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1

Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiä in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the

Tarja Söderman; Tarja

2006-01-01

2

Biodiversity Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field-based investigation, students survey vegetation and small animal diversity in a study plot. They calculate the biomass of different organisms, and create a habitat action plan based on their data. A student data sheet is included. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "Seeking Biodiversity," part of the unit Losing Biodiversity, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

3

Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

Soederman, Tarja [Senior Researcher, Lic. Phil., Finnish Environment Institute, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

2006-05-15

4

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

Geneletti, Davide

2003-05-01

5

Biodiversity Assessment for Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This biodiversity assessment for the Republic of Georgia has three interlinked objectives: (1) Summarizes the status of biodiversity and its conservation in Georgia; analyzes threats, identifies opportunities, and makes recommendations for the improved co...

2000-01-01

6

Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

Crist, P. J.; Kohley, T. W.; Oakleaf, J.

2000-01-01

7

Accounting for uncertainty factors in biodiversity impact assessment: lessons from a case study  

SciTech Connect

For an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to effectively contribute to decision-making, it must include one crucial step: the estimation of the uncertainty factors affecting the impact evaluation and of their effect on the evaluation results. Knowledge of the uncertainties better orients the strategy of the decision-makers and underlines the most critical data or methodological steps of the procedure. Accounting for uncertainty factors is particularly relevant when dealing with ecological impacts, whose forecasts are typically affected by a high degree of simplification. By means of a case study dealing with the evaluation of road alternatives, this paper explores and discusses the main uncertainties that are related to the typical stages of a biodiversity impact assessment: uncertainty in the data that are used, in the methodologies that are applied, and in the value judgments provided by the experts. Subsequently, the effects of such uncertainty factors are tracked back to the result of the evaluation, i.e., to the relative performance of the project alternatives under consideration. This allows to test the sensitivity of the results, and consequently to provide a more informative ranking of the alternatives. The papers concludes by discussing the added-value for decision-making provided by uncertainty analysis within EIA.

Geneletti, D.; Beinat, E.; Chung, C.F.; Fabbri, A.G.; Scholten, H.J

2003-07-01

8

Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Sociedad Entomologica Ecuatoriana, Quito (Ecuador)

1995-06-01

9

Biodiversity and Human Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic issue that drives all concerns about biodiversity is the accelerating and irreplaceable loss of genes, species, populations, and ecosystems through environmental degradation such as deforestation, strip mining and other developmental projects. A...

J. R. Barker S. Henderson R. F. Noss D. T. Tingey

1990-01-01

10

BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The basic issue that drives all concerns about biodiversity is theaccelerating and irreplaceable loss of genes, species, populations,and ecosystems through environmental degradation such asdeforestation, strip mining and other developmental projects. Associated with these losses ...

11

Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity, Ecosystems, and Ecosystem Services. Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change conti...

2012-01-01

12

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the

Davide Geneletti; Davide

2003-01-01

13

Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The second cross-cutting topic is the rapidly advancing field of climate adaptation, where there has been significant progress in developing the conceptual framework, planning approaches, and strategies for safeguarding biodiversity and other ecological resources. At the same time, ecosystem-based adaptation is becoming more prominent as a way to utilize ecosystem services to help human systems adapt to climate change. In this summary, we present key findings of the technical input, focusing on themes that can be found throughout the report. Thus, this summary takes a more integrated look at the question of how climate change is affecting our ecological resources, the implications for humans, and possible response strategies. This integrated approach better reflects the impacts of climate in the real world, where changes in ecosystem structure or function will alter the viability of different species and the efficacy of ecosystem services. Likewise, adaptation to climate change will simultaneously address a range of conservation goals. Case studies are used to illustrate this complete picture throughout the report; a snapshot of one case study, 2011 Las Conchas, New Mexico Fire, is included in this summary.

Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

14

Basin-wide Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems and Biodiversity  

EPA Science Inventory

Mekong ecosystems are under pressure from a number of "drivers", including rapid economic development, population growth, unsustainable resource use, and climate change. Ecological modeling can help assess vulnerability and impacts of these drivers on the Lower Mekong Basin....

15

Improving consideration of biodiversity in NEPA assessments  

SciTech Connect

Loss of biological diversity is a major national, as well as global, environmental problem. Several federal agencies have begun to develop strategies to conserve biodiversity, but most agencies have not done so. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) can play an important role in assessing losses and identifying mitigating measures. In most cases, environmental impact assessments have addressed components of biodiversity, such as endangered species, rather than provided the more comprehensive assessments that will be required over the long run. Strategies to conserve biodiversity must be developed on a regional, landscape, or ecosystem scale, taking into account cumulative effects of development. Such strategies can also provide the framework for project-specific NEPA assessments. Progress in applying the pragmatic methods, techniques, and strategies that are now emerging will be limited by the recognition and priority agencies are willing to assign to biodiversity conservation in their programs. Despite current efforts, a more specific legislative mandate probably will be needed to assure adequate action to minimize losses of biological resources.

Hirsch, A. (Midwest Research Inst., Falls Church, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

16

Anthropic Risk Assessment on Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niches, with consequence of loss of biodiversity. Ecological risk assessment applied on Natura 2000 network, is needed to best practice of management and monitoring of environment and natural resources. Threats, pressure and activities, stress and indicators may be managed by geodatabase and analysed using GIS technology. The method used is the classic risk assessment in ecological context, and it defines the natural hazard as influence, element of risk as interference and vulnerability. Also it defines a new parameter called pressure. It uses risk matrix for the risk analysis on spatial and temporal scale. The methodology is qualitative and applies the precautionary principle in environmental assessment. The final product is a matrix which excludes the risk and could find application in the development of a territorial information system.

Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.; Salogni, G.

2013-01-01

17

The Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: A Tool for Creating Regional and National Lists of Invasive Nonnative Plants That Negatively Impact Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a protocol for categorizing nonnative plants according to their negative impacts on biodiversity in a large area such as a state, nation, or ecological region. Our objective was to provide a tool that makes the process of identifying, categorizing, and listing nonnative plants that cause negative impacts to biodiversity analytic, transparent, and equitable and that yields lists that

John M. Randall; Larry E. Morse; Nancy Benton; Ron Hiebert; Stephanie Lu; Terri Killeffer

2008-01-01

18

Mali Biodiversity and Tropical Forests 118/119 Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Mali 118/119 Biodiversity and Tropical Forest Assessment is to synthesize information on the institutional and legislative structures in Mali that relate to biodiversity, report on the state of biodiversity resources in Mali, identify ...

2008-01-01

19

Bio-safe, A Policy and Legislation Based Model For The Assessment of Impacts of Flood Prevention Measures On Biodiversity In River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of IRMA-SPONGE, a transnational version of the model BIO- SAFE (Spreadsheet Application For Evaluation of BIOdiversity) for the rivers Rhine and Meuse was developed. The model was specifically designed for policy and leg- islation based impact assessment of flood risk reduction measures on biodiversity in floodplains. BIO-SAFE is an assessment model that quantifies the policy and legisla- tion status of species in river basins for several taxonomic groups. The model uses data on presence of species and ecotopes. Results show that the BIO-SAFE method enables the user to express politically and legally based biodiversity values in quantitative terms and to compare biodiversity values for various taxonomic groups, landscape- ecological units (e.g. ecotopes) and physical planning scenarios. BIO-SAFE gives in- formation regarding the degree to which floodplain designs, observed or predicted trends of floodplain developments or actual values meet goals set in (inter)national agreements. Assessments with BIO-SAFE, in an early stage of the planning process, of actual situations and different scenarios for an area can help direct the planning process in the stage where this is still possible. Because of its policy-based character, BIO-SAFE yields complementary information to more established ecological biodi- versity indices and to single- species habitat models and ecological network analysis. Flood defence measures can lead to an increase of policy and legislation based bio- diversity values if already very valuable ecotopes are conserved and an increase of diversity of ecotopes is realised. Flood defence measures can also endanger these val- ues. In order to achieve optimal results regarding the attuning of conservation and development of biodiversity values on the one hand and flood defence measures on the other, it is recommended to aim at a balance between creating space in width and creating space in the depth. Uniform solutions must be avoided, a diversity of influ- ence of river dynamics and intact wet-dry gradients in floodplains should be aimed at. Lowering floodplains is best coupled with measures that enlarge the flooding area.

de Nooij, R. J. W.; Bio-Safe Team

20

How the biodiversity sciences may aid biological tools and ecological engineering to assess the impact of climatic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper addresses how climate changes interact with other global changes caused by humans (habitat fragmentation, changes in land use, bioinvasions) to affect biodiversity. Changes in biodiversity at all levels (genetic, population and community) affect the functioning of ecosystems, in particular host-pathogen interactions, with major consequences in health ecology (emergence and re- emergence; the evolution of virulence and resistance).

S. Morand; J.-F. Guégan

2008-01-01

21

Biodiversity Assessment for Armenia. Task Order under the Biodiversity and Sustainable Forestry IQC (BIOFOR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This biodiversity assessment for the Republic of Armenia fulfills three interlinked objectives: (1) Summarizes the status of biodiversity and its conservation in Armenia; and analyzes threats, identifies opportunities, and makes recommendations for the im...

2000-01-01

22

Biodiversity in environmental assessment-current practice and tools for prediction  

SciTech Connect

Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are essential instruments used in physical planning to address such problems. Yet there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity. In this study, a literature review was conducted on GIS-based ecological models that have potential as prediction tools for biodiversity assessment. Further, a review of environmental impact statements for road and railway projects from four European countries was performed, to study how impact prediction concerning biodiversity issues was addressed. The results of the study showed the existing gap between research in GIS-based ecological modelling and current practice in biodiversity assessment within environmental assessment.

Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se; Balfors, Berit [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: balfors@kth.se; Moertberg, Ulla [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: mortberg@kth.se

2006-04-15

23

Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change can impact the pattern of marine biodiversity through changes in species' distributions. However, global studies on climate change impacts on ocean biodiversity have not been performed so far. Our paper aims to investigate the global patterns of such impacts by projecting the distributional ranges of a sample of 1066 exploited marine fish and invertebrates for 2050 using a

William W. L. Cheung; Vicky W. Y. Lam; Jorge L. Sarmiento; Kelly Kearney; Reg Watson; Daniel Pauly

2009-01-01

24

Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides a framework for the rest of the book, by defining biodiversity, describing techniques to measure biodiversity,\\u000a and listing the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots as identified by Norman Myer. The chapter then gives a brief discussion of theories\\u000a of the causes of biodiversity, starting with the earliest theories, published in the 1960s, and ending with the most recent\\u000a theories

Emily Wortman-Wunder; Jorge Vivanco; Mark W. Paschke

25

Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.  

PubMed

Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative. PMID:22184674

Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

2012-01-28

26

Biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis and assessment report bulds on extensive scientific literature and series of recent assessments of the historical and potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on managed and unmanaged ecosystems.

Janetos, Anthony C.; Hansen, Lara; Inouye, David; Kelly, Brendan; Meyerson, Laura; Peterson, Bill; Shaw, Rebecca

2008-05-27

27

An assessment of biodiversity hotspots using remote sensing and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the assessment of the status of world’s remaining closed forests (WRCF), population distribution, and\\u000a protected areas in global biodiversity hotspots using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). Conservation\\u000a International (CI) has identified 25 eco-regions, called biodiversity hotspots that are especially rich in endemic species\\u000a and are particularly threatened by human activities. This study uses globally

Hua Shi; Ashbindu Singh

2002-01-01

28

Using bioindicators based on biodiversity to assess landscape sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not new, the use of bioindicators is an innovative approach for assessing various types of environmental mismanagement, including pollution, high input farming, inappropriate disposal of wastes, contamination, etc. This approach uses biological organisms (including invertebrates, the focus of this volume) and biodiversity as tools to assess ongoing situations in the environment. Although lab work is needed, bioindicator-based studies rely

Maurizio G. Paoletti

1999-01-01

29

Analysis and Assessment of Impacts on Biodiversity: A Framework for Environmental Management on DoD Lands Within the California Mojave Desert: A research Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research proposed in this document is to evaluate the effects of human activities on biodiversity and related environmental concerns within the Mojave ecoregion of California both at the present and in 2020. While planning efforts and a...

D. Mouat R. Kiester J. Baker

1998-01-01

30

ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON DOD LANDS WITHIN THE CALIFORNIA MOJAVE DESERT: A RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research proposed in this document is to evaluate the effects of human activities on biodiversity and related environmental concerns within the Mojave ecoregion of California both at the present and in 2020. While planning efforts and analyses are ongoing withi...

31

Evaluating a Multi-Component Assessment Framework for Biodiversity Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners (NCEP) is a global initiative that seeks to create opportunities for the broad exchange of educational and training information and strategies among conservation educators and practitioners. The lack of access to such resources is a significant obstacle to building capacity in biodiversity conservation. To expand teaching resources and availability, NCEP has created over sixty web-based curricular modules on biodiversity topics that emphasize active learning pedagogies and the application of critical thinking to conservation problems. To complement the modules, we developed a multi-component assessment framework that evaluates 1) content knowledge before and after using the modules, 2) student confidence in their knowledge of biodiversity, 3) interest in biodiversity topics, 4)development of process skills that are important for conservation, and 5) changes in worldview and environmental orientation. Using this framework, three NCEP modules were tested in five diverse undergraduate courses and institutions with various class sizes. We predicted significant learning gains in content knowledge and changes in ecological attitudes and worldviews. We found significant learning gains in content knowledge as well as increases in student confidence in content knowledge and greater interest in the field of biodiversity conservation. Module use did not change the overall environmental worldview of students in the study population. We also detected statistically significant declines in overall student confidence in process skills important to conservation. Analyses revealed no significant differences in any study variables based upon demographics such as school, gender, ethnicity, class standing, reason forenrollment or academic major. Results demonstrate the value of the NCEP modules in enhancing biodiversity education, and the value of assessing student ability and perceptions of ability as measures of the effectiveness of educational programs.

Hagenbuch, Brian E.

2011-08-24

32

Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Invasive alien species (IAS) pose a significant threat to biodiversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Biodiversity Target, and the associated indicator for IAS, has stimulated globally coordinated efforts to quantify patterns in the extent of biological invasion, its impact on biodiversity and policy responses. Here, we report on the outcome of indicators of alien invasion at a global

Melodie A. McGeoch; Stuart H. M. Butchart; Dian Spear; Elrike Marais; Elizabeth J. Kleynhans; Andy Symes; Janice Chanson; Michael Hoffmann

2010-01-01

33

Assessing global marine biodiversity status within a coupled socio-ecological perspective.  

PubMed

People value the existence of a variety of marine species and habitats, many of which are negatively impacted by human activities. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international and national policy agreements have set broad goals for reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. However, efforts to conserve biodiversity cannot be effective without comprehensive metrics both to assess progress towards meeting conservation goals and to account for measures that reduce pressures so that positive actions are encouraged. We developed an index based on a global assessment of the condition of marine biodiversity using publically available data to estimate the condition of species and habitats within 151 coastal countries. Our assessment also included data on social and ecological pressures on biodiversity as well as variables that indicate whether good governance is in place to reduce them. Thus, our index is a social as well as ecological measure of the current and likely future status of biodiversity. As part of our analyses, we set explicit reference points or targets that provide benchmarks for success and allow for comparative assessment of current conditions. Overall country-level scores ranged from 43 to 95 on a scale of 1 to 100, but countries that scored high for species did not necessarily score high for habitats. Although most current status scores were relatively high, likely future status scores for biodiversity were much lower in most countries due to negative trends for both species and habitats. We also found a strong positive relationship between the Human Development Index and resilience measures that could promote greater sustainability by reducing pressures. This relationship suggests that many developing countries lack effective governance, further jeopardizing their ability to maintain species and habitats in the future. PMID:23593188

Selig, Elizabeth R; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Best, Benjamin D; Hardy, Darren; Elfes, Cristiane T; Scarborough, Courtney; Kleisner, Kristin M; Katona, Steven K

2013-01-01

34

Assessing Global Marine Biodiversity Status within a Coupled Socio-Ecological Perspective  

PubMed Central

People value the existence of a variety of marine species and habitats, many of which are negatively impacted by human activities. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international and national policy agreements have set broad goals for reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. However, efforts to conserve biodiversity cannot be effective without comprehensive metrics both to assess progress towards meeting conservation goals and to account for measures that reduce pressures so that positive actions are encouraged. We developed an index based on a global assessment of the condition of marine biodiversity using publically available data to estimate the condition of species and habitats within 151 coastal countries. Our assessment also included data on social and ecological pressures on biodiversity as well as variables that indicate whether good governance is in place to reduce them. Thus, our index is a social as well as ecological measure of the current and likely future status of biodiversity. As part of our analyses, we set explicit reference points or targets that provide benchmarks for success and allow for comparative assessment of current conditions. Overall country-level scores ranged from 43 to 95 on a scale of 1 to 100, but countries that scored high for species did not necessarily score high for habitats. Although most current status scores were relatively high, likely future status scores for biodiversity were much lower in most countries due to negative trends for both species and habitats. We also found a strong positive relationship between the Human Development Index and resilience measures that could promote greater sustainability by reducing pressures. This relationship suggests that many developing countries lack effective governance, further jeopardizing their ability to maintain species and habitats in the future.

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Best, Benjamin D.; Hardy, Darren; Elfes, Cristiane T.; Scarborough, Courtney; Kleisner, Kristin M.; Katona, Steven K.

2013-01-01

35

A Fragile Cornucopia: Assessing the Status of U.S. Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a national status assessment of biodiversity for the United States. Discusses a catalog of biodiversity, the condition of species, and the legacy of extinctions in the area. Provides information for many of the states. (DDR)

Stein, Bruce A.

2001-01-01

36

Analysis and Assessment of Military and Non-Military Impacts on Biodiversity: A Framework for Environmental Management on DoD Lands Using the Mojave Desert as a Regional Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study designed and modeled alternative futures (patterns of land use as they might exist in the year 2020) to assess the projected status of biodiversity in the California Mojave Desert. The objective was to assist DoD in proactive ecosystem manageme...

D. Mouat

2002-01-01

37

Assessing the costs of measuring biodiversity: Methodological and empirical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and low-input farming practices are considered keystones for the conservation of biodiversity in semi-natural systems. Accordingly, attention to the assessment of the benefits stemming from these activities is increasing in order to provide a solid base for the adoption of agro-environmental incentives and to support their monitoring and evaluation. The evaluation of the positive effects of organic and low-input

Stefano Targetti; Davide Viaggi; David Cuming; Jean-Pierre Sarthou; Jean-Philippe Choisis

2012-01-01

38

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier setting on the Balkans, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes. Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1) assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic) biodiversity, (2) summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3) outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species) as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1) watershed impacts, (2) agriculture and forestry, (3) tourism and population growth, (4) non-indigenous species, (5) habitat alteration or loss, (6) unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7) global climate change. Among the major (well-known) threats with high impact are nutrient input (particularly of phosphorus), habitat conversion and silt load. Other threats are potentially of high impact but less well known. Such threats include pollution with hazardous substances (from sources such as mines, former industries, agriculture) or climate change. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species measures, international conservation activities, and ongoing research on conservation and raising of public awareness. Following this summary, we evaluate the status quo and future of Lake Ohrid and its biota. A comprehensive conservation strategy should include measures that result in an immediate reduction of nutrient input, particularly with phosphorus, in order to slow down the ongoing eutrophication process. The existing watershed management should become more effective. Implementation and particularly with a view to the enforcement of national laws should be enhanced. Increased research on the lakes' limnology, biodiversity, and conservation management practices are necessary. The latter research should identify conservation priorities. Public awareness should be enhanced. Facing these parallel needs to protect the unique biodiversity of Lake Ohrid, we suggest urging (a) implementation and enforcement of the General Management Plan that would ensure long-term integrated and sustainable use of the lake and its watershed, (b) scientific studies on ecology, biodiversity and effects of human impact, (c) the establishment of Core Conservation areas (CCA), including underwater reserves, and (d) Coastal Zone Management (CZM) areas that would constitute buffer zones for the CCAs around the lake. Given the number of identified threats, it is clear that only concerted international action can stop or at least slow down further degradation of Lake Ohrid and the creeping biodiversity crisis already evident. All conservation activities should, among others, ultimately lead to a trans-boundary major conservation area of the Ohrid-Prespa region that would allow long-term integration of both humans and nature.

Kostoski, G.; Albrecht, C.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

2010-12-01

39

Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective  

PubMed Central

Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity.

Morris, Rebecca J.

2010-01-01

40

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater habitats and species living in freshwater are generally more prone to extinction than terrestrial or marine ones. Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are thus of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, the European biodiversity hotspot, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes. Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1) assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic) biodiversity, (2) summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3) outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species) as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1) watershed impacts, (2) agriculture and forestry, (3) tourism and population growth, (4) non-indigenous species, (5) habitat alteration or loss, (6) unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7) global climate change. Of the 11 IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) threat classes scored, seven have moderate and three severe impacts. These latter threat classes are energy production and mining, biological resource use, and pollution. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species measures, international conservation activities, and ongoing research on conservation and raising of public awareness. Following this summary, we evaluate the status quo and future of Lake Ohrid and its biota. Given the number of identified threats, it is clear that only concerted international action can stop or at least slow down further degradation of Lake Ohrid and the creeping biodiversity crisis already evident. A comprehensive conservation strategy should include measures that result in an immediate reduction of pollution, particularly with phosphorous, in order to slow down the ongoing eutrophication process. The existing watershed management should become more effective. Implementation and particularly with a view to the enforcement of national laws should be enhanced. Increased research on the lakes' limnology, biodiversity, and conservation management practices are necessary. The latter research should identify conservation priorities. Public awareness should be enhanced. Facing these parallel needs to protect the unique biodiversity of Lake Ohrid, we suggest urging (a) implementation and enforcement of the General Management Plan that would ensure long-term integrated and sustainable use of the lake and its watershed, (b) scientific studies on ecology, biodiversity and effects of human impact, (c) the establishment of Core Conservation areas (CCA), including underwater reserves, and (d) Coastal Zone Management (CZM) areas that would constitute buffer zones for the CCA around the lake. These activities should, among others, ultimately lead to a trans-boundary major conservation area of the Ohrid-Prespa region that would allow long-term integration of both humans and nature.

Kostoski, G.; Albrecht, C.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

2010-07-01

41

Assessing Paleo-Biodiversity Using Low Proxy Influx  

PubMed Central

We developed an algorithm to improve richness assessment based on paleoecological series, considering sample features such as their temporal resolutions or their volumes. Our new method can be applied to both high- and low-count size proxies, i.e. pollen and plant macroremain records, respectively. While pollen generally abounds in sediments, plant macroremains are generally rare, thus leading to difficulties to compute paleo-biodiversity indices. Our approach uses resampled macroremain influxes that enable the computation of the rarefaction index for the low influx records. The raw counts are resampled to a constant resolution and sample volume by interpolating initial sample ages at a constant time interval using the age?depth model. Then, the contribution of initial counts and volume to each interpolated sample is determined by calculating a proportion matrix that is in turn used to obtain regularly spaced time series of pollen and macroremain influx. We applied this algorithm to sedimentary data from a subalpine lake situated in the European Alps. The reconstructed total floristic richness at the study site increased gradually when both pollen and macroremain records indicated a decrease in relative abundances of shrubs and an increase in trees from 11,000 to 7,000 cal BP. This points to an ecosystem change that favored trees against shrubs, whereas herb abundance remained stable. Since 6,000 cal BP, local richness decreased based on plant macroremains, while pollen-based richness was stable. The reconstructed richness and evenness are interrelated confirming the difficulty to distinguish these two aspects for the studies in paleo-biodiversity. The present study shows that low-influx bio-proxy records (here macroremains) can be used to reconstruct stand diversity and address ecological issues. These developments on macroremain and pollen records may contribute to bridge the gap between paleoecology and biodiversity studies.

Blarquez, Olivier; Finsinger, Walter; Carcaillet, Christopher

2013-01-01

42

Synoptic assessment of wetland function: a planning tool for protection of wetland species biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment provides a method for prioritizing sub-basins potentially critical for supporting wetland species biodiversity and may assist environmental managers and conservationists constrained

E. William Schweiger; Scott G. Leibowitz; Jeffrey B. Hyman; Walt E. Foster; Marla C. Downing

2002-01-01

43

ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLAR ORBIT ON TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The terrestrial record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-05-10

44

Assessing the Influence of the Solar Orbit on Terrestrial Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial fossil record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

2013-05-01

45

Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: advances and challenges in DNA-based approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate faunas in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify wate...

46

The impact of chemical pollution on biodiversity and ecosystem services: the need for an improved understanding  

EPA Science Inventory

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) provided a framework that acknowledges biodiversity as one key factor for ensuring the continuous supply of ecosystem services, facilitating ecosystem stability and consequently as a critical basis for sustainable development. The close...

47

The Development of a Biodiversity Literacy Assessment Instrument. Report to the National Environmental Education Training Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about the program evaluation study of a national biodiversity education program for youth in the United States known as "Windows on the World" launched by the World Wildlife Fund. The curriculum development project is organized into four phases: (1) a biodiversity needs assessment; (2) the development of…

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

48

Addressing biodiversity in a stakeholder-driven climate change vulnerability assessment of forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides protected areas multi-functionally managed forests play an important role in the effort to maintain biodiversity, particularly in areas of intensive historical and current land use. The integration of biodiversity issues under the umbrella of sustainable forest management (SFM) is thus vital to achieve conservation goals. A major challenge for SFM is climate change, and science-based assessment and decision support

Manfred J. Lexer; Rupert Seidl

2009-01-01

49

Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Many studies in recent years have investigated the effects of climate change on the future of biodiversity. In this review, we first examine the different possible effects of climate change that can operate at individual, population, species, community, ecosystem and biome scales, notably showing that species can respond to climate change challenges by shifting their climatic niche along three non-exclusive axes: time (e.g., phenology), space (e.g., range) and self (e.g., physiology). Then, we present the principal specificities and caveats of the most common approaches used to estimate future biodiversity at global and sub-continental scales and we synthesize their results. Finally, we highlight several challenges for future research both in theoretical and applied realms. Overall, our review shows that current estimates are very variable, depending on the method, taxonomic group, biodiversity loss metrics, spatial scales and time periods considered. Yet, the majority of models indicate alarming consequences for biodiversity, with the worst-case scenarios leading to extinction rates that would qualify as the sixth mass extinction in the history of the earth.

