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1

Assessing Potential Impacts on Biodiversity Using Critical Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries there has been much concern over maintaining biodiversity in natural ecosystems in the face of pressures such as changing land use and pollution. The 1992 UN Convention on Biodiversity calls upon signatories to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In the UK, the potential impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition at the

K. R. Bull; J. R Hall; J. Cooper; S. E. Metcalfe; D. Morton; J. Ullyett; T. L. Warr; J. D. Whyatt

2001-01-01

2

Biodiversity Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field-based investigation, students survey vegetation and small animal diversity in a study plot. They calculate the biomass of different organisms, and create a habitat action plan based on their data. A student data sheet is included. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "Seeking Biodiversity," part of the unit Losing Biodiversity, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

3

Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss. PMID:22308313

Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

2013-01-01

4

Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

Crist, P. J.; Kohley, T. W.; Oakleaf, J.

2000-01-01

5

Application of network method as a tool for integrating biodiversity values in Environmental Impact Assessment.  

PubMed

Highway construction or expansion projects are among major activities of economic development especially in developing countries. However, road development consistently can lead to major damages to the environment, including habitat fragmentation and ecological instabilities and a considerable threat to fauna and flora. At this point, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in road developments is needed to address and evaluate the ecological issues in decision-making. The object of this study is to strengthen the consideration of ecological issues, i.e., biodiversity in the existing EIA tools. This paper regards a network method as a means to make informed planning decisions by the lessons from a case study. The results indicate that network method is well suited to be applied in ecological impacts assessment. However, some limitations such as complexity and time consumed make casual networks unpopular. Also, impact of traffic noise on acoustic communication (wildlife and human) was performed. It has been shown that sound level for human is much higher than admissible standards. Finally, the study expresses some mitigation measures to improve the acquisition for environmental impact assessment process. PMID:20174866

Monavari, Masoud; Fard, Samaneh M B

2011-01-01

6

AN INSIGHT INTO THE IMPACT OF ARABLE FARMING ON IRISH BIODIVERSITY: A SCARCITY OF STUDIES HINDERS A RIGOROUS ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help understand and counteract future agronomic challenges to farmland biodiversity, it is essential to know how present farming practices have affected biodiversity on Irish farms. We present an overview of existing research data and conclusions, describing the impact of crop cultivation on biodiversity on Irish arable farms. An extensive literature review clearly indicates that peer-reviewed publications on research conducted

Martin O'Brien; Charles Spillane; Conor Meade; Ewen Mullins

2008-01-01

7

BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The basic issue that drives all concerns about biodiversity is theaccelerating and irreplaceable loss of genes, species, populations,and ecosystems through environmental degradation such asdeforestation, strip mining and other developmental projects. Associated with these losses ...

8

Basin-wide Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems and Biodiversity  

EPA Science Inventory

Mekong ecosystems are under pressure from a number of "drivers", including rapid economic development, population growth, unsustainable resource use, and climate change. Ecological modeling can help assess vulnerability and impacts of these drivers on the Lower Mekong Basin....

9

Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The second cross-cutting topic is the rapidly advancing field of climate adaptation, where there has been significant progress in developing the conceptual framework, planning approaches, and strategies for safeguarding biodiversity and other ecological resources. At the same time, ecosystem-based adaptation is becoming more prominent as a way to utilize ecosystem services to help human systems adapt to climate change. In this summary, we present key findings of the technical input, focusing on themes that can be found throughout the report. Thus, this summary takes a more integrated look at the question of how climate change is affecting our ecological resources, the implications for humans, and possible response strategies. This integrated approach better reflects the impacts of climate in the real world, where changes in ecosystem structure or function will alter the viability of different species and the efficacy of ecosystem services. Likewise, adaptation to climate change will simultaneously address a range of conservation goals. Case studies are used to illustrate this complete picture throughout the report; a snapshot of one case study, 2011 Las Conchas, New Mexico Fire, is included in this summary.

Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

10

Spatial Rule-Based Assessment of Habitat Potential to Predict Impact of Land Use Changes on Biodiversity at Municipal Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In human dominated landscapes, ecosystems are under increasing pressures caused by urbanization and infrastructure development. In Alpine valleys remnant natural areas are increasingly affected by habitat fragmentation and loss. In these contexts, there is a growing risk of local extinction for wildlife populations; hence assessing the consequences on biodiversity of proposed land use changes is extremely important. The article presents a methodology to assess the impacts of land use changes on target species at a local scale. The approach relies on the application of ecological profiles of target species for habitat potential (HP) assessment, using high resolution GIS-data within a multiple level framework. The HP, in this framework, is based on a species-specific assessment of the suitability of a site, as well of surrounding areas. This assessment is performed through spatial rules, structured as sets of queries on landscape objects. We show that by considering spatial dependencies in habitat assessment it is possible to perform better quantification of impacts of local-level land use changes on habitats.

Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

2011-03-01

11

[Expertise and biodiversity: the environmental impact assessment in the context of Natura 2000 network].  

PubMed

Natura 2000 network, established by the Habitats directive, states that "any plan or project likely to have a significant effect on a Natura 2000 site, shall undergo an appropriate assessment to determine its implications for the site". The safeguards set out in this article are triggered not by a certainty but by a likelihood of significant effects. The paradox clearly appears: the significant implications of a project can be assessed only through an impact assessment process. So the administration and the judge are asked, inevitably, to participate to the building of the definition of practical aspect of expertise. PMID:25073331

Makowiak, Jessica

2014-03-01

12

Use of belief network modelling to assess the impact of buffer zones on water protection and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian belief network (Fully Connected Belief Networks, FC BeNe) was used to estimate uncertainty in the functioning of established buffer zones in Finland. Four experts in the field of water protection and four in biodiversity were asked to assess the roles of 25 key variables involved in the functioning of buffer zones. The matrix comprised five levels of information: field

Sirkka Tattari; Titta Schultz; Mikko Kuussaari

2003-01-01

13

Treatment of biodiversity impacts in a sample of US environmental impact statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the project discussed here were to identify the level of documentation in US environmental impact statements dealing with biodiversity impact assessment, determine whether, in the years following release in 1993 of US Council on Environmental Quality guidelines on biodiversity, the treatment of the subject has changed, and identify deficiencies. A systematic review process examined 35 US impact

Samuel F. Atkinson; Sarika Bhatia; F. Andrew Schoolmaster; William T. Waller

2000-01-01

14

Coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity assessments of land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Geospatial details about land use are necessary to assess its potential impacts on biodiversity. Geographic information systems\\u000a (GIS) are adept at modeling land use in a spatially explicit manner, while life cycle assessment (LCA) does not conventionally\\u000a utilize geospatial information. This study presents a proof-of-concept approach for coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity\\u000a assessments of land use and applies it

Roland Geyer; David M. Stoms; Jan P. Lindner; Frank W. Davis; Bastian Wittstock

2010-01-01

15

THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF BIOFUELS ON BIODIVERSITY  

E-print Network

(SBSTTA), at its twelfth meeting, considered the interlinkages between biodiversity and liquid biofuel production as a new and emerging issue related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. To this end a pre-session document entitled ?New and emerging issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity: Biodiversity and liquid biofuel production ? was prepared (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/12/9). 2. In recommendation XII/7, SBSTTA requested the Executive Secretary (i) to invite Parties and other Governments to provide relevant information on the impacts on biodiversity along the full life cycle of the production and use of biofuels and how these are being addressed; (ii) to compile, in collaboration with relevant organizations, additional relevant information on this subject; (iii) to identify options for consideration of this emerging issue in the programmes of work of the Convention, including the programme of work on agricultural biodiversity and the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity; and (iv) to synthesize and submit the information resulting from the above activities for consideration at the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties. 3. The present note has been prepared on the basis of information submitted by Parties in response to notification 2007-082 as well as findings from scientific studies, reports and other documents, as well

unknown authors

2008-01-01

16

Plant biodiversity impacts on soil stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent times, growing threats to global biodiversity have raised awareness from the scientific community, with particular interest on how plant diversity impacts on ecosystem functioning. In the field of plant-soil interactions, much work has been done to research the implications of species loss, primarily focussing on biological processes such as plant productivity, microbial activity and carbon cycling. Consequently, virtually nothing is known about how plant diversity might impact on soil physical properties, and what mechanisms might be involved. This represents a serious gap in knowledge, given that maintaining soils with good structural integrity can reduce soil erosion and water pollution, and can lead to improved plant yield. Therefore, there is a need for a greater understanding of how plant communities and ecological interactions between plant roots and soils can play a role in regulating soil physical structure. Soil aggregation is an important process in determining soil stability by regulating soil water infiltration and having consequences for erodibility. This is influenced by both soil physical constituents and biological activity; including soil organic carbon content, microbial growth, and increased plant rooting. As previously mentioned, plant diversity influences carbon dynamics, microbial activity and plant growth, therefore could have substantial consequences for soil aggregate stability. Here, we present results from a series of plant manipulation experiments, on a range of scales, to understand more about how plant diversity could impact on soil aggregate stability. Soils from both a plant manipulation mesocosm experiment, and a long term biodiversity field study, were analysed using the Le Bissonnais method of aggregate stability breakdown. Increasing plant species richness was found to have a significant positive impact on soil aggregate stability at both scales. In addition to this, the influence of species identity, functional group identity, and root traits were also investigated. Studying at the interface of ecology and soil physics, this work aims to provide scope for a new direction in soil biodiversity studies.

