; Frizzell, Norma; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Adam, Julie; Pollard, Patrick J

    2013-03-28

    The gene encoding the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) is mutated in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity causes accumulation of intracellular fumarate, which can directly modify cysteine residues to form 2-succinocysteine through succination. We undertook a proteomic-based screen in cells and renal cysts from Fh1 (murine FH)-deficient mice and identified 94 protein succination targets. Notably, we identified the succination of three cysteine residues in mitochondrial Aconitase2 (ACO2) crucial for iron-sulfur cluster binding. We show that fumarate exerts a dose-dependent inhibition of ACO2 activity, which correlates with increased succination as determined by mass spectrometry, possibly by interfering with iron chelation. Importantly, we show that aconitase activity is impaired in FH-deficient cells. Our data provide evidence that succination, resulting from FH deficiency, targets and potentially alters the function of multiple proteins and may contribute to the dysregulated metabolism observed in HLRCC. PMID:23499446

  15. Biodegradable composites filled with halloysite nanonotubes: Calorimetric investigations and structural issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pietro; Vetrano, Barbara; Acierno, Domenico

    2012-07-01

    Halloysite nanotubes were dispersed in a commercially biodegradable blends by melt compounding. Bionanocomposites based on a film-grade commercial blend of poly(hydroxybutirate)-co-valerate PHBV and poly(butylene adipate-co-therephthalate) PBAT and containg up to 10% by weigth of tubular clays (HNTs) were prepared by using a twin-screw lab extruder and filmed by a film-blowing equipment. Film samples were subjected to thermal and structural investigations. Calorimetric analysis showed that signals shape is clearly affected by the heating and cooling rate, respectively. Structural investigations performed by X-Ray diffraction tests satisfactorily allowed to interpret thermal behavior highlighting the occurrence of different crystalline modifications, depending on the scanning thermal rate, the inclusion of filler and its chemical functionalization.

  16. Characterization of biodegraded coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.C.; Linehan, J.C.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.

    1988-04-01

    We have been able to accomplish the biodegradation of bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal after a pretreatment consisting of air oxidation, using a culture of the fungus Penicillium sp. We report in this paper results of chemical and spectrometric analyses of the starting materials and products from Illinois No. 6 coal biodegradation, and compare the results with those previously reported from the biodegradation of leonardite. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Biodegradability of Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Ugwu, Charles U.; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed. PMID:19865515

  18. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of an organic material: 2-Aminopyridinium succinate succinic acid single crystal.

    PubMed

    Magesh, M; Bhagavannarayana, G; Ramasamy, P

    2015-11-01

    The 2-aminopyridinium succinate succinic acid (2APS) single crystal was synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method. The crystal structure has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal perfection has been evaluated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The grown crystal is transparent in the visible and near infrared region. The optical absorption edge was found to be 348 nm. The fluorescence study was carried out by spectrofluorophotometer. The thermal stability of grown crystal was analyzed by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis. Vicker's hardness study carried out at room temperature shows increased hardness while increasing the load. Laser damage threshold value was determined by Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The grown 2APS crystal was characterized by etching studies using water as etchant. PMID:26099828

  19. Poly(Glycerol Sebacate)/Poly(Butylene Succinate-Butylene Dilinoleate) Fibrous Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tallawi, Marwa; Zebrowski, David C.; Rai, Ranjana; Roether, Judith A.; Schubert, Dirk W.; El Fray, Miroslawa; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the use of a novel electrospun fibrous blend of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(butylene succinate-butylene dilinoleate) (PBS-DLA) as a candidate for cardiac tissue engineering. Random electrospun fibers with various PGS/PBS-DLA compositions (70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 0/100) were fabricated. To examine the suitability of these fiber blends for heart patches, their morphology, as well as their physical, chemical, and mechanical properties were measured before examining their biocompatibility through cell adhesion. The fabricated fibers were bead-free and exhibited a relatively narrow diameter distribution. The addition of PBS-DLA to PGS resulted in an increase of the average fiber diameter, whereas increasing the amount of PBS-DLA decreased the hydrophilicity and the water uptake of the nanofibrous scaffolds to values that approached those of neat PBS-DLA nanofibers. Moreover, the addition of PBS-DLA significantly increased the elastic modulus. Initial toxicity studies with C2C12 myoblast cells up to 72 h confirmed nontoxic behavior of the blends. Immunofluorescence analyses and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that C2C12 cells showed better cell attachment and proliferation on electrospun mats with higher PBS-DLA content. However, immunofluorescence analyses of the 3-day-old rat cardiomyocytes cultured for 2 and 5 days demonstrated better attachment on the 70/30 fibers containing well-aligned sarcomeres and expressing high amounts of connexin 43 in cellular junctions indicating efficient cell-to-cell communication. It can be concluded, therefore, that fibrous PGS/PBS-DLA scaffolds exhibit promising characteristics as a biomaterial for cardiac patch applications. PMID:25439964

  20. Poly(glycerol sebacate)/poly(butylene succinate-butylene dilinoleate) fibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tallawi, Marwa; Zebrowski, David C; Rai, Ranjana; Roether, Judith A; Schubert, Dirk W; El Fray, Miroslawa; Engel, Felix B; Aifantis, Katerina E; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-06-01

    The present article investigates the use of a novel electrospun fibrous blend of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(butylene succinate-butylene dilinoleate) (PBS-DLA) as a candidate for cardiac tissue engineering. Random electrospun fibers with various PGS/PBS-DLA compositions (70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 0/100) were fabricated. To examine the suitability of these fiber blends for heart patches, their morphology, as well as their physical, chemical, and mechanical properties were measured before examining their biocompatibility through cell adhesion. The fabricated fibers were bead-free and exhibited a relatively narrow diameter distribution. The addition of PBS-DLA to PGS resulted in an increase of the average fiber diameter, whereas increasing the amount of PBS-DLA decreased the hydrophilicity and the water uptake of the nanofibrous scaffolds to values that approached those of neat PBS-DLA nanofibers. Moreover, the addition of PBS-DLA significantly increased the elastic modulus. Initial toxicity studies with C2C12 myoblast cells up to 72 h confirmed nontoxic behavior of the blends. Immunofluorescence analyses and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that C2C12 cells showed better cell attachment and proliferation on electrospun mats with higher PBS-DLA content. However, immunofluorescence analyses of the 3-day-old rat cardiomyocytes cultured for 2 and 5 days demonstrated better attachment on the 70/30 fibers containing well-aligned sarcomeres and expressing high amounts of connexin 43 in cellular junctions indicating efficient cell-to-cell communication. It can be concluded, therefore, that fibrous PGS/PBS-DLA scaffolds exhibit promising characteristics as a biomaterial for cardiac patch applications. PMID:25439964

  1. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  2. Method to produce succinic acid from raw hydrolysates

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia Y.; Nghiem, Nhuan Phu

    2004-06-01

    A method for producing succinic acid from industrial-grade hydrolysates is provided, comprising supplying an organism that contains mutations for the genes ptsG, pflB, and ldhA, allowing said organism to accumulate biomass, and allowing said organism to metabolize the hydrolysate. Also provided is a bacteria mutant characterized in that it produces succinic acid from substrate contained in industrial-grade hydrolysate in a ratio of between 0.6:1 and 1.3:1 succinic acid to substrate.

  3. A new brominated polymeric additive for flame retardant glass-filled polybutylene terephthalate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bar-Yaacov, Y.; Minke, R.; Touval, I.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is called to the undesirable effects (poor ultraviolet light stability and blooming) sometimes introduced by brominated flame retarders. A brominated polymeric additive (BPA) with little or none of these undesirable side effects is compared with decabromobiphenyl oxide (DBBPO). The additive bears the product name F-2300. It is found to be more easily dispersed than DBBPO. The F-2300 is as effective as the DBBPO in the oxygen index test. The improved efficiency of the F-2300 may be explained by its better dispersion in polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). Glass-filled PBT containing F-2300 is found to be more resistant to UV degradation than DBBPO-containing formulas. Formulations with F-2300 therefore have a longer useful outdoor life. F-2300 is a diglycidyl-type polymer containing 50 percent aromatically bound bromine. Its melting point is 112 C, and it is stable up to 372 C. It is pointed out that since its melts at a relatively low temperature, it can be introduced into the formulation as a large agglomerate and still be dispersed evenly throughout the polymer.