Leadley, Paul; Thuiller, Wilfried; Courchamp, Franck

2013-01-01

50

Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration

Boris Worm; Edward B. Barbier; Nicola Beaumont; J. Emmett Duffy; Carl Folke; Benjamin S. Halpern; Jeremy B. C. Jackson; Heike K. Lotze; Fiorenza Micheli; Stephen R. Palumbi; Enric Sala; Kimberley A. Selkoe; John J. Stachowicz; Reg Watson

2006-01-01

51

Biodiversity sustainability assessment of principal ecosystems in Hebei, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at providing theoretical basis for effective protection of biodiversity, the study presents a cascade method which\\u000a combines both qualitative and quantitative methods, incorporates basic data with RS(remote sense) technology, and ranks the\\u000a ecosystems according to its ability of biodiversity sustainability in Hebei Province. The results indicate that the most important\\u000a areas for protection in Hebei Province are forest and

Hongmei Wang; Jinping Qian; Xiulan Zhang; Xiubin He

2007-01-01

52

Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) concerning the consideration of biological diversity in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The report is intended to provide background on the emerging, complex subject of biodiversity, outline some general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, describe how the issue is currently addressed in NEPA analyses, and provide options for agencies undertaking NEPA analyses that consider biodiversity. The report does not establish new requirements for such analyses. It is not, and should not be viewed as, formal CEQ guidance on the matter, nor are the recommendations in the report intended to be legally binding. The report does not mean to suggest the biodiversity analyses should be included in every NEPA document, without regard to the degree of potential impact on biodiversity of the action under review.

Not Available

1993-01-01

53

Community participatory landscape classification and biodiversity assessment and monitoring of grazing lands in northern Kenya.  

PubMed

In this study, we asked the Ariaal herders of northern Kenya to answer "why, what and how" they classified landscape, and assessed and monitored the biodiversity of 10 km(2) of grazing land. To answer the "why question" the herders classified grazing resources into 39 landscape patches grouped into six landscape types and classified soil as 'warm', 'intermediate' or 'cold' for the purpose of land use. For the "what question" the herders used soil conditions and vegetation characteristics to assess biodiversity. Plant species were described as 'increasers', 'decreasers' or 'stable'. The decreaser species were mostly grasses and forbs preferred for cattle and sheep grazing and the increasers were mostly woody species preferred by goats. The herders evaluated biodiversity in terms of key forage species and used absence or presence of the preferred species from individual landscapes for monitoring change in biodiversity. For the "how question" the herders used anthropogenic indicators concerned with livestock management for assessing landscape potential and suitability for grazing. The anthropogenic indicators were related to soils and biodiversity. The herders used plant species grazing preferences to determine the links between livestock production and biodiversity. By addressing these three questions, the study shows the value of incorporating the indigenous knowledge of herders into classification of landscape and assessment and monitoring of biodiversity in the grazing lands. We conclude that herder knowledge of biodiversity is related to the use as opposed to exclusive conservation practices. This type of knowledge is extremely valuable to conservation agencies for establishing a baseline for monitoring changes in biodiversity in the future. PMID:18272280

Roba, Hassan G; Oba, Gufu

2009-02-01

54

A technology framework to analyse the Climate Change impact on biodiversity species distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several biodiversity application scenarios require modeling the impact of climate change on species distribution. For this purpose, heterogeneous data resources and modeling services are required to interoperate. An information technology and service framework to study the Climate Change impact on biodiversity species distribution is presented. This framework allows the development of relevant biodiversity application scenarios. These draw on data and information exchange from a series of systems interconnected through SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) applying established international standards as well as Community interoperability arrangements. The overall system architecture consists of six main logical components: - Biodiversity Data Provider: a component which is able to provide biodiversity data. - Climatological Data Provider: a component which is able to provide climatological data. - Catalog: a component which is able to perform queries on the available biodiversity and climatological datasets. - Model Provider: a component which is able to run ENM (Ecological Niche Models) on the selected biodiversity and climatological datasets. - Use Scenario Controller: a component which acts as a workflow controller implementing the business process of a typical biodiversity scenario. It is controlled by the user through the GUI. - Graphical User Interface (GUI): The component for user interaction. It controls the workflow manager to perform the required operations for implementing the biodiversity basic scenario. These components play the three typical roles of a SOA where Consumers discover Providers through a Registry. In our framework Data and Model providers are the Service Providers; the GUI-Controller pair acts as a Consumer and the Catalog plays the role of the Registry. Where necessary it also acts as a Broker between Consumer and Providers. This fourth component is necessary for heterogeneous and federated systems. The framework was conceived and successfully experimented in the GEOSS Interoperability Process Pilot Project (IP3) and demonstrated at the IV Ministerial summit in Cape Town -November 2007. Presently, the framework is used for the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot project -phase 2. The usage case of the impact of climate change on the distribution of Pikas in North America is presented and discussed. This usage case is based on research being done at the University of Colorado. The used presence datasets were collected by the Scientist and from the GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) Data Portal. Climate datasets were discovered and collected by the WMO publications and distribution system.

Nativi, S.; Khalsa, S. J.; Geller, G. N.; O'Tuama, E.; Thomas, D.; Mazzetti, P.; Santoro, M.

2009-04-01

55

Biodiversity assessment in the Oil Sands region, northeastern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oil Sands region of northeastern Alberta contains the world's largest reserves of oil, in the form of tar-sand. In the Oil Sands region, a large number of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) have been completed for approximately 20 oil sands projects in the past two decades. The EIA process here is unique, in that stakeholders in the region (First Nations,

Mark Sherrington

2005-01-01

56

Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.  

PubMed

The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use. PMID:21537607

Alho, C J R

2011-04-01

57

Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.  

PubMed

Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008) and after the impact (2009-2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

2013-01-01

58

Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To compare theoretical approaches towards estimating risks of plant species loss to anthropogenic climate change impacts in a biodiversity hotspot, and to develop a practical method to detect signs of climate change impacts on natural populations. Location The Fynbos biome of South Africa, within the Cape Floristic Kingdom. Methods Bioclimatic modelling was used to identify envir- onmental limits for

G. F. Midgley; L. Hannah; D. Millar; M. C. Rutherford; L. W. Powrie

2002-01-01

59

Evaluation of Museum Collection Data for Use in Biodiversity Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural-history collections in museums contain data critical to decisions in biodiversity conserva- tion. Collectively, these specimen-based data describe the distributions of known taxa in time and space. As the most comprehensive, reliable source of knowledge for most described species, these records are potentially available to answer a wide range of conservation and research questions. Nevertheless, these data have short- comings,

W. F. PONDER; G. A. CARTER; P. FLEMONS; R. R. CHAPMAN

2010-01-01

60

Quantifying the impacts on biodiversity of policies for carbon sequestration in forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest) to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. To date, economic analyses have focused on the costs of forest carbon sequestration policies related to foregone profits from agricultural production. No studies have examined additional costs or benefits associated with impacts on biodiversity.

Stephen Matthews; Raymond O'Connor; Andrew J. Plantinga

2002-01-01

61

Impact of mother sediment on yeast growth, biodiversity, and ethanol production during fermentation of Vinsanto wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Vinsanto mother sediment both on the growth and biodiversity of the yeast microflora and on the production of ethanol under natural and inoculated fermentation of Vinsanto wines. To achieve this ten fermentation trials were carried out in 50-L barrels, five without added mother sediment and five with. Moreover, eight

Paola Domizio; Ilaria Manazzu; Maurizio Ciani

2009-01-01

62

Habitat Quality Assessment and Modelling for Forest Biodiversity and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safeguarding biodiversity has been one of the most important issues in the environmental and forest policies since 1990s.\\u000a The problem remains in terms of decisions and knowledge on where to set appropriate conservation targets. Hence, we need detailed\\u000a and reliable information about forest structure and composition and methods for estimating this information over the whole\\u000a spatial domain. The approach presented

Sandra Luque; Nina Vainikainen

63

SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

64

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.  

PubMed

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

2012-10-01

65

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

Seto, Karen C.; Guneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

66

Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: Advances and challenges in dna-based approaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago Press.

Pfrender, M. E.; Ferrington, Jr. , L. C.; Hawkins, C. P.; Hartzell, P. L.; Bagley, M.; Jackson, S.; Courtney, G. W.; Larsen, D. P.; Creutzburg, B. R.; Levesque, C. A.; Epler, J. H.; Morse, J. C.; Fend, S.; Petersen, M. J.; Ruiter, D.; Schindel, D.; Whiting, M.

2010-01-01

67

Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: advances and challenges in DNA-based approaches.  

PubMed

Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. PMID:20919633

Pfrender, Michael E; Hawkins, Charles P; Bagley, Mark; Courtney, Gregory W; Creutzburg, Brian R; Epler, John H; Fend, Steve; Schindel, David; Ferrington, Leonard C; Hartzell, Paula L; Jackson, Suzanne; Larsen, David P; Lévesque, André; Morse, John C; Petersen, Matthew J; Ruiter, Dave; Whiting, Michael

2010-09-01

68

Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting  

PubMed Central

Habitat degradation through anthropogenic development is a key driver of biodiversity loss. One way to compensate losses is “biodiversity offsetting” (wherein biodiversity impacted is “replaced” through restoration elsewhere). A challenge in implementing offsets, which has received scant attention in the literature, is the accurate determination of residual biodiversity losses. We explore this challenge for offsetting gas extraction in the Ustyurt Plateau, Uzbekistan. Our goal was to determine the landscape extent of habitat impacts, particularly how the footprint of “linear” infrastructure (i.e. roads, pipelines), often disregarded in compensation calculations, compares with “hub” infrastructure (i.e. extraction facilities). We measured vegetation cover and plant species richness using the line-intercept method, along transects running from infrastructure/control sites outward for 500 m, accounting for wind direction to identify dust deposition impacts. Findings from 24 transects were extrapolated to the broader plateau by mapping total landscape infrastructure network using GPS data and satellite imagery. Vegetation cover and species richness were significantly lower at development sites than controls. These differences disappeared within 25 m of the edge of the area physically occupied by infrastructure. The current habitat footprint of gas infrastructure is 220 ± 19 km2 across the Ustyurt (total ? 100,000 km2), 37 ± 6% of which is linear infrastructure. Vegetation impacts diminish rapidly with increasing distance from infrastructure, and localized dust deposition does not conspicuously extend the disturbance footprint. Habitat losses from gas extraction infrastructure cover 0.2% of the study area, but this reflects directly eliminated vegetation only. Impacts upon fauna pose a more difficult determination, as these require accounting for behavioral and demographic responses to disturbance by elusive mammals, including threatened species. This study demonstrates that impacts of linear infrastructure in regions such as the Ustyurt should be accounted for not just with respect to development sites but also associated transportation and delivery routes.

Jones, Isabel L; Bull, Joseph W; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor J; Esipov, Alexander V; Suttle, Kenwyn B

2014-01-01

69

Forecasting Impacts of Climate Change on Indicators of British Columbia's Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected areas are expected to experience the greatest change with indirect indicators located along mountainous elevations of British Columbia. Our indirect indicator approach to predict change in biodiversity provides resource managers with information to mitigate and adapt to future habitat dynamics. Spatially specific recommendations from our dataset provide information necessary for management. For instance, knowing there is a projected depletion of habitat representation in the East Rocky Mountains, sensitive species in the threatened Mountain Hemlock ecozone, or preservation of rare habitats in the decreasing greenness of the southern interior region is essential information for managers tasked with long term biodiversity conservation. Forecasting productivity levels, linked to the distribution of species richness, presents a novel approach for understanding the future implications of climate change on broad scale biodiversity.

Holmes, Keith Richard

70

A modelling approach for the assessment of the effects of Common Agricultural Policy measures on farmland biodiversity in the EU27.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a methodology to model the impacts of policy measures within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on farm production, income and prices, and on farmland biodiversity. Two stylised scenarios are used to illustrate how the method works. The effects of CAP measures, such as subsidies and regulations, are calculated and translated into changes in land use and land-use intensity. These factors are then used to model biodiversity with a species-based indicator on a 1 km scale in the EU27. The Common Agricultural Policy Regionalised Impact Modelling System (CAPRI) is used to conduct the economic analysis and Dyna-CLUE (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects) is used to model land use changes. An indicator that expresses the relative species richness was used as the indicator for biodiversity in agricultural areas. The methodology is illustrated with a baseline scenario and two scenarios that include a specific policy. The strength of the methodology is that impacts of economic policy instruments can be linked to changes in agricultural production, prices and incomes, on the one hand, and to biodiversity effects, on the other - with land use and land-use intensity as the connecting drivers. The method provides an overall assessment, but for detailed impact assessment at landscape, farm or field level, additional analysis would be required. PMID:23708145

Overmars, Koen P; Helming, John; van Zeijts, Henk; Jansson, Torbjörn; Terluin, Ida

2013-09-15

71

Mapping Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

72

Forest biodiversity gradients and the human impact in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of biodiversity, environment and human impact were studied in 57 sample plots in an 1,178 ha forest area in a rural\\u000a mountain area of Nepal that is administrated by the Annapurna Conservation Area Project. Alpha-, beta- and gamma-diversity\\u000a was measured or estimated for six groups of organisms: trees, shrubs, climbers, herbs, polypores and mycorrhizal fungi, and\\u000a the recorded patterns were

Morten Christensen; Jacob Heilmann-Clausen

2009-01-01

73

Biodiversity conservation and NEPA  

SciTech Connect

The Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have recently developed new guidelines to facilitate the consideration of biodiversity in the preparation and review of environmental impact assessments. The purpose of these efforts is to facilitate the incorporation of biodiversity considerations into the ecological analyses of all federal agencies. Because federal decisions requiring environmental impact assessments under NEPA affect hundreds of millions of federal and non-federal lands and waters, improved consideration of the impacts of federal activities is essential to stemming the loss of biological diversity in the United States. The designation of ecosystems or habitats'' of concern is a useful first step identifying risks to biodiversity. After reviewing the status and trends of habitats within eight major regions of the US, the EPA guidelines identify habitats contributing to regional and global biodiversity such as remnant prairies, riparian habitats, and old-growth forests. This document also discusses how the impacts on habitats vary with the different activities of land conversion, timber harvesting, grazing, mining, and water management.

Southerland, M.T. (Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

74

Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

Miguel Villarreal;Laura M Norman;Cynthia S Wallace;Kenneth Boykin

2013-01-01

75

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a

M. Alex Smith; Brian L. Fisher; Paul D. N. Hebert

2005-01-01

76

Biodiversity assessment using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and spectral unmixing over hyperspectral images.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral images represent an important source of information to assess ecosystem biodiversity. In particular, plant species richness is a primary indicator of biodiversity. This paper uses spectral variance to predict vegetation richness, known as Spectral Variation Hypothesis. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering is our primary tool to retrieve clusters whose Shannon entropy should reflect species richness on a given zone. However, in a high spectral mixing scenario, an additional unmixing step, just before entropy computation, is required; cluster centroids are enough for the unmixing process. Entropies computed using the proposed method correlate well with the ones calculated directly from synthetic and field data. PMID:24132230

Medina, Ollantay; Manian, Vidya; Chinea, J Danilo

2013-01-01

77

Biodiversity Assessment in Incomplete Inventories: Leaf Litter Ant Communities in Several Types of Bornean Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity assessment of tropical taxa is hampered by their tremendous richness, which leads to large numbers of singletons and incomplete inventories in survey studies. Species estimators can be used for assessment of alpha diversity, but calculation of beta diversity is hampered by pseudo-turnover of species in undersampled plots. To assess the impact of unseen species, we investigated different methods, including an unbiased estimator of Shannon beta diversity that was compared to biased calculations. We studied alpha and beta diversity of a diverse ground ant assemblage from the Southeast Asian island of Borneo in different types of tropical forest: diperocarp forest, alluvial forest, limestone forest and heath forests. Forests varied in plant composition, geology, flooding regimes and other environmental parameters. We tested whether forest types differed in species composition and if species turnover was a function of the distance between plots at different spatial scales. As pseudo-turnover may bias beta diversity we hypothesized a large effect of unseen species reducing beta diversity. We sampled 206 ant species (25% singletons) from ten subfamilies and 55 genera. Diversity partitioning among the four forest types revealed that whereas alpha species richness and alpha Shannon diversity were significantly smaller than expected, beta-diversity for both measurements was significantly higher than expected by chance. This result was confirmed when we used the unbiased estimation of Shannon diversity: while alpha diversity was much higher, beta diversity differed only slightly from biased calculations. Beta diversity as measured with the Chao-Sørensen or Morisita-Horn Index correlated with distance between transects and between sample points, indicating a distance decay of similarity between communities. We conclude that habitat heterogeneity has a high influence on ant diversity and species turnover in tropical sites and that unseen species may have only little impact on calculation of Shannon beta diversity when sampling effort has been high.

Pfeiffer, Martin; Mezger, Dirk

2012-01-01

78

Hydrologic drivers of tree biodiversity: The impact of climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity of forests is of major importance for society. The possible impact of climate change on the characteristics of tree diversity is a topic of crucial importance with relevant implications for conservation campaigns and resource management. Here we present the main results of the expected biodiversity changes in the Mississippi-Missouri River Basin (MMRS) and two of its subregions under different scenarios of possible climate change. A mechanistic neutral metapopulation model is developed to study the main drivers of large scale biodiversity signatures in the MMRS system. The region is divided into 824 Direct Tributary Areas (DTAs), each one characterized by its own habitat capacity. Data for the spatial occurrence of the 231 species present in the system is taken from the US Forest Service Inventory and Analysis Database. The model has permeable boundaries to account for immigration from the regions surrounding the MMRS. The model accounts for key aspects of ecological dynamics (e.g., birth, death, speciation, and migration) and is fundamentally driven by the mean annual precipitation characteristic of each of the DTAs in the system. It is found that such a simple model, with only four parameters, yields an excellent representation of the observed local species richness (LSR), between-community (?) diversity, and species rank-occupancy function. The mean annual rainfall of each DTA is then changed according to the climate scenarios and new habitat capacities are thus obtained throughout the MMRS and its subregions. The resulting large-scale biodiversity signatures are computed and compared with those of the present scenario, showing that there are very important changes arising from the climate change conditions. For the dry scenarios, it is shown that there is a considerable decrease of species richness, both at local and regional scales, and a contraction of species' geographic ranges. These findings link the hydrologic and ecological dynamics of the MMRS under climate change conditions and are important for a comprehensive evaluation of the climate change impacts over the United States.

Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Konar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Azaele, S.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

2009-12-01

79

Biodiversity and biological impact of ocean disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Five major characteristics of deep-sea organisms that are relevant to the carbon dioxide ocean sequestration are pointed out. They are (1) low biological activities, (2) long life span, (3) high sensitivity to the environmental disturbance, (4) high species diversity, and (5) low density. These characteristics suggest the deep-sea species are sensitive to the environmental disturbance, and once they are damaged, they may easily become extinct or it might take a long time to recover. To get public acceptance for ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide, the authors need a reliable assessment of its affects on the deep-sea ecosystem based on an accurate model. For a better modeling, data regarding the long-term (chronic) effect of slightly increased concentration of carbon dioxide on the deep-sea organisms are prerequisite. Precise data regarding such biological characteristics can be obtained only from in-situ experiments. To develop a system for ecophysiological in-situ experiments of deep-sea organisms is thus as important as solving the technological problems related to the ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Shirayama, Yoshihisa [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1998-07-01

80

Bottle Traps and Dipnetting: Evaluation of two Sampling Techniques for Assessing Macroinvertebrate Biodiversity in Depressional Wetlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipnet (DN) sampling is routinely employed for macroinvertebrate bioassessments, however it has been shown that some taxa are more effectively sampled with activity traps, commonly called Bottle Traps (BT). In 2001, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency used both DN and BT sampling in nine depressional wetlands in the North Central Hardwood Forest Ecoregion to evaluate macroinvertebrate biodiversity for the purpose of assessing water quality and developing biological criteria. Both methods, consisting of five bottle trap samples and two dip net samples per wetland, were collected from each of two sites in each wetland. To determine the performance of each method in documenting biodiversity, we compared taxa and their abundances by wetland, for each type of sample. DN sampling was more effective, with 44 of 140 macroinvertebrate taxa only identified from DN, compared to 14 only from BT. By contrast, BT more effectively collected leeches and beetles, especially active swimmers such as Tropisternus and several genera of Dytiscidae. However, taxa richness patterns for BT and DN were not strongly correlated. Consequently, we conclude these two sampling methods complement each other, providing a better overall picture of macroinvertebrate biodiversity, and should be used jointly when investigating macroinvertebrate biodiversity in depressional wetlands.

Serieyssol, C. A.; Bouchard, R. W.; Sealock, A. W.; Rufer, M. M.; Chirhart, J.; Genet, J.; Ferrington, L. C.

2005-05-01

81

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

82

Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

2012-10-01

83

Impact of mother sediment on yeast growth, biodiversity, and ethanol production during fermentation of Vinsanto wine.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Vinsanto mother sediment both on the growth and biodiversity of the yeast microflora and on the production of ethanol under natural and inoculated fermentation of Vinsanto wines. To achieve this ten fermentation trials were carried out in 50-L barrels, five without added mother sediment and five with. Moreover, eight of the ten barrels were inoculated with four Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, while the remaining two barrels were not inoculated and were used as controls to study the behaviour of the natural yeast microflora in the absence and presence of mother sediment. The counts of viable yeasts at three different sampling times indicated that the mother sediment had a positive influence on yeast growth and persistence during fermentation. Molecular characterization of the Saccharomyces type colonies isolated after three months of fermentation showed that the addition of mother sediment had no effects on the dominance of the wine starters. In contrast, the mother sediment had a positive influence on the biodiversity of the spontaneous S. cerevisiae yeasts. Moreover, possibly due to its content of fatty acids and sterols and other nutrients, the addition of mother sediment also showed a positive effect on the fermentative activities of wine yeasts as measured by their ethanol production. PMID:19027185

Domizio, Paola; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Manazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

2009-01-31

84

Biodiversity Performs!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document features a lesson plan in which students work in teams to act out different ecosystem services, describe several free services that biodiversity provides to human, and explain how these services make life on earth possible. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

85

A generic approach to integrate biodiversity considerations in screening and scoping for EIA  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requires parties to apply environmental impact assessment (EIA) to projects that potentially negatively impact on biodiversity. As members of the International Association of Impact Assessment, the authors have developed a conceptual framework to integrate biodiversity considerations in EIA. By defining biodiversity in terms of composition, structure, and key processes, and by describing the way in which human activities affect these so-called components of biodiversity, it is possible to assess the potential impacts of human activities on biodiversity. Furthermore, the authors have translated this conceptual framework in generic guidelines for screening and scoping in impact assessment. Countries can use these generic guidelines to further operationalise the framework within the existing national procedures for impact assessment. This paper is fully coherent and partly overlapping with the guidelines recently adopted by the CBD, but differs in the sense that it provides more scientific background and is less policy-oriented.

Slootweg, Roel; Kolhoff, Arend

2003-10-01

86

Predictive models for fish assemblages in eastern USA streams: implications for assessing biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management and conservation of aquatic systems require the ability to assess biological conditions and identify changes in biodiversity. Predictive models for fish assemblages were constructed to assess biological condition and changes in biodiversity for streams sampled in the eastern United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Separate predictive models were developed for northern and southern regions. Reference sites were designated using land cover and local professional judgment. Taxonomic completeness was quantified based on the ratio of the number of observed native fish species expected to occur to the number of expected native fish species. Models for both regions accurately predicted fish species composition at reference sites with relatively high precision and low bias. In general, species that occurred less frequently than expected (decreasers) tended to prefer riffle areas and larger substrates, such as gravel and cobble, whereas increaser species (occurring more frequently than expected) tended to prefer pools, backwater areas, and vegetated and sand substrates. In the north, the percentage of species identified as increasers and the percentage identified as decreasers were equal, whereas in the south nearly two-thirds of the species examined were identified as decreasers. Predictive models of fish species can provide a standardized indicator for consistent assessments of biological condition at varying spatial scales and critical information for an improved understanding of fish species that are potentially at risk of loss with changing water quality conditions.

Meador, Michael R.; Carlisle, Daren M.

2009-01-01

87

Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys.

Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciercoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-Jose; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Saez, Raquel

2014-01-01

88

Remotely sensed landscape heterogeneity as a rapid tool for assessing local biodiversity value in a highly modified New Zealand landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread conversion of natural habitats to agricultural land has created a need to integrate intensively managed landscapes into conservation management priorities. However, there are no clearly defined methods for assessing the conservation value of managed landscapes at the local scale. We used remotely sensed landscape heterogeneity as a rapid practical tool for the assessment of local biodiversity value within

Robert M. Ewers; Raphael K. Didham; Stephen D. Wratten; Jason M. Tylianakis

2005-01-01

89

Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodiversity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens originating within or adjacent to 14 parks throughout the northeastern United States. We compared the number of specimens located to collection size to determine whether there was any effect on detection rate of specimens. We evaluated the importance of park characteristics (e.g., age since establishment, size, theme [natural vs. cultural]) for influencing the number of specimens found in a collection. We located >31,000 specimens and compiled associated records (hereafter referred to as specimens) from 78 collections; >9000 specimens were park-significant, originating either within park boundaries or in the local township where the park was located. We found >2000 specimens by means of manual searches, which cost $0.001?0.15 per specimen searched and $0.81?151.95 per specimen found. Collection effort appeared relatively uniform between 1890 and 1980, with low periods corresponding to significant sociopolitical events. Detection rates for specimens were inversely related to collection size. Although specimens were most often located in collections within the region of interest, specimens can be found anywhere, particularly in large collections international in scope, suggesting that global searches will be necessary to evaluate historical biodiversity. Park characteristics indicated that more collecting effort occurred within or adjacent to larger parks established for natural resources than in smaller historical sites. Because many institutions have not yet established electronic databases for collections, manual searches can be useful for retrieving specimens. Our results show that thorough, systematic searching of natural history collections for park-significant specimens can provide a historical perspective on biodiversity for park managers.

O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Gilbert, A. T.; Hatfield, J.S.

2004-01-01

90

What Is Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit on biodiversity includes three separate lesson plans and may be used for students in grades 6 through 10. The concepts touched upon in these activities include the diversity of life on earth, species, the interconnectedness of living things, humanity's impact on biodiversity, and biodiversity loss. Via these lesson plans, which include plans for a field trip, students will have a chance to observe and record their impressions in an outdoor site and later report their experiences to the class.