Gould, Iain; Quinton, John; Bardgett, Richard

2014-05-01

17

The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts between the conservation of biodiversity and other human activities occur in all habitats and can impact severely\\u000a upon socio-economic and biological parameters. In a changing environment, with increasing pressure on ecosystem goods and\\u000a services and increasing urgency for biodiversity conservation, these conflicts are likely to increase in importance and magnitude\\u000a and negatively affect biodiversity and human well-being. It is

Juliette C. Young; Mariella Marzano; Rehema M. White; David I. McCracken; Steve M. Redpath; David N. Carss; Christopher P. Quine; Allan D. Watt

2010-01-01

18

Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

19

Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate Australia is a global hotspot for marine biodiversity and its waters have experienced well-above global average rates of ocean warming. We review the observed impacts of climate change (e.g. warming, ocean acidification, changes in storm patterns) on subtidal temperate coasts in Australia and assess how these systems are likely to respond to further change. Observed impacts are region specific

Thomas Wernberg; Bayden D. Russell; Pippa J. Moore; Scott D. Ling; Daniel A. Smale; Alex Campbell; Melinda A. Coleman; Peter D. Steinberg; Gary A. Kendrick; Sean D. Connell

2011-01-01

20

Biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis and assessment report bulds on extensive scientific literature and series of recent assessments of the historical and potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on managed and unmanaged ecosystems.

Janetos, Anthony C.; Hansen, Lara; Inouye, David; Kelly, Brendan; Meyerson, Laura; Peterson, Bill; Shaw, Rebecca

2008-05-27

21

PERSPECTIVE Towards a collaborative, global infrastructure for biodiversity assessment  

E-print Network

IDEA AND PERSPECTIVE Towards a collaborative, global infrastructure for biodiversity assessment OnlineOpen: This article is available free online at www.blackwell-synergy.com Robert P. Guralnick,1 of Colorado Museum, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 3 Global Biodiversity

Hammerton, James

22

Road-networks, a practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in Tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests.

Hosaka, T.; Yamada, T.; Okuda, T.

2014-02-01

23

Biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

Traditional herbalists act as a first-level screen for plants which may contain chemicals with significant pharmaceutical potential. Unfortunately, the destruction of rain forests is likely to lead to the extinction of many plant species before their potential can be explored. 165,000 km[sup 2] of tropical forest and 90,000 km[sup 2] of range land are destroyed or degraded each year, an annual attrition rate of about 1% for tropical forest. If these losses continue until only land set aside in parks is left, 66% of plant and 69% of animal species may be lost. The burning of forests to clear land for human settlement also makes a significant contribution to the greenhouse gases that are raising global mean temperatures. There are synergisms--here between rainforest destruction, loss of biodiversity, and global climate change--with potential impacts on health. Some aspects will be explored more fully in the contributions on vector-borne diseases and direct impacts and in the collaborative review of monitoring with which the series ends.

Dobson, A. (Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Carper, R. (John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-10-30

24

[Biodiversity and civil liability: the role of assessment].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to make the link between expertise and biodiversity through the civil liability Law. Indeed, since Erika Case (Cour de Cassation, Crim. 25 septembre 2012), this Law recognised the ecological damage. This one is defined as an damage caused to Nature and especially Biodiversity. Thus, the expertise has to play a major role. In this paper, two roles are studied: first all all, the expertise allows to assess the damage of Biodiversity itself, to define and to prove it. Secondly, the expertise is an instrument which is very important for prescribing the measures of compensation, in kind or pecuniary compensation. PMID:25073326

Boutonnet, Mathilde

2014-03-01

25

Mapping More of Terrestrial Biodiversity for Global Conservation Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal presents a new approach to describing and mapping the global distribution of terrestrial biodiversity. Global conservation assessments require information on the distribution of biodiversity across the planet. Yet this information is often mapped at a very coarse spatial resolution relative to the scale of most land-use and management decisions. Furthermore, such mapping tends to focus selectively on better-known elements of biodiversity (e.g., vertebrates). We introduce a new approach to describing and mapping the global distribution of terrestrial biodiversity that may help to alleviate these problems. This approach focuses on estimating spatial pattern in emergent properties of biodiversity (richness and compositional turnover) rather than distributions of individual species, making it well suited to lesser-known, yet highly diverse, biological groups. We have developed a global biodiversity model linking these properties to mapped ecoregions and fine-scale environmental surfaces. The model is being calibrated progressively using extensive biological data sets for a wide variety of taxa. We also describe an analytical approach to applying our model in global conservation assessments, illustrated with a preliminary analysis of the representativeness of the world's protected-area system. Our approach is intended to complement, not compete with, assessments based on individual species of particular conservation concern.

SIMON FERRIER, GEORGE V. N. POWELL, KAREN S. RICHARDSON, GLENN MANION, JAKE M. OVERTON, THOMAS F. ALLNUTT, SUSAN E. CAMERON, KELLIE MANTLE, NEIL D. BURGESS, DANIEL P. FAITH, JOHN F. LAMOREUX, GEROLD KIER, ROBERT J. HIJMANS, VICKI A. FUNK, GERASIMOS A. CAS (;)

2004-12-01

26

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY AND  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE SAN, enhanced water supply and quality, crop pollination, and outdoor recreation. The distribution of habitats management strategies, including conversion to perennial crops, have the potential to increase soil carbon

27

Climate Change and its Impact on Biodiversity - A critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planet earth is changing physically, chemically and biologically due to the effect of anthropogenic activities. The major global impact of human interference in ecosystem functioning is manifested in the form of climate change. The gradually accumulating evidence of the indirect effect of this change on biodiversity is causing worldwide concern. Intensive industrial growth and other anthropogenic-based activities have lead to

P. B. Rastogi; N. Rastogi

28

Impact Assessment of Biodiversity and Carbon Pools from Land Use and Land Use Changes in Life Cycle Assessment, Exemplified with Forestry Operations in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong need for methods within life cycle assessment (LCA) that enable the inclusion of all complex aspects related to land use and land use change (LULUC). This article presents a case study of the use of one hectare (ha) of forest managed for the production of wood for bioenergy production. Both permanent and temporary changes in above?ground

Ottar Michelsen; Francesco Cherubini; Anders Hammer Strømman

2012-01-01

29

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA  

E-print Network

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 1 NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON DOD LANDS WITHIN THE CALIFORNIA MOJAVE DESERT: A RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research proposed in this document is to evaluate the effects of human activities on biodiversity and related environmental concerns within the Mojave ecoregion of California both at the present and in 2020. While planning efforts and analyses are ongoing withi...

31

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON NEOTROPICAL BIODIVERSITY: ADAPTATION STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is warming. The global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.7°C since pre-industrial times. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects a further increase in global mean temperatures of 1.1° - 6.4° C by the year 2100. The question is not one of whether climate change will impact neotropical biodiversity but rather one of how

Jeff Price; Rachel Warren

32

Evaluating a Multi-Component Assessment Framework for Biodiversity Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners (NCEP) is a global initiative that seeks to create opportunities for the broad exchange of educational and training information and strategies among conservation educators and practitioners. The lack of access to such resources is a significant obstacle to building capacity in biodiversity conservation. To expand teaching resources and availability, NCEP has created over sixty web-based curricular modules on biodiversity topics that emphasize active learning pedagogies and the application of critical thinking to conservation problems. To complement the modules, we developed a multi-component assessment framework that evaluates 1) content knowledge before and after using the modules, 2) student confidence in their knowledge of biodiversity, 3) interest in biodiversity topics, 4)development of process skills that are important for conservation, and 5) changes in worldview and environmental orientation. Using this framework, three NCEP modules were tested in five diverse undergraduate courses and institutions with various class sizes. We predicted significant learning gains in content knowledge and changes in ecological attitudes and worldviews. We found significant learning gains in content knowledge as well as increases in student confidence in content knowledge and greater interest in the field of biodiversity conservation. Module use did not change the overall environmental worldview of students in the study population. We also detected statistically significant declines in overall student confidence in process skills important to conservation. Analyses revealed no significant differences in any study variables based upon demographics such as school, gender, ethnicity, class standing, reason forenrollment or academic major. Results demonstrate the value of the NCEP modules in enhancing biodiversity education, and the value of assessing student ability and perceptions of ability as measures of the effectiveness of educational programs.