  4. Dispersion study of nanofibrillated cellulose based poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) composites.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Tapasi; Czaka, Michael; Kao, Nhol; Gupta, Rahul K; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Bhattacharya, Sati

    2014-02-15

    The production of lower cost bionanocomposites based on nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is a promising source to develop the next generation of light weight and high performance materials for a variety of defense, infrastructure and energy applications. In this study, a series of bio-nanocomposites were developed by reinforcing NFC from regenerated wood fiber into poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) by injection molding. The incorporation of NFC in PBAT matrix (0.2-1 wt%) increased the storage modulus (G') and dynamic viscosity (η') as revealed by shear rheology, indicating a percolation threshold around 0.2-0.5 wt% region. DSC analysis showed similar trends with slight improvement of glass transition (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tc). Percentage crystallinity, as calculated from heat of fusion equation and taking into account 100% crystallized PBAT data improved in overall. This is a fundamental study aimed at understanding the morphological, rheological and thermal evaluation of such nanocomposites for an improved dispersion of NFC as filler in the matrix. PMID:24507316

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on poly(butylene naphthalate) based polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavasi, I.; Consolati, G.; Quasso, F.; Soccio, M.; Gigli, M.; Negrin, M.; Macerata, E.; Giacobbo, F.; Lotti, N.; Munari, A.; Mariani, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present work investigates the effect of gamma radiation on the properties of three naphthalate-based polyesters, i.e. poly(butylene naphthalate) (PBN), poly(diethylene naphthalate) (PDEN) and poly(thiodiethylene naphthalate) (PTDEN). In addition, the analogous terephthalate-based polymers of PDEN and PTDEN, i.e. poly(diethylene terephthalate) (PDET) and poly(thiodiethylene terephthalate) (PTDET), are also investigated, in order to check the effect of a lower number of aromatic rings. All the polymers, irradiated in air at different absorbed doses, were characterized by several techniques. The data obtained indicate that all the polymers, except PBN, show a decrease of molecular weight with the dose increase. The thermal behavior and the morphology confirm the previous results and show that the higher the crystallinity degree and number of aromatic rings, the higher the radiation resistance. The introduction of heteroatoms decreases the ability of a polymer to crystallize due to a reduction of polymer chain symmetry, thus worsening their radiation resistance.

  6. Failure mechanisms and lifetime prediction methodology for polybutylene pipe in water distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiqun

    Polybutylene (PB) is a semicrystalline thermoplastics. It has been widely used in potable water distribution piping system. However, field practice shows that failure occurs much earlier than the expected service lifetime. What are the causes and how to appropriately evaluate its lifetime motivate this study. In this thesis, three parts of work have been done. First is the understanding of PB, which includes material thermo and mechanical characterization, aging phenomena and notch sensitivity. The second part analyzes the applicability of the existing lifetime testing method for PB. It is shown that PB is an anomaly in terms of the temperature-lifetime relation because of the fracture mechanism transition across the testing temperature range. The third part is the development of the methodology of lifetime prediction for PB pipe. The fracture process of PB pipe consists of three stages, i.e., crack initiation, slow crack growth (SCG) and crack instability. The practical lifetime of PB pipe is primarily determined by the duration of the first two stages. The mechanism of crack initiation and the quantitative estimation of the time to crack initiation are studied by employing environment stress cracking technique. A fatigue slow crack growth testing method has been developed and applied in the study of SCG. By using Paris-Erdogan equation, a model is constructed to evaluate the time for SCG. As a result, the total lifetime is determined. Through this work, the failure mechanisms of PB pipe has been analyzed and the lifetime prediction methodology has been developed.

  7. Novel membrane-based biotechnological alternative process for succinic acid production and chemical synthesis of bio-based poly (butylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Ming, Wei; Yan, Daojiang; Zhang, Congcong; Yang, Maohua; Liu, Yilan; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baohua; Wan, Yinhua; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-03-01

    Succinic acid was produced in a novel membrane-based fermentation and separation integrated system. With this integrated system, product inhibition was alleviated by removing acids and replenishing fresh broth. High cell density maintain for a longer time from 75 to 130h and succinic acid concentration increased from 53 to 73g/L. In the developed separation process, succinic acid was crystallized at a recovery of 85-90%. The purity of the obtained succinic acid crystals reached 99.4% as found by HPLC and (1)H NMR analysis. A crystallization experiment indicated that among by-products glucose had a negative effect on succinic acid crystallization. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) was synthesized using the purified succinic acid and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that the composition of the synthesized PBS is in agreement with that from petro-based succinic acid. PMID:24472699

  8. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The national laboratory consortium has undertaken an R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI) to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources. The projects near-term goal is to demonstrate an economically competetive process for producing 1,4-butanediol and other derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid without generating a major salt waste. The competitiveness to the petrochemical process must be demonstrated.

  9. Succinate Dehydrogenase Loss in Familial Paraganglioma: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Her, Yeng F.; Maher, L. James

    2015-01-01

    It is counterintuitive that metabolic defects reducing ATP production can cause, rather than protect from, cancer. Yet this is precisely the case for familial paraganglioma, a form of neuroendocrine malignancy caused by loss of succinate dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we review biochemical, genetic, and epigenetic considerations in succinate dehydrogenase loss and present leading models and mysteries associated with this fascinating and important tumor. PMID:26294907

  10. Grey water biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively. PMID:20658309

  11. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  12. Formulation development of metoprolol succinate and hydrochlorothiazide compression coated tablets.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ritesh; Parmar, Swatil; Patel, Hetal; Pandey, Sonia; Shah, Dinesh

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of present research work was to design and optimize compression coated tablet to provide an immediate release of hydrochlorothiazide in stomach and extended release of metoprolol succinate in intestine. Compression coated tablet was prepared by direct compression method which consisted of metoprolol succinate extended release core tablet and hydrochlorothiazide immediate release coat layer. Barrier coating of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) E15LV was applied onto the core tablets to prevent burst release of metoprolol succinate in acidic medium. A 32 full factorial design was employed for optimization of the amount of polymers required to achieve extended release of drug. The percentage drug release at given time Q3, Q6, Q10, Q22; were selected as dependent variables. Core and compression coated tablets were evaluated for pharmaco-technical parameters. In vitro drug release of optimized batch was found to comply with Pharmacopoeial specifications. Desired release of metoprolol succinate was obtained by suitable combination of HPMC having high gelling capacity and polyethylene oxide having quick gelling capacity. The mechanism of release of metoprolol succinate from all batches was anomalous diffusion. Optimised batch was stable at accelerated conditions up to 3 months. Thus, compression coated tablet of metoprolol succinate and hydrochlorothiazide was successfully formulated. PMID:23017092

  13. The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Ternette, Nicola; Su, Huizhong; Dabiri, Raliat; Kessler, Benedikt M; Adam, Julie; Teh, Bin Tean; Pollard, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC. PMID:25105836

  14. The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Ternette, Nicola; Su, Huizhong; Dabiri, Raliat; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Adam, Julie; Teh, Bin Tean; Pollard, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC. PMID:25105836

  15. Towards hyperpolarized 13C-succinate imaging of brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pratip; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Perman, William H.; Harris, Kent C.; Lin, Alexander P.; Norton, Valerie A.; Tan, Chou T.; Ross, Brian D.; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2007-05-01

    We describe a novel 13C enriched precursor molecule, sodium 1- 13C acetylenedicarboxylate, which after hydrogenation by PASADENA (Parahydrogen and Synthesis Allows Dramatically Enhanced Nuclear Alignment) under controlled experimental conditions, becomes hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate. Fast in vivo 3D FIESTA MR imaging demonstrated that, following carotid arterial injection, the hyperpolarized 13C-succinate appeared in the head and cerebral circulation of normal and tumor-bearing rats. At this time, no in vivo hyperpolarized signal has been localized to normal brain or brain tumor. On the other hand, ex vivo samples of brain harvested from rats bearing a 9L brain tumor, 1 h or more following in vivo carotid injection of hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate, contained significant concentrations of the injected substrate, 13C sodium succinate, together with 13C maleate and succinate metabolites 1- 13C-glutamate, 5- 13C-glutamate, 1- 13C-glutamine and 5- 13C-glutamine. The 13C substrates and products were below the limits of NMR detection in ex vivo samples of normal brain consistent with an intact blood-brain barrier. These ex vivo results indicate that hyperpolarized 13C sodium succinate may become a useful tool for rapid in vivo identification of brain tumors, providing novel biomarkers in 13C MR spectral-spatial images.

  16. Characterization of biodegraded coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial degradation of coals to materials that are soluble in water has been a topic of intensive research for the last few years. The potential for economical recovery of low-grade coals, coupled with possibilities for further upgrading by microbial desulfurization or methanation has spurred intensive research at a number of laboratories. Until very recently, coal biodegradation has been accomplished using low-grade, naturally oxidized coals such as leonardiate, or coals subjected to pretreatment with oxidizing chemicals. The authors have been able to accomplish the biodegradation of bituminous Illinois 6 coal after a pretreatment consisting of air oxidation, using a culture of the fungus Penicillium sp. They report in this paper results of chemical and spectrometric analyses of the starting materials and products from Illinois 6 coal biodegradation, and compare the results with those previously reported from the biodegradation of leonardite.

  17. Miscibility, Crystallization, and Rheological Behavior of Solution Casting Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene succinate) Blends Probed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Rheology, and Optical Microscope Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-hua; Qiao, Xiao-ping; Cao, Qi-kun; Liu, Jie-ping

    2010-02-01

    The miscibility and crystallization of solution casting biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene succinate) (PHB/PES) blends was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, rheology, and optical microscopy. The blends showed two glass transition temperatures and a depression of melting temperature of PHB with compositions in phase diagram, which indicated that the blend was partially miscible. The morphology observation supported this result. It was found that the PHB and PES can crystallize simultaneously or upon stepwise depending on the crystallization temperatures and compositions. The spherulite growth rate of PHB increased with increasing of PES content. The influence of compositions on the spherulitic growth rate for the partially miscible polymer blends was discussed.