2012-06-11

91

Biodiversity of European grasslands - gradient studies to investigate impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have suggested that reactive nitrogen deposition may reduce species richness in plant communities. However, until recently there was no clear evidence that regional air pollution was actually reducing biodiversity on a regional scale.. An extensive field survey of acidic grasslands along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the UK showed a dramatic decline in plant-species richness with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition [1, 2]. Changes in soil chemistry were also observed [3]. Combining the results of this gradient study with experimental manipulations allowed us to estimate the timescale of the observed change in species richness. The BEGIN project (Biodiversity of European Grasslands - the Impact of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition) is a collaborative EUROCORES project between The Open University (UK), Manchester Metropolitan University (UK), Bordeaux University (France), Utrecht University (The Netherlands) and The University of Bremen (Germany). This project builds on the results collected in the UK survey to investigate changes in species richness further. In addition to the 68 acid grasslands already surveyed in the UK, the BEGIN project has surveyed 70 acidic grassland sites throughout the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe. At each site, data were collected on species composition, soil chemistry and plant-tissue chemistry. This data set is being combined with a field experiment replicated across three grasslands (Norway, Wales and Aquitaine) of the same community and an analysis of historical changes in species composition. Surveys have also been conducted in a contrasting grassland system; calcareous grasslands belonging to the Mesobromion alliance. Initial results of the BEGIN project will be presented, demonstrating declines in species richness and changes in species composition across the Atlantic Biogeographic Zone of Europe during the last 70 years that can be related to nitrogen deposition. We will also report changes in soil chemistry along this N deposition gradient. References 1 Stevens et al. 2004 Impact of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of grasslands. Science, 303, 1876-1879. 2 Stevens et al. 2006 Loss of forb diversity in relation to nitrogen deposition in the UK: regional trends and potential controls. Global Change Biology, 12, 1823-1833. 3 Stevens et al. 2009 Regional trends in soil acidification and extractable metals related to present acid deposition rates. Environmental Pollution, 157, 313-319.

Stevens, C. J.; Gowing, D. J.

2009-04-01

92

Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring, Conservation and Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) Associate Program for Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring, Conservation and Training (AP1) is composed of three organizations: the Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessing Biodiversity Pr...

E. C. Losos

2004-01-01

93

Impact of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on biodiversity and giant panda habitat in Wolong Nature Reserve, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters such as earthquakes have profound effects on the earth’s biodiversity. However, studies on immediate earthquake\\u000a impacts are rarely conducted at fine scales due to logistical constraints. We conducted the first post-earthquake field survey\\u000a in Wolong Nature Reserve, Wenchuan, China, less than 1 year after it was hit by a magnitude 8.0 earthquake in 2008. Since\\u000a Wolong harbors approximately 10%

Jindong Zhang; Vanessa Hull; Weihua Xu; Jianguo Liu; Zhiyun Ouyang; Jinyan Huang; Xuezhi Wang; Rengui Li

2011-01-01

94

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

PubMed

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. PMID:23474334

Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

2013-04-15

95

Linking community and disease ecology: the impact of biodiversity on pathogen transmission  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of zoonotic diseases spilling over from a range of wild animal species represents a particular concern for public health, especially in light of the current dramatic trend of biodiversity loss. To understand the ecology of these multi-host pathogens and their response to environmental degradation and species extinctions, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic community assemblages. Here, we present a multi-host species epidemiological model that includes empirically determined patterns of diversity and composition derived from community ecology studies. We use this framework to study the interaction between wildlife diversity and directly transmitted pathogen dynamics. First, we demonstrate that variability in community composition does not affect significantly the intensity of pathogen transmission. We also show that the consequences of community diversity can differentially impact the prevalence of pathogens and the number of infectious individuals. Finally, we show that ecological interactions among host species have a weaker influence on pathogen circulation than inter-species transmission rates. We conclude that integration of a community perspective to study wildlife pathogens is crucial, especially in the context of understanding and predicting infectious disease emergence events.

Roche, Benjamin; Dobson, Andrew P.; Guegan, Jean-Francois; Rohani, Pejman

2012-01-01

96

Livestock biodiversity.  

PubMed

This paper describes the institutional background against which invasiveness is considered with regard to livestock genetic diversity. The human-made nature and extensive spread of a few domesticated animal species for global food production is a feature of agricultural diversity that complicates the simple, negative view of invasive species. The different impacts of livestock species on natural biodiversity, of breed diversity within species, and of within-breed diversity on agricultural biodiversity are discussed. Livestock production continues to threaten natural biodiversity. The increasing demand for food of animal origin, the productivity and technology differentials, as well as the information and awareness bias, tend to favour international high-output breeds over local breeds. This will increase their 'invasiveness' in the market economy if current policy distortions continue. Several measures are proposed to control genetic erosion through uncontrolled gene flow. Countries are responsible not only for control of invasive alien species under the Convention on Biological Diversity but also for sustainable use and conservation of animal genetic resources, and for food security; they must balance trade-offs between these broad policy objectives. PMID:20617649

Hoffmann, I

2010-04-01

97

REDD+ projects in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impacts on future emissions, income and biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) encompasses a large rainforest area which has been rather preserved up to now. However, pressure on the forests is increasing with high population growth, transition toward political stability and the abundance of minerals in the country. REDD+ is a developing mechanism under the UNFCCC that aims to support developing countries that want to make efforts to reduce their emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The REDD+ strategy in DRC combines an independent national fund and independent REDD+ projects at the local level that are at the initial stage of implementation. The objective of this paper is to assess i) emissions reduction due to the implementation of the REDD+ pilot projects taking into account potential leakage and ii) potential co-benefits of REDD+ pilot projects in terms of biodiversity and rural income by 2030. We use the land use economic model CongoBIOM adapted from GLOBIOM which represents land-based activities and land use changes at a 50x50km resolution level. It includes domestic and international demand for agricultural products, fuel wood and minerals which are the main deforestation drivers in the Congo Basin region. Finally, we run a sensitivity analysis on emissions from land use change according to three different above and below ground living biomass estimates: downscaled FAO, NASA and WHRC.

Mosnier, Aline; Bocqueho, Geraldine; Mant, Rebecca; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Kapos, Val; Fritz, Steffen; Botrill, Leo

2014-05-01

98

A hierarchical classification of benthic biodiversity and assessment of protected areas in the southern ocean.  

PubMed

An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided. PMID:25032993

Douglass, Lucinda L; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

2014-01-01

99

A Hierarchical Classification of Benthic Biodiversity and Assessment of Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean  

PubMed Central

An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided.

Douglass, Lucinda L.; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S.; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

2014-01-01

100

Oil Palm Research in Context: Identifying the Need for Biodiversity Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm cultivation is frequently cited as a major threat to tropical biodiversity as it is centered on some of the world's most biodiverse regions. In this report, Web of Science was used to find papers on oil palm published since 1970, which were assigned to different subject categories to visualize their research focus. Recent years have seen a broadening

Edgar C. Turner; Jake L. Snaddon; Tom M. Fayle; William A. Foster

2008-01-01

101

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a comparison of inventories at four localities in northern Madagascar, patterns of richness were not significantly different when richness was determined using morphological taxonomy (morphospecies) or sequence divergence thresholds (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit(s); MOTU). However, sequence-based methods tended to yield greater richness and significantly lower indices of similarity than morphological taxonomy. MOTU determined using our molecular technique were a remarkably local phenomenon—indicative of highly restricted dispersal and/or long-term isolation. In cases where molecular and morphological methods differed in their assignment of individuals to categories, the morphological estimate was always more conservative than the molecular estimate. In those cases where morphospecies descriptions collapsed distinct molecular groups, sequence divergences of 16% (on average) were contained within the same morphospecies. Such high divergences highlight taxa for further detailed genetic, morphological, life history, and behavioral studies.

Smith, M. Alex; Fisher, Brian L; Hebert, Paul D.N

2005-01-01

102

Global biodiversity assessment and hyper-cryptic species complexes: more than one species of elephant in the room?  

PubMed

Several recent estimates of global biodiversity have concluded that the total number of species on Earth lies near the lower end of the wide range touted in previous decades. However, none of these recent estimates formally explore the real "elephant in the room", namely, what proportion of species are taxonomically invisible to conventional assessments, and thus, as undiagnosed cryptic species, remain uncountable until revealed by multi-gene molecular assessments. Here we explore the significance and extent of so-called "hyper-cryptic" species complexes, using the Australian freshwater fish Galaxias olidus as a proxy for any organism whose taxonomy ought to be largely finalized when compared to those in little-studied or morphologically undifferentiated groups. Our comprehensive allozyme (838 fish for 54 putative loci), mtDNA (557 fish for 605 bp of cytb), and morphological (1963-3389 vouchers for 17-58 characters) assessment of this species across its broad geographic range revealed a 1500% increase in species-level biodiversity, and suggested that additional taxa may remain undiscovered. Importantly, while all 15 candidate species were morphologically diagnosable a posteriori from one another, single-gene DNA barcoding proved largely unsuccessful as an a priori method for species identification. These results lead us to draw two strong inferences of relevance to estimates of global biodiversity. First, hyper-cryptic complexes are likely to be common in many organismal groups. Second, no assessment of species numbers can be considered "best practice" in the molecular age unless it explicitly includes estimates of the extent of cryptic and hyper-cryptic biodiversity. [Galaxiidae; global estimates; hyper-diverse; mountain galaxias; species counts; species richness.]. PMID:24627185

Adams, Mark; Raadik, Tarmo A; Burridge, Christopher P; Georges, Arthur

2014-07-01

103

The impact of logging on biodiversity and carbon sequestration in tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation is one of the most relevant environmental issues at planetary scale. Forest clearcutting has dramatic effect on local biodiversity, on the terrestrial carbon sink and atmospheric GHGs balance. In terms of protection of tropical forests selective logging is, instead, often regarded as a minor or even positive management practice for the ecosystem and it is supported by international certifications. However, few studies are available on changes in the structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services due to the selective logging of African forests. This paper presents the results of a survey on tropical forests of West and Central Africa, with a comparison of long-term dynamics, structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services (such as the carbon sequestration) of different types of forests, from virgin primary to selectively logged and secondary forest. Our study suggests that there is a persistent effect of selective logging on biodiversity and carbon stock losses in the long term (up to 30 years since logging) and after repeated logging. These effects, in terms of species richness and biomass, are greater than the expected losses from commercial harvesting, implying that selective logging in West and Central Africa is impairing long term (at least until 30 years) ecosystem structure and services. A longer selective logging cycle (>30 years) should be considered by logging companies although there is not yet enough information to consider this practice sustainable.

Cazzolla Gatti, R.

2012-04-01

104

The Impact of Human Activities on Biodiversity Conservation in a Coastal Wetland in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken at the Muni-Pomadze coastal wetland in the Central Region of Ghana. The wetland, located about 56 km west of Accra, is an important habitat for wildlife of both local and global conservation significance. This study investigated the effects of human activities (e.g. farming, hunting, fuelwood harvesting, etc.) on the environment and biodiversity conservation in the area,

A. M. Wuver; D. K. Attuquayefio

105

Rapid biodiversity assessment and monitoring method for highly diverse benthic communities: a case study of mediterranean coralligenous outcrops.  

PubMed

Increasing anthropogenic pressures urge enhanced knowledge and understanding of the current state of marine biodiversity. This baseline information is pivotal to explore present trends, detect future modifications and propose adequate management actions for marine ecosystems. Coralligenous outcrops are a highly diverse and structurally complex deep-water habitat faced with major threats in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its ecological, aesthetic and economic value, coralligenous biodiversity patterns are still poorly understood. There is currently no single sampling method that has been demonstrated to be sufficiently representative to ensure adequate community assessment and monitoring in this habitat. Therefore, we propose a rapid non-destructive protocol for biodiversity assessment and monitoring of coralligenous outcrops providing good estimates of its structure and species composition, based on photographic sampling and the determination of presence/absence of macrobenthic species. We used an extensive photographic survey, covering several spatial scales (100s of m to 100s of km) within the NW Mediterranean and including 2 different coralligenous assemblages: Paramuricea clavata (PCA) and Corallium rubrum assemblage (CRA). This approach allowed us to determine the minimal sampling area for each assemblage (5000 cm(2) for PCA and 2500 cm(2) for CRA). In addition, we conclude that 3 replicates provide an optimal sampling effort in order to maximize the species number and to assess the main biodiversity patterns of studied assemblages in variability studies requiring replicates. We contend that the proposed sampling approach provides a valuable tool for management and conservation planning, monitoring and research programs focused on coralligenous outcrops, potentially also applicable in other benthic ecosystems. PMID:22073264

Kipson, Silvija; Fourt, Maïa; Teixidó, Núria; Cebrian, Emma; Casas, Edgar; Ballesteros, Enric; Zabala, Mikel; Garrabou, Joaquim

2011-01-01

106

Investigate Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great way to learn about biodiversity is by visiting Conservation International's Investigate Biodiversity Web site. Visitors can read about biodiversity hot spots and major threats to the world's species. Of particular interest is the Expeditions Online section, detailing scientific field expeditions. Through this section, you can read daily updates and see photos of teams of scientists conducting biological surveys in remote parts of the world. After learning about Conservation International's research projects, students can follow the online guide to developing their own biodiversity field study. This well designed Web sitehas plenty to offer to anyone interested in biodiversity.

2005-12-08

107

32 CFR Appendix - Privacy Impact Assessment  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Review the Privacy Act Officer. Impact Assessment document to identify...approval Headquarters Air of Privacy Impact Force Functional CIO. Assessment...Officer/ publish Privacy P. Impact Assessment on Freedom of Information Act Web...

2009-07-01

108

Design of mini-barcode for catfishes for assessment of archival biodiversity.  

PubMed

Recovery of DNA barcode sequences is often challenging from the archived specimens. However, short fragments of DNA may be recovered, which would significantly improve many unresolved taxonomic conflicts. Here, we designed a mini-barcode for catfishes comprising several species and many cryptic taxa. We analysed a data set of 3048 publicly available COI barcode sequences representing 547 worldwide catfish species and performed 152 628 interspecies comparisons. A significantly more positively correlated interspecies distance was detected with transversion (0.78, P < 0.001) than with transition (0.70, P < 0.001). This suggested that transversions were better diagnostics for species identification. In the aligned data set, two transversion-rich fragments (53 bp and 119 bp) were identified. Transition/transversion bias value was 1.04 in 53-bp fragment, 1.23 in 119-bp fragment and 1.50 in full-length barcode. The interspecies distance with full-length barcode was 0.212 ± 0.037, while that with 53-bp and 119-bp fragments was 0.325 ± 0.039 and 0.218 ± 0.045, respectively. Survey of 53-bp fragment showed a possibility of only 1144 barcodes, while that of 119-bp fragment showed >4 million barcodes. Thus, the 119-bp fragment is a viable mini-barcode for catfishes comprising >3000 extant species. Experiment with 82 archived catfishes showed successful recovery of this mini-barcode using the designed primer. The mini-barcode sequences showed species-specific similarity in the range of 98-100% with the global database. Therefore, survey of a transversion-rich fragment within the full-length barcode would be an ideal approach of mini-barcode design for biodiversity assessment. PMID:24314114

Bhattacharjee, Maloyjo J; Ghosh, Sankar K

2014-05-01

109

Biodiversity Assessment of the Fishes of Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species. The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites. A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are indicated in the annotated list.

Williams, Jeffrey T.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Van Tassell, James L.; Hoetjes, Paul; Toller, Wes; Etnoyer, Peter; Smith, Michael

2010-01-01

110

Secondary impact hazard assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated critical energy. A key assumption in these calculations is that above a certain critical energy, significant damage will be done. This is not true for all structures. Double-walled, bumpered structures are an example for which damage may be reduced as energy goes up. The critical energy assumption is probably conservative, however, in terms of secondary damage. To understand why the secondary impacts seem to, in general, contribute less than 10 percent of the flux above a given critical energy, consider the case of a meteoroid impact of a given energy on a fixed, large surface. This impact results in a variety of secondary particles, all of which have much less energy than the original impact. Conservation of energy prohibits any other situation. Thus if damage is linked to a critical energy of a particle, the primary flux will always deliver particles of much greater energy. Even if all the secondary particles impacted other Space Station structures, none would have a kinetic energy more than a fraction of the primary impact energy.

1986-01-01

111

Key Elements in a Framework for Land Use Impact Assessment Within LCA (11 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a Land use by agriculture, forestry, mining, house-building or industry leads to substantial impacts, particularly on biodiversity\\u000a and on soil quality as a supplier of life support functions. Unfortunately there is no widely accepted assessment method so\\u000a far for land use impacts. This paper presents an attempt, within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, to provide a framework

Alain Dubreuil; Gérard Gaillard; Ruedi Müller-Wenk

2007-01-01

112

Lac Télé structure, Republic of Congo: Geological setting of a cryptozoological and biodiversity hotspot, and evidence against an impact origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lac Télé is a large lake, ˜5.6 km in diameter, with an ovoid shape, situated at 17°10'E, 1°20'N, in the great tropical rain forest region of the Republic of Congo. This lake has attracted widespread attention, mainly because of the legends among the local people that it harbours a strange animal known as the Mokele-Mbembe, but also because it is situated in a region that is a hotbed of biodiversity and conservation efforts with respect to various endangered mammalian species, including gorillas and chimpanzees. Because of its appearance, Lac Télé has been regarded as a possible meteorite impact structure. Various expeditions, studying cryptozoology, conservation ecology, biodiversity, and the impact hypothesis, have visited Lac Télé in the past several decades. The Lac Télé structure is located in the NW part of the intracratonic Congo Basin, in a region dominated by Holocene alluvium, dense tropical rain forest, and swamps which form part of the basin of the Likouala aux Herbes, a multi-branched meandering river flowing over very low gradients into the Sangha river, a major tributary of the Congo river. Previous bathymetric studies have shown that the average depth of Lac Télé is only 4 m, including organic-rich silty sediments. The structure is that of a flat-bottomed dish. Modelling of the Lac Télé as an impact structure indicates a number of features which ought to be present. The absence of any of these features, coupled with the irregular ovoid shape, the palynological record, and the location of the structure at the intersection of major regional lineaments, is regarded as evidence against the impact hypothesis. Lac Télé as an isolated lake ecosystem is not unique in the Congo Basin, and there are several other similar small shallow isolated lakes surrounded by rain forest and marshes, some of which formed by damming of drainage systems by neotectonic faults. It is suggested that the formation of Lac Télé may be related to its location over neotectonically reactivated regional lineaments, which are also seismically active. Lac Télé and other similar hydrologic systems may be biodiversity hotspots because they acted as refugia following neotectonic hydrological re-organization of the Congo Basin.

Master, Sharad

2010-11-01

113

Relative and absolute scarcity of nature. Assessing the roles of economics and ecology for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim in this essay is to identify and analyze some of the difficulties with interdisciplinary integration of economic and ecological contributions to the study of biodiversity loss. We develop our analysis from a widely accepted definition of economics which is based on the concept of scarcity. Taking a closer look at this notion, we find that economics actually limits

Stefan Baumgärtner; Christian Becker; Malte Faber; Reiner Manstetten

2006-01-01

114

Biodiversity Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has a dozen kid-friendly books on a wide range of biodiversity topics. For each title, the author, publisher, and publication date are included along with a brief description of the book. The list includes field guides and other reference books to help students begin exploring plants, insects, birds, and other living things, easy-to-complete activities to bring the importance of biodiversity home, and engaging stories that introduce students to cultural tales that celebrate biodiversity.

115

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

116

Similar diversity-disturbance responses to different physical impacts: Three cases of small-scale biodiversity increase in the Belgian part of the North Sea.  

PubMed

Human activities at sea are still increasing. As biodiversity is a central topic in the management of our seas, it is important to understand how diversity responds to different disturbances related with physical impacts. We investigated the effects of three impacts, i.e. sand extraction, dredge disposal and offshore wind energy exploitation, on the soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages in the Belgian part of the North Sea. We found similar diversity-disturbance responses, mainly related to the fact that different impacts caused similar environmental changes. We observed a sediment refinement which triggered a shift towards a heterogenic, dynamic (transitional) soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblage, with several species typically associated with muddy sands. This led to a local unexpected biodiversity increase in the impacted area. On a wider regional scale, the ever increasing human impacts might lead to a homogenization of the sediment, resulting in a more uniform, yet less diverse benthic ecosystem. PMID:24889315

De Backer, Annelies; Van Hoey, Gert; Coates, Delphine; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Hostens, Kris

2014-07-15

117

Health impact assessment in Korea  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

Kang, Eunjeong, E-mail: marchej@kihasa.re.r [Division for Health Promotion Research, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 268 Jinheung-ro, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngsoo, E-mail: leeys@kei.re.k [Centre for Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheung-ro, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyeong-gu (Korea, Republic of); Harris, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.harris@unsw.edu.a [Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation, part of the UNSW, Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, UNSW, Locked Mail Bag 7103, Liverpool BC, NSW 1981 (Australia); Koh, Kwangwook, E-mail: kwkoh@hanafos.co [Department of Preventive Medicine, Kosin University, 149-1 Dongsam-1-dong, Youngdo-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keonyeop, E-mail: pmkky@knu.ac.k [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine and Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, KyungPook National University, 101 Dongin 2 , Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-15

118

Biodiversity Law of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly online document details the legal technicalities of Costa Rica's Biodiversity Law, made public in July 1999. The document (.pdf format) contains the following sections, among others: Natural System of Conservation Areas; Guarantees of Environmental Safety; Conservation and Sustainable Use of Ecosystems and Species; Access to Genetic Components and Biochemicals and Protection of Associated Knowledge; Education and Public Awareness; Environmental Impact Assessments; Incentives; and Procedures, Processes, and Agreements. For those interested in conservation law or the intricacies of biological diversity protection in developing countries, this document will be of great interest.

119

Biodiversity Prospecting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

1994-01-01

120

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

121

Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

122

Australia's Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Australian Museum Online comes this informative presentation on biodiversity. This searchable site allows visitors to learn fun biodiversity facts (such as the evolutionary history of the platypus and the secret life of kelp forests), how to conserve biodiversity through sustainable living practices, and what's happening at the Australian Museum in Sydney. Many of the pages can also be downloaded in .pdf format. Features of the site include RealMedia films on such topics as the Lizard Island Research Station and Sydney's Coastal Reefs; a page about the interpretive strategies of the museum's exhibition, Biodiversity: life supporting life; and biodiversity and forestry case studies in Australia. Well organized and readable, this site will be enjoyable for both Aussies and non-Aussies interested in the science and wonder of life's diversity.

2008-04-01

123

Assessing Undergraduate University Students' Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour towards Biodiversity: A Case Study in Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biodiversity is a key resource as it provides both goods and services to society. However, humans value these resources differently, especially when biodiversity is exploited for its economic potential; a destruction on a scale rarely seen before. In order to decrease the threats that biodiversity is facing due to human activity, globally (climate…

Nisiforou, Olympia; Charalambides, Alexandros George

2012-01-01

124

Global Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

125

Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity.  

PubMed

Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity, particularly in tropical forests where both species diversity and human pressures on natural environments are high. The rapid conversion of tropical forests for agriculture, timber production and other uses has generated vast, human-dominated landscapes with potentially dire consequences for tropical biodiversity. Today, few truly undisturbed tropical forests exist, whereas those degraded by repeated logging and fires, as well as secondary and plantation forests, are rapidly expanding. Here we provide a global assessment of the impact of disturbance and land conversion on biodiversity in tropical forests using a meta-analysis of 138 studies. We analysed 2,220 pairwise comparisons of biodiversity values in primary forests (with little or no human disturbance) and disturbed forests. We found that biodiversity values were substantially lower in degraded forests, but that this varied considerably by geographic region, taxonomic group, ecological metric and disturbance type. Even after partly accounting for confounding colonization and succession effects due to the composition of surrounding habitats, isolation and time since disturbance, we find that most forms of forest degradation have an overwhelmingly detrimental effect on tropical biodiversity. Our results clearly indicate that when it comes to maintaining tropical biodiversity, there is no substitute for primary forests. PMID:21918513

Gibson, Luke; Lee, Tien Ming; Koh, Lian Pin; Brook, Barry W; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Laurance, William F; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Sodhi, Navjot S

2011-10-20

126

Issues in Ecology, Issue 04: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this report, biodiversity and its relevance to the ecosystems that support humanity is discussed. Ecosystem functioning is defined as the collective activities of all biota within an ecosystem and how they affect its chemical and physical factors; therefore, it can be negatively impacted by decreases in biodiversity-the wide variety of life forms inhabiting the planet. The ecological and economic consequences of losses in biodiversity are explained. Additionally, case studies of scientific efforts to understand ecosystem functioning and to assess biodiversity are presented. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 1999.

Naeem, Shahid

2011-08-24

127

Bioweapons, bioterrorism and biodiversity: potential impacts of biological weapons attacks on agricultural and biological diversity.  

PubMed

Diseases and biological toxins have been used as weapons of war throughout recorded history, from Biblical times through to the present day. Bioweapon uses have historically been directed primarily, although not exclusively, against human populations. Specialised technicians and state-of-the-art research facilities are no longer necessary for the production or deployment of many known bioweapon agents and commercially available technologies now permit the large-scale production of bioweapon agents in small-scale facilities at relatively low cost. Failures in the detection and containment of bioweapon and emerging disease outbreaks among populations of wildlife and indigenous peoples in developing countries could result in severe erosion of genetic diversity in local and regional populations of both wild and domestic animals, the extinction of endangered species and the extirpation of indigenous peoples and their cultures. Our ability to understand and control the spread of diseases within and among human and animal populations is increasing but is still insufficient to counter the threats presented by existing bioweapon diseases and the growing number of highly pathogenic emergent infections. Interdisciplinary and international efforts to increase the monitoring, surveillance, identification and reporting of disease agents and to better understand the potential dynamics of disease transmission within human and animal populations in both industrialised and developing country settings will greatly enhance our ability to combat the effects of bioweapons and emerging diseases on biological communities and biodiversity. PMID:11974624

Dudley, J P; Woodford, M H

2002-04-01

128

Impact of native plants on bird and butterfly biodiversity in suburban landscapes.  