Hagenbuch, Brian E.

2011-08-24

33

Assessing Global Marine Biodiversity Status within a Coupled Socio-Ecological Perspective  

PubMed Central

People value the existence of a variety of marine species and habitats, many of which are negatively impacted by human activities. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international and national policy agreements have set broad goals for reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. However, efforts to conserve biodiversity cannot be effective without comprehensive metrics both to assess progress towards meeting conservation goals and to account for measures that reduce pressures so that positive actions are encouraged. We developed an index based on a global assessment of the condition of marine biodiversity using publically available data to estimate the condition of species and habitats within 151 coastal countries. Our assessment also included data on social and ecological pressures on biodiversity as well as variables that indicate whether good governance is in place to reduce them. Thus, our index is a social as well as ecological measure of the current and likely future status of biodiversity. As part of our analyses, we set explicit reference points or targets that provide benchmarks for success and allow for comparative assessment of current conditions. Overall country-level scores ranged from 43 to 95 on a scale of 1 to 100, but countries that scored high for species did not necessarily score high for habitats. Although most current status scores were relatively high, likely future status scores for biodiversity were much lower in most countries due to negative trends for both species and habitats. We also found a strong positive relationship between the Human Development Index and resilience measures that could promote greater sustainability by reducing pressures. This relationship suggests that many developing countries lack effective governance, further jeopardizing their ability to maintain species and habitats in the future. PMID:23593188

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Best, Benjamin D.; Hardy, Darren; Elfes, Cristiane T.; Scarborough, Courtney; Kleisner, Kristin M.; Katona, Steven K.

2013-01-01

34

Biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

In tropical forests, on coral reefs, and in other threatened habitats, countless plant, animal, and microbial species face possible extinction - their names unknown, their numbers uncounted, their value unreckoned. Although popular attention has focused on the plight of more visible and widely known species like the whooping crane or the African elephant, most-experts agree that the loss of less-obvious organisms could be much more devastating. This is the subject of the volume. It calls attention to a most urgent global problem: the rapidly accelerating loss of plant and animal species to increasing human-population pressure and the demands of economic development. The book explores biodiversity from a wide variety of viewpoints.

Wilson, E.O.; Peter, F.M.

1988-01-01

35

A Fragile Cornucopia: Assessing the Status of U.S. Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a national status assessment of biodiversity for the United States. Discusses a catalog of biodiversity, the condition of species, and the legacy of extinctions in the area. Provides information for many of the states. (DDR)

Stein, Bruce A.

2001-01-01

36

Detectability Counts when Assessing Populations for Biodiversity Targets  

PubMed Central

Efficient, practical and accurate estimates of population parameters are a necessary basis for effective conservation action to meet biodiversity targets. The brown hare is representative of many European farmland species: historically widespread and abundant but having undergone rapid declines as a result of agricultural intensification. As a priority species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, it has national targets for population increase that are part of wider national environmental indicators. Previous research has indicated that brown hare declines have been greatest in pastural landscapes and that gains might be made by focussing conservation effort there. We therefore used hares in pastural landscapes to examine how basic changes in survey methodology can affect the precision of population density estimates and related these to national targets for biodiversity conservation in the UK. Line transects for hares carried out at night resulted in higher numbers of detections, had better-fitting detection functions and provided more robust density estimates with lower effort than those during the day, due primarily to the increased probability of detection of hares at night and the nature of hare responses to the observer. Hare spring densities varied widely within a single region, with a pooled mean of 20.6 hares km?2, significantly higher than the reported national average of hares in pastures of 3.3 hares km?2. The high number of encounters allowed us to resolve hare densities at site, season and year scales. We demonstrate how survey conduct can impact on data quantity and quality with implications for setting and monitoring biodiversity targets. Our case study of the brown hare provides evidence that for wildlife species with low detectability, large scale volunteer-based monitoring programmes, either species specific or generalist, might be more successfully and efficiently carried out by a small number of trained personnel able to employ methods that maximise detectability. PMID:21980343

Petrovan, Silviu O.; Ward, Alastair I.; Wheeler, Philip

2011-01-01

37

BIODIVERSITY Impacts of past habitat loss and future  

E-print Network

Geography, Goethe University Frankfurt/ Main, Altenho¨ferallee 1, 60438, Frankfurt/ Main, Germany, 5 South African National Biodiversity Institute, 7735, Cape Town, South Africa, 6 School of Agricultural, Earth, South Africa, 7 Biodiversity Planning Unit, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag x

Kreft, Holger

38

MODELKEY. Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity (5 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Triggered by the requirement of Water Framework Directive for a good ecological status for European river systems till 2015 and by still existing lacks in tools for cause identification of insufficient ecological status MODELKEY (http:\\/\\/www.modelkey.org), an Integrated Project with 26 partners from 14 European countries, was started in 2005. MODELKEY is the acronym for 'Models for assessing and forecasting

Werner Brack; Deckere de E; C. M. Deerenberg; Gils van J

2005-01-01

39

Report on the IAI Workshop On The Study Of The Impacts Of Climate Change On Biodiversity  

NSF Publications Database

* Evaluate the quality and rate of change in biodiversity due to global change throughout the Americas; * Study the effects of changes in biodiversity throughout the Americas on the rate and extent of global change; * Encourage studies that address the integrated effects of global change and their relative impact on biodiversity (e.g. UV-B, climate variability, pollutants, land-use changes, etc.); * Encourage studies on land-use changes and greenhouse gas emissions; * Encourage studies on the...

40

Impact assessment and biodiversity considerations in Nigeria : A case study of Niger Delta University campus project on wildlife in Nun River Forest Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Niger Delta University (NDU) campus is located on the fringe of a Nun River Forest Reserve (NRFR) in Nigeria. The NRFR covers 97.15 km2 of humid tropical rainforest characterized by torrential rains, seasonal flooding, and multi-layered vegetation. This paper aims to conduct a wildlife study, to assess the effects of the NDU campus project on NRFR. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Mohammed K. Hamadina; Dimie Otobotekere; Donald I. Anyanwu

2007-01-01

41

Biogenic CO2 fluxes, changes in surface albedo and biodiversity impacts from establishment of a miscanthus plantation.  

PubMed

Depletion in oil resources and environmental concern related to the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in using second generation biomass as alternative feedstock for fuels and materials. However, the land use and land use change for producing second generation (2G) biomass impacts the environment in various ways, of which not all are usually considered in life cycle assessment. This study assesses the biogenic CO2 fluxes, surface albedo changes and biodiversity impacts for 100 years after changing land use from forest or fallow land to miscanthus plantation in Wisconsin, US. Climate change impacts are addressed in terms of effective forcing, a mid-point indicator which can be used to compare impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes and albedo changes. Biodiversity impacts are assessed through elaboration on two different existing approaches, to express the change in biodiversity impact from one human influenced state to another. Concerning the impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes, in the case of conversion from a forest to a miscanthus plantation (case A) there is a contribution to global warming, whereas when a fallow land is converted (case B), there is a climate cooling. When the effects from albedo changes are included, both scenarios show a net cooling impact, which is more pronounced in case B. Both cases reduce biodiversity in the area where the miscanthus plantation is established, though most in case A. The results illustrate the relevance of these issues when considering environmental impacts of land use and land use change. The apparent trade-offs in terms of environmental impacts further highlight the importance of including these aspects in LCA of land use and land use changes, in order to enable informed decision making. PMID:25194521