  18. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS.

    PubMed

    Chouchani, Edward T; Pell, Victoria R; Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y; Robb, Ellen L; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Ord, Emily N J; Smith, Anthony C; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J; James, Andrew M; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S H; Brookes, Paul S; Davidson, Sean M; Duchen, Michael R; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J; Robinson, Alan J; Work, Lorraine M; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-11-20

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although mitochondrial ROS production in ischaemia reperfusion is established, it has generally been considered a nonspecific response to reperfusion. Here we develop a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis, and unexpectedly identify widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during ischaemia reperfusion. We show that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a new pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation after subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease ischaemia

  19. Microbial degradation of an aliphatic polyester with a high melting point, poly(tetramethylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Pranamuda, H; Tokiwa, Y; Tanaka, H

    1995-05-01

    The biodegradability of poly(tetramethylene succinate) (PTMS), a synthetic aliphatic polyester with a high melting point, was evaluated. The ecological study showed that the distribution of PTMS-degrading microorganisms in soil environments was quite restricted compared with the distribution of microorganisms that degrade poly((epsilon)-caprolactone) (PCL), a polyester with a low melting point. However, in soil samples in which the formation of a clear zone was observed, PTMS-degrading microorganisms constituted 0.2 to 6.0% of the total number of microorganisms, which is very close to the percentage (0.8 to 8.0%) observed for PCL-degrading microorganisms. Five strains were isolated from colonies which formed distinct clear zones on agar plates with emulsified PTMS. In liquid cultures of the isolates with ground PTMS powder, strain HT-6, an actinomycete, showed the highest PTMS degrading activity. It assimilated about 60% of the ground PTMS powder after 8 days of cultivation. When a PTMS emulsion was used, a higher degradation rate was observed and more than 90% of the PTMS was assimilated in 6 days. PTMS degradation products were analyzed by gas chromatography, and it was found that 1,4-butanediol, 4-hydroxy n-butyrate, and succinic acid accumulated during cultivation. Degradation of PTMS film by the strain occurred in two steps: fragmentation and then the formation of hemispherical holes on the surface of the film. Strain HT-6 was also able to assimilate PCL and poly((beta)-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). The crude enzyme showed a wide range of substrate specificity, being able to degrade low-molecular-weight PTMS, PCL, PHB, and even high-molecular-weight PTMS. PMID:16535023

  20. Core-shell electrospun polybutylene terephthalate/polypyrrole hollow nanofibers for micro-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Habib; Rezvani, Omid; Banihashemi, Solmaz

    2016-02-19

    In the present work, a new micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) sorbent as an extracting medium based on core-shell nanofibers was synthesized by electrospinning. The core-shell nanofibers of polyvinylpyrrolidone-Polybutylene terephthalate/polypyrrole (PVP-PBT/PPy) were electrospun and subsequently, modified hollow nanofibers were prepared by removing the central PVP moiety. Moreover, conventional PBT/PPy was also prepared for the comparison purposes. The homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the core-shell nanofibers were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The applicability of the fabricated nanofibers-coating was examined by immersed μ-SPE of some selected triazine herbicides from aqueous samples and wheat grains. Subsequently, the extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography (GC) after solvent desorption. Influencing parameters on the morphology of nanofiber such as elctrospinning parameters and the weight ratio of components were optimized. In addition, effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, sample pH, desorption temperature, and desorption time were investigated and optimized. Eventually, the developed method was validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation values for real water samples spiked with the selected triazines at 1 ng mL(-1) were 4-8% (n=3) and the limits of detection for the studied compounds were between 50 and 90 ng L(-1). The calibration curves for the selected triazines were in the range of 0.3-500 ng mL(-1) and regression coefficients (R(2)) were between 0.9985 and 0.9996. PMID:26810808

  1. Effect of Anodic Alumina Oxide Pore Diameter on the Crystallization of Poly(butylene adipate).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Fang, Qunqun; Li, Huihui; Ren, Zhongjie; Yan, Shouke

    2016-04-01

    Poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) was infiltrated into the anodic alumina oxide (AAO) templates with the pore diameter of around 30, 70, and 100 nm and PBA nanotubes with different diameters were prepared. The crystallization and phase transition behavior of the obtained PBA nanotubes capped in the nanopores have been explored by using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Only α-PBA crystals form in the bulk sample during nonisothermal crystallization. By contrast, predominant β-PBA crystals form in the AAO templates. The β-PBA crystals formed in the nanopores with pore diameter less than 70 nm prefer to adopt an orientation with their b-axis parallel to the long axis of the pore. During the melt recrystallization, it was found that the critical temperature (Tβ), below which pure β-crystals form, is 20 °C for bulk PBA. It drops down significantly with the pore diameter for the PBA in the AAO template. Moreover, the β-crystals in the porous template exhibit larger lattice parameters compared with the bulk crystals. By monitoring the change of β-crystals in the heating process, it was found that β-crystals in the AAO template with the pore diameter of 30 nm (D30) melt directly while the β-crystals transform to α-crystals in the template with the pore diameter of 100 nm (D100). The intensity of (020) Bragg peak of β-crystals decreases at a similar rate in both D30 and D100 but disappears at a relatively lower temperature in D30. On the other hand, the β(110) peak intensity of β-PBA crystals formed in the D100 template decreases first at slower rate before α crystals appear, and then at a faster rate once the β to α phase transition takes place. PMID:27008378

  2. Succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations in cardiac paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Victoria L; Emaminia, Abbas; del Rivero, Jaydira; Lechan, Ronald M; Magoon, Bindiya T; Galia, Analyza; Fojo, Tito; Leung, Steve; Lorusso, Roberto; Jimenez, Camilo; Shulkin, Barry L; Audibert, Jennifer L; Adams, Karen T; Rosing, Douglas R; Vaidya, Anand; Dluhy, Robert G; Horvath, Keith A; Pacak, Karel

    2015-06-15

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are chromaffin cell tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells. At least 1/3 of paragangliomas are related to germline mutations in 1 of 17 genes. Although these tumors can occur throughout the body, cardiac paragangliomas are very rare, accounting for <0.3% of mediastinal tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with cardiac paragangliomas, particularly focusing on their genetic backgrounds. A retrospective chart analysis of 15 patients with cardiac paragangliomas was performed to determine clinical presentation, genetic background, diagnostic workup, and outcomes. The average age at diagnosis was 41.9 years. Typical symptoms of paraganglioma (e.g., hypertension, sweating, palpitations, headache) were reported at initial presentation in 13 patients (86.7%); the remaining 2, as well as 4 symptomatic patients, initially presented with cardiac-specific symptoms (e.g., chest pain, dyspnea). Genetic testing was done in 13 patients (86.7%); 10 (76.9%) were positive for mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) subunits B, C, or D. Thirteen patients (86.7%) underwent surgery to remove the paraganglioma with no intraoperative morbidity or mortality; 1 additional patient underwent surgical resection but experienced intraoperative complications after removal of the tumor due to co-morbidities and did not survive. SDHx mutations are known to be associated with mediastinal locations and malignant behavior of paragangliomas. In this report, the investigators extend the locations of predominantly SDHx-related paragangliomas to cardiac tumors. In conclusion, cardiac paragangliomas are frequently associated with underlying SDHx germline mutations, suggesting a need for genetic testing of all patients with this rare tumor. PMID:25896150

  3. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  4. Recent advances in production of succinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Junaid; Idris, Ani; Abd Aziz, Ramlan

    2014-02-01

    Production of succinic acid via separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) are alternatives and are environmentally friendly processes. These processes have attained considerable positions in the industry with their own share of challenges and problems. The high-value succinic acid is extensively used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, leather and textile industries and can be efficiently produced via several methods. Previously, succinic acid production via chemical synthesis from petrochemical or refined sugar has been the focus of interest of most reviewers. However, these expensive substrates have been recently replaced by alternative sustainable raw materials such as lignocellulosic biomass, which is cheap and abundantly available. Thus, this review focuses on succinic acid production utilizing lignocellulosic material as a potential substrate for SSF and SHF. SSF is an economical single-step process which can be a substitute for SHF - a two-step process where biomass is hydrolyzed in the first step and fermented in the second step. SSF of lignocellulosic biomass under optimum temperature and pH conditions results in the controlled release of sugar and simultaneous conversion into succinic acid by specific microorganisms, reducing reaction time and costs and increasing productivity. In addition, main process parameters which influence SHF and SSF processes such as batch and fed-batch fermentation conditions using different microbial strains are discussed in detail. PMID:24292125

  5. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  6. Antioxidant and antitumor activity of trolox, trolox succinate, and α-tocopheryl succinate conjugates with nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Ol'ga D; Frolova, Tat'yana S; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Chernyak, Elena I; Pokrovsky, Andrei G; Pokrovsky, Mikhail A; Morozov, Sergei V; Sinitsina, Ol'ga I; Grigor'ev, Igor A; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-10-21