PubMed

Managed landscapes in which non-native ornamental plants are favored over native vegetation now dominate the United States, particularly east of the Mississippi River. We measured how landscaping with native plants affects the avian and lepidopteran communities on 6 pairs of suburban properties in southeastern Pennsylvania. One property in each pair was landscaped entirely with native plants and the other exhibited a more conventional suburban mixture of plants--a native canopy with non-native groundcover and shrubs. Vegetation sampling confirmed that total plant cover and plant diversity did not differ between treatments, but non-native plant cover was greater on the conventional sites and native plant cover was greater on the native sites. Several avian (abundance, species richness, biomass, and breeding-bird abundance) and larval lepidopteran (abundance and species richness) community parameters were measured from June 2006 to August 2006. Native properties supported significantly more caterpillars and caterpillar species and significantly greater bird abundance, diversity, species richness, biomass, and breeding pairs of native species. Of particular importance is that bird species of regional conservation concern were 8 times more abundant and significantly more diverse on native properties. In our study area, native landscaping positively influenced the avian and lepidopteran carrying capacity of suburbia and provided a mechanism for reducing biodiversity losses in human-dominated landscapes. PMID:18950471

Burghardt, Karin T; Tallamy, Douglas W; Gregory Shriver, W

2009-02-01

129

Backyard Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a field trip experience for the Earth Odyssey project for elementary school students focusing on biodiversity. Introduces the concept of diversity, field work, species richness, and the connection between animals and their habitat. (YDS)

Thompson, Sarah S.

2002-01-01

130

Agent-based modeling for the landuse change of hunter-gather societies and the impacts on biodiversity in Guyana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions with animals are vital to the Amerindian, indigenous people, of Rupunini savannah-forest in Guyana. Their connections extend from basic energy and protein resource to spiritual bonding through "paring" to a certain animal in the forest. We collected extensive dataset of 23 indigenous communities for 3.5 years, consisting 9900 individuals from 1307 households, as well as animal observation data in 8 transects per communities (47,000 data entries). In this presentation, our research interest is to model the driver of land use change of the indigenous communities and its impacts on the ecosystem in the Rupunini area under global change. Overarching question we would like to answer with this program is to find how and why "tipping-point" from hunting gathering society to the agricultural society occurs in the future. Secondary question is what is the implication of the change to agricultural society in terms of biodiversity and carbon stock in the area, and eventually the well-being of Rupunini people. To answer the questions regarding the society shift in agriculture activities, we built as simulation with Agent-Based Modeling (Multi Agents Simulation). We developed this simulation by using Netlogo, the programming environment specialized for spatially explicit agent-based modeling (ABM). This simulation consists of four different process in the Rupunini landscape; forest succession, animal population growth, hunting of animals, and land clearing for agriculture. All of these processes are carried out by a set of computational unit, called "agents". In this program, there are four types of agents - patches, villages, households, and animals. Here, we describe the impacts of hunting on the biodiversity based on actual demographic data from one village named Crush Water. Animal population within the hunting territory of the village stabilized but Agouti/Paca dominates the landscape with little population of armadillos and peccaries. White-tailed deers, Tapirs, Capybara exist but very low. This finding is well aligned with the hunting dataset - Agouti/Paca consists 27% of total hunting. Based on our simulation, it seems the dominance of Agouti/Paca among hunted animals shown in the field data can be explained solely by their high carrying capacity against human extraction (population density of the Paca/Agouti = 60 per square km, whereas other animals ranges 0.63 to 7). When we incorporate agriculture, the "rodentation" of the animal population toward Agouti/Paca becomes more obvious. This simulation shows the interactions of people and animals through land change and hunting, which were observed in our fields.

Iwamura, T.; Fragoso, J.; Lambin, E.

2012-12-01

131

Mosaic-Level Inference of the Impact of Land Cover Changes in Agricultural Landscapes on Biodiversity: A Case-Study with a Threatened Grassland Bird  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a “whole-landscape” approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated.

Moreira, Francisco; Silva, Joao P.; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Marcia; Leitao, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Ines; Delgado, Ana

2012-01-01

132

Indicators for Monitoring Biodiversity: A Hierarchical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. It has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real-world regulatoy and managernentproblems. This problem can be corrected ifbio- diversity is recognized as an end in itsea and if measurable indicators can be selected to assess the status of biodiversity over time. Biodiversity, as

REED F. NOSS

1990-01-01

133

Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches. PMID:22956430

Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

2013-02-01

134

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

135

Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

Bender, A.

1977-01-01

136

Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

Laurance, William F.

137

Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

Cantu, C.; Wright, R. G.; Scott, J. M.; Strand, E.

2004-01-01

138

A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany) [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany)] [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-11-15

139

PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

At present, over 40% of the earth's land surface has been converted from its natural state to one dominated by human activities such as agriculture and development. The destruction and degradation of natural habitats has been clearly linked to the loss of biodiversity. Biodiver...

140

Biodiversity hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hotspots of biodiversity—areas particularly rich in species, rare species, threatened species, or some combination of these attributes—are increasingly being delineated to help set priorities for conservation. Only recently have we begun to test key assumptions that determine how useful a hotspot approach can be for conservation planning. The evidence suggests that although at large geographic scales hotspots do provide useful

Walter V Reid

1998-01-01

141

RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

142

Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

2005-02-28

143

Including Past and Present Impacts in Cumulative Impact Assessments  

PubMed

Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for analyzing a proposed action's incremental contribution to cumulative impacts are generally less advanced than those for project-specific impacts.The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) defines cumulative impact to include the impacts of " past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions" regardless of who undertakes the action. Court decisions have helped clarify the distinction between reasonably foreseeable future actions and other possible future actions. This paper seeks to clarify how past and present impacts should be included in cumulative impact analyses.The definition of cumulative impacts implies that cumulative impact analyses should include the effects of all past and present actions on a particular resource. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments increases the likelihood of identifying significant impacts. NEPA requires agencies to give more consideration to alternatives and mitigation and to provide more opportunities for public involvement for actions that would have significant impacts than for actions that would not cause or contribute to significant impacts. For an action that would contribute to significant cumulative impacts, the additional cost and effort involved in increased consideration of alternatives and mitigation and in additional public involvement may be avoided if the action can be modified so that its contributions to significant cumulative impacts are eliminated.KEY WORDS: Cumulative impacts; Environmental impact assessment; National Environmental Policy Act; Significance; Mitigation PMID:8703113

McCold; Saulsbury

1996-09-01

144

Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram  

SciTech Connect

This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

None

1977-07-01

145

An experimental assessment of biodiversity and species turnover in terrestrial vs canopy leaf litter.  

PubMed

Forest canopies support diverse assemblages of free-living mites. Recent studies suggest mite species complementarity between canopy and terrestrial soils is as high as 80-90%. However, confounding variation in habitat quality and resource patchiness between ground and canopy has not been controlled in previous comparative studies. We used experimental litter bags with standardized microhabitat structure and resource quality to contrast the colonization dynamics of 129 mite species utilizing needle accumulations on the ground vs in the canopy of Abies amabilis trees in a temperate montane forest in Canada. Mite abundance and species richness per litter bag were five to eight times greater on the ground than in the canopy, and composition differed markedly at family-, genus-, and species-level. Seventy-seven species (57%) were restricted to either ground or canopy litter bags, but many of these species were rare (n<5 individuals). Of 49 'common' species, 30.6% were entirely restricted to one habitat, which is considerably lower than most published estimates. In total, 87.5% of canopy specialists had rare vagrants on the ground, whereas only 51.9% of ground specialists had rare vagrants in the canopy. Canonical correspondence analysis of mite community structure showed high species turnover through time and a high degree of specialization for early-, mid-, and late-successional stages of litter decomposition, in both ground and canopy mites. In addition, distinct assemblages of ground-specialist mites dominated each elevation (800, 1000, and 1200 m), whereas few canopy-specialist mites had defined elevational preferences. This suggests that canopy mites may have greater tolerance for wide variation in environmental conditions than soil mites. The degree of species turnover between adjacent mountains also differed markedly, with 46.5% turnover of ground species, but 63.4% turnover of canopy species between the two montane areas. While ground and canopy assemblages are similar in total biodiversity, it appears that local mite richness (alpha diversity) is higher on the ground, whereas species turnover between sites (beta diversity) is higher in the canopy. PMID:16228247

Fagan, Laura L; Didham, Raphael K; Winchester, Neville N; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie; Clayton, Marilyn; Lindquist, Evert; Ring, Richard A

2006-03-01

146

Biodiversity and stability in grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been debated1-7, however, with many theoretical explorations2-6,8-11 but few field studies12-15. Here we describe a long-term study of grasslands16,17 which shows that primary productivity in more diverse plant communities is more resistant to, and recovers

David Tilman; John A. Downing

1994-01-01

147

Biodiversity Action Reporting System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biodiversity Action Reporting System is "a web-based system that supports the planning, monitoring, and reporting requirements of national and local Biodiversity Action Plans (BAPs)". BAPs are used to plan the protection and sustainability of biodiversity in the four countries that make up the United Kingdom. The website has a members-only section, but it also contains a very extensive section open to non-members. The "Status & Trends" tab at the top of the page allows visitors to search the status or trend of "individual species" or "individual habitat". A visitor choosing to search by species will be taken to a page where the name of the plant or animal species can be typed in, or can be chosen from the link "Pick from A-Z list". The list gives the "Scientific Name" and "Common Name" to more easily find the animal or plant. Visitors will find that only the species and habitats that show data in "National Trends" and "National Status" are those that are deemed U.K. Priority Species and Habitats. The "Actions & Impacts" tab at the top of the page allows visitors to search for reports of "Threats to Biodiversity" and "Recorded Losses".

148

Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

2007-07-02

149

Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit, E-mail: chaunjit@g.sut.ac.th [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)] [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom) [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)

2013-11-15

150

Relevance of cryptic fishes in biodiversity assessments: A case study at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because cryptic fishes are difficult to accurately survey, they are undersampled components of coral reef habitats, and their ecological roles have been generally ignored. Fifty-eight enclosed stations were sampled in shoreline, nearshore reef, lagoon, backreef, forereef, and bank/shelf habitats with an ichthyocide (rotenone) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Our samples included 55 families and 228 species, 60 previously unreported from St. Croix. Fish assemblages varied across habitat zones with the shoreline assemblage the most distinct. Only 8% of the species were present in all habitats. Multi-dimensional scaling plots of habitat characteristics and Bray-Curtis similarities of fish assemblages revealed similar patterns. Dominant and rare taxa are enumerated for each habitat sampled. Rotenone and visual census data are compared. While visual surveys accumulated more species per unit of effort, rotenone samples accumulated more species by area. Only 36% of the 228 species sampled with rotenone were visually detected, while 70% of the 115 species visually detected were also collected with rotenone. The use of rotenone is controversial but important for obtaining reasonably complete inventories of reef fishes. Misconceptions about rotenone and the advantages and limitations of alternative biodiversity assessment methods are discussed. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

Smith-Vaniz, W. F.; Jelks, H. L.; Rocha, L. A.

2006-01-01

151

Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the erosion of the sand beneath the bordering sandstone benches, resulting in overhangs. These structures are the most common in the western district of the Fontainebleau Massif. Ponds develop on the tightly silicified and impermeable sandstone pans that form the "platières". There are permanent ponds and temporary wet zones, formed of interconnected or isolated depressions. The origin of these ponds has to be questioned with regard to the landscape shaping. Their origin is directly bound to the hollowing of uncemented, sandy zones, within the sandstone pans forming the "platières". Erosion by runoff cannot be considered; the only way to hollow them out is by deflation processes. No direct dating of the Quaternary dune and loess deposits of the Fontainebleau Massif exists. Nevertheless, dating of paleopodzols interlayered between drift sands, pond deposits and bones within congelifracts allow relating these periglacial features with the end of the last glacial period. For now, there is no dating to assess what belongs to older glacial periods. Distribution of the aeolian patterns The Fontainebleau Massif displays noteworthy morphological diversities in the various districts of the forest. Some of these differentiations result from geological features, but most of them are related to erosion processes, and among them deflation processes leaved different imprints in the western and eastern districts of the Fontainebleau Massif. The topography played an important role controlling the aeolian processes. Deflation was important in the westerly upwind district. In the westerly front face, aeolian erosion was activated by turbulences around the topographic obstacles. The reliefs funneled the winds and gave rise to swirls that hollow the blowouts. This area displays the sharpest and more chiseled landforms of the massif. Moreover, the sandstone scarps at the edge of the "platières" are high and uncovered, with frequent overhangs. The collapsed sandstone blocks of the "chaos" are im

Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

2009-04-01

152

Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for analyzing a proposed action's incremental contribution to cumulative impacts are generally less advanced than those for project-specific impacts. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) defines cumulative impact to include the impacts of “past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions” regardless of who undertakes the action. Court decisions have helped clarify the distinction between reasonably foreseeable future actions and other possible future actions. This paper seeks to clarify how past and present impacts should be included in cumulative impact analyses. The definition of cumulative impacts implies that cumulative impact analyses should include the effects of all past and present actions on a particular resource. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments increases the likelihood of identifying significant impacts. NEPA requires agencies to give more consideration to alternatives and mitigation and to provide more opportunities for public involvement for actions that would have significant impacts than for actions that would not cause or contribute to significant impacts. For an action that would contribute to significant cumulative impacts, the additional cost and effort involved in increased consideration of alternatives and mitigation and in additional public involvement may be avoided if the action can be modified so that its contributions to significant cumulative impacts are eliminated.

McCold, Lance N.; Saulsbury, James W.

1996-09-01

153

Biodiversity in the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have altered or replaced native ecosystems across more than three quarters of the terrestrial biosphere, creating new global patterns of biodiversity as a result of native species extinctions, domestication and anthropogenic introductions of nonnative species. These anthropogenic global changes in biodiversity have been portrayed as resulting primarily from recent and unprecedented human disturbances that are potentially indicative of catastrophic changes in the Earth system. Yet anthropogenic changes in species richness and community structure caused by human populations and their use of land have been widespread and profound in many regions since before the Holocene, and have been sustained for millennia in many regions, especially in the Temperate Zone. Beyond the anthropogenic megafaunal extinctions of the Pleistocene, habitat loss and fragmentation by agricultural land use has been sustained throughout the Holocene in many biomes at levels theoretically associated with major species extinctions. Anthropogenic patterns of species extinction differ greatly among taxa, with mammals and other larger fauna showing the greatest impacts. However, spatially explicit observations and models of contemporary global patterns of vascular plant species richness confirm that while native losses are likely significant across at least half of Earth's ice-free land, species richness has increased overall in most regional landscapes, mostly because nonnative species invasions tend to exceed native losses. Effective stewardship of biodiversity in the Anthropocene will require integrated global frameworks for observing, modeling and forecasting anthropogenic biodiversity change processes within the novel biotic communities created and sustained by human systems.; Percentage of terrestrial biomes converted to agricultural land over time. ; Conceptual diagram of biodiversity patterns associated with variations in population density, land use and land cover.

Ellis, E. C.

2012-12-01

154

Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed.

W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

2001-06-01

155

A dynamic reference model: a framework for assessing biodiversity restoration goals in a fire-dependent ecosystem.  

PubMed

The use of reference models as templates of historical or natural conditions to assess restoration progress is inherently logical; however, difficulties occur in application because of the need to incorporate temporal variation in ecosystems caused by disturbance and succession, as well as seasonal, interannual, or decadal variability. The landscape-scale restoration of the globally threatened and fire-dependent longleaf pine ecosystem in the southeastern United States is an example in which restoration efforts are even more complicated by the limited availability of extant reference sites. This study uses the dynamic reference conceptual framework to assess the direction and rate of recovery with respect to biodiversity restoration goals using a 15-year vegetation data set from an experimental restoration treatment in fire-excluded, hardwood-encroached longleaf pine sandhills. We compared ground-cover vegetation response to midstory hardwood removal through herbicide application, mechanical removal, and fire only. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations and proportional similarity analyses suggest that, while vegetation changed in all treatments over time, no differences in species composition or hardwood density in the ground cover were attributable to hardwood reduction treatments after 15 years with frequent prescribed fire. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that considerable variability is associated with reference sites over time. Sites identified in 1994 as attainable restoration targets had become a moving target themselves, changing in magnitude consistent with alterations in restoration plots attributable to treatment effects and shaped by the modest increase in fire frequency imposed since 1998. In a broad restoration context, this study demonstrates a conceptual framework to better understand and integrate the range of spatial and temporal variation associated with the best available reference sites. It also illustrates a practical tool for statistically defining reference sites and for measuring restoration success in continually changing conditions that should be widely applicable to other ecosystems and restoration goals. PMID:24261041

Kirkman, L Katherine; Barnett, Analie; Williams, Brett W; Hiers, J Kevin; Pokswinski, Scottrr M; Mitchell, Robert J

2013-10-01

156

The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index  

PubMed Central

Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized biodiversity data; (b) assisting countries potentially in need (for example mega-diverse) to mobilize resources and collect data that could be used in decision-making; and (c) allowing identification of which biodiversity informatics-resourced countries could afford to assist countries lacking in biodiversity informatics capacity, and which data-rich countries should benefit most from such help.

2011-01-01

157

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

158

Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Florida Gap (FI-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute 'gaps' in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is a national effort and so, eventually, all 50 states will have completed it. The objective of FI-Gap was to provide broad geographic information on the status of terrestrial vertebrates, butterflies, skippers and ants and their respective habitats to address the loss of biological diversity. To model the distributions and potential habitat of all terrestrial species of mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies, skippers and ants in Florida, natural land cover was mapped to the level of dominant or co-dominant plant species. Land cover was classified from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and auxiliary data such as the national wetlands inventory (NWI), soils maps, aerial imagery, existing land use/land cover maps, and on-the-ground surveys, Wildlife distribution models were produced by identifying suitable habitat for each species within that species' range, Mammalian models also assessed a minimum critical area required for sustainability of the species' population. Wildlife species richness was summarized against land stewardship ranked by an area's mandates for conservation protection. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pearlstine, L. G.; Smith, S. E.; Brandt, L. A.; Allen, C. R.; Kitchens, W. M.; Stenberg, J.

2002-01-01

159

Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of\\u000a the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with the National Environmental\\u000a Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess\\u000a site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for

Lance N. McCold; James W. Saulsbury

1996-01-01

160

Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem services will be necessary to fully understand the links between land-allocation strategies and long-term ecosystem service provision. PMID:24764180

Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

2014-07-01

161

A Framework to Assess Regional Environmental Impacts of Dedicated Energy Crop Production  

PubMed

Numerous studies have evaluated air quality and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits of biomass energy systems, but the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale changes in land-use patterns needed to produce energy crops have not been quantified. This paper presents a framework to assess the potential soil, water, and biodiversity impacts that may result from the large-scale production of dedicated energy crops. The framework incorporates producer economic decision models with environmental models to assess changes in land use patterns and to quantify the consequent environmental impacts. Economic and policy issues that will affect decisions to produce energy crops are discussed. The framework is used to evaluate erosion and chemical runoff in two Tennessee regions. The analysis shows that production of dedicated energy crops in place of conventional crops will significantly reduce erosion and chemical runoff. PMID:8661616

Graham; Downing; Walsh

1996-07-01

162

Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative homogeneity and labeling these areas using categories defined by the classification system. The variables were linked to the 1:100,000-scale streams of the National Hydrography Dataset of the USGS. Through discussions with Ohio aquatic experts, OH-GAP identified eight separate enduring physical features which, when combined, form the physical habitat type: * Shreve link (a measure of stream size) * Downstream Shreve link (a measure of stream connectivity and size) * Sinuosity * Gradient * Bedrock * Stream temperature * Character of glacial drift * Glacial-drift thickness Potential distribution models were developed for 130 fish, 70 bivalve, and 17 native crayfish species. These models are based on 5,686 fish, 4,469 crayfish, and 2,899 freshwater bivalve (mussels and clams) sampling locations, the variables describing the physical habitat types, and variables indicating the major drainage basins and Omernik's Level III ecoregion. All potential species distributions are displayed and analyzed at the 14-digit hydrologic unit (14-HUs), or subwatershed, level. Mainland Ohio contains 1,749 14-HUs. All statistics and conclusions, as well as spatial data, are discussed and presented in terms of these units. The Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis Project compiled a map of public and private conservation lands and OH-GAP classified the lands into four status categories (status 1 through status 4) by the degree of protection offered based on management practices. A status of 1 denotes the highest, most permanent level of maintenance, and status 4 represents the lowest level of biodiversity management, or unknown status. The results of this mapping show that only about 3.7 percent of the state's land (4.3 percent if lakes and reservoirs are also included) is protected for conservation, either publicly or privately. Of this total, state agencies control about 52 percent, and Federal agencies control about 29 percent. Conservation areas that presently protect

Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

2007-01-01

163

Sampling methods for assessing syrphid biodiversity (Diptera: Syrphidae) in tropical forests.  

PubMed

When assessing the species richness of a taxonomic group in a specific area, the choice of sampling method is critical. In this study, the effectiveness of three methods for sampling syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in tropical forests is compared: Malaise trapping, collecting adults with an entomological net, and collecting and rearing immatures. Surveys were made from 2008 to 2011 in six tropical forest sites in Costa Rica. The results revealed significant differences in the composition and richness of syrphid faunas obtained by each method. Collecting immatures was the most successful method based on numbers of species and individuals, whereas Malaise trapping was the least effective. This pattern of sampling effectiveness was independent of syrphid trophic or functional group and annual season. An advantage of collecting immatures over collecting adults is the quality and quantity of associated biological data obtained by the former method. However, complementarity between results of collecting adults and collecting immatures, showed that a combined sampling regime obtained the most complete inventory. Differences between these results and similar studies in more open Mediterranean habitats, suggest that for effective inventory, it is important to consider the effects of environmental characteristics on the catchability of syrphids as much as the costs and benefits of different sampling techniques. PMID:23321103

Marcos-García, M A; García-López, A; Zumbado, M A; Rotheray, G E

2012-12-01

164

Invasions, DNA barcodes, and rapid biodiversity assessment using ants of Mauritius  

PubMed Central

Background Using an understudied taxon (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) found on a tropical island (Mauritius) where native flora and fauna have been threatened by 400 years of habitat modification and introduced species, we tested whether estimated incidences of diversity and complementarity were similar when measured by standard morphological alpha-taxonomy or phylogenetic diversity (PD) based on a standardized mitochondrial barcode and corroborating nuclear marker. Results We found that costs related to site loss (considered loss of evolutionary history measured as loss of barcode PD) were not significantly different from predictions made either a) using standard morphology-based taxonomy, or b) measured using a nuclear marker. Integrating morphology and barcode results permitted us to identify a case of initially morphologically-cryptic variation as a new and endemic candidate species. However, barcode estimates of the relative importance of each site or network of sites were dramatically affected when the species in question was known to be indigenous or introduced. Conclusion This study goes beyond a mere demonstration of the rapid gains possible for diversity assessment using a standardized DNA barcode. Contextualization of these gains with ecological and natural history information is necessary to calibrate this wealth of standardized information. Without such an integrative approach, critical opportunities to advance knowledge will be missed.

2009-01-01

165

Microsatellite marker-based assessment of the biodiversity of native bioethanol yeast strains.  

PubMed

Although many Brazilian sugar mills initiate the fermentation process by inoculating selected commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, the unsterile conditions of the industrial sugar cane ethanol fermentation process permit the constant entry of native yeast strains. Certain of those native strains are better adapted and tend to predominate over the initial strain, which may cause problems during fermentation. In the industrial fermentation process, yeast cells are often exposed to stressful environmental conditions, including prolonged cell recycling, ethanol toxicity and osmotic, oxidative or temperature stress. Little is known about these S. cerevisiae strains, although recent studies have demonstrated that heterogeneous genome architecture is exhibited by some selected well-adapted Brazilian indigenous yeast strains that display high performance in bioethanol fermentation. In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of the native autochthonous S. cerevisiae strains in various Brazilian sugar mills. The resulting multilocus data were used to build a similarity-based phenetic tree and to perform a Bayesian population structure analysis. The tree revealed the presence of great genetic diversity among the strains, which were arranged according to the place of origin and the collection year. The population structure analysis revealed genotypic differences among populations; in certain populations, these genotypic differences are combined to yield notably genotypically diverse individuals. The high yeast diversity observed among native S. cerevisiae strains provides new insights on the use of autochthonous high-fitness strains with industrial characteristics as starter cultures at bioethanol plants. PMID:23765797

Antonangelo, Ana Teresa B F; Alonso, Diego P; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Colombi, Débora

2013-08-01

166

Wilderness and biodiversity conservation  

PubMed Central

Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

2003-01-01

167

AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA thereby determines the momentum transfer from a known spacecraft impact and characterizes the resulting impact crater, in addition to studying other effects of the impact and providing valuable new insights into impact cratering and asteroid collisional evolution.

Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

2012-12-01

168

Keskkonnaekspertiis Eestis. (Environmental impact assessment in Estonia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environment impact assessment (EIA) is an important procedure for ensuring that the likely effects of a development on the environment are fully understood and taken into account before the development is allowed to go ahead. This publication provides peo...

K. Peterson

1994-01-01

169

Harmonic Analysis Can Assess Hydrologic Cumulative Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This note describes an aid for assessing cumulative impacts on wetlands. Harmonic analysis techniques are employed to reveal time frames when disruption to basic flow patterns may have occurred. Water-level patterns largely determine the nature of wetland...

1994-01-01

170

Assessment of Neck Muscle Biodynamics During Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental effort was conducted to assess the neck muscle's biodynamic characteristics using electromyographic (EMG) data collected during a human impact study. EMG data were collected from specific neck muscles of volunteer human subjects before, du...

K. R. Getschow C. E. Perry D. M. Bonetti C. L. Taylor

1993-01-01

171

AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth objects are small bodies orbiting the Sun near Earth’s orbit, some of which impact the Earth. The impact of an object as large as 30 m in diameter occurs every few centuries. The impact of such an object would already release an energy of at least a megaton of TNT, and the impact of a larger object, which would occur less often, would be even more hazardous. To protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is such an asteroid mitigation mission concept. This mission would be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid’s strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART study is coordinated with an ESA study of an Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which would rendezvous with the same target. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, with ground-based observations to measure the deflection as well as additional spacecraft observations from AIM. Low cost mission approaches will be presented.

Cheng, Andrew F.; Rivkin, A.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Reed, C.