Jørgensen, Susanne V; Cherubini, Francesco; Michelsen, Ottar

2014-12-15

42

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier setting on the Balkans, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes. Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1) assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic) biodiversity, (2) summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3) outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species) as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1) watershed impacts, (2) agriculture and forestry, (3) tourism and population growth, (4) non-indigenous species, (5) habitat alteration or loss, (6) unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7) global climate change. Among the major (well-known) threats with high impact are nutrient input (particularly of phosphorus), habitat conversion and silt load. Other threats are potentially of high impact but less well known. Such threats include pollution with hazardous substances (from sources such as mines, former industries, agriculture) or climate change. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species measures, international conservation activities, and ongoing research on conservation and raising of public awareness. Following this summary, we evaluate the status quo and future of Lake Ohrid and its biota. A comprehensive conservation strategy should include measures that result in an immediate reduction of nutrient input, particularly with phosphorus, in order to slow down the ongoing eutrophication process. The existing watershed management should become more effective. Implementation and particularly with a view to the enforcement of national laws should be enhanced. Increased research on the lakes' limnology, biodiversity, and conservation management practices are necessary. The latter research should identify conservation priorities. Public awareness should be enhanced. Facing these parallel needs to protect the unique biodiversity of Lake Ohrid, we suggest urging (a) implementation and enforcement of the General Management Plan that would ensure long-term integrated and sustainable use of the lake and its watershed, (b) scientific studies on ecology, biodiversity and effects of human impact, (c) the establishment of Core Conservation areas (CCA), including underwater reserves, and (d) Coastal Zone Management (CZM) areas that would constitute buffer zones for the CCAs around the lake. Given the number of identified threats, it is clear that only concerted international action can stop or at least slow down further degradation of Lake Ohrid and the creeping biodiversity crisis already evident. All conservation activities should, among others, ultimately lead to a trans-boundary major conservation area of the Ohrid-Prespa region that would allow long-term integration of both humans and nature.

Kostoski, G.; Albrecht, C.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

2010-12-01

43

Assessing Paleo-Biodiversity Using Low Proxy Influx  

PubMed Central

We developed an algorithm to improve richness assessment based on paleoecological series, considering sample features such as their temporal resolutions or their volumes. Our new method can be applied to both high- and low-count size proxies, i.e. pollen and plant macroremain records, respectively. While pollen generally abounds in sediments, plant macroremains are generally rare, thus leading to difficulties to compute paleo-biodiversity indices. Our approach uses resampled macroremain influxes that enable the computation of the rarefaction index for the low influx records. The raw counts are resampled to a constant resolution and sample volume by interpolating initial sample ages at a constant time interval using the age?depth model. Then, the contribution of initial counts and volume to each interpolated sample is determined by calculating a proportion matrix that is in turn used to obtain regularly spaced time series of pollen and macroremain influx. We applied this algorithm to sedimentary data from a subalpine lake situated in the European Alps. The reconstructed total floristic richness at the study site increased gradually when both pollen and macroremain records indicated a decrease in relative abundances of shrubs and an increase in trees from 11,000 to 7,000 cal BP. This points to an ecosystem change that favored trees against shrubs, whereas herb abundance remained stable. Since 6,000 cal BP, local richness decreased based on plant macroremains, while pollen-based richness was stable. The reconstructed richness and evenness are interrelated confirming the difficulty to distinguish these two aspects for the studies in paleo-biodiversity. The present study shows that low-influx bio-proxy records (here macroremains) can be used to reconstruct stand diversity and address ecological issues. These developments on macroremain and pollen records may contribute to bridge the gap between paleoecology and biodiversity studies. PMID:23776556

Blarquez, Olivier; Finsinger, Walter; Carcaillet, Christopher

2013-01-01

44

Towards coordinated long-term scenarios for assessing biodiversity risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a broad consensus amongst expert scholars that the rapid loss of biodiversity continues, although the number of species lost (let alone the loss of ecosystem and genetic diversity) cannot be quantified. From a policy point of view, this situation constitutes an urgent need to improve the ability to forecast possible changes in biodiversity. Biodiversity is influenced by a

Joachim H. Spangenberg

45

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater habitats and species living in freshwater are generally more prone to extinction than terrestrial or marine ones. Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are thus of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, the European biodiversity hotspot, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes. Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1) assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic) biodiversity, (2) summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3) outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species) as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1) watershed impacts, (2) agriculture and forestry, (3) tourism and population growth, (4) non-indigenous species, (5) habitat alteration or loss, (6) unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7) global climate change. Of the 11 IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) threat classes scored, seven have moderate and three severe impacts. These latter threat classes are energy production and mining, biological resource use, and pollution. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species measures, international conservation activities, and ongoing research on conservation and raising of public awareness. Following this summary, we evaluate the status quo and future of Lake Ohrid and its biota. Given the number of identified threats, it is clear that only concerted international action can stop or at least slow down further degradation of Lake Ohrid and the creeping biodiversity crisis already evident. A comprehensive conservation strategy should include measures that result in an immediate reduction of pollution, particularly with phosphorous, in order to slow down the ongoing eutrophication process. The existing watershed management should become more effective. Implementation and particularly with a view to the enforcement of national laws should be enhanced. Increased research on the lakes' limnology, biodiversity, and conservation management practices are necessary. The latter research should identify conservation priorities. Public awareness should be enhanced. Facing these parallel needs to protect the unique biodiversity of Lake Ohrid, we suggest urging (a) implementation and enforcement of the General Management Plan that would ensure long-term integrated and sustainable use of the lake and its watershed, (b) scientific studies on ecology, biodiversity and effects of human impact, (c) the establishment of Core Conservation areas (CCA), including underwater reserves, and (d) Coastal Zone Management (CZM) areas that would constitute buffer zones for the CCA around the lake. These activities should, among others, ultimately lead to a trans-boundary major conservation area of the Ohrid-Prespa region that would allow long-term integration of both humans and nature.

Kostoski, G.; Albrecht, C.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

2010-07-01

46

Criteria and Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Forest Management: Conservation of Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The need for new criteria and indicators for the assessment of biodiversity conservation as part of sustainable forest management of tropical forests has been identified as a priority by many international organisations. Those biodiversity criteria and indicators which formed part of a much broader initial assessment by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (Prabhu et al. 1996) were

N. E. Stork; T. J. B. Boyle; V. Dale; H. Eeley; B. Finegan; M. Lawes; N. Manokaran; R. Prabhu; J. Soberon

1997-01-01

47

Synoptic assessment of wetland function: a planning tool for protection of wetland species biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment provides a method for prioritizing sub-basins potentially critical for supporting wetland species biodiversity and may assist environmental managers and conservationists constrained

E. William Schweiger; Scott G. Leibowitz; Jeffrey B. Hyman; Walt E. Foster; Marla C. Downing

2002-01-01

48

ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLAR ORBIT ON TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The terrestrial record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-05-10

49

Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: advances and challenges in DNA-based approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate faunas in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify wate...

50

INDICATORS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING BIODIVERSITY: A HIERARCHIAL APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. t has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real world regulatory and management problems. The three primary attributes of biodiversity recognized by Jerry Franklin - composition, s...

51

Assessing the functional implications of soil biodiversity in ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil communities are among the most species-rich components of terrestrial ecosystems. A major challenge for soil ecologists is to formulate feasible research strategies that will preserve and capitalize on the biodiversity resources of the soil. This article considers the role of soil organism diversity by concentrating on: (i) the relationship between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function; (ii) what issues need

Thomas Hefin Jones; Mark Alexander Bradford

2001-01-01

52

Impact of a dam on benthic macroinvertebrates in a small river in a biodiversity hotspot: Cape Floristic Region, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable reservoirs and monitoring methods are needed to manage scarce water supplies in dry countries. We assessed here the\\u000a impact on aquatic macroinvertebrates of the only dam on the Eerste River, which runs through the heart of a biodiversity hotspot,\\u000a the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. The dam and associated activities, were the only forms of disturbance in this otherwise

Emile Bredenhand; Michael J. Samways

2009-01-01

53

Assessing and Communicating the Loss of Biodiversity and  

E-print Network

use and land intensive products (e.g., from agriculture, forestry, mining). Even more important, Thurnau, Germany www.global-change-ecology.de #12;Global change of land use and land cover has severe and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In combination they allow to better assess the ecological impact of land

Schmidt, Matthias

54

Economic Assessment Environmental impact  

E-print Network

- ". Economic Assessment Environmental impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides Background Economic Assessment Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 3 BACKGROUND Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS

55

Assessing biodiversity of boreal forests with imaging spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, imaging spectrometry employing high spectral resolution has been applied to vegetation diversity assessment. A foundation for these studies is the idea of plant optical type, which is affected by canopy structure, leaf traits, and phenology. This study proposes that the optical variation of a forest canopy is strongly correlated to the vegetation diversity. Using data collected with an imaging spectrometer (pixel size 1m, and usable spectral range 400-900nm), flown over the North Saskatchewan River Valley, Edmonton, Alberta, we show that metrics of biodiversity (species richness and Simpson's Index of 30x30m plots) are strongly correlated to metrics of optical diversity (Optical Diversity Indices). These optical diversity indices (ODIs) were built using linear models correlating diversity indices to a combination of variables, which included: the standard deviation of NDVI (NDVIsd), PRI (PRIsd), principal component 1 (PC1sd), and principal component 2 (PC2sd). Three variations of ODIs were built based upon vegetation indices, principal components, and a combination of vegetation indices and principal components. Correlation values were 0.70, 0.80, and 0.86 respectively. In further analyses, PC1 was correlated to the green and NIR wavelengths where PC2 was correlated with blue and red chlorophyll absorption wavelengths. Variation in optical diversity was also clearly visible in spectra and airborne imagery. These indices show that spectral regions used to track the photosynthetic activity (PC2, PRI, and NDVI) and green canopy structure of plants (NDVI, and PC1) can be used to differentiate optical types in a way that yields information on biodiversity. Further experimental studies involving diversity manipulation are needed to answer the mechanisms behind optical diversity. Further testing of optical diversity across many ecosystems is also needed to develop operational methods to survey large areas from and aircraft or satellite. Two contrasting vegetation diversity plots. The left column is a low diversity (SR3) plot while the right plot has middle range diversity (SR6). The top panel is the first principal component of variation (red=high values, and blue=low values). The middle panel shows the average spectra for the plot (black line) and one standard deviation above and below the average (green). The bottom panel shows the correlation between species richness and ODI#3.

DeLancey, E.; Gamon, J. A.

2013-12-01

56

Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration

Boris Worm; Edward B. Barbier; Nicola Beaumont; J. Emmett Duffy; Carl Folke; Benjamin S. Halpern; Jeremy B. C. Jackson; Heike K. Lotze; Fiorenza Micheli; Stephen R. Palumbi; Enric Sala; Kimberley A. Selkoe; John J. Stachowicz; Reg Watson

2006-01-01

57

Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation

Simon G. Haberle

2007-01-01

58

Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.  

PubMed

In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed. PMID:17255031

Haberle, Simon G

2007-02-28

59

Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Many studies in recent years have investigated the effects of climate change on the future of biodiversity. In this review, we first examine the different possible effects of climate change that can operate at individual, population, species, community, ecosystem and biome scales, notably showing that species can respond to climate change challenges by shifting their climatic niche along three non-exclusive axes: time (e.g., phenology), space (e.g., range) and self (e.g., physiology). Then, we present the principal specificities and caveats of the most common approaches used to estimate future biodiversity at global and sub-continental scales and we synthesize their results. Finally, we highlight several challenges for future research both in theoretical and applied realms. Overall, our review shows that current estimates are very variable, depending on the method, taxonomic group, biodiversity loss metrics, spatial scales and time periods considered. Yet, the majority of models indicate alarming consequences for biodiversity, with the worst-case scenarios leading to extinction rates that would qualify as the sixth mass extinction in the history of the earth. PMID:22257223

Leadley, Paul; Thuiller, Wilfried; Courchamp, Franck

2013-01-01

60

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier

G. Kostoski; C. Albrecht; S. Trajanovski; T. Wilke

2010-01-01

61

Evaluation of Museum Collection Data for Use in Biodiversity Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural-history collections in museums contain data critical to decisions in biodiversity conserva- tion. Collectively, these specimen-based data describe the distributions of known taxa in time and space. As the most comprehensive, reliable source of knowledge for most described species, these records are potentially available to answer a wide range of conservation and research questions. Nevertheless, these data have short- comings,

W. F. PONDER; G. A. CARTER; P. FLEMONS; R. R. CHAPMAN

2010-01-01

62

Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To compare theoretical approaches towards estimating risks of plant species loss to anthropogenic climate change impacts in a biodiversity hotspot, and to develop a practical method to detect signs of climate change impacts on natural populations. Location The Fynbos biome of South Africa, within the Cape Floristic Kingdom. Methods Bioclimatic modelling was used to identify envir- onmental limits for

G. F. Midgley; L. Hannah; D. Millar; M. C. Rutherford; L. W. Powrie

2002-01-01

63

Impact on indigenous species biodiversity caused by the globalisation of alien recreational freshwater fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most insidious threats to fish conservation around the world is deliberate or accidental introduction of fish species. The impact of alien invasive sport fish is for the most part unpredictable in time and space, with the introduction of relatively few species having resulted in many extirpations of indigenous fish species worldwide. More nations need to quantify biodiversity

J. A. Cambray

2003-01-01

64

Future directions for biodiversity conservation in managed forests: indicator species, impact studies and monitoring programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity and use of the indicator species concept, the design of logging impact studies, the need for long-term monitoring programs and how they might be designed, and, trade-offs between conservation strategies and economic costs are topics critical to the future direction of biological conservation in managed forests. The indicator species concept can make an important contribution to biodiversity conservation

D. B. Lindenmayer

1999-01-01

65

Quantifying the impacts on biodiversity of policies for carbon sequestration in forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest) to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. To date, economic analyses have focused on the costs of forest carbon sequestration policies related to foregone profits from agricultural production. No studies have examined additional costs or benefits associated with impacts on biodiversity.

Stephen Matthews; Raymond O'Connor; Andrew J. Plantinga

2002-01-01

66

Proposed Local Ecological Impact Categories and Indicators for Life Cycle Assessment of Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we discuss impact categories and indicators to incorporate local ecological impacts into life cycle assessment (LCA) for aquaculture. We focus on the production stages of salmon farming—freshwater hatcheries used to produce smolts and marine grow?out sites using open netpens. Specifically, we propose two impact categories: impacts of nutrient release and impacts on biodiversity. Proposed indicators for impacts

Jennifer S. Ford; Nathan L. Pelletier; Friederike Ziegler; Astrid J. Scholz; Peter H. Tyedmers; Ulf Sonesson; Sarah A. Kruse; Howard Silverman

2012-01-01

67

SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

68

SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7), USA. Our assessment provides a method for identi...

69

Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: Advances and challenges in dna-based approaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago Press.

Pfrender, M.E.; Ferrington, L.C., Jr.; Hawkins, C.P.; Hartzell, P.L.; Bagley, M.; Jackson, S.; Courtney, G.W.; Larsen, D.P.; Creutzburg, B.R.; Levesque, C.A.; Epler, J.H.; Morse, J.C.; Fend, S.; Petersen, M.J.; Ruiter, D.; Schindel, D.; Whiting, M.

2010-01-01

70

Abstract We examined the impact of biodiversity on lit-ter decomposition in an experiment that manipulated  

E-print Network

Abstract We examined the impact of biodiversity on lit- ter decomposition in an experiment loss over a 1-year period. Thus, the increased productivity and cor- responding lower soil available Biodiversity · Decomposition · Mixed litterbags · Nitrogen cycling Introduction In most ecosystems

Minnesota, University of

71

Linking tree biodiversity to belowground process in a young tropical plantation: Impacts on soil CO2 flux  

E-print Network

Linking tree biodiversity to belowground process in a young tropical plantation: Impacts on soil CO reserved. Keywords: Biodiversity; Carbon cycling; Ecosystem function; Soil respiration; Tropics 1 Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA c

Potvin, Catherine

72

Global Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and Carbon Pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first global probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the global urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and forest carbon losses.

Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.