    A possible ability of twelve new derivatives of known antioxidants trolox (TroH), trolox succinate (TroS), α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) containing nitroxyl radicals (1-12) to protect bacterial cells from spontaneous and peroxide-induced mutagenesis and their cytotoxicity against six different tumor cells as well as two normal cells were investigated and compared with that for TroH, TroS, α-TOH, and α-TOS for the first time. In contrast to TroH and TroS, all nitroxide derivatives 1-12 demonstrated not only antioxidant properties, but also suppress the growth of human tumor cells: myeloma, mammary adenocarcinoma, hepatocarcinoma, T cells leukemia, histiocytic lymphoma, and T-cellular leucosis. The IC50 values (24 - ≥ 300 μM) depend significantly on the compounds and type of tumor cells. Some compounds were capable to inhibit the growth of normal mouse (LMTK) and hamster (AG17) fibroblast cells and demonstrate very different ratios in inhibition of various tumor and normal cell lines. Some nitroxide conjugates showed pronounced selectivity in suppressing the growth of several cancer cells. Overall, several compounds may be promising in parallel as antioxidants and as specific inhibitors of some tumor cells growth. Among considered spin labeled conjugates the most perspective derivatives as antioxidants and as antitumor agents are the compounds containing pyrrolidine nitroxides. In contrast to spin labeled TroH, TroS and α-TOS conjugates 1-12 succinyl derivatives 13-15 were inactive in inhibiting the growth of any tumor cells. It means that for suppressing the cancer cells the compounds should contain in their structures fragments of TroH, TroS or α-TOS. PMID:27344490

  7. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y.; Robb, Ellen L.; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Ord, Emily N. J.; Smith, Anthony C.; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J.; James, Andrew M.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C.; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S.H.; Brookes, Paul S.; Davidson, Sean M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J.; Robinson, Alan J.; Work, Lorraine M.; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)1-5. Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion1,3. Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517

  8. Effect of peroxide and chain extender on mechanical properties and morphology of poly (butylene succinate)/poly (lactic acid) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherykhunthod, W.; Seadan, M.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA) are biodegradable polymers with high potential to replace commodity fossil-based polymers in a wide range of applications. However, these two polymers are immiscible in most ratios, but partially miscible when one of the two is a major phase. In this study, a one-step process in a twin-screw extruder was used to prepare the blends between poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) as a matrix and poly (lactic acid) (PLA) as a dispersed phase. To improve mechanical properties and morphology of blends, two reactive agents, peroxide (Perkadox) and multifunctional epoxide chain extender (Joncryl) were selected and compared. All samples were characterized for melt flow index (MFI), morphology, tensile, and impact properties. The results showed that the mechanical properties and morphology of PBS/PLA blends were improved when using both reactive agents. It was demonstrated that the increased mechanical properties resulted from good interfacial adhesion between PBS and finely dispersed PLA particles. The addition of 0.075 phr Perkadox to PBS/PLA (75:25 and 80:20) blends increased elongation at break by 7.2% and 38.4%, respectively compared with the blends without reactive agents. The results from gel content also revealed the graft copolymer existed at the interface when reactive agents were added. In the case of using multifunctional epoxide chain extender, the impact strength of the blends increased.

  9. Nanoparticles of Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)-d-a-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate Random Copolymer for Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuandong; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Kexin; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Xu, Lei; Yan, Fei; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2010-07-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies could provide potential solutions. In this research, a novel biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLGA-TPGS) random copolymer was synthesized from lactide, glycolide and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by ring-opening polymerization using stannous octoate as catalyst. The obtained random copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, GPC and TGA. The docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles made of PLGA-TPGS copolymer were prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. The nanoparticles were then characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques. The results revealed that the size of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was around 250 nm. The docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could achieve much faster drug release in comparison with PLGA nanoparticles. In vitro cellular uptakes of such nanoparticles were investigated by CLSM, demonstrating the fluorescence PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could be internalized by human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). The results also indicated that PLGA-TPGS-based nanoparticles were biocompatible, and the docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles had significant cytotoxicity against Hela cells. The cytotoxicity against HeLa cells for PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was in time- and concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS random copolymer could be acted as a novel and promising biocompatible polymeric matrix material applicable to nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  11. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  12. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  13. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  14. Simulating Succinate-Promoted Dissolution at Calcite {104} Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhonto, D.; Sahai, N.

    2008-12-01

    Organic molecules of a wide range of molecular weights from small organic acids, amino-acids, acidic peptides and acidic proteins to humic and fulvic acids play a key role in modulating nucleation, crystal growth and dissolution of calcium carbonate polymorphs. In general, these acidic molecules inhibit calcite growth and, promote dissolution preferentially along specific crystallographic directions, in the process, regulating crystal shape and size, and even whether a metastable polymorph (e.g., vaterite or aragonite) is nucleated first. For example, chiral faces of calcite are selected by chiral amino-acids and the unusual {hk0} faces are expressed in the presence of amino-acids [Orme et al., 2001], and unusual heptagonal dissolution etch-pit are seen in the presence of succinate compared to the normal rhombohedral pits in water alone [Teng et al., 2006]. Thus, the presence of unusual crystal morphologies may indicate organic-mediated growth, thus serving as a biosignature. We have conducted the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations using the Consistent Valence Force Field (CVFF) as implemented in the FORCITE© module of the Materials Studio © software package (Accelrys, Inc. TM) to model the adsorption of succinate, a dicarboxylic acid, and charge- balancing Na+ ions on dry and hydrated steps in different directions on the {104} cleavage face of calcite [Mkhonto and Sahai, in prep.]. At the site of succinate adsorption, we find elongation of the interatomic distances (Ca-OCO3,i) between surface Ca2+ cation and the oxygen of the underlying inorganic CO32- anion the first surface layer of calcite, compared to the corresponding distances in the presence of water alone, suggesting greater ease of surface Ca2+ detachment. This result is consistent with the empirically observed increase in overall dissolution rate with succinate [Teng et al., 2006]. Furthermore, succinate adsorption lowers the step energies, which explains the appearance of steps in the unsusual [42

  15. Editorial: Biodegradable Materials

    PubMed Central

    Schaschke, Carl; Audic, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue “Biodegradable Materials” features research and review papers concerning recent advances on the development, synthesis, testing and characterisation of biomaterials. These biomaterials, derived from natural and renewable sources, offer a potential alternative to existing non-biodegradable materials with application to the food and biomedical industries amongst many others. In this Special Issue, the work is expanded to include the combined use of fillers that can enhance the properties of biomaterials prepared as films. The future application of these biomaterials could have an impact not only at the economic level, but also for the improvement of the environment. PMID:25421242

  16. Biodegradable poly(ethylene-g-vinyl alcohol) copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.; Huang, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    A graft reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, and polyethylene grafted width maleic anhydride has been carried out in order to add hydrophobicity to PVA. Biodegradabilities of PVA and the polyethylene derivative are well-known. The graft reaction product that was prepared by a simple procedure was characterized with FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The FTIR spectra indicated that ester bonds were formed in the product. It was also found from the thermal analysis that the graft compound was less crystalline that raw PVA and the thermal properties of the graft copolymer remarkably depended on molar ratio of succinic anhydride group in the polyethylene derivative that was used in the graft reaction. The degradation of the material will be discussed.

  17. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Smiga-Matuszowicz, Monika; Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan; Kaczmarek, Marcin; Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Simka, Wojciech; Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. PMID:25491802

  18. Biodegradable Materials for Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for nonwovens is increasing globally, particularly in the disposable products area. As the consumption of nonwoven products with short life increases, the burden on waste disposal also rises. In this context, biodegradable nonwovens become more important today and for the future. Several new ...

  19. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...

  20. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  1. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...

  2. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...

  3. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films...

  4. Succinate dehydrogenase is the regulator of respiration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Travis; Weinrick, Brian; Vilchèze, Catherine; Berney, Michael; Tufariello, Joanne; Cook, Gregory M; Jacobs, William R

    2014-11-01

    In chronic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are thought to enter a metabolic program that provides sufficient energy for maintenance of the protonmotive force, but is insufficient to meet the demands of cellular growth. We sought to understand this metabolic downshift genetically by targeting succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme which couples the growth processes controlled by the TCA cycle with the energy production resulting from the electron transport chain. M. tuberculosis contains two operons which are predicted to encode succinate dehydrogenase enzymes (sdh-1 and sdh-2); we found that deletion of Sdh1 contributes to an inability to survive long term stationary phase. Stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry revealed that Sdh1 functions as a succinate dehydrogenase during aerobic growth, and that Sdh2 is dispensable for this catalysis, but partially overlapping activities ensure that the loss of one enzyme can incompletely compensate for loss of the other. Deletion of Sdh1 disturbs the rate of respiration via the mycobacterial electron transport chain, resulting in an increased proportion of reduced electron carrier (menaquinol) which leads to increased oxygen consumption. The loss of respiratory control leads to an inability to recover from stationary phase. We propose a model in which succinate dehydrogenase is a governor of cellular respiration in the adaptation to low oxygen environments. PMID:25412183

  5. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  6. Fluorine-Enriched Melt-Blown Fibers from Polymer Blends of Poly(butylene terephthalate) and a Fluorinated Multiblock Copolyester.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaifei; Macosko, Christopher W; Bates, Frank S