2012-10-01

172

77 FR 16846 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Publication of Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA...and published eleven Privacy Impact Assessments (PIAs) on the...under the link for ``Privacy Impact Assessments.'' These PIAs...DHS/ALL/PIA-028(a) Freedom of Information Act...

2012-03-22

173

A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should consider the distances at which impacts occur in the vicinity of the forest ecosystem, and these considerations should include the impacts on forest vegetation and bird species. Impacts can be mitigated by considering the distances at which these influences occur. In particular, this paper presents an integrated environmental impact assessment system to be applied in the SEIA process. The integrated assessment system permits the assessment of the cumulative impacts of land development on multiple scales. -- Highlights: • The model is to assess the impact of forest fragmentation across multiple scales. • The paper suggests the type of forest fragmentation on a regional scale. • The type can be used to evaluate the location and size of a land development. • The paper shows the influence distance of land development on a local scale. • The distance can be used to mitigate the impact at an EIA process.

Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-15

174

Visual Impact Assessment for Highway Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This field guide is intended to help those who prepare or review the coverage of visual impacts in environmental assessments or impact statements for highway projects. This guide will discuss how to develop such coverage and how to review its adequacy.

1999-01-01

175

Environmental diversity: on the best-possible use of surrogate data for assessing the relative biodiversity of sets of areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation goal of representation of biodiversity (in the broad sense of all species) in protected areas requires best-possible use of available surrogate information. One standard approach is based on ‘indicator’ groups of taxa. A minimum set of areas having at least one representation of each indicator species is taken to be representative of other organisms. This same minimum-set approach

D. P. Faith; P. A. Walker

1996-01-01

176

Assessing the value of roadless areas in a conservation reserve strategy: biodiversity and landscape connectivity in the northern Rockies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Roadless areas on United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service lands hold significant potential for the conservation of native biodiversity and ecosystem processes, primarily because of their size and location. We examined the potential increase in land-cover types, elevation representation and landscape connectivity that inventoried roadless areas would provide in a northern Rockies (USA) conservation reserve strategy,

MICHELE R. CRIST; BO WILMER; GREGORY H. APLET

2005-01-01

177

Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.  

PubMed

In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change. PMID:22815938

Nicholson, Emily; Collen, Ben; Barausse, Alberto; Blanchard, Julia L; Costelloe, Brendan T; Sullivan, Kathryn M E; Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Fritz, Steffen; Jones, Julia P G; McRae, Louise; Possingham, Hugh P; Milner-Gulland, E J

2012-01-01

178

Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

1997-01-01

179

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

180

Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se

2007-07-15

181

A model-based evaluation of the impacts of urban expansion on flow variability and aquatic biodiversity in the Big River watershed in eastern Missouri (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural flow regimes in aquatic systems sustain biodiversity and provide support for basic ecological processes. Nevertheless, the hydrology of aquatic systems is heavily impacted by human activities including land use changes associated with urbanization. Small increases in urban expansion can greatly increase surface runoff while decreasing infiltration. These changes in land use can also affect aquifer recharge and alter streamflow, thus impacting water quality, aquatic biodiversity, and ecosystem productivity. However, there are few studies predicting the effects of various levels of urbanization on flow regimes and the subsequent impacts of these flow alterations on ecosystem endpoints at the watershed scale. We quantified the potential effects of varying degrees of urban expansion on the discharge, velocity, and water depth in the Big River watershed in eastern Missouri using a physically-based watershed model, MIKE-SHE, and a 1D hydrodynamic river model, MIKE-11. Five land cover scenarios corresponding to increasing levels of urban expansion were used to determine the sensitivity of flow in the Big River watershed to increasing urbanization. Results indicate that the frequency of low flow events decreases as urban expansion increases, while the frequency of average and high-flow events increases as urbanization increases. We used current estimates of flow from the MIKE-SHE model to predict variation in fish species richness at 44 sites across the watershed based on standardized fish collections from each site. This model was then used with flow estimates from the urban expansion hydrological models to predict potential changes in fish species richness as urban areas increase. Responses varied among sites with some areas predicted to experience increases in species richness while others are predicted to experience decreases in species richness. Taxonomic identity of species also appeared to influence results with the number of species of Cyprinidae (minnows) expected to increase across the watershed, while the number of species of Centrachidae (bass and sunfish) is expected to decrease across the watershed.

Knouft, J.; Chu, M. L.

2013-12-01

182

What is Biodiversity? Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document contains a lesson plan on biodiversity for grades 6-12. Students will learn the definition of biodiversity, discuss facts and issues related to California biodiversity, and list reasons why biodiversity is important. The document is available in Microsoft Word format at: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/Lesson_biodiversity.doc

2012-02-16

183

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

184

Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biodiversity Bulletin No 1, from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre is now online and is entitled "Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics,"by Michael Green and others. The bulletin provides an assessment of "the extent to which habitats in the tropics are protected and guidance on prioritising conservation action from global and national perspectives."

Bunting, Gillian C.; Green, Michael J.; Murray, Martyn G.; Paine, James R.

1998-01-01

185

Hypervelocity impact damage assessment for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To inhibit damage and limit the probability of penetration of the Space Station pressure wall by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, a shield placed away from the wall is used to form a double wall. To determine shield effectiveness and assess impact damage, existing test data were reviewed and additional testing was performed for Space Station double wall designs. Empirical spallation and penetration functions derived from the data show that shield thickness and impact angle affect the damage to the wall. Thick shields reduce wall damage for low angle impacts but increase damage for oblique impacts. Multilayer insulation between the shield and wall reduces impact damage to the wall. A relationship between impact velocity and spall damage to the wall is demonstrated. Preliminary test results on Li-Al shield material indicate possible improved effectiveness over Al shields.

Coronado, Alex R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Stern, Paul H.

1988-01-01

186

Life cycle assessment based evaluation of regional impacts from agricultural production at the Peruvian coast.  

PubMed

Crop and technology choices in agriculture, which largely define the impact of agricultural production on the environment, should be considered in agricultural development planning. A life cycle assessment of the dominant crops produced in a Peruvian coastal valley was realized, in order to establish regionalized life cycle inventories for Peruvian products and to provide the basis for a regional evaluation of the impacts of eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and biodiversity loss due to water use. Five scenarios for the year 2020 characterized by different crop combinations and irrigation systems were considered as development options. The results of the regional assessment showed that a business-as-usual scenario, extrapolating current trends of crop cultivation, would lead to an increase in nitrate leaching with eutrophying effects. On the other hand, scenarios of increased application of drip irrigation and of mandarin area expansion would lead to a decrease in nitrate leaching. In all scenarios the human toxicity potential would decrease slightly, while an increase in irrigation water use would benefit the biodiversity of a nearby groundwater-fed wetland. Comparisons with results from other studies confirmed the importance of regionalized life cycle inventories. The results can be used as decision support for local farmers and authorities. PMID:22894858

Bartl, Karin; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

2012-09-18

187

Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape\\/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in

Nigel Dudley; David Baldock; Robert Nasi; Sue Stolton

2005-01-01

188

Assessing biodiversity of a freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate community through non-destructive environmental barcoding of DNA from preservative ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Characterizing biodiversity in a habitat or in targeted taxonomically or socioeconomically important groups remains a challenge. Standard DNA-based biodiversity identification tools such as DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are rapidly changing the landscape of biodiversity analysis by targeting various habitats and a wide array of organisms. However, effective use of these technological advances requires optimized protocols and benchmarking against traditional tools. Here we investigate the use of commonly used preservative ethanol as a non-destructive and inexpensive source of DNA for NGS biodiversity analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates. We used the preservative ethanol added to field collected organisms (live sorted bulk benthic samples) as a source of community DNA for NGS environmental barcoding. We directly compare this approach with a DNA barcode library generated using Sanger sequencing of all individuals separated from abenthic sample as well as with NGS environmental barcoding of DNA extracted from mixed/homogenized tissue specimens of the same benthic sample. We also evaluate a multiplex PCR strategy, as compared to commonly used single amplicon workflow, using three newly designed primer sets targeting a wide array of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. Results Our results indicate the effectiveness of ethanol-based DNA in providing sequence information from 87% of taxa identified individually from mixture as compared to 89% in conventional tissue extracted DNA. Missing taxa in both DNA sources were from species with the lowest abundance (e.g. 1 individual) in the benthic mixture. Interestingly, we achieved 100% detection for taxa represented with more than 1% individuals in the mixture in both sources of DNA. Our multiplex amplification regime increased the detection as compared to any single primer set indicating the usefulness of using multiple primer sets in initial amplification of target genes. Conclusions Although NGS approaches have significantly increased the potential of using DNA information in biodiversity analysis, robust methods are needed to provide reliable data and alleviate sample-processing bottlenecks. Here we coupled non-destructive DNA access and a multiplex PCR approach in NGS environmental barcoding for effective data generation from benthic live-sorted samples collected in bulk and preserved in ethanol. Our study provides a possible solution to sampling and vouchering challenges in using benthic samples through next-generation environmental barcoding and facilitates wider utility of DNA information, especially species-specific DNA barcodes, in ecological and environmental studies and real-world applications such as biomonitoring programs.

2012-01-01

189

A process-driven sedimentary habitat modelling approach, explaining seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve good environmental status, by 2020, for European seas. This study analyses the applicability of a process-driven benthic sedimentary habitat model, to be used in the implementation of the MSFD in relation to biodiversity and seafloor integrity descriptors for sedimentary habitats. Our approach maps the major environmental factors influencing soft-bottom macrobenthic community structure and the life-history traits of species. Among the 16 environmental variables considered, a combination of water depth, mean grain size, a wave-induced sediment resuspension index and annual bottom maximum temperature, are the most significant factors explaining the variability in the structure of benthic communities in the study area. These variables are classified into those representing the 'Disturbance' and 'Scope for Growth' components of the environment. It was observed that the habitat classes defined in the process-driven model reflected different structural and functional characteristics of the benthos. Moreover, benthic community structure anomalies due to human pressures could also be detected within the model produced. Thus, the final process-driven habitat map can be considered as being highly useful for seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment, within the European MSFD as well as for conservation, environmental status assessment and managing human activities, especially within the marine spatial planning process.

Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Pascual, Marta; Muxika, Iñigo

2013-10-01

190

76 FR 19110 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conducted this privacy impact assessment (PIA) because...events that involve or impact ICE field staff. The...operational setting. System: Freedom of Information Act...established a Departmental Freedom of Information Act...issuing this privacy impact assessment update...

2011-04-06

191

Biodiversity and industry ecosystem management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term biodiversity describes the array of interacting, genetically distinct populations and species in a region, the communities they comprise, and the variety of ecosystems of which they are functioning parts. Ecosystem health, a closely related concept, is described in terms of a process identifying biological indicators, end points, and values. The decline of populations or species, an accelerating trend worldwide, can lead to simplification of ecosystem processes, thus threatening the stability and sustainability of ecosystem services directly relevant to human welfare in the chain of economic and ecological relationships. The challenge of addressing issues of such enormous scope and complexity has highlighted the limitations of ecology-as-science. Additionally, biosphere-scale conflicts seem to lie beyond the scope of conventional economics, leading to differences of opinion about the commodity value of biodiversity and of the services that intact ecosystems provide. In the face of these uncertainties, many scientists and economists have adopted principles that clearly assign burdens of proof to those who would promote the loss of biodiversity and that also establish “near-trump” (preeminent) status for ecological integrity. Electric utility facilities and operations impact biodiversity whenever construction, operation, or maintenance of generation, delivery, and support facilities alters landscapes and habitats and thereby impacts species. Although industry is accustomed to dealing with broad environmental concerns (such as global warming or acid rain), the biodiversity issue invokes hemisphere-wide, regional, local, and site-specific concerns all at the same time. Industry can proactively address these issues of scope and scale in two main ways: first, by aligning strategically with the broad research agenda put forth by informed scientists and institutions; and second, by supporting focused management processes whose results will contribute incrementally to the broader agenda of rebuilding or maintaining biodiversity.

Coleman, William G.

1996-11-01

192

Biodiversity and industry ecosystem management  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity describes the array of interacting, genetically distinct populations and species in a region, the communities they are functioning parts. Ecosystem health is a process identifying biological indicators, end points, and values. The decline of populations or species, an accelerating trend worldwide, can lead to simplification of ecosystem processes, thus threatening the stability an sustainability of ecosystem services directly relevant to human welfare in the chain of economic and ecological relationships. The challenge of addressing issues of such enormous scope and complexity has highlighted the limitations of ecology-as-science. Additionally, biosphere-scale conflicts seem to lie beyond the scope of conventional economics, leading to differences of opinion about the commodity value of biodiversity and of the services that intact ecosystems provide. In the fact of these uncertainties, many scientists and economists have adopted principles that clearly assign burdens of proof to those who would promote the loss of biodiversity and that also establish {open_quotes}near-trump{close_quotes} (preeminent) status for ecological integrity. Electric utility facilities and operations impact biodiversity whenever construction, operation, or maintenance of generation, delivery, and support facilities alters landscapes and habitats and thereby impacts species. Although industry is accustomed to dealing with broad environmental concerns (such as global warming or acid rain), the biodiversity issue invokes hemisphere-side, regional, local, and site-specific concerns all at the same time. Industry can proactively address these issues of scope and scale in two main ways: first, by aligning strategically with the broad research agenda put forth by informed scientists and institutions; and second, by supporting focused management processes whose results will contribute incrementally to the broader agenda of rebuilding or maintaining biodiversity. 40 refs., 8 figs.

Coleman, W.G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

193

A biome-scale assessment of the impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South Africa.  

PubMed

This paper reports an assessment of the current and potential impacts of invasive alien plants on selected ecosystem services in South Africa. We used data on the current and potential future distribution of 56 invasive alien plant species to estimate their impact on four services (surface water runoff, groundwater recharge, livestock production and biodiversity) in five terrestrial biomes. The estimated reductions in surface water runoff as a result of current invasions were >3000 million m(3) (about 7% of the national total), most of which is from the fynbos (shrubland) and grassland biomes; the potential reductions would be more than eight times greater if invasive alien plants were to occupy the full extent of their potential range. Impacts on groundwater recharge would be less severe, potentially amounting to approximately 1.5% of the estimated maximum reductions in surface water runoff. Reductions in grazing capacity as a result of current levels of invasion amounted to just over 1% of the potential number of livestock that could be supported. However, future impacts could increase to 71%. A 'biodiversity intactness index' (the remaining proportion of pre-modern populations) ranged from 89% to 71% for the five biomes. With the exception of the fynbos biome, current invasions have almost no impact on biodiversity intactness. Under future levels of invasion, however, these intactness values decrease to around 30% for the savanna, fynbos and grassland biomes, but to even lower values (13% and 4%) for the two karoo biomes. Thus, while the current impacts of invasive alien plants are relatively low (with the exception of those on surface water runoff), the future impacts could be very high. While the errors in these estimates are likely to be substantial, the predicted impacts are sufficiently large to suggest that there is serious cause for concern. PMID:17765388

van Wilgen, B W; Reyers, B; Le Maitre, D C; Richardson, D M; Schonegevel, L

2008-12-01

194

Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (<3000 m) areas with xeric, tropical, and temperate ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cantu, C.; Wright, R. G.; Scott, J. M.; Strand, E.

2004-01-01

195

Sources for Animal Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ecological and human pressures on animal populations increase, so does the discussion of the importance of animal biodiversity. This paper presents sources that can be used to research animal biodiversity and related topics.

Margaret A. Mellinger

2004-01-01

196

Biodiversity: measurement and estimation.  

PubMed

In introducing a series of 11 papers on the measurement and estimation of biodiversity, eight crucial questions are posed: What is 'biodiversity'? Is biodiversity just the number of species in an area? If biodiversity is more than the number of species how can it be measured? Are all species of equal weight? Should biodiversity measures include infraspecific genetic variance? Do some species contribute more than others to the biodiversity of an area? Are there useful indicators of areas where biodiversity is high? And can the extent of biodiversity in taxonomic groups be estimated by extrapolation? In addition, the modern concept of biological diversity is attributed to Elliot R. Norse and his colleagues. PMID:7972355

Harper, J L; Hawksworth, D L

1994-07-29

197

Ecosystem Impacts of Urbanization Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dy...

D. L. Jameson

1976-01-01

198

Assessing the reliability impacts of wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical output of wind electric conversion systems (WECS) is stochastic and has characteristics significantly different from those of conventional (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro) generation units. However, their entry into global power grids is expanding rapidly due to a variety of considerations. Assessing the impacts of wind energy on the overall reliability of the power system continues to

R. Ramakumar; Albrecht Naeter

2011-01-01

199

Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating `novel' conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a

Peter J. Irvine; Andy Ridgwell; Daniel J. Lunt

2010-01-01

200

Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

201

Applying social impact assessment to nursing research.  

PubMed

Many nurses need to construct a research proposal at some stage of their career and there are multiple texts that provide guidance on doing so. However, most texts do not provide explicit guidance on the issue of social impact - the effect of research on the social health and wellbeing of individuals, families and communities and on the improved performance of relevant services. This article proposes that social impact should be considered from the beginning of a research project. It outlines a framework for assessing social impact to help strengthen the quality of research proposals and assist nurses constructing the proposal and also those evaluating it, including academic assessors or funding body reviewers. Nursing research should be useful and should have a positive effect on practice. Focusing on social impact can increase the chances of this desirable outcome. PMID:25074122

Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

2014-07-30

202

Livestock biodiversity and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence their management. The different dimensions of livestock biodiversity, from the gene to the ecosystem, have characteristics of common pool resources, club goods and

Irene Hoffmann

2011-01-01

203

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

204

Suggested Readings on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 25 books on biodiversity. For each title, the book's author, publisher, and publication date are given. The diverse list includes broad introductions to biodiversity, insightful looks at evolution and extinction, examinations of the partnership between insects and flowers, portraits of vanishing species and explorations of the factors contributing to a global biodiversity crisis.

205

Biodiversity of rangelands  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity is a multifaceted phenomenon involving the variety of organisms present, the genetic differences among them, and the communities, ecosystems, and landscape patterns in which they occur. Society will increasingly value biodiversity and influence the passage of laws and writing of regulations involving biodiversity which rangeland managers will have to abide by over the coming decades. Even private and developing world rangelands will be affected. While taxonomic knowledge of vertebrates and vascular plants and their abundance, rarity, and distribution, in the developed nations is generally adequate, the same cannot be said of the developing world. Furthermore, adequate knowledge of invertebrates, nonvascular plants, and microbes is deficient everywhere. Although the basis of variation at all higher levels, genetic variation within rangeland species, even the major ones, has barely been assessed. Obtaining statistically adequate data on populations of rare species that are small and secretive is well nigh impossible. There are many means of measuring community diversity, but all of them are value laden. That is, choice of variables to measure and how they are indexed betrays what one considers are important. One should be more forthright in stating to the users the biases of these methods. There are many other, more useful ways to describe community-level diversity besides the traditional focus on species. Ungulate grazing is an important process in many ecosystems. Thus, removal of grazing destabilizes some systems. Livestock grazing will actually increase the chances of survival of some species. Sustainable development will depend on finding balance between use and protection, from range sites to landscapes, and even on a global basis. 120 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

West, N.E. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States))

1993-01-01

206

Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

1989-03-01

207

A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability.

Young, J. A.; Smith, D. R.; Snyder, C. D.; Lemarie, D. P.

2002-01-01

208

Field-based evaluation of biopesticide impacts on native biodiversity: malagasy coleoptera and anti-locust entomopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A community of 225 species of Coleoptera was used as a surrogate to evaluate nontarget effects of entomopathogenic fungi under development as biopesticides for use against the Malagasy migratory locust Locusta migratoria capito Saussure (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Evaluation of a standard chemical treatment of fenitrothion + esfenvalerate, two indigenous isolates of Metarhiziumflavoviride Gams & Roszsypol (SP3 and SP9), and an indigenous isolate of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (SP16) against an untreated control in a replicated field trial in southern Madagascar showed that one of the isolates of M. flavoviride (SP3) and fenitrothion + esfenvalerate had distinct effects on nontarget beetle communities that were similar to each other. The other two isolates had no detectable effects compared with the untreated control. Based on an evaluation of the species affected, the similar effects of SP3 and the chemical pesticide are hypothesized to be the result of a perturbation of predator-prey relationships, with a distinct tendency to be manifested via predators. The data indicate that use of SP9 and SP16 would have minimal detrimental effects on the biodiversity of nontarget beetles, but that SP3 needs further testing. PMID:12216803

Ivie, Michael A; Pollock, Darren A; Gustafson, Daniel L; Ivie, LaDonna L; Rasolomandimby, Joseph; Swearingen, Will D

2002-08-01

209

Analysis and Assessment of Impacts on Biodiversity: Investigating Alternative Futures for the California Mojave Desert.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mojave Desert is affected by many of the same environmental stresses that affect the rest of the United States. A major difference, however, is that the Mojave Desert has lower ecological recoverability compared with more mesic ecosystems. The fragili...

D. Mouat

2004-01-01

210

Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways. An obvious problem for any impact assessment are the de

Viikari, L.

211

Cumulative impacts are not properly addressed in environmental assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental assessments (EAs) refer to preliminary studies conducted within the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process in the United States; such studies are used to determine the significance of anticipated impacts of proposed actions. If significant impacts are identified, detailed studies leading to the preparation of environmental impact statements (EISs) are necessary. If no significant impacts are expected, findings of no

R. K. Burris; Larry W. Canter

1997-01-01

212

Children Prioritize Virtual Exotic Biodiversity over Local Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1) a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2) an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords) was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect “virtual” (unseen, exotic) rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity.

Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Brischoux, Francois; Bonnet, Xavier

2011-01-01

213

Impact Assessment of Watershed in Desert Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Change detection from different temporal images usually based on reflectance on natural and human activity impact, using integrated GIS, Remote Sensing and image processing technologies enable impact assessment of watershed in desert region. A time series analysis of seasonal NDVI have been used to estimate net primary productivity, phonological characteristic of vegetative surface, length of growing season and dry drown periods (Ramsey et al., 1995). The study is designed to achieve the objectives to Study the changes in vegetation for selected watershed in a desert districts of Bhilwara, Barmer & Jaisalmer in Rajastan State of India, to identify the changes in density of vegetation, to assess the temporal changes and to assess the impact of the watershed, with an objective to conserve the soil erosion and harvest the rainwater in order to increase the ground water table, to improve the socio economic condition of the people and to stop the migration of the people from the villages in search of livelihood. These activities will have a direct impact on the crop production. The Changes in density of vegetation indicates the quantity of crop production and the growth of vegetation apart from crops and the conservation of land with out scrub/barren land to land with scrub. This gives an picture about the impact of watershed programme in increasing the vegetative cover. The temporal changes help in understanding the changes taken place in the watershed, and facilitate understand the positive as well as negative impacts of any decisions taken in the implementation. The extent and density and type of vegetation for the years, 2000,2004,2005,2007 and 2008, was studied and vegetation growth was analysed using GIS and Digital Image Processing techniques.

Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Kesava Rao, P.; Phanindra Kumar, T.

2012-07-01

214

Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

2014-07-01

215

Biodiversity: Everything Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of biodiversity allows students to explore a tree of life cladogram, learn facts about different species, and explore biodiversity and efforts to save species in the Bahamas, Australia, and Madagascar. There are sections to explore the benefits of biodiversity, such as: providing our daily products and the ingredients in things we eat, stories about the Dzanga Sangha rain forest, explanations of extinction and its causes, and facts about species that thrive in the city. There are also biodiversity activities to do offline, such as drawing a monarch butterfly and feeding birds, and a biodiversity quiz.

216

Impact damage assessment by using peridynamic theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an application of peridynamic theory for predicting residual strength of impact damaged building components by considering a reinforced panel subjected to multiple load paths. The validity of the approach is established first by simulating a controlled experiment resulting in mixed-mode fracture of concrete. The agreement between the PD prediction and the experimentally observed behavior is remarkable especially considering the simple material model used for the concrete. Subsequently, the PD simulation concerns damage assessment and residual strength of a reinforced panel under compression after impact due to a rigid penetrator.

Oterkus, Erkan; Guven, Ibrahim; Madenci, Erdogan

2012-12-01

217

Redesigning biodiversity conservation projects for climate change: examples from the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few conservation projects consider climate impacts or have a process for developing adaptation strategies. To advance climate\\u000a adaptation for biodiversity conservation, we tested a step-by-step approach to developing adaptation strategies with 20 projects\\u000a from diverse geographies. Project teams assessed likely climate impacts using historical climate data, future climate predictions,\\u000a expert input, and scientific literature. They then developed adaptation strategies that

Karen A. PoianiRebecca; Rebecca L. Goldman; Jennifer Hobson; Jonathan M. Hoekstra; Kara S. Nelson

2011-01-01

218

Environmental Impact Assessment as a planning tool  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process is examined in the light of planning and decision-making theory and found to have three important shortcomings. First, it does not encourage monitoring and modification of environmental-protection measures, but relies on uncertain predictions. Second, there is a mismatch between the needs of the proponent and those of reviewers. And, third, land-use planning is an essential prerequisite for effective EIA. The Management Programme approach used in Western Australia, and the integrated planning and assessment legislation in New South Wales are described, and proposals for a more-satisfactory system outlined.

Hollick, M.

1981-01-01

219

AIDA: The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA, and DLR, is the first demonstration of asteroid deflection and assessment via kinetic impact. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission elements, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterization spacecraft. These two missions are, respectively, JHU/APL's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Investigation Mission (AIM) missions. As in the separate DART and AIM studies, the target of this mission is the binary asteroid [65803] Didymos in October, 2022. For a successful joint mission, one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos system while AIM would observe and measure any change in the relative orbit. AIM will be the first probe to characterise a binary asteroid, especially from the dynamical point of view, but also considering its interior and subsurface composition. The mission concept focuses on the monitoring aspects i.e., the capability to determine in-situ the key physical properties of a binary asteroid playing a role in the system's dynamic behavior. DART will be the first ever space mission to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid in a measurable way.- It is expected that the deflection can be measured as a change in the relative orbit period with a precision better than 10%. The joint AIDA mission will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact [1,2].

Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A. F.; Reed, C.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Abell, P.; Landis, R.

2013-09-01

220

Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

Stronko, Jakob M.