2012-12-01

73

Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting  

PubMed Central

Habitat degradation through anthropogenic development is a key driver of biodiversity loss. One way to compensate losses is “biodiversity offsetting” (wherein biodiversity impacted is “replaced” through restoration elsewhere). A challenge in implementing offsets, which has received scant attention in the literature, is the accurate determination of residual biodiversity losses. We explore this challenge for offsetting gas extraction in the Ustyurt Plateau, Uzbekistan. Our goal was to determine the landscape extent of habitat impacts, particularly how the footprint of “linear” infrastructure (i.e. roads, pipelines), often disregarded in compensation calculations, compares with “hub” infrastructure (i.e. extraction facilities). We measured vegetation cover and plant species richness using the line-intercept method, along transects running from infrastructure/control sites outward for 500 m, accounting for wind direction to identify dust deposition impacts. Findings from 24 transects were extrapolated to the broader plateau by mapping total landscape infrastructure network using GPS data and satellite imagery. Vegetation cover and species richness were significantly lower at development sites than controls. These differences disappeared within 25 m of the edge of the area physically occupied by infrastructure. The current habitat footprint of gas infrastructure is 220 ± 19 km2 across the Ustyurt (total ? 100,000 km2), 37 ± 6% of which is linear infrastructure. Vegetation impacts diminish rapidly with increasing distance from infrastructure, and localized dust deposition does not conspicuously extend the disturbance footprint. Habitat losses from gas extraction infrastructure cover 0.2% of the study area, but this reflects directly eliminated vegetation only. Impacts upon fauna pose a more difficult determination, as these require accounting for behavioral and demographic responses to disturbance by elusive mammals, including threatened species. This study demonstrates that impacts of linear infrastructure in regions such as the Ustyurt should be accounted for not just with respect to development sites but also associated transportation and delivery routes. PMID:24455163

Jones, Isabel L; Bull, Joseph W; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor J; Esipov, Alexander V; Suttle, Kenwyn B

2014-01-01

74

Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting.  

PubMed

Habitat degradation through anthropogenic development is a key driver of biodiversity loss. One way to compensate losses is "biodiversity offsetting" (wherein biodiversity impacted is "replaced" through restoration elsewhere). A challenge in implementing offsets, which has received scant attention in the literature, is the accurate determination of residual biodiversity losses. We explore this challenge for offsetting gas extraction in the Ustyurt Plateau, Uzbekistan. Our goal was to determine the landscape extent of habitat impacts, particularly how the footprint of "linear" infrastructure (i.e. roads, pipelines), often disregarded in compensation calculations, compares with "hub" infrastructure (i.e. extraction facilities). We measured vegetation cover and plant species richness using the line-intercept method, along transects running from infrastructure/control sites outward for 500 m, accounting for wind direction to identify dust deposition impacts. Findings from 24 transects were extrapolated to the broader plateau by mapping total landscape infrastructure network using GPS data and satellite imagery. Vegetation cover and species richness were significantly lower at development sites than controls. These differences disappeared within 25 m of the edge of the area physically occupied by infrastructure. The current habitat footprint of gas infrastructure is 220 ± 19 km(2) across the Ustyurt (total ? 100,000 km(2)), 37 ± 6% of which is linear infrastructure. Vegetation impacts diminish rapidly with increasing distance from infrastructure, and localized dust deposition does not conspicuously extend the disturbance footprint. Habitat losses from gas extraction infrastructure cover 0.2% of the study area, but this reflects directly eliminated vegetation only. Impacts upon fauna pose a more difficult determination, as these require accounting for behavioral and demographic responses to disturbance by elusive mammals, including threatened species. This study demonstrates that impacts of linear infrastructure in regions such as the Ustyurt should be accounted for not just with respect to development sites but also associated transportation and delivery routes. PMID:24455163

Jones, Isabel L; Bull, Joseph W; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor J; Esipov, Alexander V; Suttle, Kenwyn B

2014-01-01

75

Forecasting Impacts of Climate Change on Indicators of British Columbia's Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected areas are expected to experience the greatest change with indirect indicators located along mountainous elevations of British Columbia. Our indirect indicator approach to predict change in biodiversity provides resource managers with information to mitigate and adapt to future habitat dynamics. Spatially specific recommendations from our dataset provide information necessary for management. For instance, knowing there is a projected depletion of habitat representation in the East Rocky Mountains, sensitive species in the threatened Mountain Hemlock ecozone, or preservation of rare habitats in the decreasing greenness of the southern interior region is essential information for managers tasked with long term biodiversity conservation. Forecasting productivity levels, linked to the distribution of species richness, presents a novel approach for understanding the future implications of climate change on broad scale biodiversity.

Holmes, Keith Richard

76

The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.  

PubMed

Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

2014-09-28

77

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Assessing the Economic Contribution of Native Bees to Crop Production  

E-print Network

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Assessing the Economic Contribution of Native Bees to Crop on the role of native bees as crop pollinators in apple orchards in central NY. Our first two years of data reveal an enormous diversity of bee species (>80 species to date) in orchards ranging from 2 acres to up

Angenent, Lars T.

78

Biodiversity of Collembola in Urban Soils and the Use of Folsomia candida to Assess Soil `Quality'  

E-print Network

Biodiversity of Collembola in Urban Soils and the Use of Folsomia candida to Assess Soil `Quality candida (Willem), were determined in a 4 week exposure test to soils from all five sites. Mortality structure of Collembola in the field, and performance of F. candida (in soils from such sites

Hopkin, Steve

79

Biodiversity Assessment Using Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering and Spectral Unmixing over Hyperspectral Images  

PubMed Central

Hyperspectral images represent an important source of information to assess ecosystem biodiversity. In particular, plant species richness is a primary indicator of biodiversity. This paper uses spectral variance to predict vegetation richness, known as Spectral Variation Hypothesis. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering is our primary tool to retrieve clusters whose Shannon entropy should reflect species richness on a given zone. However, in a high spectral mixing scenario, an additional unmixing step, just before entropy computation, is required; cluster centroids are enough for the unmixing process. Entropies computed using the proposed method correlate well with the ones calculated directly from synthetic and field data. PMID:24132230

Medina, Ollantay; Manian, Vidya; Chinea, J. Danilo

2013-01-01

80

Impact on indigenous species biodiversity caused by the globalisation of alien recreational freshwater fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most insidious threats to fish conservation around the world is deliberate or accidental introduction of fish species.\\u000a The impact of alien invasive sport fish is for the most part unpredictable in time and space, with the introduction of relatively\\u000a few species having resulted in many extirpations of indigenous fish species worldwide. More nations need to quantify biodiversity

J. A. Cambray

81

Climate change in Europe. 1. Impact on terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems have an essential role in providing services to humankind such as nutrient cycling, pest control, pollination,\\u000a quality of life, and hydrological, atmospheric and climatic regulation. About 60% of the world’s known ecosystems are currently\\u000a used unsustainably. In Europe, the richness and abundance of biodiversity is undergoing significant decline, partly due to\\u000a climate change. This article outlines the impacts of

Jane Feehan; Mike Harley; Jell van Minnen

2009-01-01

82

Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.; Boykin, Kenneth

2013-01-01

83

Mapping Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

84

Integrating diverse scientific and practitioner knowledge in ecological risk analysis: a case study of biodiversity risk assessment in South Africa.  

PubMed

Ecological risk analysis (ERA) is a structured evaluation of threats to species, natural communities, and ecosystem processes from pollutants and toxicants and more complicated living stressors such as invasive species, genetically modified organisms, and biological control agents. Such analyses are typically conducted by a narrowly-focused group of scientific experts using technical information. We evaluate whether the inclusion of more diverse experts and practitioners in ERA improved the ecological knowledge base about South African biodiversity and the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops. We conducted two participatory ERA workshops in South Africa, analyzing potential impacts of GM maize on biodiversity. The first workshop involved only four biological scientists, who were joined by 18 diverse scientists and practitioners in the second, and we compared the ERA process and results between the two using descriptive statistics and semi-structured interview responses. The addition of diverse experts and practitioners led to a more comprehensive understanding of biological composition of the agro-ecosystem and a more ecologically relevant set of hazards, but impeded hazard prioritization and the generation of precise risk assessment values. Results suggest that diverse participation can improve the scoping or problem formulation of the ERA, by generating an ecologically robust set of information on which to base the subsequent, more technical risk assessment. The participatory ERA process also increased the transparency of the ERA by exposing the logic and rationale for decisions made at each step. PMID:22266478

Dana, G V; Kapuscinski, A R; Donaldson, J S

2012-05-15

85

Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a natural gradient.  