    2016-01-13

    Melt-blown fibers (dav ∼1 μm) were produced from blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and a partially fluorinated random multiblock copolyester (PFCE) leading to enhanced hydrophobicity and even superhydrophobicity (static water contact angle = 157 ± 3°) of the associated fiber mats. XPS measurements demonstrated quantitatively that the surface fluorine content increased systematically with the bulk loading of PFCE, rising to nearly 20 atom %, which corresponds to 41 wt % PFCE at a bulk loading of 10 wt %. The PBT/PFCE fibers exhibit greater fluorine surface segregation than either melt-blown PBT/poly(ethylene-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PBT/PECTFE) fibers or electrospun fibers obtained from blends of poly(styrene) and fluoroalkyl end-capped polystyrene (PS/PSCF). Dynamic contact angle measurements further demonstrated decreased surface adhesion energy of the melt-blown PBT/PFCE fiber mats due to the blooming of PFCE to the surface. PMID:26694531

  7. Succinic semialdehyde reductase Gox1801 from Gluconobacter oxydans in comparison to other succinic semialdehyde-reducing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Maria; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is an industrially important bacterium that possesses many uncharacterized oxidoreductases, which might be exploited for novel biotechnological applications. In this study, gene gox1801 was homologously overexpressed in G. oxydans and it was found that the relative expression of gox1801 was 13-fold higher than that in the control strain. Gox1801 was predicted to belong to the 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase-type proteins. The purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of 134 kDa and forms a homotetramer. Analysis of the enzymatic activity revealed that Gox1801 is a succinic semialdehyde reductase that used NADH and NADPH as electron donors. Lower activities were observed with glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and phenylglyoxal. The enzyme was compared to the succinic semialdehyde reductase GsSSAR from Geobacter sulfurreducens and the γ-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase YihU from Escherichia coli K-12. The comparison revealed that Gox1801 is the first enzyme from an aerobic bacterium reducing succinic semialdehyde with high catalytic efficiency. As a novel succinic semialdehyde reductase, Gox1801 has the potential to be used in the biotechnological production of γ-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:25425279

  8. Elementary Mode Analysis for the Rational Design of Efficient Succinate Conversion from Glycerol by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan; Liu, Dehua

    2010-01-01

    By integrating the restriction of oxygen and redox sensing/regulatory system, elementary mode analysis was used to predict the metabolic potential of glycerol for succinate production by E. coli under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. It was found that although the theoretical maximum succinate yields under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions are 1.0 mol/mol glycerol, the aerobic condition was considered to be more favorable for succinate production. Although increase of the oxygen concentration would reduce the succinate yield, the calculation suggests that controlling the molar fraction of oxygen to be under 0.65 mol/mol would be beneficial for increasing the succinate productivity. Based on the elementary mode analysis, the rational genetic modification strategies for efficient succinate production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were obtained, respectively. Overexpressing the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase or heterogonous pyruvate carboxylase is considered to be the most efficient strategy to increase the succinate yield. PMID:20886007

  9. The influence of green surface modification of oil palm mesocarp fiber by superheated steam on the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of oil palm mesocarp fiber/poly(butylene succinate) biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Then, Yoon Yee; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, superheated steam (SHS) was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200-230 °C) and time (30-120 min) under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication. PMID:25177865

  10. The Influence of Green Surface Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber by Superheated Steam on the Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber/Poly(butylene succinate) Biocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Then, Yoon Yee; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, superheated steam (SHS) was used as cost effective and green processing technique to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for biocomposite applications. The purpose of this modification was to promote the adhesion between fiber and thermoplastic. The modification was carried out in a SHS oven at various temperature (200–230 °C) and time (30–120 min) under normal atmospheric pressure. The biocomposites from SHS-treated OPMFs and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) at a weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared by melt blending technique. The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the biocomposites were evaluated. This study showed that the SHS treatment increased the roughness of the fiber surface due to the removal of surface impurities and hemicellulose. The tensile, flexural and impact properties, as well as dimensional stability of the biocomposites were markedly enhanced by the presence of SHS-treated OPMF. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed improvement of interfacial adhesion between PBS and SHS-treated OPMF. This work demonstrated that SHS could be used as an eco-friendly and sustainable processing method for modification of OPMF in biocomposite fabrication. PMID:25177865

  11. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  12. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit D and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutation analysis in canine phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Holt, D E; Henthorn, P; Howell, V M; Robinson, B G; Benn, D E

    2014-07-01

    Phaeochromocytomas (PCs) are tumours of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. Paragangliomas (PGLs) arise in sympathetic ganglia (previously called extra-adrenal PCs) or in non-chromaffin parasympathetic ganglia cells that are usually non-secretory. Parenchymal cells from these tumours have a common embryological origin from neural crest ectoderm. Several case series of canine PCs and PGLs have been published and a link between the increased incidence of chemoreceptor neoplasia in brachycephalic dog breeds and chronic hypoxia has been postulated. A similar link to hypoxia in man led to the identification of germline heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) and subsequently SDHA, SDHB and SDHC in similar tumours. We investigated canine PCs (n = 6) and PGLs (n = 2) for SDHD and SDHB mutations and in one PGL found a somatic SDHD mutation c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) in exon 4, which was not present in normal tissue from this brachycephalic dog. Two PCs were heterozygous for both c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) mutation and an exon 3 silent variant c.291G>A. We also identified the heterozygous SDHB exon 2 mutation c.113G>A (p.Arg38Gln) in a PC. These results illustrate that genetic mutations may underlie tumourigenesis in canine PCs and PGLs. The spontaneous nature of these canine diseases and possible association of PGLs with hypoxia in brachycephalic breeds may make them an attractive model for studying the corresponding human tumours. PMID:24813157

  13. A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K.

    2015-06-01

    A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV-Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  14. A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K.

    2015-06-24

    A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV–Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  15. Biodegradable Polymers for the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Richard A.; Kalra, Bhanu

    2002-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are designed to degrade upon disposal by the action of living organisms. Extraordinary progress has been made in the development of practical processes and products from polymers such as starch, cellulose, and lactic acid. The need to create alternative biodegradable water-soluble polymers for down-the-drain products such as detergents and cosmetics has taken on increasing importance. Consumers have, however, thus far attached little or no added value to the property of biodegradability, forcing industry to compete head-to-head on a cost-performance basis with existing familiar products. In addition, no suitable infrastructure for the disposal of biodegradable materials exists as yet.

  16. [The research progress of succinic acid fermentation strains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2007-07-01

    The potential of succinic acid as an important chemical intermediates had been realized and fermentation is one of the best ways to make it possible in economical aspect. Fermentation organism is the key part of the fermentation method. The updated research developments of fermentation organisms and the fermentation characteristics and problems of them were reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Finally,the development future of fermenation organism was forecasted. PMID:17822024

  17. Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Johannes K; Piel, Sarah; Ford, Rhonan; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander; Morota, Saori; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Cornell, Clive; Moss, Steven J; Metzsch, Carsten; Hansson, Magnus J; Fliri, Hans; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most prevalent defect in the respiratory chain in paediatric mitochondrial disease. This heterogeneous group of diseases includes serious or fatal neurological presentations such as Leigh syndrome and there are very limited evidence-based treatment options available. Here we describe that cell membrane-permeable prodrugs of the complex II substrate succinate increase ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration in CI-deficient human blood cells, fibroblasts and heart fibres. Lactate accumulation in platelets due to rotenone-induced CI inhibition is reversed and rotenone-induced increase in lactate:pyruvate ratio in white blood cells is alleviated. Metabolomic analyses demonstrate delivery and metabolism of [(13)C]succinate. In Leigh syndrome patient fibroblasts, with a recessive NDUFS2 mutation, respiration and spare respiratory capacity are increased by prodrug administration. We conclude that prodrug-delivered succinate bypasses CI and supports electron transport, membrane potential and ATP production. This strategy offers a potential future therapy for metabolic decompensation due to mitochondrial CI dysfunction. PMID:27502960

  18. Characterization of the iron-sulfur centers in succinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Coles, C J; Holm, R H; Kurtz, D M; Orme-Johnson, W H; Rawlings, J; Singer, T P; Wong, G B

    1979-01-01

    Two techniques have been applied to the determination of the number and type (2-Fe, 4-Fe) of iron-sulfur centers in the iron-sulfur flavoprotein succinate dehydrogenase [succinate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.1]. One procedure uses p-CF3C6H4SH as an extrusion reagent and Fourier transform 19F nuclear magentic resonance as the method of detection and quantitation of extruded cores of these centers in the form of [Fe2S2(SRF)4]2- and [Fe4S4(SRF)4]2- (RF = p-C6H4CF3). The second procedure, interprotein core transfer, involves thiol displacement of iron-sulfur cores followed by specific core transfer to the apoproteins of Bacillus polymyxa ferredoxin and adrenodoxin. Detection and quantitation are accomplished by electron paramagnetic resonance of reduced proteins at low temperatures. Both procedures clearly show that succinate dehydrogenase contains two dimeric (Fe2S2) and one tetrameric (Fe4S4) centers per mole of histidyl flavin, accounting for all eight nonheme iron and eight labile sulfur atoms found by chemical analysis. These results remove uncertainties created by the less than stoichiometric amounts of binuclear centers detected by electron paramagnetic resonance after dithionite reduction and provide secure characterization of the iron-sulfur centers in this enzyme. PMID:226982