2013-01-01

221

Global Biodiversity Information Facility: Biodiversity Data Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Data Portal website is hosted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, March 14, 2001), an international organization committed to providing "free and universal access to data regarding the world's diversity." As its name indicates, the Data Portal provides access to biodiversity information from around the world and allows site visitors to browse for taxonomic data organized by Kingdom of Life, country, or data providers. Visitors can search for specimen or field observation data by data providers as well. The site also contains a search engine with search options that include many different countries, scientific name, common name in any language, English name, and more. This website is available in French, English, and Danish. Note: Prior to viewing data, site visitors must first agree to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Interim Data Use Agreement.

222

Environmental Impact Assessment, Water Quality Analysis Escambia River and Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive water quality analysis and environmental impact assessment at the Escambia River and Bay was undertaken as part of a national assessment of anticipated environmental impacts of theoretically achieving or not achieving the requirements of t...

1976-01-01

223

Environmental Impact Assessment, Water Quality Analysis, St. John River (Florida).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive water quality analysis and environmental impact assessment at the St. Johns River (Florida) was undertaken as part of a national assessment of anticipated environmental impacts of theoretically achieving or not achieving the requirements o...

1976-01-01

224

Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

1996-03-01

225

Effects of the Israeli Segregation Wall on biodiversity and environmental sustainable development in the West Bank, Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the effects of the Israeli Segregation Wall on biodiversity and environmental sustainable development in the West Bank, Palestine. Land confiscation, damage to species and soil erosion, together with loss of water resources have all impacted on the Palestinians and deepened their poverty. The paper shows a grim prospect.

Tanya Abdallah; Khaled Swaileh

2011-01-01

226

40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on... § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment...economic values based on the factors set forth in this subpart...

2013-07-01

227

Assessing impacts of climate change on forests: The state of biological modeling  

SciTech Connect

Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rauscher, H.M. [Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

1993-04-06

228

Essential biodiversity variables  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

Pereira, H. M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G. N.; Jongman, R. H. G.; Scholes, R. J.; Bruford, M. W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Cardoso, A. C.; Coops, N. C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D. P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R. D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D. S.; McGeoch, M. A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J. P. W.; Stuart, S. N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

2013-01-01

229

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

230

World Bank: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

231

Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.  

PubMed

Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches. PMID:23861863

Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

2013-01-01

232

The Substantial First Impact of Bottom Fishing on Rare Biodiversity Hotspots: A Dilemma for Evidence-Based Conservation  

PubMed Central

This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.). One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90%) or scallop dredge (59%), as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids) were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a ‘priority habitat’ the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive) as well as indicators of ‘Good Environmental Status’ under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management.

Cook, Robert; Farinas-Franco, Jose M.; Gell, Fiona R.; Holt, Rohan H. F.; Holt, Terry; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S.; Seed, Ray; Skates, Lucie R.; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanderson, William G.

2013-01-01

233

Use of molecular tools in identification of philometrid larvae in fishes: technical limitations parallel our poor assessment of their biodiversity.  

PubMed

The usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was tested regarding the utility of these techniques in unraveling philometrid life cycles and, in particular, to determine putative paratenic host species. Our focus was to study three species of philometrids commonly found in the estuaries of South Carolina: Philometroides paralichthydis and Philometra overstreeti from the southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma and Philometra carolinensis from the spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus. A total of 473 fish in 19 species known to be potential prey of the spotted seatrout and the southern flounder were dissected. Of all nematode larvae found in the mesenteries of 53 fish of 10 species, 21 specimens were determined to be philometrids using PCR. The use of PCR-RFLP allowed the identification of larvae of P. carolinensis and P. overstreeti in the freshwater goby, Ctenogobius shufeldti, and P. overstreeti in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. However, 12 RFLP profiles could not be matched to control species, thus demonstrating the limitation of this technique in areas where diversity of philometrids is not well known and higher than anticipated. Similarly, COI procedures provided unknown sequences that did not match those of nine philometrid species used as controls. We concluded that although both techniques showed some usefulness and promise, at this point, however, they demonstrate the need of increasing our knowledge of marine and estuarine philometrid biodiversity. PMID:21656267

Palesse, Stephanie; Meadors, Weatherly A; de Buron, Isaure; Roumillat, William A; Strand, Allan E

2011-12-01

234

Global Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines conservation strategies to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services.Habitat destruction has driven much of the current biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans derive from functioning ecosystems. Securing both species and ecosystem services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial ecosystem service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.

Will Turner (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Katrina Brandon (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Thomas Brooks (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Robert Constanza (University of Vermont;Gund Institute for Ecological Economics); Gustavo da Fonseca (Federal University of Minas Gerais;); Rosimeiry Portela (;)

2007-11-01

235

Changes in human population structure: Implications for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human population size and growth have been recognized as important factors affecting biodiversity, but the impacts of population\\u000a structural changes on biodiversity are not clear. In this paper, we made the first attempt to link human population structural\\u000a changes with implications for biodiversity, using Wolong Nature Reserve (south-western China) for the endangered giant panda\\u000a as a case study. From 1982

Jianguo Liu; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yingchun Tan; Jian Yang; Heming Zhang

1999-01-01

236

Environmental impact assessment in Estonia and Norway  

SciTech Connect

Authorities in Eastern European countries are looking for best available policy tools from the West, and policy instruments tailored for a Western context are being introduced massively in the former state socialist countries of Europe. This study examines some of the contextual factors that hamper the introduction of modern, Western tools of environmental management within previously state socialist countries. These are highlighted through a comparison of how environmental impact assessment (EIA) is put into practice in Estonia and Norway. Estonia and Norway belong to the same European Baltic-Nordic region, but the two countries have a dramatically different history for most of this century.

Holm-Hansen, J. [Norwegian Inst. for Urban and Regional Research-National EIA Centre, Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Inst. for Urban and Regional Research-National EIA Centre, Oslo (Norway)

1997-11-01

237

Developing public sociology through health impact assessment.  

PubMed

The renewed interest in 'public sociology' has sparked debate and discussion about forms of sociological work and their relationship to the State and civil society. Medical sociologists are accustomed to engaging with a range of publics and audiences inside and outside universities and are in a position to make an informed contribution to this debate. This paper describes how some of the debates about sociological work are played out through a 'health impact assessment' of a proposed housing renewal in a former coal mining community. We explore the dynamics of the health impact assessment process and relate it to wider debates, current in the social sciences, on the 'new knowledge spaces' within which contentious public issues are now being discussed, and the nature of different forms of expertise. The role of the 'public sociologist' in mediating the relationships between the accounts and interpretations of lay participants and the published 'evidence' is described as a process of mutual learning between publics, professionals and social scientists. It is argued that the continued existence and development of any meaningful 'professional sociology' requires an openness to a 'public sociology' which recognises and responds to new spaces of knowledge production. PMID:18564972

Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth

2008-11-01

238

Interbasin Water Transfer, Riverine Connectivity, and Spatial Controls on Fish Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities. Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in assessing impacts of IBWT projects and balancing ecosystem and societal demands for freshwater, even in cases where biodiversity data are limited.

Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

2012-01-01

239

Interbasin water transfer, riverine connectivity, and spatial controls on fish biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in assessing impacts of IBWT projects and balancing ecosystem and societal demands for freshwater, even in cases where biodiversity data are limited.

Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Muthukumarasamy, Arunachalam; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

2012-01-01

240

Bioprospecting and biodiversity contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic economic model for a biodiversity prospecting contract, between a host country and a pharmaceutical company, is developed and used to explain the structure of existing contracts. The host country s stocks of biodiversity and genetic information are crucial inputs to the production of high-quality samples. Even with compete property rights contracts will be second best; it is not

Denise M. Mulholland; Elizabeth A. Wilman

2003-01-01

241

Beyond Biodiversity: Fish Metagenomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals.

Alba Ardura; Serge Planes; Eva Garcia-Vazquez

2011-01-01

242

Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic themes (Marine, Freshwater, and Terrestrial). Each group, representing a diversity of disciplines, is tasked with developing and implementing pan-arctic integrated biodiversity monitoring plans for the Arctic's ecosystems. To facilitate effective reporting and data management, the CBMP is developing a suite of indices and indicators and a web-based data portal that will be used to report on the current state of arctic biodiversity at various scales and levels of detail to suit a wide range of audiences (e.g. local Arctic communities, regional and national governments and the Convention on Biological Diversity). The current and planned CBMP biodiversity monitoring underpins these indicators and indices. The presentation will highlight the CBMP approach and provide some examples of how integrated monitoring, data management and reporting are leading to more informed decision-making.

Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

2012-12-01

243

Management implications of the biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of shrimp trawler by-catch in Bahía de Kino, Sonora, México.  

PubMed

The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006-2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries. PMID:22719827

Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S; Fleishman, Abram B

2012-01-01

244

Management Implications of the Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Impacts of Shrimp Trawler By-Catch in Bah?a de Kino, Sonora, M?xico  

PubMed Central

The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006–2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries.

Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S.; Fleishman, Abram B.

2012-01-01

245

Terrestrial vertebrate fauna surveys for the preparation of environmental impact assessments; how can we do it better? A Western Australian example  

SciTech Connect

The Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) in 2002 released Position Statement, No. 3, Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of Biodiversity Protection outlining how terrestrial fauna survey data are to be used and interpreted in the preparation of environmental impact assessments (EIA). In 2004, the EPA released its Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors, Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, No. 56. This paper briefly assesses the adequacy of recent terrestrial fauna surveys undertaken to support publicly released EIAs and indicates that the EPA is not always adhering to its own position and guidance statements. This paper argues that the current fauna survey guidelines are in need of improvement. The approach and requirements of some other Australian states are briefly assessed to identify similarities and where improvements can be made to the Western Australian (WA) guidelines. This paper concludes with suggestions on how the process and the guidelines in WA can be revised to more adequately assess the impact of developments on terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function. These suggestions may have relevance for other areas where fauna surveys are undertaken to support EIAs.

Thompson, Graham G. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup Dr., Joondalup, Western Australia 6010 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.thompson@ecu.edu.au

2007-01-15

246

Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be reflected in the depth and length of such training; and any impact assessment training provided within a profession will often have the 'cultural' imprint of that profession.

Morgan, Richard K., E-mail: rkm@geography.otago.ac.nz [Centre for Impact Assessment Research and Training, Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hart, Andrew [Centre for Impact Assessment Research and Training, Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Freeman, Claire, E-mail: cf@geography.otago.ac.nz [Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Coutts, Brian, E-mail: bcoutts@surveying.otago.ac.nz [School of Surveying, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew [Centre for Impact Assessment Research and Training, Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

2012-01-15

247

Conserving Earth's Biodiversity. [CD-ROM and] Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This CD-ROM is designed as an interactive learning tool to support teaching in highly interdisciplinary fields such as conservation of biodiversity. Topics introduced in the software include the impact of humans on natural landscapes, threats to biodiversity, methods and theories of conservation biology, environmental laws, and relevant economic…

2000

248

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased use of traditional medicines, possibilities that would ensure its successful integration into a public health framework should be explored. This paper discusses some of the links between biodiversity and traditional medicine, and addresses their implications to public health. We explore the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services to global and human health, the risks which human impacts

Rômulo RN Alves; Ierecê ML Rosa

2007-01-01

249

Changes in Human Population Structure: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human population size and growth have been recognized as important factors affecting biodiversity, but the impacts of population structural changes on biodiversity are not clear. In this paper, we made the first attempt to link human population structural changes with implications for biodiveristy, using Wolong Nature Reserve (southwestern China) for the endangered giant panda as a case study. From 1982

Jianguo Liu; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yingchun Tan; Jian Yang; Heming Zhang

1999-01-01

250

Traditional and Local Ecological Knowledge About Forest Biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We...

A. P. Fischer E. T. Jones S. Charnley

2008-01-01

251

Student Teachers' Understanding of the Terminology, Distribution, and Loss of Biodiversity: Perspectives from a Biodiversity Hotspot and an Industrialized Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of biodiversity is one of the most urgent global environmental problems of our time. Public education and awareness building is key to successful biodiversity protection. Knowledgeable and skilled student teachers are a key component for the successful implementation of biodiversity education in schools. Yet, little empirical evidence exists on teachers' detailed understanding of biodiversity. This study aimed to assess student teachers' conceptions of the terminology as well as their understanding of the distribution and loss of biodiversity. Data were collected from a qualitative in-depth interview study of student biology teachers from Costa Rica and Germany ( n = 24). Both verbal and visual methods were used to elicit responses. The results show that participants from both countries equated biodiversity with species diversity and had misconceptions about genetic diversity. Costa Rican student teachers seemed to have a more local perspective on biodiversity and unanimously described their local biodiversity as high, and under threat. In contrast, German teachers showed a more global view and were mostly uncertain about the level and threat status of local biodiversity. Prevailing associations explaining the global distribution and loss of biodiversity were heavily based on everyday assumptions, such as the presence/absence of humans, cities, and industries. Additionally, the transnational character of many of the socioeconomic drivers causing biodiversity loss was largely neglected. Although most participants were unfamiliar with the scientific concept of biodiversity hotspots, they implicitly used a naive biodiversity hotspots concept to explain the distribution and loss of global biodiversity. The results are discussed in terms of the educational implications.

Fiebelkorn, Florian; Menzel, Susanne

2013-08-01

252

Does conservation on farmland contribute to halting the biodiversity decline?  

PubMed

Biodiversity continues to decline, despite the implementation of international conservation conventions and measures. To counteract biodiversity loss, it is pivotal to know how conservation actions affect biodiversity trends. Focussing on European farmland species, we review what is known about the impact of conservation initiatives on biodiversity. We argue that the effects of conservation are a function of conservation-induced ecological contrast, agricultural land-use intensity and landscape context. We find that, to date, only a few studies have linked local conservation effects to national biodiversity trends. It is therefore unknown how the extensive European agri-environmental budget for conservation on farmland contributes to the policy objectives to halt biodiversity decline. Based on this review, we identify new research directions addressing this important knowledge gap. PMID:21703714

Kleijn, David; Rundlöf, Maj; Scheper, Jeroen; Smith, Henrik G; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-09-01

253

COMBINING CLIMATE MODEL PREDICTIONS, HYDROLOGICAL MODELING, AND ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING ALGORITHMS TO PREDICT THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The results of this research will provide a broad taxonomic and regional assessment of the impacts of climate change on aquatic species in the United States by producing predictions of current and future habitat quality for aquatic taxa based on multiple climate change scen...

254

Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.

Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

2010-09-01

255

Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.  

PubMed

The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

2003-01-01

256

Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.  

PubMed Central

The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

2003-01-01

257

Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.  

PubMed

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

258

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

259

Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?  

PubMed

Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk. PMID:24933803

Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

260

Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of a sunshade SRM intervention on a world with 4 times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We employ a number of new methods to analyse these results, looking at: the regional responses, global aggregation of ‘recipients’ of climate impacts and classifying ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2010]. We find that the precipitation impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions, with most regions drying but with others becoming wetter with increased levels of SRM. We show that the ‘optimal’ level of SRM for each region would differ, for example in our simulations the USA becomes drier at higher levels of SRM, with pre-industrial precipitation conditions restored at ~50% SRM, whereas Australia starts much drier at 4xCO2 and gets wetter with increasing SRM, returning to pre-industrial precipitation conditions at 100% SRM. ‘Novel’ precipitation conditions, such as the drier-than-pre-industrial conditions in the USA, are experienced across a large fraction of the Earth for all but the lowest levels of SRM, whereas ‘novel’ (cooler) temperature conditions only occur at the highest levels of geoengineering in tropical regions [Govindasamy et al., 2003]. This work shows that the impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions and that a large fraction of the world would have to contend with a regional climate that is ‘novel’ in some way, i.e. with more extreme changes than due to global warming alone. However, we find that it may be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple mitigation targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2009]. The HadCM3L simulations carried out for this work include a pre-industrial control, a simulation with 4xCO2, and 10 simulations with 4xCO2 and different levels of SRM geoengineering ranging from 10% to 100% of a full intervention sufficient to cool the climate to pre-industrial average surface air temperature. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell (2000), Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, 408(6809), 184-187. Govindasamy, B., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate climate change from a quadrupling of CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 37(1-2), 157-168. Irvine, P. J., D. J. Lunt, E. J. Stone, and A. Ridgwell (2009), The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world, Environmental Research Letters, 4(4). Irvine, P., A. Ridgwell, and D. Lunt (2010), Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering Impacts, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL044447, in press

Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

2010-12-01

261

Some common shortcomings in the treatment of impacts of linear infrastructures on natural habitat  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at presenting and discussing some of the main shortcomings that affect the assessment of impacts on biodiversity in current Environmental Impact Assessment practice. In particular, the analysis focuses on one specific type of projects, linear infrastructures, and on one specific aspect of biodiversity, natural habitats. The review highlighted a number of limitations, affecting the baseline study, as well as the impact prediction and the impact assessment stages. Among the most critical shortcomings are the delimitation of the study area on a non-ecological basis, the lack of measurable indicators and quantitative predictions, and the fact that the assessment of the impact relevance, if carried out at all, is unclear and poorly structured. The results of this piece of research reaffirm the need for further research in the field of biodiversity and ecological impact assessment.

Geneletti, Davide [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA), University of Trento, Via Mesiano, 77, 38100 Trento (Italy)]. E-mail: davide.geneletti@ing.unitn.it

2006-04-15

262

Biodiversity of Feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into biodiversity. Groups of learners will go to the zoo to look at animal feet, making a list of ten different animals at the zoo and writing down a description of their feet. This collected data is then analyzed to envision how each animalâs use of its feet helps it live in its environment. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Biodiversity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

263

Biofilms and Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive website featuring biofilms and biodiversity. Features a wealth of background information, as well as directions on how to conduct your own biofilm experiments using plexiglass discs (or cd's) to culture communities in your local body of water. Experiments demonstrate how water quality, depth, and biodiversity are linked. If your school is not located near water, data and images from the original experiments are available for analysis.

264

Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of biodiversity loss on the functioning of ecosystems and their ability to provide ecological services has become a central issue in ecology. Several experiments have provided evidence that reduced species diversity may impair ecosystem processes such as plant biomass production. The interpretation of these experiments, however, has been controversial because two types of mechanism may operate in combination.

Michel Loreau; Andy Hector

2001-01-01

265

Support for the Multi-taxa Approach in Biodiversity Assessment, as Shown by Epigaeic Invertebrates in an Afromontane Forest Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often a single indicator invertebrate taxon is used for assessing changing landscape patterns. However, we argue here against the exclusive selection of a single group. Covariation in diversity patterns of spiders, carabids, staphylinids and ants were compared in and between five highly naturally-fragmented Afromontane forest patches (size range: 3.5–25.2 ha) in South Africa. Significantly fewer individuals and species were captured

D. J. Kotze; M. J. Samways

1999-01-01

266

Global Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots.

JAY R. MALCOLM; CANRAN LIU; RONALD P. NEILSON; LARA HANSEN; LEE HANNAH

2006-01-01

267

An ED-based Protocol for Optimal Sampling of Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

While conservation planning requires good biodiversity data, our knowledge of most living groups is scarce and patchy even in well-sampled regions. Therefore, we need methodologies for rapid assessments for particular groups and regions. Maps of any biodiversity surrogate can be interpolated from even a few well-known sites, but such places are usually lacking. We therefore propose a protocol for designing

Joaquín Hortal; Jorge M. Lobo

2005-01-01

268

Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.  

PubMed

Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in areas of high fish endemism (e.g., Southeast), additional management and policy actions will be needed to minimize further species imperilment. PMID:23185581

McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

2012-01-01

269

Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures  

PubMed Central

Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18–24%, going from 1,993,000–2,628,000 Mm3 in 2010 to 2,359,000–3,271,000 Mm3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700–46,400 Mm3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000–58,400 Mm3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27–36 m3GJ?1 (0.1–0.5 m3GJ?1 consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4–0.7 m3GJ?1 (0.2–0.3 m3GJ?1 consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm3 (20,300 Mm3 consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in areas of high fish endemism (e.g., Southeast), additional management and policy actions will be needed to minimize further species imperilment.

McDonald, Robert I.; Olden, Julian D.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Miller, William M.; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Powell, Jimmie

2012-01-01

270

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

271

ISI's Impact Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To Assess Journal Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "impact factor," a measure of journal impact defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "impact factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to assess the impact of journals using…

Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.

1997-01-01

272

Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

Hollick, Malcolm

1986-03-01

273

Assessment of The Environmental Impact of Cryoplanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid hydrogen fuelled aircraft are referred to as 'cryoplanes' and emit only wa- ter vapour and NOx. Emissions of NOx are likely to decrease significantly relative to today's conventional kerosene aircraft, while H2O emissions will increase by a factor of 2.55. In the tropopause region - and especially in the lower stratosphere - the background concentrations of H2O are very low, implying a significant role of aircraft-induced perturbations for both chemistry and radiative forcing. The environ- mental impact of cryoplanes has been assessed in the framework of the CRYOPLANE project, which is supported by the European Commission within the Fifth Framework Programme. For this project we have performed several tracer experiments applying the chemical transport model, OSLO CTM-2, in order to assess the perturbation in wa- ter vapour resulting from a fictive fleet of cyroplanes in the year 2015. The CTM uses the highly accurate Second Order Moment scheme for advective transport and was run in T42 resolution (2.8x2.8 degrees) and 40 layers between the surface and 10 hPa. The conventional fleet of aircraft projected for the year 2015 was replaced completely by cryoplanes in the model. For comparison, a scenario with subsonic conventional aircraft was run for the year 2000 and a third scenario including both sub- and su- personic aircraft for the year 2015 was used to assess the effect of a projected fleet of supersonic aircraft. All experiments used the meteorology from ECMWF forecast data for 1997. The tropospheric lifetime of aircraft-emitted H2O was either based on estimates given in the scientific literature or calculated online from meteorologi- cal data. Supersonic aircraft were found to have the most pronounced effect on H2O levels in the lower stratosphere. The effect of cryoplanes is much smaller than for the supersonic scenario but is still significant with relative H2O increases exceeding 10% at high northern latitudes in early spring. It has to be noted that these results are more than a factor of ten larger than those obtained by DLR in an earlier study. Both the longwave and shortwave components of the radiative forcing due to the modelled H2O increases were calculated for different seasons. In the cryoplane scenario the net radiative forcing is largest in April and smallest in October with global averages amounting to 0.0306 and 0.0075 W/m2, respectively. In all cases it shows a distinctive zonal and meridional distribution.

Gauss, M.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Wang, W. C.; Wong, S.

274

Enhanced biodiversity and pollination in UK agroforestry systems.  

PubMed

Monoculture farming systems have had serious environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity and pollinator decline. The authors explain how temperate agroforestry systems show potential in being able to deliver multiple environmental benefits. PMID:23553354

Varah, Alexa; Jones, Hannah; Smith, Jo; Potts, Simon G

2013-07-01

275

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEDIMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODEL (SIAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sediment impact assessment model is being incorporated as part of the Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) through a joint research and development effort between HEC and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center's (ERDC) Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL). The sediment impact assessment model (SIAM) was initially developed through CHL research activities conducted with Colorado State

276

76 FR 58814 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...under the link for ``Privacy Impact Assessments.'' These PIAs...update describes the privacy impact of expanding the status verifier's...System: DHS/USCIS/PIA-038 Freedom of Information Act/Privacy...analyze and evaluate the privacy impact resulting from the...

2011-09-22

277

Systems in peril: Climate change, agriculture and biodiversity in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reflects on the interplay amongst three closely linked systems - climate, agriculture and biodiversity - in the Australian context. The advance of a European style of agriculture has imperilled Australian biodiversity. The loss and degradation of biodiversity has, in turn, had negative consequences for agriculture. Climate change is imposing new pressures on both agriculture and biodiversity. From a policy and management perspective, though, it is possible to envisage mitigation and adaptation responses that would alleviate pressures on all three systems (climate, agriculture, biodiversity). In this way, the paper seeks to make explicit the important connections between science and policy. The paper outlines the distinctive features of both biodiversity and agriculture in the Australian context. The discussion then addresses the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, followed by an overview of how climate change is impacting on both of these systems. The final section of the paper offers some commentary on current policy and management strategies that are targeted at mitigating the loss of biodiversity and which may also have benefits in terms of climate change.

Cocklin, Chris; Dibden, Jacqui

2009-11-01

278

An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D  

SciTech Connect

A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation.

Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

2003-03-01

279

Incorporating biodiversity assets in spatial planning: Methodological proposal and development of a planning support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information on biodiversity issues that planners have at disposal often offers a very limited support, due to the lack of informative data and suitable planning support systems (PSS). This paper aims at improving the treatment of biodiversity assets in spatial planning by proposing an approach to map and assess biodiversity assets, and by implementing it into a PSS, characterised

Davide Geneletti

2008-01-01

280

Relationships among levels of biodiversity and the relevance of intraspecific diversity in conservation – a project synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the conservation of all three fundamental levels of biodiversity (ecosystems, species and genes) has been widely acknowledged, but only in recent years it has become technically feasible to consider intraspecific diversity, i.e. the genetic component to biodiversity. In order to facilitate the assessment of biodiversity, considerable efforts have been made towards identifying surrogates because the efficient evaluation

F. Gugerli; T. Englisch; H. Niklfeld; A. Tribsch; Z. Mirek; M. Ronikier; N. E. Zimmermann; R. Holderegger; P. Taberlet

2008-01-01

281

Biodiversity and Residential Development Beyond the Urban Fringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the impacts of rural exurban development on the abundance and variety of plants and animals in North\\u000a American ecosystems. The principles of landscape ecology provide a framework for considering the ways that exurban development\\u000a can impact biodiversity. We survey the literature and describe the responses of varying components of biodiversity to rural\\u000a exurban development in North America.

Carl E. Bock; Jane H. Bock

282

Aquaculture Production and Biodiversity Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview examines the status and trends of seafood production, and the positive and negative impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity conservation. Capture fisheries have been stabilized at about 90 million metric tons since the late 1980s, whereas aquaculture increased from 12 million metric tons in 1985 to 45 million metric tons by 2004. Aquaculture includes species at any trophic level that are grown for domestic consumption or export. Aquaculture has some positive impacts on biodiversity; for example, cultured seafood can reduce pressure on overexploited wild stocks, stocked organisms may enhance depleted stocks, aquaculture often boosts natural production and species diversity, and employment in aquaculture may replace more destructive resource uses. On the negative side, species that escape from aquaculture can become invasive in areas where they are nonnative, effluents from aquaculture can cause eutrophication, ecologically sensitive land may be converted for aquaculture use, aquaculture species may consume increasingly scarce fish meal, and aquaculture species may transmit diseases to wild fish. Most likely, aquaculture will continue to grow at significant rates through 2025, and will remain the most rapidly increasing food production system.