E-print Network

and ecological succession processes. We compared plant species diversity and animal taxonomic diversity aboveBiodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species * Corresponding author: paul.cavaille@cemagref.fr Keywords: beetles, biodiversity, ecological restoration, plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical engineering fields. Within this context, risk refers to exposure to the chance

Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

2007-01-01

87

Plant biodiversity and ethnobotany inside the projected impact area of the Upper Seti Hydropower Project, Western Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of plant biodiversity and ethnobotany was conducted along the Seti river banks in the Tanahun district of Western\\u000a Nepal. This area, home of the Magar ethnic group, will be impacted by a major hydropower project, currently under feasibility study. The objective of the study\\u000a was to document plant biodiversity and ethnobotany in order to suggest appropriate conservation and

Yadav Uprety; Ram C. Poudel; Hugo Asselin; Emmanuel Boon

2011-01-01

88

Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)  

SciTech Connect

Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

Garcia-Montero, Luis G., E-mail: luisgonzaga.garcia@upm.e [Dept. Forest Engineering, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Lopez, Elena, E-mail: elopez@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monzon, Andres, E-mail: amonzon@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Otero Pastor, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.otero@upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

2010-04-15

89

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

90

Environmental Impact Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

1975-01-01

91

Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield  

PubMed Central

Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontransgenic, Bt and BtHr cotton had similar yields overall, largely because higher insecticide use with nontransgenic cotton improved control of key pests. Unlike Bt and BtHr cotton, insecticides reduced the diversity of nontarget insects. Several other agronomic and ecological factors also affected biodiversity. Nevertheless, pairwise comparisons of diversity of nontarget insects in cotton fields with diversity in adjacent noncultivated sites revealed similar effects of cultivation of transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on biodiversity. The results indicate that impacts of agricultural intensification can be reduced when replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides by narrow-spectrum Bt crops does not reduce control of pests not affected by Bt crops. PMID:16675554

Cattaneo, Manda G.; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carriere, Yves

2006-01-01

92

"" EPAT# Risk Assessments Environmental Impact  

E-print Network

"" EPAT# Risk Assessments Appendixes Environmental Impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides for Hazardous Air Pollutants Risk Assessments Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 2 for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA 520.1'1.-89-006,-2 Risk Assessments Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS

93

Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory  

E-print Network

. Moreover, biodiversity became an increasingly dominant driver of ecosystem productivity through time, little work has compared the magnitude of biodiversity effects on productivity to those of other drivers of biodiversity relative to other human-caused drivers of environ- mental change remains uncertain. Results of 11

Minnesota, University of

94

Health equity impact assessment.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. PMID:23449601

Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex

2014-12-01

95

Biodiversity Performs!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document features a lesson plan in which students work in teams to act out different ecosystem services, describe several free services that biodiversity provides to human, and explain how these services make life on earth possible. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

96

A generic approach to integrate biodiversity considerations in screening and scoping for EIA  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requires parties to apply environmental impact assessment (EIA) to projects that potentially negatively impact on biodiversity. As members of the International Association of Impact Assessment, the authors have developed a conceptual framework to integrate biodiversity considerations in EIA. By defining biodiversity in terms of composition, structure, and key processes, and by describing the way in which human activities affect these so-called components of biodiversity, it is possible to assess the potential impacts of human activities on biodiversity. Furthermore, the authors have translated this conceptual framework in generic guidelines for screening and scoping in impact assessment. Countries can use these generic guidelines to further operationalise the framework within the existing national procedures for impact assessment. This paper is fully coherent and partly overlapping with the guidelines recently adopted by the CBD, but differs in the sense that it provides more scientific background and is less policy-oriented.

Slootweg, Roel; Kolhoff, Arend

2003-10-01

97

Impact of biodiversity-climate futures on primary production and metabolism in a model benthic estuarine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of anthropogenically-driven changes in global temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and biodiversity on the functionality of marine ecosystems is crucial for predicting and managing the associated impacts. Coastal ecosystems are important sources of carbon (primary production) to shelf waters and play a vital role in global nutrient cycling. These systems are especially vulnerable to the effects of

Natalie Hicks; Mark T Bulling; Martin Solan; Dave Raffaelli; Piran CL White; David M Paterson

2011-01-01

98

Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

June 2007 Gender: Male ­ 63%, Female 38% Disability: 1% #12;Forestry Commission Equality ImpactForestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment the corporate values · It actively promotes equality and diversity, specifically within the `work with other

99

Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study  

PubMed Central

Background The expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods. Methodology Fishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists. Principal Findings According to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes. Conclusions/Significance Using fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys. PMID:24465644

Coll, Marta; Carreras, Marta; Ciercoles, Cristina; Cornax, Maria-Jose; Gorelli, Giulia; Morote, Elvira; Saez, Raquel

2014-01-01

100

Assessing impacts of intensified biomass removal on deadwood in European forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deadwood is a key indicator for assessing policy and management impacts on forest biodiversity. We developed an approach to include deadwood in the large-scale European Forest Information Scenario (EFISCEN) model and analysed impacts of intensifying forest biomass removal on the amount and type of deadwood in forests of 24 European Union member states. In EFISCEN, deadwood consists of standing and

P. J. Verkerk; M. Lindner; G. Zanchi; S. Zudin

2009-01-01

101

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/  

E-print Network

final action on the essential fish habitat (EFH) environmental impact statement (EIS) to adopt a suiteENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ FINAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS Juneau, AK 99802 (907) 586-7228 Abstract: This Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review

102

THE IMPACT OF INSECTICIDES AND HERBICIDES ON THE BIODIVERSITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF AQUATIC COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticides constitute a major anthropogenic addition to natural communities. In aquatic communities, a great majority of pesticide impacts are determined from single- species experiments conducted under laboratory conditions. Although this is an essential protocol to rapidly identify the direct impacts of pesticides on organisms, it prevents an assessment of direct and indirect pesticide effects on organisms embedded in their natural

Rick A. Relyea

2005-01-01

103

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review

R. P. Freckleton; P. A. Stephens; W. J. Sutherland; A. R. Watkinson

2004-01-01

104

Biodiversity of European grasslands - gradient studies to investigate impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have suggested that reactive nitrogen deposition may reduce species richness in plant communities. However, until recently there was no clear evidence that regional air pollution was actually reducing biodiversity on a regional scale.. An extensive field survey of acidic grasslands along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the UK showed a dramatic decline in plant-species richness with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition [1, 2]. Changes in soil chemistry were also observed [3]. Combining the results of this gradient study with experimental manipulations allowed us to estimate the timescale of the observed change in species richness. The BEGIN project (Biodiversity of European Grasslands - the Impact of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition) is a collaborative EUROCORES project between The Open University (UK), Manchester Metropolitan University (UK), Bordeaux University (France), Utrecht University (The Netherlands) and The University of Bremen (Germany). This project builds on the results collected in the UK survey to investigate changes in species richness further. In addition to the 68 acid grasslands already surveyed in the UK, the BEGIN project has surveyed 70 acidic grassland sites throughout the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe. At each site, data were collected on species composition, soil chemistry and plant-tissue chemistry. This data set is being combined with a field experiment replicated across three grasslands (Norway, Wales and Aquitaine) of the same community and an analysis of historical changes in species composition. Surveys have also been conducted in a contrasting grassland system; calcareous grasslands belonging to the Mesobromion alliance. Initial results of the BEGIN project will be presented, demonstrating declines in species richness and changes in species composition across the Atlantic Biogeographic Zone of Europe during the last 70 years that can be related to nitrogen deposition. We will also report changes in soil chemistry along this N deposition gradient. References 1 Stevens et al. 2004 Impact of nitrogen deposition on the species richness of grasslands. Science, 303, 1876-1879. 2 Stevens et al. 2006 Loss of forb diversity in relation to nitrogen deposition in the UK: regional trends and potential controls. Global Change Biology, 12, 1823-1833. 3 Stevens et al. 2009 Regional trends in soil acidification and extractable metals related to present acid deposition rates. Environmental Pollution, 157, 313-319.

Stevens, C. J.; Gowing, D. J.

2009-04-01

105

Assessing soil biodiversity across Great Britain: national trends in the occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and invertebrates in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the biodiversity of soils was a component of the Countryside Survey 2000 (CS2000). This was the first integrated survey of soil biota and chemical properties at a national scale. A total of 1052 soil samples were collected across Great Britain during CS2000 and analysed for a range of soil microbial and invertebrate characteristics resulting in the production

H. I. J Black; N. R Parekh; J. S Chaplow; F Monson; J Watkins; R Creamer; E. D Potter; J. M Poskitt; P Rowland; G Ainsworth; M Hornung

2003-01-01

106

Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

Stover, Lloyd V.