  19. Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ehinger, Johannes K.; Piel, Sarah; Ford, Rhonan; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander; Morota, Saori; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Cornell, Clive; Moss, Steven J.; Metzsch, Carsten; Hansson, Magnus J.; Fliri, Hans; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most prevalent defect in the respiratory chain in paediatric mitochondrial disease. This heterogeneous group of diseases includes serious or fatal neurological presentations such as Leigh syndrome and there are very limited evidence-based treatment options available. Here we describe that cell membrane-permeable prodrugs of the complex II substrate succinate increase ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration in CI-deficient human blood cells, fibroblasts and heart fibres. Lactate accumulation in platelets due to rotenone-induced CI inhibition is reversed and rotenone-induced increase in lactate:pyruvate ratio in white blood cells is alleviated. Metabolomic analyses demonstrate delivery and metabolism of [13C]succinate. In Leigh syndrome patient fibroblasts, with a recessive NDUFS2 mutation, respiration and spare respiratory capacity are increased by prodrug administration. We conclude that prodrug-delivered succinate bypasses CI and supports electron transport, membrane potential and ATP production. This strategy offers a potential future therapy for metabolic decompensation due to mitochondrial CI dysfunction. PMID:27502960

  20. Biodegradation of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) by a new Penicillium oxalicum strain DSYD05-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Yu, Dan; Lin, Xiumei; Liu, Dongbo; Xia, Hongmei; Chen, Shan

    2012-10-01

    In this study, fungi isolated from soil were screened for their ability to form clear zones on agar plates with emulsified poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The most active strain, designated as DSYD05, was identified as Penicillium oxalicum on the basis of morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. Mutant DSYD05-1, obtained by ultraviolet-light mutagenesis from strain DSYD05, was more effective in PCL degradation. In liquid cultures of the mutant strain with PCL emulsion, DSYD05-1 showed the highest PCL-degrading activity after 4 days of cultivation. The products of PCL degradation were analysed by mass spectrometry; the results indicated that 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was produced and assimilated during cultivation. The degradation of PCL film by DSYD05-1 was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and was indicative of a three-stage degradation process. The degradation of amorphous parts of the film preceded that of the crystalline center and then the peripheral crystalline regions. In addition, DSYD05-1 showed a wide range of substrate specificity, with capability to degrade PCL, poly(β-hydroxybutyrate), and poly(butylene succinate), but not poly(lactic acid), indicating that the strain could have potential for application in the treatment or recycling of bio-plastic wastes. PMID:22806733

  1. Inhibitory effect of succinic acid on epithelial cell proliferation of colonic mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Akiko; Ichikawa, Hirofumi; Sakata, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Microbial breakdown of carbohydrates in the large intestine mainly produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA stimulate epithelial cell proliferation of the digestive tract in vivo. Succinic acid sometimes accumulates in the colonic lumen. However, the effect of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation is unknown. Thus, we planned to clarify the influence of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. We continuously administered infusate with or without succinic acid (100 mM) into the distal colon of rats for 6 d and measured accumulated mitosis per crypt of distal colon of these rats. Succinic acid infused into rat colons significantly inhibited colonic cell proliferation and reduced crypt size. These results clearly indicated the inhibitory effects of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. PMID:17934246

  2. Benzoate degradation via the ortho pathway in Alcaligenes eutrophus is perturbed by succinate.

    PubMed Central

    Ampe, F; Uribelarrea, J L; Aragao, G M; Lindley, N D

    1997-01-01

    During batch growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus on benzoate-plus-succinate mixtures, substrates were simultaneously metabolized, leading to a higher specific growth rate (mu = 0.56 h-1) than when a single substrate was used (mu = 0.51 h-1 for benzoate alone and 0.44 h-1 for succinate alone), without adversely affecting the growth yield (0.57 Cmol/Cmol). Flux distribution analysis revealed that succinate dehydrogenase most probably controls the rate of total succinate consumption (the maximum flux being 9.7 mmol.g-1.h-1). It is postulated that the relative consumption rate of each substrate is in part related to modified levels of gene expression but to a large extent is dependent upon the presence of succinate, end product of the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Indeed, the in vitro beta-ketoadipate-succinyl coenzyme A transferase activity was seen to be inhibited by succinate, a coproduct of the reaction. PMID:9212423

  3. Succinic acid production with metabolically engineered E. coli recovered from two-stage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Chen, Ke-Quan; Xu, Bing; Liu, Shu-Wen; Wei, Ping; Ying, Han-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Escherichia coli AFP111 cells recovered from spent two-stage fermentation broth were investigated for additional production of succinic acid under anaerobic conditions. Recovered cells produced succinic acid in an aqueous environment with no nutrient supplementation except for glucose and MgCO(3). In addition, initial glucose concentration and cell density had a significant influence on succinic acid mass yield and productivity. Although the final concentration of succinic acid from recovered cells was lower than from two-stage fermentation, an average succinic acid mass yield of 0.85 g/g was achieved with an average productivity of 1.81 g/l h after three rounds of recycling, which was comparable to two-stage fermentation. These results suggested that recovered cells might be reused for the efficient production of succinic acid. PMID:20495946

  4. Biodegradable pectin/clay aerogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Schiraldi, David A

    2013-03-13

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The addition of multivalent cations (Ca(2+) and Al(3+)) resulted in apparent cross-linking of the polymer and enhancement of aerogel properties. The compressive properties increased as the solid contents (both pectin and clay) increased; moduli in the range of 0.04-114 MPa were obtained for materials with bulk densities ranging from 0.03 g/cm(3) to 0.19 g/cm(3), accompanied by microstructural changes from a lamellar structure to a cellular structure. Biodegradability of the aerogels was investigated by detecting CO2 release for 4 weeks in compost media. The results revealed that pectin aerogels possess higher biodegradation rates than wheat starch, which is often used as a standard for effective biodegradation. The addition of clay and multivalent cations surprisingly increased the biodegradation rates. PMID:23406325

  5. Physical Stability of Octenyl Succinate-Modified Polysaccharides and Whey Proteins for Potential Use as Bioactive Carriers in Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Puerta-Gomez, Alex F; Castell-Perez, M Elena

    2015-06-01

    The high cost and potential toxicity of biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) has increased the interest in natural and modified biopolymers as bioactive carriers. This study characterized the physical stability (water sorption and state transition behavior) of selected starch and proteins: octenyl succinate-modified depolymerized waxy corn starch (DWxCn), waxy rice starch (DWxRc), phytoglycogen, whey protein concentrate (80%, WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and α-lactalbumin (α-L) to determine their potential as carriers of bioactive compounds under different environmental conditions. After enzyme modification and particle size characterization, glass transition temperature and moisture isotherms were used to characterize the systems. DWxCn and DWxRc had increased water sorption compared to native starch. The level of octenyl succinate anhydrate (OSA) modification (3% and 7%) did not reduce the water sorption of the DWxCn and phytoglycogen samples. The Guggenheim-Andersen-de Boer model indicated that native waxy corn had significantly (P < 0.05) higher water monolayer capacity followed by 3%-OSA-modified DWxCn, WPI, 3%-OSA-modified DWxRc, α-L, and native phytoglycogen. WPC had significantly lower water monolayer capacity. All Tg values matched with the solid-like appearance of the biopolymers. Native polysaccharides and whey proteins had higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. On the other hand, depolymerized waxy starches at 7%-OSA modification had a "melted" appearance when exposed to environments with high relative humidity (above 70%) after 10 days at 23 °C. The use of depolymerized and OSA-modified polysaccharides blended with proteins created more stable blends of biopolymers. Hence, this biopolymer would be suitable for materials exposed to high humidity environments in food applications. PMID:25922272

  6. Fermentative Succinate Production: An Emerging Technology to Replace the Traditional Petrochemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Sun, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yuhua; Xian, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Succinate is a valuable platform chemical for multiple applications. Confronted with the exhaustion of fossil energy resources, fermentative succinate production from renewable biomass to replace the traditional petrochemical process is receiving an increasing amount of attention. During the past few years, the succinate-producing process using microbial fermentation has been made commercially available by the joint efforts of researchers in different fields. In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. The key limitations and challenges faced in current microbial production systems are also proposed. PMID:24396827

  7. Collaborative regulation of CO2 transport and fixation during succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Li-Na; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, succinic acid is synthesized by CO2 fixation-based carboxylation of C3 metabolites. A two-step process is involved in CO2 integration: CO2 uptake into the cell and CO2 fixation by carboxylation enzymes. The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PPC) and carboxykinase (PCK) are two important carboxylation enzymes within the succinate synthetic pathway, while SbtA and BicA are two important bicarbonate transporters. In this study, we employed a dual expression system, in which genes regulating both CO2 uptake and fixation were co-overexpressed, or overexpressed individually to improve succinate biosynthesis. Active CO2 uptake was observed by the expression of SbtA or/and BicA, but the succinate biosynthesis was decreased. The succinate production was significantly increased only when a CO2 fixation gene (ppc or pck) and a CO2 transport gene (sbtA or bicA) were co-expressed. Co-expression of pck and sbtA provided the best succinate production among all the strains. The highest succinate production of 73.4 g L−1 was 13.3%, 66.4% or 15.0% higher than that obtained with the expression of PCK, SbtA alone, or with empty plasmids, respectively. We believe that combined regulation of CO2 transport and fixation is critical for succinate production. Imbalanced gene expression may disturb the cellular metabolism and succinate production. PMID:26626308