James Diana (University of Michigan;School of Natural Resources and Environment)

2009-01-01

283

Biodiversity Laws: State Experiences  

PubMed

/ The Western Governors' Association (WGA) includes both the public lands states with their issues and the plains states, which are 98% privately owned. WGA deals with most legislation affecting biodiversity, whether the effect is direct or tangential. It will probably not be possible, or desirable, for one entity to be in charge of biodiversity conservation. The Endangered Species Act, public lands laws, agricultural laws, water law, environmental laws, and funding legislation all affect biodiversity conservation and the responsibility for it. None of them on their own are enough, and most can cause harmful unintended consequences for biodiversity. The experience of western states in developing consensus principles for reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act provides an example of common-sense ways to improve management of biodiversity, notwithstanding the complexity and large stakes involved. The WGA's proposed changes call for increasing the role of states, streamlining the act, and increasing certainty for landowners and water users.To achieve sustainable conservation for biodiversity, the better question is not "Who is/should be in charge?", it is "How do we get this done?" To answer this, we need goals, guidance, and bottom lines from federal laws, and management and oversight at the state level, but they all need to support local on-the-ground partnerships. Sustainable conservation requires the active participation of those who live there. WGA's experience in coordinating the Great Plains Partnership as well as its work with watershed efforts shed light on what to expect. Multilevel partnerships are not easy and require a different way of doing business. The ad hoc, site-specific processes that result do not lend themselves to being legislated, fit into organizational boxes, or scored on a budget sheet. They do require common sense and a long-term perspective.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Partnerships; Environmental laws; Endangered Species Act; Conservation; Local empowerment PMID:8895414

CLARK

1996-11-01

284

Pacific Northwest Research Station's Biodiversity Initiative: Collaborating for Biodiversity Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pacific Northwest Research Station launched a Biodiversity Initiative to assist natural resource professionals in integrating complex biodiversity concepts into natural resource management processes. We canvassed clients from various affiliations to d...

P. Nelson R. White R. Molina

2006-01-01

285

A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia)] [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain)] [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia)] [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)] [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

2013-11-15

286

Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO 2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to\\u000a 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change\\u000a has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF

Jim Gockowski; Denis Sonwa

2011-01-01

287

Carbon management and biodiversity.  

PubMed

International efforts to mitigate human-caused changes in the Earth's climate are considering a system of incentives (debits and credits) that would encourage specific changes in land use that can help to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The two primary land-based activities that would help to minimize atmospheric carbon dioxide are carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere and the efficient substitution of biomass fuels and bio-based products for fossil fuels and energy-intensive products. These two activities have very different land requirements and different implications for the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of other ecosystem services. Carbon sequestration in living forests can be pursued on lands with low productivity, i.e. on lands that are least suitable for agriculture or intensive forestry, and are compatible with the preservation of biodiversity over large areas. In contrast, intensive harvest-and-use systems for biomass fuels and products generally need more productive land to be economically viable. Intensive harvest-and-use systems may compete with agriculture or they may shift intensive land uses onto the less productive lands that currently harbor most of the Earth's biodiversity. Win-win solutions for carbon dioxide control and biodiversity are possible, but careful evaluation and planning are needed to avoid practices that reduce biodiversity with little net decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Planning is more complex on a politically subdivided Earth where issues of local interest, national sovereignty, and equity come into play. PMID:12659806

Huston, Michael A; Marland, Gregg

2003-01-01

288

Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests.  

PubMed

Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-05-17

289

Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters  

PubMed Central

To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

2010-01-01

290

The Impact of Quality Assessment in Universities: Portuguese Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being one of the major reasons for the development of quality assessment, students seem relatively unaware of its potential impact. Since one of the main purposes of assessment is to provide students with information on the quality of universities, this lack of awareness brings in to question the effectiveness of assessment as a device for…

Cardoso, Sonia; Santiago, Rui; Sarrico, Claudia S.

2012-01-01

291

AMBIENT TOXICITY TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The frequent occurrence of xenobiotic chemicals in surface water is of concern to regulatory agencies and the public. The impact of these must be distinguished from impacts due to other factors such as low oxygen, habitat or dredging before an understanding of expected improvemen...

292

NITARP: Impact Assessment, 2005-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NITARP, the NASA/IPAC Training in Archival Research Program, gets educators involved in authentic astronomical research. We partner small groups of educators with a mentor professional astronomer for a year-long original research project. The educators incorporate the experience into their classrooms and share their experience with other teachers. The teams echo the entire research process, from writing a proposal, to doing the research, to writing up and presenting the results at an AAS meeting. The educators incorporate this experience into their classroom. This program differs from other programs that we know of that get real astronomy data into the classroom in that: (a) Each team works on an original, unique project. There are no canned labs here! (b) Each team presents their results in posters at the AAS, in science sessions (not just outreach sessions). The posters are distributed throughout the meeting, in amongst other researchers' work; the participants are not "given a free pass" because they are teachers. (c) The 'product' of this project is the scientific result, not a curriculum packet. (d) Because the teachers work with students throughout this project, the teachers have already begun to adapt their project to fit in their classroom environment. This poster will describe the program, with highlights of an impact assessment survey conducted of NITARP alumni in June 2013. Including all forms of the project from 2004-2013, there have been 80 educator participants from 33 states; 40 of them responded to our survey. There have been 37 science and 42 education AAS posters presented by NITARP-affiliated educators and scientists (with 8 more expected to be presented at this meeting). There have been 5 refereed journal articles in professional astronomy research journals that directly involve NITARP teachers and scientists (Howell et al. 2006, Guieu et al. 2010, Howell et al. 2008, Rebull et al., 2011, 2013), and 2 more astronomy journal articles describing the software developed in conjunction with NITARP and its Spitzer (Laher et al. 2012ab). There is one more refereed article written by a NITARP alumni teacher for The Physics Teacher (Pereira et al. 2013).

Rebull, Luisa M.; Gorjian, V.; Brinkworth, C.; Squires, G. K.; Burtnyk, K.

2014-01-01

293

Introducing Habitats and Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students identify habitats in Arizona, define and illustrate a food web in a kinesthetic exercise, and explain the importance of biodiversity in a writing assignment. Required materials include a ball of yarn or string. The resource includes two student worksheets, a data sheet, answer keys, and Web links. This is Lesson 1 in the unit on Biodiversity, part of IMAGERS, Interactive Media Adventures for Grade School Education using Remote Sensing. The website provides hands-on activities in the classroom supporting the science content in two interactive media books, The Adventures of Echo the Bat and Amelia the Pigeon.

294

Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth’s biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability.

Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S. Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

2014-01-01

295

Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality.  

PubMed

Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth's biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability. PMID:24639507

Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

2014-04-01

296

Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

Pierazzo, E.

2005-01-01

297

Land use, biodiversity, and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus on the effects of deforestation for agricultural purposes on biodiversity. This topic has been dealt with in the recent literature where “forested land” and “biodiversity” are treated as synonyms. In contrast to that, this paper distinguishes between “forested land” and “forest” itself, the latter being interpreted as a measure of biodiversity. The regenerative capacity of forests is modeled

Alfred Endres; Volker Radke

1999-01-01

298

Getting the measure of biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘biodiversity’ is a simple contraction of ‘biological diversity’, and at first sight the concept is simple too: biodiversity is the sum total of all biotic variation from the level of genes to ecosystems. The challenge comes in measuring such a broad concept in ways that are useful. We show that, although biodiversity can never be fully captured by

Andy Purvis; Andy Hector

2000-01-01

299

Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

1995-01-01

300

Investigating Biodiversity in your schoolyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field lab students will investigate the biodiversity around their school. Students will perform a biodiversity count using transect line. The students will develop multiple hypotheses relating to biodiversity and propose additional procedures for studying, collecting and testing these questions.

301

River networks as biodiversity hotlines.  

PubMed

For several years, measures to insure healthy river functions and to protect biodiversity have focused on management at the scale of drainage basins. Indeed, rivers bear witness to the health of their drainage basins, which justifies integrated basin management. However, this vision should not mask two other aspects of the protection of aquatic and riparian biodiversity as well as services provided by rivers. First, although largely depending on the ecological properties of the surrounding terrestrial environment, rivers are ecological systems by themselves, characterized by their linearity: they are organized in connected networks, complex and ever changing, open to the sea. Second, the structure and functions of river networks respond to manipulations of their hydrology, and are particularly vulnerable to climatic variations. Whatever the scale considered, river networks represent "hotlines" for sharing water between ecological and societal systems, as well as for preserving both systems in the face of global change. River hotlines are characterized by spatial as well as temporal legacies: every human impact to a river network may be transmitted far downstream from its point of origin, and may produce effects only after a more or less prolonged latency period. Here, I review some of the current issues of river ecology in light of the linear character of river networks. PMID:21640951

Décamps, Henri

2011-05-01

302

Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating `novel' conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of

P. J. Irvine; A. J. Ridgwell; D. J. Lunt

2010-01-01

303

IMPROVING ALTERNATIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental impact assessment (EIA), in the US, requires an objective and rigorous analysis of alternatives. Yet the choice of alternatives for that analysis can be subjective and arbitrary. Alternatives often reflect narrow project objectives, agency agendas, and predilecti...

304

International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

305

Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

306

Transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment, May 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the second edition of a guidance manual originally issued in 1995 which presents procedures for predicting and assessing noise and vibration impacts of proposed mass transit projects. All types of bus and rail projects are covered. Procedur...

C. E. Hanson D. A. Towers L. D. Meister

2006-01-01

307

Assessment of the Impact of Resource Recovery on the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This assessment of the environmental impact of resource recovery examines the environmental effects that will derive from municipal solid waste disposal in 1990 and the changes in these effects that will result from implementation of resource recovery fro...

J. G. Gordon

1979-01-01

308

Consequences of changing biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems. The large ecological and societal

Erika S. Zavaleta; Valerie T. Eviner; Rosamond L. Naylor; Peter M. Vitousek; Heather L. Reynolds; David U. Hooper; Sandra Lavorel; Osvaldo E. Sala; Sarah E. Hobbie; Michelle C. Mack; Sandra Díaz; F. Stuart Chapin III

2000-01-01

309

Warfare in biodiversity hotspots.  

PubMed

Conservation efforts are only as sustainable as the social and political context within which they take place. The weakening or collapse of sociopolitical frameworks during wartime can lead to habitat destruction and the erosion of conservation policies, but in some cases, may also confer ecological benefits through altered settlement patterns and reduced resource exploitation. Over 90% of the major armed conflicts between 1950 and 2000 occurred within countries containing biodiversity hotspots, and more than 80% took place directly within hotspot areas. Less than one-third of the 34 recognized hotspots escaped significant conflict during this period, and most suffered repeated episodes of violence. This pattern was remarkably consistent over these 5 decades. Evidence from the war-torn Eastern Afromontane hotspot suggests that biodiversity conservation is improved when international nongovernmental organizations support local protected area staff and remain engaged throughout the conflict. With biodiversity hotspots concentrated in politically volatile regions, the conservation community must maintain continuous involvement during periods of war, and biodiversity conservation should be incorporated into military, reconstruction, and humanitarian programs in the world's conflict zones. PMID:19236450

Hanson, Thor; Brooks, Thomas M; Da Fonseca, Gustavo A B; Hoffmann, Michael; Lamoreux, John F; Machlis, Gary; Mittermeier, Cristina G; Mittermeier, Russell A; Pilgrim, John D

2009-06-01

310

Dissecting Amazonian Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical and biodiversity studies in lowland Amazonian rain forests typically refer to observed or postulated distribution barriers such as past unfavorable climates, mountains, rivers, and river floodplains that divide the uniform tierra firme (noninundated) forest. Present-day ecological heterogeneity within tierra firme has hardly been discussed in this context, although edaphic differences are known to affect species distribution patterns in both

Hanna Tuomisto; Kalle Ruokolainen; Risto Kalliola; Ari Linna; Walter Danjoy; Zoila Rodriguez

1995-01-01

311

Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

2007-01-01

312

Biodiversity and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-16

313

Global patterns in biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a first approximation, the distribution of biodiversity across the Earth can be described in terms of a relatively small number of broad-scale spatial patterns. Although these patterns are increasingly well documented, understanding why they exist constitutes one of the most significant intellectual challenges to ecologists and biogeographers. Theory is, however, developing rapidly, improving in its internal consistency, and more

Kevin J. Gaston

2000-01-01

314

Video Lectures on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In three video lectures available from Columbia UniversityâÂÂs Frontiers of Science Online (FoSO) website, developed by HHMI Professor Darcy Kelley, biologist Don Melnick explains why the loss of biodiversity is occurring, why its loss matters, and what people can do to fix the problem.

Darcy B. Kelley (Columbia University;); Don J. Melnick (Departments of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology;Columbia University)

2010-06-18

315

Economics of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) manages this clearinghouse on the economics of biodiversity in support of equitable and sustainable natural resource use. IUCN arranges their discussion papers in full-text by theme, and a mixture of relevant economic, legal, and policy information is highlighted throughout the site.

316

32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Officer Review the Privacy Impact Assessment document to identify...Issue final approval of Privacy Impact Assessment, and send a copy...When feasible, publish Privacy Impact Assessment on Freedom of Information Act Web...

2010-07-01

317

IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MEASUREMENT PROGRAM (IAM)-(SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Impact Assessment and Measurement (IAM) program focuses on the research, development and application of environmental impact assessment and progress measurement for environmental decision making. Current projects include development of impact assessment methodologies, tools, ...

318

First data on an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages for the assessment of the impact of deforestation in a tropical West African river system  

Microsoft Academic Search

African tropical rainforests, and especially their freshwater biodiversity, are seriously threatened by ongoing industrial deforestation. Sound ecological management is needed to ensure the sustainability of these resources. For this purpose, an index of biotic integrity (IBI), based on fish assemblage characteristics, is developed in this paper. It is used to quantify the impact of industrial deforestation on freshwater biodiversity. Data

André Kamdem Toham; Guy G. Teugels

1999-01-01

319

Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental impacts, preliminary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present power plant assessment factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) impacts. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use impacts result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality

F. R. Livingston

1978-01-01

320

Possible Origin of Stagnation and Variability of Earth's Biodiversity.  

PubMed

The magnitude and variability of Earth's biodiversity have puzzled scientists ever since paleontologic fossil databases became available. We identify and study a model of interdependent species where both endogenous and exogenous impacts determine the nonstationary extinction dynamics. The framework provides an explanation for the qualitative difference of marine and continental biodiversity growth. In particular, the stagnation of marine biodiversity may result from a global transition from an imbalanced to a balanced state of the species dependency network. The predictions of our framework are in agreement with paleontologic databases. PMID:24949790

Stollmeier, Frank; Geisel, Theo; Nagler, Jan

2014-06-01

321

Possible Origin of Stagnation and Variability of Earth's Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude and variability of Earth's biodiversity have puzzled scientists ever since paleontologic fossil databases became available. We identify and study a model of interdependent species where both endogenous and exogenous impacts determine the nonstationary extinction dynamics. The framework provides an explanation for the qualitative difference of marine and continental biodiversity growth. In particular, the stagnation of marine biodiversity may result from a global transition from an imbalanced to a balanced state of the species dependency network. The predictions of our framework are in agreement with paleontologic databases.

Stollmeier, Frank; Geisel, Theo; Nagler, Jan

2014-06-01

322

Protecting Future Biodiversity via Re-allocation of Future Land-use Change Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future scenarios, such as the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), are typically designed to meet a radiative forcing target while also producing enough food and energy for a growing population. In the assessment process, impacts of these scenarios for other important variables such as biodiversity loss are considered 'downstream', after the future climate has been simulated within Earth System Models. However, the direct land-use impacts associated with future scenarios often have as much impact on these issues as the changing climate; in addition, many different patterns of land-use can result in the same radiative forcing target. In the case of biodiversity loss, one of the greatest contributors to species extinction is the loss of habitat such as primary forest, which is a direct result of land-use change decisions. By considering issues such as the preservation of future biodiversity 'up-front' in the scenario process, we can design a scenario that not only meets a radiative forcing target and feeds a growing planet, but also preserves as much habitat as possible through careful spatial allocation of future land-use change. Our Global Land-use Model (GLM) is used to provide 'harmonized' land-use data for the RCP process. GLM preserves as much information as possible from the Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) while spatially allocating regional IAM land-use change data, ensuring a continuous transition from historical to future land-use states, and producing annual, gridded (0.5°×0.5°), fractional land-use states and all associated transitions. In this presentation we will present results from new GLM simulations in which land-use change decisions are constrained to meet the mutual goals of protecting important eco-regions (e.g. biodiversity hotspots) from future land-use change, providing enough food and fiber for a growing planet, and remaining consistent with the radiative forcing targets of the future scenarios. Trade-offs between agricultural demand and biodiversity protection were needed in some scenarios, but by constraining the land-use decisions to protect future biodiversity, an estimated 10-25% of species could be saved from loss between 2005 and 2100 (Jantz et al. 2013, in prep).

Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Jantz, S.; Brooks, T.; Leon, C.; Waldhoff, S.; Edmonds, J.

2013-12-01

323

An Environmental Risk Assessment\\/Management Framework for Climate Change Impact Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an environmental risk assessment\\/risk management framework to assess the impacts of climate change on individual exposure units identified as potentially vulnerable to climate change. This framework is designed specifically to manage the systematic uncertainties that accompany the propagation of climate change scenarios through a sequence of biophysical and socio-economic climate impacts. Risk analysis methods consistent with the

Roger N. Jones

2001-01-01

324

Cenozoic biodiversity: goals, challenges and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding biodiversity is a major goal of modern science. Biologists document living diversity; study the factors that maintain it, and the effects biodiversity has on ecosystem services. Paleontologists try to understand these same issues by examining biodiversity in the geologic past, and how this history correlates to changes in past environments. Both research agendas are driven by concerns about how biodiversity can be sustained into the future, despite human impacts on biodiversity, including climate change. Measuring biodiversity is a major challenge. Generally only a subset of the total diversity that exist(s/ed) at any one location can actually be recorded, due to rarity of many species, or (for fossils) species that were not preserved. Taxa occurrence data not collected for biodiversity studies is also frequently incompletely recorded. Incomplete, inconsistent taxonomy; and for fossils also incorrect geologic ages for observations are other major sources of error. Several different methods are used to correct for these problems, such as subsampling occurrence data or using expert-compiled taxonomic catalogs. No method is normally fully satisfactory, but, depending on data quality, can often yield useful approximations of actual (usually relative) diversity. Assuming that diversity has been accurately estimated, a second challenge comes in comparing diversity to possible causal factors. A common approach is a statistical comparison between diversity and environmental data series. Whether this is a meaningful exercise depends on the underlying statistical model, and whether this is similar to the processes that we are trying to understand. If for example, we suspect diversity to respond largely only when environmental thresholds are crossed, a linear regression test is not very informative. Our understanding of possible processes is however still primitive, and a poor guide to model selection and analysis. Scale is also important (temporal, geographic, taxic). Long-term trends in diversity and environment for example may show different patterns, and be due to different processes, than diversity responses to shorter-term environmental change. Much paleodiversity research in recent years has looked at Phanerozoic trends, with data binned to ca 10 my long intervals. This seems too long: for comparison, it is doubtful we would have discovered much of what we now know about interactions and processes in Cenozoic paleoceanography and paleoclimates if our data was only at this temporal resolution. Given such challenges in data quality and methods, we need urgently to pay more attention to the relatively high resolution, well preserved Cenozoic records of biodiversity and paleoenvironments. While not perfect, these are perhaps the best fossil/environmental records available to understand how diversity on earth is maintained, and how much is at risk as humanity alters the planet.

Lazarus, David

2014-05-01

325

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

326

LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

327

Developments in Impact Assessment in North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

328

Traffic Impact Assessment of Incident Management Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a simulation study which aimed to quantify the impacts of incident management strategies. The evaluation was based on a large-scale micro-simulation model covering an area approximately 122 square kilometres, including 43 kilometres of motorway and about 85 kilometres of surface roads on the Gold Coast, Australia. The study examined the effectiveness of selected incident management

Hussein Dia; William Gondwe; Sakda Panwai

2008-01-01

329

Assessment of an instrumented Charpy impact machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic responses of the standard Charpy impact machine were studied experimentally using strain gauges and accelerometer attached to the striker and the rotary position sensor fixed at the rotating axis and numerically with the finite element analysis. The fracture propagation was simulated with the cellular automata finite element approach developed earlier. A series of low velocity as well as

Anton Shterenlikht; Sayyed H. Hashemi; John R. Yates; Ian C. Howard; Robert M. Andrews

2005-01-01

330

Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

331

First Large-Scale DNA Barcoding Assessment of Reptiles in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar, Based on Newly Designed COI Primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsRepresentatives

Zoltán T. Nagy; Gontran Sonet; Frank Glaw; Miguel Vences

2012-01-01

332

Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater utility to industry stakeholders.

Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

2012-12-01

333

An integrated approach to hydropower impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submerged aquatic vegetation of 17 Norwegian lakes is described and related to the environmental impacts that result from hydro-electric power (HEP) use of these lakes. Largely based upon physiognomical features, three main community types are discerned. These are denoted as (a) shallow-water, (b) mid-depth, and (c) deep-water community, respectively. The aquatic macrophytes are classified into a plant strategy framework.

Bjørn Rørslett

1989-01-01

334

LOX/GOX mechanical impact tester assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performances of three existing high pressure oxygen mechanical impact test systems were tested at two different test sites. The systems from one test site were fabricated from the same design drawing, whereas the system tested at the other site was of different design. Energy delivered to the test sample for each test system was evaluated and compared. Results were compared to the reaction rates obtained.

Bransford, J. W.; Bryan, C. J.; Frye, G. W.; Stohler, S. L.

1980-01-01

335

[Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].  

PubMed

For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long-term consideration. Assessing the direct impact of projects on human beings should be rank first in the list of priorities. The Hygiene Institute supports the efforts of the Public Health departments by providing professional consultant services to ensure consistency in the application of procedures. PMID:12632322

Thriene, B

2003-02-01

336

Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use  

EPA Science Inventory

According to the Millennium Assessment: ?Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

337

The Impact of Assessment on Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schemes for assessing reading achievement with specific tests have been in use since early in this century. The two driving forces behind the testing movement--scientific objectivity and compulsory education--blossomed in the 1920s and 1930s and continued substantially unchanged through most of the 1960s. In the early 1970s, the idea of mastery…

Pearson, P. David; Dunning, David

1985-01-01

338

Methodology for Energy Solid Waste Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a methodology for the environmental assessment of solid waste related to the coal fuel cycle. The methodology requires as its key input a county level siting and energy use file. Given also a database of coal characteristics, and the...

P. M. Meier D. Guenther

1980-01-01

339

Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity.

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troeng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

2014-01-01

340

Impact assessment in the UK nuclear power industry: An overview of the R3 impact assessment procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The R3 Impact Assessment Procedure was developed by Magnox Electric Ltd and its predecessors with the prime intent of providing a compendium of methodologies for assessing the effect of dropping nuclear fuel flasks on steel and concrete surfaces. However, since then the intent of the procedure has broadened and as eventually released encompasses three volumes, namely:Volume 1 – missile production

A. R. R. Telford

2010-01-01

341

Assessment of Climate Impact Changes on Forest Vegetation Dynamics by Satellite Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temper-ature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of climate and anthropogenic changes impacts and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate in-teractions. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vege-tation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homo-geneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and ETM satellite images and meteorological data over l995-2007 period. For investigated test area, considerable NDVI decline was observed between 1995 and 2008 due to the drought events during 2003 and 2007 years. Under stress conditions, it is evident that environmental factors such as soil type, parent material, and to-pography are not correlated with NDVI dynamics. Specific aim of this paper was to assess, forecast, and mitigate the risks of climatic changes on forest systems and its biodiversity as well as on adjacent environment areas and to provide early warning strategies on the basis of spectral information derived from satellite data regarding atmospheric effects of forest biome degradation . The paper aims to describe observed trends and potential impacts based on scenarios from simulations with regional climate models and other downscaling procedures.

Zoran, Maria

342

Biodiversity and Sustainability Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biodiversity can be seen as an exemplary issue for sustainability communication. In addition the conflictual relationship\\u000a between conservation and sustainable use will be illustrated using selected examples. From the perspective of successful sustainability\\u000a communication, this chapter will show not only the complexity of cause and effect but also the options there are to conserve\\u000a biological diversity. Special importance is attributed

Maik Adomßent; Ute Stoltenberg

343

Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.  

PubMed

Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level. PMID:21829636

Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2011-01-01

344

Beyond Biodiversity: Fish Metagenomes  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits. Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the Barcoding target gene COI as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas. Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods. We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2011-01-01

345

Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming.  

PubMed

Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for the world's 1009 montane bird species. Under constrained vertical dispersal (VD), species with narrow vertical distributions are strongly impacted; at least a third of montane bird diversity is severely threatened. In a scenario of unconstrained VD, the location and structure of mountain systems emerge as a strong driver of extinction risk. Even unconstrained lateral movements offer little improvement to the fate of montane species in the Afrotropics, Australasia and Nearctic. Our results demonstrate the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change. Our findings confirm the outstanding levels of biotic perturbation and extinction risk that mountain systems are likely to experience under global warming and highlight the need for additional knowledge on species' vertical distributions, dispersal and adaptive capacities. PMID:20534610

La Sorte, Frank A; Jetz, Walter

2010-11-22

346

Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming  

PubMed Central

Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for the world's 1009 montane bird species. Under constrained vertical dispersal (VD), species with narrow vertical distributions are strongly impacted; at least a third of montane bird diversity is severely threatened. In a scenario of unconstrained VD, the location and structure of mountain systems emerge as a strong driver of extinction risk. Even unconstrained lateral movements offer little improvement to the fate of montane species in the Afrotropics, Australasia and Nearctic. Our results demonstrate the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change. Our findings confirm the outstanding levels of biotic perturbation and extinction risk that mountain systems are likely to experience under global warming and highlight the need for additional knowledge on species' vertical distributions, dispersal and adaptive capacities.