  8. Collaborative regulation of CO2 transport and fixation during succinate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Li-Na; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, succinic acid is synthesized by CO2 fixation-based carboxylation of C3 metabolites. A two-step process is involved in CO2 integration: CO2 uptake into the cell and CO2 fixation by carboxylation enzymes. The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PPC) and carboxykinase (PCK) are two important carboxylation enzymes within the succinate synthetic pathway, while SbtA and BicA are two important bicarbonate transporters. In this study, we employed a dual expression system, in which genes regulating both CO2 uptake and fixation were co-overexpressed, or overexpressed individually to improve succinate biosynthesis. Active CO2 uptake was observed by the expression of SbtA or/and BicA, but the succinate biosynthesis was decreased. The succinate production was significantly increased only when a CO2 fixation gene (ppc or pck) and a CO2 transport gene (sbtA or bicA) were co-expressed. Co-expression of pck and sbtA provided the best succinate production among all the strains. The highest succinate production of 73.4 g L(-1) was 13.3%, 66.4% or 15.0% higher than that obtained with the expression of PCK, SbtA alone, or with empty plasmids, respectively. We believe that combined regulation of CO2 transport and fixation is critical for succinate production. Imbalanced gene expression may disturb the cellular metabolism and succinate production. PMID:26626308

  9. Non-leaching antimicrobial biodegradable PBAT films through a facile and novel approach.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dafu; Wang, Hao; Ziaee, Zainab; Chibante, Felipe; Zheg, Anna; Xiao, Huining

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial thermoplastic starch (ATPS) containing guanidine-based polymers was obtained using a twin-screw extrusion with potato starch and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHGH). Furthermore, the non-leaching antimicrobial biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was prepared through reactive extrusion with PBAT and ATPS in the presence of the coupling agent, 2,2'-(1,3-phenylene)-bis (2-oxazoline) (PBO). Finally, the antimicrobial PBAT films were obtained by using a blown film extrusion system. The mechanical properties of the antimicrobial PBAT films varied with the contents of ATPS and thermoplastic starch (TPS). According to the test results of shaking flask method, the prepared antimicrobial PBAT films showed excellent antimicrobial activities (antimicrobial rate >99.99%) and rapid pathogen deactivation efficiency (antimicrobial rate >99.99% even within 15s of contact time). The water washing and ring diffusion tests demonstrated that the antimicrobial film was a non-leaching product. Inspiringly, the antimicrobial PBAT films with an excellent antimicrobial activity can be obtained even at a very low dosage of PHGH (1.0 mg/g PBAT film). PMID:26478395

  10. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments. PMID:26698270

  11. Preparation of a biodegradable oil absorber and its biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Su-Yong; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Lee, Min-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    The biodegradable oil absorption resin (B-PEHA) was prepared by suspension polymerization, and its preparation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The oil absorption capacities of the prepared B-PEHA were: chloroform 30.88, toluene 19.75, xylene, 18.78, THF 15.96, octane 11.43, hexane 9.5, diesel oil 12.80, and kerosene 13.79 g/g. The biodegradation of the prepared B-PEHA was also investigated by determination of reduced sugar produced after enzymatic hydrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and incubation with Aspergillus niger. The biodegradation of B-PEHA was ~18%. PMID:21909668

  12. The influence of manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Gong, Xinglong

    2014-08-15

    By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nano-particles, manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo2O4-GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo2O4-GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co3O4-GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O4 for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide. PMID:24997255

  13. Biodegradation of Polypropylene Nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, Brandi Nechelle

    The primary aim of the current research is to document the biodegradation of polypropylene nonwovens and filament under composting environments. To accelerate the biodegradat ion, pre-treatments and additives were incorporated into polypropylene filaments and nonwovens. The initial phase (Chapter 2) of the project studied the biodegradation of untreated polypropylene with/without pro-oxidants in two types of composting systems. Normal composting, which involved incubation of samples in food waste, had little effect on the mechanical properties of additive-free spunbond nonwovens in to comparison prooxidant containing spunbond nonwovens which were affected significantly. Modified composting which includes the burial of samples with food and compressed air, the polypropylene spunbond nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants displayed an extreme loss in mechanical properties and cracking on the surface cracking. Because the untreated spunbond nonwovens did not completely decompose, the next phase of the project examined the pre-treatment of gamma-irradiation or thermal aging prior to composting. After exposure to gamma-irradiation and thermal aging, polypropylene is subjected to oxidative degradation in the presence of air and during storage after irradiat ion. Similar to photo-oxidation, the mechanism of gamma radiation and thermal oxidative degradation is fundamentally free radical in nature. In Chapter 3, the compostability of thermal aged spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidant additives. The FTIR spectrum confirmed oxidat ion of the polypropylene nonwovens with/without additives. Cracking on both the pro-oxidant and control spunbond nonwovens was showed by SEM imaging. Spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were also preirradiated by gamma rays followed by composting. Nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were severely degraded by gamma-irradiation after up to 20 kGy exposure as explained in Chapter 4. Furthermore (Chapter 5), gamma

  14. Efficient biodegradation of phenanthrene by a novel strain Massilia sp. WF1 isolated from a PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haizhen; Lou, Jun; Gu, Haiping; Luo, Xiaoyan; Yang, Li; Wu, Laosheng; Liu, Yong; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2016-07-01

    A novel phenanthrene (PHE)-degrading strain Massilia sp. WF1, isolated from PAH-contaminated soil, was capable of degrading PHE by using it as the sole carbon source and energy in a range of pH (5.0-8.0), temperatures (20-35 °C), and PHE concentrations (25-400 mg L(-1)). Massilia sp. WF1 exhibited highly effective PHE-degrading ability that completely degraded 100 mg L(-1) of PHE over 2 days at optimal conditions (pH 6.0, 28 °C). The kinetics of PHE biodegradation by Massilia sp. WF1 was well represented by the Gompertz model. Results indicated that PHE biodegradation was inhibited by the supplied lactic acid but was promoted by the supplied carbon sources of glucose, citric acid, and succinic acid. Salicylic acid (SALA) and phthalic acid (PHTA) were not utilized by Massilia sp. WF1 and had no obvious effect on PHE biodegradation. Only two metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1H2N) and PHTA, were identified in PHE biodegradation process. Quantitatively, nearly 27.7 % of PHE was converted to 1H2N and 30.3 % of 1H2N was further metabolized to PHTA. However, the PHTA pathway was broken and the SALA pathway was ruled out in PHE biodegradation process by Massilia sp. WF1. PMID:27026540

  15. Biodegradation of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    PCBs were examined for biodegradability by a strain of Pseudomonas sp. designated E1, by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa designated E2, and by a strain of Pseudomonas putida designated E3. The PCBs included Aroclor mixes from Aroclor 1221 to Aroclor 1268, and pure congeners ranging from monochlorobiphenyl to decachlorobiphenyl. These congeners represented all structural classes. Pure culture studies revealed that cells of E1 grew well on all structural classes of PCB congeners up to heptachlorobiphenyl, and all Aroclor mixes up to Aroclor 1260. Gas chromotographic analysis revealed that biphenyl/acetate grown resting cells of E1 degraded congeners up to octachlorobiphenyl. The degradative patterns for E2 and E3 were assessed using gas chromatographic techniques. E2 was found to be markedly inferior to E1, degrading only the mono-, di-, and tri-chlorobiphenyl tested. Pseudomonas putida strain E3 could not degrade any PCB congener. Mutations in both E2 and E3 that enabled them to utilize more highly chlorinated congeners of PCBs were obtained in nutritionally depleted environments. Such mutants could not be obtained by direct selection using minimal media and appear to be [open quotes]Cairnsian[close quotes] mutations. The Pseudomonas sp. strain E1 was tested in 15 prior or current National Priority List soil microcosms to assess its biodegradative ability in situ. E1 was able to completely degrade the 2,3,4,2[prime],3[prime],4[prime]-2,4,5,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl congener in seven of the microcosms within two months as well.

  16. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Haws, R.; Wright, B.; Reese, D.; Moeller, G.; Peterson, C.

    1995-12-31

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO{sub 2} evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO{sub 2} evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO{sub 2} evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO{sub 2}. The test substances were examined for BOD{sub 5} and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD{sub 5} and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD{sub 5} and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p << 0.01. RME was also significantly lower than REE (p < 0.05) and MS (p < 0.01) for BOD{sub 5} value.

  17. Reduction of VOC emission from natural flours filled biodegradable bio-composites for automobile interior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Yun, Ju-Ho; Yoo, Seung-Eul; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-03-15

    Various experiments, such as the thermal extract (TE) method, field and emission cell (FLEC) method and 20 L small chamber, were performed to examine the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) emissions from bio-composites. The TVOC of neat poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was ranged from 0.26 mg/m(2)h to 4.11 mg/m(2)h with increasing temperature. For both PLA bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour, the temperature increased from 0.30 mg/m(2)h to 3.72 mg/m(2)h and from 0.19 mg/m(2)h to 8.74 mg/m(2)h, respectively. The TVOC emission factors of all samples increased gradually with increasing temperature. Above 70°C, both PLA-P and PLA-C composites had higher TVOC emission factors than neat PLA due to the rapid emission of natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as furfural (2-furancarboxyaldehyde). PLA composites containing 30 wt% flour had high 1,4-dioxane reduction ability, >50%. The TVOC of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was emitted rapidly from 50 °C to 90 °C due to succinic acid from the pyrolysis of PBS. The TVOC emission factors of PLA bio-composite and PBS bio-composites were reduced using the bake-out method (temperature at 70 °C and baking time 5h). The initial TVOC emission factors of the PLA and PBS bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour were reduced by the baking treatment using FLEC. The TVOC factors from PLA and PBS decreased until 5 days and were commonly maintained a relatively constant value after 5 days using 20L small chamber. The decrease in TVOC emission showed a similar trend to that of the TE and FLEC method. This method confirmed the beneficial effect of the baking treatment effect for polypropylene and linear density polyethylene (LDPE). PMID:20739121

  18. Integration of succinic acid and ethanol production within a corn or barley biorefinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of succinic acid from glucose by Escherichia coli strain AFP184 was studied in a batch fermentor. The bases used for pH control included NaOH, KOH, NH4OH, and Na2CO3. The yield of succinic acid without and with carbon dioxide supplied by an adjacent ethanol fermentor using either corn or ...

  19. Study of the role of anaerobic metabolism in succinate production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yoshinori; Kaida, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Fukui, Keita; Nishio, Yousuke; Hashiguchi, Kenichi; Fudou, Ryosuke; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Sode, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Succinate is a core biochemical building block; optimizing succinate production from biomass by microbial fermentation is a focus of basic and applied biotechnology research. Lowering pH in anaerobic succinate fermentation culture is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach to reducing the use of sub-raw materials such as alkali, which are needed for neutralization. To evaluate the potential of bacteria-based succinate fermentation under weak acidic (pH <6.2) and anaerobic conditions, we characterized the anaerobic metabolism of Enterobacter aerogenes AJ110637, which rapidly assimilates glucose at pH 5.0. Based on the profile of anaerobic products, we constructed single-gene knockout mutants to eliminate the main anaerobic metabolic pathways involved in NADH re-oxidation. These single-gene knockout studies showed that the ethanol synthesis pathway serves as the dominant NADH re-oxidation pathway in this organism. To generate a metabolically engineered strain for succinate production, we eliminated ethanol formation and introduced a heterogeneous carboxylation enzyme, yielding E. aerogenes strain ΔadhE/PCK. The strain produced succinate from glucose with a 60.5% yield (grams of succinate produced per gram of glucose consumed) at pH <6.2 and anaerobic conditions. Thus, we showed the potential of bacteria-based succinate fermentation under weak acidic conditions. PMID:24962116

  20. 40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). (a) Chemical... as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN P-01-595) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). (a) Chemical... as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN P-01-595) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). (a) Chemical... as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN P-01-595) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). (a) Chemical... as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN P-01-595) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10090 - Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tertiary amine salt of glycol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10090 Tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (generic). (a) Chemical... as tertiary amine salt of glycol succinate (PMN P-01-595) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. The effect of biotin on the production of succinic acid by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.; Thompson, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    Succinic acid is an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and therefore, is found in almost all plant and animal cells, albeit at very low concentrations. It has a very wide usage range, which includes applications in agriculture, food, medicine, plastics, cosmetics, textiles, plating and waste-gas scrubbing. Succinic acid currently is produced commercially by chemical processes. A fermentation process for its production is of great interest because in such process, renewable resources such as corn-derived glucose can be used as starting material. There is not a current biological process for the commercial production of succinic acid. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the isolation and screening of succinic acid-producing microorganisms. The anaerobic bacterium, Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens, is considered among the best direct succinic acid producers. A number of patents concerning the production of succinic acid by this organism have been issued. Our first attempt to develop a biological process for the production of succinic acid by A. succiniciproducens involved fermentation media improvement, in particular the use of supplemented nutrients. In this note, we show that higher yield of succinic acid could be achieved by supplementing the fermentation media with biotin, as a potential nutrient supplement representative.

  6. Structural basis for the binding of succinate to succinyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji; Fraser, Marie E

    2016-08-01

    Succinyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes the only step in the citric acid cycle that provides substrate-level phosphorylation. Although the binding sites for the substrates CoA, phosphate, and the nucleotides ADP and ATP or GDP and GTP have been identified, the binding site for succinate has not. To determine this binding site, pig GTP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase was crystallized in the presence of succinate, magnesium ions and CoA, and the structure of the complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.2 Å resolution. Succinate binds in the carboxy-terminal domain of the β-subunit. The succinate-binding site is near both the active-site histidine residue that is phosphorylated in the reaction and the free thiol of CoA. The carboxy-terminal domain rearranges when succinate binds, burying this active site. However, succinate is not in position for transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphohistidine. Here, it is proposed that when the active-site histidine residue has been phosphorylated by GTP, the phosphohistidine displaces phosphate and triggers the movement of the carboxylate of succinate into position to be phosphorylated. The structure shows why succinyl-CoA synthetase is specific for succinate and does not react appreciably with citrate nor with the other C4-dicarboxylic acids of the citric acid cycle, fumarate and oxaloacetate, but shows some activity with L-malate. PMID:27487822

  7. Succinate metabolism: a new therapeutic target for myocardial reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pell, Victoria R; Chouchani, Edward T; Frezza, Christian; Murphy, Michael P; Krieg, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a major cause of death worldwide and remains a disease for which current clinical therapies are strikingly deficient. While the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a critical driver of tissue damage upon reperfusion, the precise mechanisms underlying ROS production have remained elusive. More recently, it has been demonstrated that a specific metabolic mechanism occurs during ischaemia that underlies elevated ROS at reperfusion, suggesting a unifying model as to why so many different compounds have been found to be cardioprotective against IR injury. This review will discuss the role of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate in IR pathology focusing on the mechanism by which this metabolite accumulates during ischaemia and how it can drive ROS production at Complex I via reverse electron transport. We will then examine the potential for manipulating succinate accumulation and metabolism during IR injury in order to protect the heart against IR damage and discuss targets for novel therapeutics designed to reduce reperfusion injury in patients. PMID:27194563

  8. Extraction chromatography of quadrivalent titanium and zirconium from succinate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shete, S.D.; Shinde, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid ion exchangers such as tri-n-octyl amine (TOA), tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Aliquat 336 have been used in this laboratory for analytical separation of vanadium(V) and niobium(V), indium(III), thalium(III), thorium(IV), cerium(IV) from succinate solutions. Extension of this study has revealed that benzene solutions of TOA, TIOA and Aliquat 336 could be used for anion exchange extraction of quadrivalent titanium and zirconium from succinate solution. The metal ions from the organic phase are stripped and determined spectrophotometrically. Solvent extraction methods for titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) have been reviewed by De et al. and Korkisch in their monographs. Diethylamine, tri-ethylamine and tributylamine have been used for extraction of titanium from thiocyanate and citrate solution. Similarly high molecular weight amines such as TOA and TIOA have been used for the extraction of zirconium from mineral acids, but systematic solvent extraction separation of titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV) is lacking. In this communication we propose a new method for selective extraction and separation of titaium(IV) and zirconium(IV) from metal ions such as Mn, Cr, Mo, V, U, La, Ta, Th and Hf. The proposed method is comparatively free from drawbacks such as pre-equilibration of phases, multiple scrubbing, multiple extraction and coextraction of a large number of cations and anions.

  9. Emerging concepts in the flavinylation of succinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung J; Winge, Dennis R

    2013-05-01

    The Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) heterotetrameric complex catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and in the aerobic respiratory chains of eukaryotes and bacteria. Essential in this catalysis is the covalently-linked cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in subunit1 (Sdh1) of the SDH enzyme complex. The mechanism of FAD insertion and covalent attachment to Sdh1 is unknown. Our working concept of this flavinylation process has relied mostly on foundational works from the 1990s and by applying the principles learned from other enzymes containing a similarly linked FAD. The discovery of the flavinylation factor Sdh5, however, has provided new insight into the possible mechanism associated with Sdh1 flavinylation. This review focuses on encapsulating prior and recent advances towards understanding the mechanism associated with flavinylation of Sdh1 and how this flavinylation process affects the overall assembly of SDH. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23380393

  10. FOSSIL FUEL BIODEGRADATION: LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural processes of biodegradation, that return carbon from its various organic forms to the inorganic state, are increasingly screened for bioremediation applications. ariety of microbial systems capable of degrading synthetic organic chemicals, from pesticides to polychlorinat...