La Sorte, Frank A.; Jetz, Walter

2010-01-01

347

Impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan considering uncertainty in an impact model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, extreme hot weather hit Japan, and damaged many types of vegetables. In the future, global warming may often cause hot weather and damage vegetable production. In order to make adaptive policies to reduce the future impacts, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the impact of future climate change on vegetables. However, there have been few studies on quantitative impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan because few impact assessment models for vegetables have been developed. In this study, I develop impact assessment models for 14 vegetables, which are designated by the government of Japan, and I assess the impact of climate change on the 14 vegetables considering uncertainty in the developed models. Impact assessment models which I developed are multi-regression models. Dependent variables of the models are shipments in markets in summer, i.e., July, August, and September. Independent variables are monthly temperature and precipitation. In order to consider uncertainty of the models in impact assessments, 1000 regression parameters are derived by the bootstrap method. Data used for developing the regression models are statistics on the shipments of vegetables from 1999 to 2010 and meteorological data of the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Model validations showed that the developed models can reproduce the historical records on the shipments well. Next, I assessed the shipments of the 14 vegetables in 2031-2040 using the developed models and the future climate projections of Miroc-3.2-Hires. The simulations showed that the shipments of almost all vegetables will decrease in 2031-2040.

Masutomi, Y.

2011-12-01

348

How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

Leviäkangas, P.

2010-09-01

349

Multifunctional landscapes in semi arid environments: implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synergies between biodiversity conservation objectives and ecosystem service management were investigated in the Succulent\\u000a Karoo biome (83,000 km2) of South Africa, a recognised biodiversity hotspot. Our study complemented a previous biodiversity assessment with an ecosystem\\u000a service assessment. Stakeholder engagement and expert consultation focussed our investigations on surface water, ground water,\\u000a grazing and tourism as the key services in this region. The

P. J. O’Farrell; B. Reyers; D. C. Le Maitre; S. J. Milton; B. Egoh; A. Maherry; C. Colvin; D. Atkinson; W. De Lange; J. N. Blignaut; R. M. Cowling

2010-01-01

350

Assessing and managing socioeconomic impacts of power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the findings of the EPRI report Socioeconomic Impacts of Power Plants with a report prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission entitled Socioeconomic Impacts of Nuclear Generating Stations. This comparison was the subject of a workshop convened in October 1983 and attended by the consulting firms who prepared both reports, representatives of EPRI and other public utilities. The NRC study supports the EPRI findings that the case studies demonstrate that projections of work force size and the associated impacts are often inaccurate. This uncertainty should be recognized at the outset of planning for a new project. The impact area may be thought of as a subset of a larger geographic study area. Factors which influence the extent of the impact area include commuting patterns, political and regulatory considerations, and the boundaries of taxing jurisdictions. Both studies found the employment multiplier to be lower than anticipated. Positive effects out-weighed negative impacts in most cases. Negative impacts were short-lived and usually local in area. It was agreed that computer-based impact assessment models are necessary; however, these models are limited by input parameters. The report emphasizes the importance of impact monitoring and a flexible impact management program.

Gilmore, J.S.; Hammond, D.M.; Johnson, J.F.

1984-08-01

351

A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton`s Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations.

Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kay, D. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

352

Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future  

PubMed Central

Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products.

Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

2014-01-01

353

An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

1996-01-01

354

An Updated Assessment Of The Impact Threat From 99942 Apophis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potentially hazardous asteroid 99942 Apophis has been the subject of widespread attention, in both the technical and public arenas, at first due to a potential for impact in 2029 and later for the possibility of post-2029 impacts. While it has been understood since late 2004 that the 2029 encounter will be close ( 38,000 km from the geocenter) but harmless, potential resonant return impacts in 2036 and 2037 have persisted. We apply new astrometry that substantially extends the available data arc [Tholen et al. DPS 2008, 2009], and reduces uncertainties by 50%, to obtain a new impact hazard assessment. We show that the new orbit uncertainties in 2029 are comparable to, or even smaller than, the likely dispersions induced by the Yarkovsky effect and so this nongravitational acceleration can no longer be neglected in the analysis. We describe a technique to account for Yarkovsky dispersion in the risk assessment.

Chesley, Steven R.; Milani, A.; Tholen, D.; Bernardi, F.; Chodas, P.; Micheli, M.

2009-09-01

355

Utility of fuzzy cross-impact simulation in environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Fuzzy cross-impact simulation is a qualitative technique, where interactions within a system are represented by a cross-impact matrix that includes linguistic elements. It can be used effectively to visualize dynamic evolution of a system. The utility of the fuzzy cross-impact simulation approach is: (1) in dealing with uncertainties in environment-development systems; (2) scoping cumulative effect assessment; and (3) integrating societal response structure in environment impact assessment. Use of the method is illustrated in a case concerning the textile industry in Indore, India. Consequences of policy alternatives for cleanup and pollution abatement are predicted in terms of environmental quality and quality of life, using the simulation model. The consequence analysis is used to arrive at preferred policy options.

Parashar, A. [Government Post Graduate Narmada Coll., Hoshangabad (India)] [Government Post Graduate Narmada Coll., Hoshangabad (India); Paliwal, R.; Rambabu, P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Inst., Nagpur (India)] [National Environmental Engineering Research Inst., Nagpur (India)

1997-11-01

356

Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

Barron, E.; Fisher, A.

2002-05-01

357

Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-U-14 Ditch  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater impact assessments are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant impacts caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The assessments conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report assesses impacts on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.

Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.

1994-01-01

358

Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective  

SciTech Connect

The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.

Nooteboom, Sibout [Department of Public Administration of the Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands); DHV Management Consultants (Netherlands)], E-mail: SiboutNooteboom@zonnet.nl

2007-10-15

359

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

Matejovic, Igor [DECOM A.S., Jana Bottu, 2. SK-91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Polak, Vincent [STM POWER, a.s., Jana Bottu 2, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

360

Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects  

SciTech Connect

Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2013-09-15

361

Paleolimnological assessment of human impacts in Lake Blanca, SE Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleolimnological techniques were used to assess human impacts onLake Blanca, a small (0.6 km2), coastal fresh waterbodyin southern Uruguay, which is the drinking water source for ~100,000 localresidents. We retrieved a core that extends to about 1100 14Cyr BP. 210Pb ages, organic mater, CO3, totalcarbon, nutrients, fossil pigments and diatoms allowed us to establishlimnological conditions before and after cultural impacts.

F. García-Rodríguez; N. Mazzeo; P. Sprechmann; D. Metzeltin; F. Sosa; H. C. Treutler; M. Renom; B. Scharf; C. Gaucher

2002-01-01

362

Environmental impact assessment of manufacturing processes using a combinatorial mathematics based decision making method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for environmental impact assessment of manufacturing processes using a combinatorial mathematics based decision making method. An ‘environmental impact assessment index’ is proposed that evaluates and ranks the manufacturing processes for producing a given engineering product or component. The index is obtained from an ‘environmental impact assessment factors function’ considering environmental impact assessment factors and their

R. Venkata Rao

2008-01-01

363

Center for Biodiversity and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) site contains: information on the research CBC scientists are engaged in; links to information on how to help the CBC and learn more about protecting and conserving biodiversity; an explanation of what biodiversity is; and a list of CBC summary papers, education manuals, field reports, and brochures on conservation issues. Downloadable documents cover biodiversity, global taxonomy, the tree of life, and extinction. Research programs are located in the Bahamas, for marine reserve design; Madagascar, for application of conservation genetics to humpback whales and other studies; and in Vietnam, Bolivia, and New York State.

364

Strengthening the link between climate, hydrological and species distribution modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on freshwater biodiversity.  

PubMed

To understand the resilience of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change, it is important to determine how multiple, related environmental factors, such as near-surface air temperature and river flow, will change during the next century. This study develops a novel methodology that combines statistical downscaling and fish species distribution modeling, to enhance the understanding of how global climate changes (modeled by global climate models at coarse-resolution) may affect local riverine fish diversity. The novelty of this work is the downscaling framework developed to provide suitable future projections of fish habitat descriptors, focusing particularly on the hydrology which has been rarely considered in previous studies. The proposed modeling framework was developed and tested in a major European system, the Adour-Garonne river basin (SW France, 116,000 km(2)), which covers distinct hydrological and thermal regions from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic coast. The simulations suggest that, by 2100, the mean annual stream flow is projected to decrease by approximately 15% and temperature to increase by approximately 1.2 °C, on average. As consequence, the majority of cool- and warm-water fish species is projected to expand their geographical range within the basin while the few cold-water species will experience a reduction in their distribution. The limitations and potential benefits of the proposed modeling approach are discussed. PMID:22425276

Tisseuil, C; Vrac, M; Grenouillet, G; Wade, A J; Gevrey, M; Oberdorff, T; Grodwohl, J-B; Lek, S

2012-05-01

365

Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. Design: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). Main results: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitative estimates of change in exposure to determinants, and 16 gave quantified health outcomes. Eleven (categories of) determinants were quantified up to the level of health outcomes. Methods for exposure impact assessment were: estimation on the basis of routine data and measurements, and various kinds of modelling of traffic related and environmental factors, supplemented with experts' estimates and author's assumptions. Some studies used estimates from other documents pertaining to the policy. For the calculation of health outcomes, variants of epidemiological and toxicological risk assessment were used, in some cases in mathematical models. Conclusions: Quantification is comparatively rare in HIA. Methods are available in the areas of environmental health and, to a lesser extent, traffic accidents, infectious diseases, and behavioural factors. The methods are diverse and their reliability and validity are uncertain. Research and development in the following areas could benefit quantitative HIA: methods to quantify the effect of socioeconomic and behavioural determinants; user friendly simulation models; the use of summary measures of public health, expert opinion and scenario building; and empirical research into validity and reliability.

Veerman, J; Barendregt, J; Mackenbach, J

2005-01-01

366

Assessing MMOD Impacts on Seal Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastomer seal needed to seal in cabin air when NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle is docked is exposed to space prior to docking. While open to space, the seal might be hit by orbital debris or meteoroids. The likelihood of damage of this type depends on the size of the particle. Our campaign is designed to find the smallest particle that will cause seal failure resulting in loss of mission. We will then be able to estimate environmental risks to the seal. Preliminary tests indicate seals can withstand a surprising amount of damage and still function. Collaborations with internal and external partners are in place and include seal leak testing, modeling of the space environment using a computer code known as BUMPER, and hypervelocity impact (HVI) studies at Caltech. Preliminary work at White Sands Test Facility showed a 0.5 mm diameter HVI damaged areas about 7 times that diameter, boring deep (5 mm) into elastomer specimens. BUMPER simulations indicate there is a 1 in 1440 chance of getting hit by a particle of diameter 0.08 cm for current Lunar missions; and 0.27 cm for a 10 year ISS LIDS seal area exposure.

deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, C.; Dunlap, P.; Steinetz, B.

2007-01-01

367

Do partly outdated palaeontological data produce just a noise? An assessment of the Middle Devonian-Mississippian biodiversity dynamics in central Asia on the basis of Soviet-time compilations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interregional tracing of trends and events in the biotic evolution is an important task of modern palaeobiology. In Soviet times (1917-1991), numerous palaeontological data have collected for the territory of Russia and neighbouring U. S. S. R. countries. Later, these data were compiled and published in a series of reference volumes. Although this information cannot be updated in a conventional way, it remains valuable for quantitative analyses, particularly because of its comprehensive and unique character. Assessment of the previously collected data on the stratigraphic distribution of Middle Devonian-Mississippian marine invertebrates in three regions of central Asia (central Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) reveals some general patterns of biodiversity dynamics. The total number of genera generally declined during the Givetian-Famennian, whereas a remarkable diversity peak occurred in the Visean. This is consistent with the global pattern and, thus, permits to hypothesize a regional signature of the global trends. Changes in the extinction rate differ, however, between central Asia and the Earth in its entirety, which may be explained particularly by biases in either the regional or the global records. Evidence of the Givetian and Frasnian/Famennian mass extinctions is found in the three regions under study. Results of this tentative study indicate important directions for further research and suggest that central Asia is a highly important domain for studies of mid-Palaeozoic biodiversity dynamics.

Ruban, Dmitry A.

2011-04-01

368

Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

2002-01-01

369

GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR FOUR GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second in a series of reports concerning the environmental assessments of effluent extraction, energy conversion, and waste disposal in geothermal systems. This study involves the subsurface environmental impact of the Imperial Valley and The Geysers, California; Klam...

370

Cryptic biodiversity in a changing world  

PubMed Central

DNA studies are revealing the extent of hidden, or cryptic, biodiversity. Two new studies challenge paradigms about cryptic biodiversity and highlight the importance of adding a historical and biogeographic dimension to biodiversity research.

Beheregaray, Luciano B; Caccone, Adalgisa

2007-01-01

371

Children Prioritize Virtual Exotic Biodiversity over Local Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing

Jean-Marie Ballouard; François Brischoux; Xavier Bonnet

2011-01-01

372

Assessment of climate change impact on Eastern Washington agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the potential impact of climate change and the concurrent increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on eastern Washington State agriculture was conducted. Climate projections from four selected general circulation\\u000a models (GCM) were chosen, and the assessment included the crops with larger economic value for the state (apples, potatoes,\\u000a and wheat). To evaluate crop performance, a cropping system simulation

Claudio O. Stöckle; Roger L. Nelson; Stewart Higgins; Jay Brunner; Gary Grove; Rick Boydston; Mathew Whiting; Chad Kruger

2010-01-01

373

Assessing the ecological effects of human impacts on coral reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama.  

PubMed

Environmental and biological reef monitoring was conducted in Almirante Bay (Bahía Almirante) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, to assess impacts from anthropogenic developments. An integrated monitoring investigated how seasonal temperature stress, turbidity, eutrophication and physical impacts threatened reef health and biodiversity throughout the region. Environmental parameters such as total suspended solids [TSS], carbon isotopes (?(13)C), C/N ratios, chlorophyll a, irradiance, secchi depth, size fractions of the sediments and isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] of the water were measured throughout the years 2010 and 2011 and were analysed in order to identify different impact sources. Compared to data from Collin et al. (Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:324-334, 2009) chlorophyll a has doubled at sites close to the city and the port Almirante (from 0.46-0.49 to 0.78-0.97 ?g l(-1)) and suspension load increased, visible by a decrease in secchi depth values. Visibility decreased from 9-13 m down to 4 m at the bay inlet Boca del Drago, which is strongly exposed to river run off and dredging for the shipping traffic. Eutrophication and turbidity levels seemed to be the determining factor for the loss of hard coral diversity, most significant at chlorophyll a levels higher than 0.5 ?g l(-1) and TSS levels higher than 4.7 mg l(-1). Hard coral cover within the bay has also declined, at some sites down to <10 % with extremely low diversities (7 hard coral species). The hard coral species Porites furcata dominated the reefs in highly impacted areas and showed a strong recovery after bleaching and a higher tolerance to turbidity and eutrophication compared to other hard coral species in the bay. Serious overfishing was detected in the region by a lack of adult and carnivorous fish species, such as grunts, snappers and groupers. Study sites less impacted by anthropogenic activities and/or those with local protection showed a higher hard coral cover and fish abundance; however, an overall loss of hard coral diversity was observed. PMID:24254491

Seemann, Janina; González, Cindy T; Carballo-Bolaños, Rodrigo; Berry, Kathryn; Heiss, Georg A; Struck, Ulrich; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

2014-03-01

374

World Biodiversity Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Biodiversity Database, provided by ETI BioInformatics, seeks to document all presently known species (about 1.7 million) and to make this important biological information worldwide accessible. This continually growing database provides "taxonomic information, species names, synonyms, descriptions, illustrations and literature references, as well as online identification keys and interactive geographical information systems." The searchable database can be explored using an expandable tree of taxonomic kingdoms or by typing in a common or scientific name. Both educators and students should find this site easy to navigate, informative, and useful.

2005-12-08

375

INVENTION SUMMARY: TRACI: TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI is an impact assessment tool being developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory, EPA, Cincinnati to assist environmental decision making. It includes impact assessment methodologies and supporting databases to allow a screening level assessment in seven im...

376

AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to p...

377

AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

378

AQUATIC PLANT COMMUNITIES FOR IMPACT MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The studies revewed here suggest that both structural and functional assessments of aquatic plant communities are valuable tools in the determination of environmental impacts and water quality. I am not suggesting that aquatic plants be used in lieu of macronivertebrates or fish ...

379

Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

2004-01-01

380

Health Impact Assessment as a Student Service Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…

Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.

2012-01-01

381

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...

382

Improving the use of evidence in health impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Health impact assessment (HIA) has been proposed as one mechanism that can inform decision-making by public policy-makers. However, HIA methodology has been criticized for a lack of rigour in its use of evidence. The aim of this work was to formulate, develop and test a practical guide to reviewing publicly available evidence for use in HIA. The term evidence

Jennifer Mindell; Jane Biddulph; Lorraine Taylor; Karen Lock; Annette Boaz; Michael Joffe; Sarah Curtis

2010-01-01

383

Assessing the Impact of Transgenerational Epigenetic Variation on Complex Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss or gain of DNA methylation can affect gene expression and is sometimes transmitted across generations. Such epigenetic alterations are thus a possible source of heritable phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA sequence change. However, attempts to assess the prevalence of stable epigenetic variation in natural and experimental populations and to quantify its impact on complex traits have been

Frank Johannes; Emmanuelle Porcher; Felipe K. Teixeira; Vera Saliba-Colombani; Matthieu Simon; Nicolas Agier; Agnès Bulski; Juliette Albuisson; Fabiana Heredia; Pascal Audigier; David Bouchez; Christine Dillmann; Philippe Guerche; Vincent Colot

2009-01-01

384

VISUAL LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT AND VISUAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN MONCHIQUE, PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenic landscapes are integral component of the forest resource base, those landscapes are identified and described in any forest development plan. A visual impact assessment is prepared when the forest development and access management plans are proposing harvesting, soil preparation, reforestation and road construction in scenic areas. It will be presented the visual landscape management of the \\

T. PANAGOPOULOS

2009-01-01

385

Effective Science Instruction: Impact on High-Stakes Assessment Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the impact of effective science instruction on performance on high-stakes high school graduation assessments in science. This study provides powerful findings to support authentic science teaching to enhance long-term retention of learning and performance on state-mandated…

Johnson, Carla C.; Zhang, Danhui; Kahle, Jane Butler

2012-01-01

386

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

387

A SYNOPTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE IMPACTS TO WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency's Wetlands Research Program has developed the synoptic approach as a proposed method for assessing cumulative impacts to wetlands by providing both a general and a comprehensive view of the environment. It can also be applied more broadly to...

388

A "Children's Government" in England and Child Impact Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite structural changes made to central government and the development of the Every Child Matters programme in England, compartmentalised child policy proposals are often created for service settings and in response to a specific political imperative. This article provides a rationale for child impact assessment--a systematic process in which…

Payne, Lisa

2007-01-01

389

Influence of global climate model selection on runoff impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe future rainfall series used to drive hydrological models in many climate change impact on runoff studies are informed by rainfall simulated by global climate models (GCMs). This paper assesses how the choice of GCMs based on their abilities to reproduce the observed historical rainfall can affect runoff impact assessment. The 23 GCMs used in IPCC 4AR are considered together with 1961-2000 observed rainfall data over southeast Australia. The results indicate that most of the GCMs can reproduce the observed spatial mean annual rainfall pattern, but the errors in the mean seasonal and annual rainfall amounts can be significant. The future mean annual rainfall projections averaged across southeast Australia range from -10% to +3% change per degree global warming, which is amplified as -23% to +4% change in the future mean annual runoff. There is no clear difference in the future rainfall projections between the better and poorer GCMs based on their abilities to reproduce the observed historical rainfall, therefore using only the better GCMs or weights to favour the better GCMs give similar runoff impact assessment results as the use of all the 23 GCMs. The range of future runoff in impact assessment studies is probably best determined using future rainfall projections from the majority of available archived GCM simulations.

Chiew, F. H. S.; Teng, J.; Vaze, J.; Kirono, D. G. C.

2009-12-01

390

Assessing the Impact of a University Teaching Development Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four different indicators are used to assess the impact of a year-long university teaching development programme in an Australian research-led university. All four indicators show small positive outcomes. Teachers who complete the programme have higher rates of receipt of teaching awards and teaching development grants than their colleagues who do…

Trigwell, Keith; Rodriguez, Katia Caballero; Han, Feifei

2012-01-01

391

LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

392

Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

2012-11-01

393

Health and the environment : assessing the impacts, addressing the uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental health problems have become increasingly complex. Climate change, increased urbanization or exposure to electromagnetic fields are highly divergent examples of issues about which no scientific consensus exists, for which no straightforward solutions are available and which are embedded in a wide societal context. It is challenging to assess the health impacts of such so-called “systemic risks”. Integrated Environmental Health

Anne Barbara Knol

2010-01-01

394

Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.  

PubMed

Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

2011-07-01

395

Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does confer stability to stress and disturbance, but the mechanism is not yet fully understood. It appears to depend on the

Lijbert Brussaard; Peter C. de Ruiter; George G. Brown

2007-01-01

396

Biodiversity, Sustainability and Human Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which the planet is losing its biodiversity, the implications of this loss, and possible remedies are the subject of much public and academic debate. This book shows how biodiversity can be protected through the involvement of local communities. The authors suggest that strict protection of threatened areas must be combined with involvement by local economies and societies.

Tim O'Riordan; Susanne Stoll-Kleemann

2002-01-01

397

What's the Big Idea? Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they are introduced to biodiversity on our planet. The online slide show covers what biodiversity is and why it is so important to our planet.

398

Biodiversity: past, present, and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the fossil record are used to illustrate biodiversity in the past and estimate modern biodiversity and loss. This data is used to compare current rates of extinction with past extinction events. Paleontologists are encouraged to use this data to understand the course and consequences of current losses and to share this knowledge with researchers interested in conservation and ecology.

Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

399

Biodiversity: Who Knows, Who Cares?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biodiversity is an abstract concept, attracting various responses from different people according to where they have come from and what ecosystems they have been closely linked to. In theory, most people would agree that protecting biodiversity is an important process, but in practice, few people commit to actions on a local level. This paper…

Zemits, Birut

2006-01-01

400

Systematics and the biodiversity crisis  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Savage, J.M. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

1995-11-01

401

Climatic impact of land use in LCA—carbon transfers between vegetation\\/soil and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Human use of land areas leads to impacts on nature in several ways. Within the framework of the UNEP\\/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative,\\u000a it was stated that life cycle assessment (LCA) of land use should assess at least the impact on biodiversity, the impact on\\u000a biotic production, and the impact on the regulating functions of the natural environment.

Ruedi Müller-Wenk; Miguel Brandão

2010-01-01

402

World Atlas of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an outstanding new Web site from the United Nations Environment Programmes World Conservation Monitoring Center (UNEP-WCMC). Like other GIS-based programs, the features of this Web site can be useful in demonstrating spatial patterns of environmental problems. Users can choose from dozens of map layers (derived from biodiversity and related data) to superimpose on geographical maps of the planet on a global, regional, or even local scale. Manipulating the maps is relatively straightforward. For example, to explore the correlation between human population density and bird extinctions in North America, drag a box around the continent, select Human Population Density and Bird Extinctions from the map layer menu, and then click Refresh Map. One does not have to be familiar with GIS programs to use this Web site, but a quick look at the Help page should clarify any confusion regarding the site's toolbar icons or other features. Users should note that the graphics can make this site very slow to load, and no maps are currently available for the categories Diversity of Organisms and Biodiversity Through Time.

2002-01-01

403

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

404

"Learning Careers" or "Assessment Careers?" The Impact of Assessment Systems on Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights key factors in learning careers, particularly in relation to the impact of formative assessment practices. Relates research findings on formative assessment in primary and further education to studies which use Pierre Bourdieu's notions of habitus, field, cultural and social capital to explore learning careers and learning identities in…

Ecclestone, Kathryn; Pryor, John

2003-01-01

405

Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa  

PubMed Central

Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield.

Patil, Rajan R.

2011-01-01

406

Territorial impact assessment: integrating territorial aspects in sectoral policies.  

PubMed

Territorial impact assessment has recently gained attention as a tool to improve the coherence of sector policies with territorial cohesion objectives. The paper presents a method for territorial impact assessment and the results of applying this method on Slovenian energy policy. A two phase approach first disaggregates the problem into a three-dimensional matrix, consisting of policy measures, territorial objectives and territorial units. The synthesis phase aggregates measures and objectives in physical, economic or socio-cultural groups and observes their interrelation through an input-output matrix. The results have shown that such a two level approach is required to obtain complete and useful information for policy developers. In contrast to the relatively favourable evaluation of individual measures on the first level of assessment, the synthesis has revealed substantial and systemic weaknesses: considerable imbalance of energy policy favouring territorial effectiveness and mainly neglecting territorial identity as well as its counterproductiveness in reducing regional disparities. PMID:21555040

Golobic, Mojca; Marot, Naja

2011-08-01

407

Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic drivers of environmental change often have multiple effects, including changes in biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning. It remains unknown whether such shifts in biodiversity and species composition may, themselves, be major contributors to the total, long-term impacts of anthropogenic drivers on ecosystem functioning. Moreover, although numerous experiments have shown that random losses of species impact the functioning of ecosystems, human-caused losses of biodiversity are rarely random. Here we use results from long-term grassland field experiments to test for direct effects of chronic nutrient enrichment on ecosystem productivity, and for indirect effects of enrichment on productivity mediated by resultant species losses. We found that ecosystem productivity decreased through time most in plots that lost the most species. Chronic nitrogen addition also led to the nonrandom loss of initially dominant native perennial C4 grasses. This loss of dominant plant species was associated with twice as great a loss of productivity per lost species than occurred with random species loss in a nearby biodiversity experiment. Thus, although chronic nitrogen enrichment initially increased productivity, it also led to loss of plant species, including initially dominant species, which then caused substantial diminishing returns from nitrogen fertilization. In contrast, elevated CO2 did not decrease grassland plant diversity, and it consistently promoted productivity over time. Our results support the hypothesis that the long-term impacts of anthropogenic drivers of environmental change on ecosystem functioning can strongly depend on how such drivers gradually decrease biodiversity and restructure communities.

Isbell, Forest; Reich, Peter B.; Tilman, David; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Polasky, Stephen; Binder, Seth

2013-01-01

408

Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.  

PubMed

Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident. PMID:22940502

Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

2012-11-15

409

Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.  

PubMed

The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

Beketov, Mikhail A; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Matthias

2013-07-01