107

Pollination ecology and the possible impacts of environmental change in the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot  

PubMed Central

The Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot contains an exceptionally diverse flora on an ancient, low-relief but edaphically diverse landscape. Since European colonization, the primary threat to the flora has been habitat clearance, though climate change is an impending threat. Here, we review (i) the ecology of nectarivores and biotic pollination systems in the region, (ii) the evidence that trends in pollination strategies are a consequence of characteristics of the landscape, and (iii) based on these discussions, provide predictions to be tested on the impacts of environmental change on pollination systems. The flora of southwestern Australia has an exceptionally high level of vertebrate pollination, providing the advantage of highly mobile, generalist pollinators. Nectarivorous invertebrates are primarily generalist foragers, though an increasing number of colletid bees are being recognized as being specialized at the level of plant family or more rarely genus. While generalist pollination strategies dominate among insect-pollinated plants, there are some cases of extreme specialization, most notably the multiple evolutions of sexual deception in the Orchidaceae. Preliminary data suggest that bird pollination confers an advantage of greater pollen movement and may represent a mechanism for minimizing inbreeding in naturally fragmented populations. The effects of future environmental change are predicted to result from a combination of the resilience of pollination guilds and changes in their foraging and dispersal behaviour. PMID:20047877

Phillips, Ryan D.; Hopper, Stephen D.; Dixon, Kingsley W.

2010-01-01

108

Impact of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on biodiversity and giant panda habitat in Wolong Nature Reserve, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters such as earthquakes have profound effects on the earth’s biodiversity. However, studies on immediate earthquake\\u000a impacts are rarely conducted at fine scales due to logistical constraints. We conducted the first post-earthquake field survey\\u000a in Wolong Nature Reserve, Wenchuan, China, less than 1 year after it was hit by a magnitude 8.0 earthquake in 2008. Since\\u000a Wolong harbors approximately 10%

Jindong Zhang; Vanessa Hull; Weihua Xu; Jianguo Liu; Zhiyun Ouyang; Jinyan Huang; Xuezhi Wang; Rengui Li

2011-01-01

109

What Is Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit on biodiversity includes three separate lesson plans and may be used for students in grades 6 through 10. The concepts touched upon in these activities include the diversity of life on earth, species, the interconnectedness of living things, humanity's impact on biodiversity, and biodiversity loss. Via these lesson plans, which include plans for a field trip, students will have a chance to observe and record their impressions in an outdoor site and later report their experiences to the class.

2012-06-11

110

Assessing Conservation Values: Biodiversity and Endemicity in Tropical Land Use Systems  

PubMed Central

Despite an increasing amount of data on the effects of tropical land use on continental forest fauna and flora, it is debatable whether the choice of the indicator variables allows for a proper evaluation of the role of modified habitats in mitigating the global biodiversity crisis. While many single-taxon studies have highlighted that species with narrow geographic ranges especially suffer from habitat modification, there is no multi-taxa study available which consistently focuses on geographic range composition of the studied indicator groups. We compiled geographic range data for 180 bird, 119 butterfly, 204 tree and 219 understorey plant species sampled along a gradient of habitat modification ranging from near-primary forest through young secondary forest and agroforestry systems to annual crops in the southwestern lowlands of Cameroon. We found very similar patterns of declining species richness with increasing habitat modification between taxon-specific groups of similar geographic range categories. At the 8 km2 spatial level, estimated richness of endemic species declined in all groups by 21% (birds) to 91% (trees) from forests to annual crops, while estimated richness of widespread species increased by +101% (trees) to +275% (understorey plants), or remained stable (- 2%, butterflies). Even traditional agroforestry systems lost estimated endemic species richness by - 18% (birds) to - 90% (understorey plants). Endemic species richness of one taxon explained between 37% and 57% of others (positive correlations) and taxon-specific richness in widespread species explained up to 76% of variation in richness of endemic species (negative correlations). The key implication of this study is that the range size aspect is fundamental in assessments of conservation value via species inventory data from modified habitats. The study also suggests that even ecologically friendly agricultural matrices may be of much lower value for tropical conservation than indicated by mere biodiversity value. PMID:21298054

Waltert, Matthias; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Kaupa, Stefanie; Montoya, Marcela Leija; Nsanyi, Moses Sainge; Fermon, Heleen

2011-01-01

111

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper environmental impact assessment (EIA) is taken to mean the systematic examination of the likely environmental consequences of proposed projects. The results of the assessment - which are assembled in a document known as an Environmental Statement - are intended to provide decision-makers with a balanced assessment of the environmental implications of the proposed action and the alternative

P. Fouracre

112

Oil Palm Research in Context: Identifying the Need for Biodiversity Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm cultivation is frequently cited as a major threat to tropical biodiversity as it is centered on some of the world's most biodiverse regions. In this report, Web of Science was used to find papers on oil palm published since 1970, which were assigned to different subject categories to visualize their research focus. Recent years have seen a broadening

Edgar C. Turner; Jake L. Snaddon; Tom M. Fayle; William A. Foster; Dennis Hansen

2008-01-01

113

BIODIVERSITY Incorporating sociocultural adaptive  

E-print Network

mitigation efforts cannot avoid further impacts of climate change in the next few decades, which makes of study with which to understand climate change as a threat to biodiversity (e.g. Thomas et al., 2004 adaptation and biodiversity risk for creating global change conservation strategies. Location Global. Methods

114

Citation patterns of a controversial and high-impact paper: Worm et al. (2006) "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services".  

PubMed

Citation patterns were examined for Worm et al. 2006 (Science 314:787-790), a high-impact paper that focused on relationships between marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper sparked much controversy through its projection, highlighted in the press release, that all marine fisheries would be collapsed by 2048. Analysis of 664 citing papers revealed that only a small percentage (11%) referred to the 2048 projection, while 39% referred to fisheries collapse in general, and 40% to biodiversity and ecosystem services. The 2048 projection was mentioned more often in papers published soon after the original paper, in low-impact journals, and in journals outside of fields that would be expected to focus on biodiversity. Citing papers also mentioned the 2048 projection more often if they had few authors (28% of single-author papers vs. 2% of papers with 10 or more authors). These factors suggest that the more knowledgeable the authors of citing papers were about the controversy over the 2048 projection, the less likely they were to refer to it. A noteworthy finding was that if the original authors were also involved in the citing papers, they rarely (1 of 55 papers, 2%) mentioned the 2048 projection. Thus the original authors have emphasized the broader concerns about biodiversity loss, rather than the 2048 projection, as the key result of their study. PMID:23437224

Branch, Trevor A

2013-01-01

115

Assessing Cross-Media Impacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 1000 MW coal-fired central power stations as an example, the impacts upon other media (land, air, water) are analyzed when controls are imposed on one medium. The development of a methodology for assessing the cross-media impact of specific control technologies or strategies is illustrated. (Author/BT)

Reiquam, Howard; And Others

1975-01-01

116

Secondary impact hazard assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated critical energy. A key assumption in these calculations is that above a certain critical energy, significant damage will be done. This is not true for all structures. Double-walled, bumpered structures are an example for which damage may be reduced as energy goes up. The critical energy assumption is probably conservative, however, in terms of secondary damage. To understand why the secondary impacts seem to, in general, contribute less than 10 percent of the flux above a given critical energy, consider the case of a meteoroid impact of a given energy on a fixed, large surface. This impact results in a variety of secondary particles, all of which have much less energy than the original impact. Conservation of energy prohibits any other situation. Thus if damage is linked to a critical energy of a particle, the primary flux will always deliver particles of much greater energy. Even if all the secondary particles impacted other Space Station structures, none would have a kinetic energy more than a fraction of the primary impact energy.

1986-01-01

117

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a comparison of inventories at four localities in northern Madagascar, patterns of richness were not significantly different when richness was determined using morphological taxonomy (morphospecies) or sequence divergence thresholds (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit(s); MOTU). However, sequence-based methods tended to yield greater richness and significantly lower indices of similarity than morphological taxonomy. MOTU determined using our molecular technique were a remarkably local phenomenon—indicative of highly restricted dispersal and/or long-term isolation. In cases where molecular and morphological methods differed in their assignment of individuals to categories, the morphological estimate was always more conservative than the molecular estimate. In those cases where morphospecies descriptions collapsed distinct molecular groups, sequence divergences of 16% (on average) were contained within the same morphospecies. Such high divergences highlight taxa for further detailed genetic, morphological, life history, and behavioral studies. PMID:16214741

Smith, M. Alex; Fisher, Brian L; Hebert, Paul D.N

2005-01-01

118

DNA Barcoding Simplifies Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Biodiverse Regions  

E-print Network

Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was

Chinyere V. Nzeduru; Ra Ronca; Mike J. Wilkinson

119

Interpreting soil ciliate biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of soil ciliate frequency studies of 47 field studies, from 12 ecosystem types, were combined with recent concepts and observations to assess the importance of soil ciliate biodiversity in ecosystem functioning. A few species typically furnish most of the individuals; increases in biodiversity, produced by less common species, alters soil ciliate communities. Soil ciliates were grouped according to

Stuart S. Bamforth

1995-01-01

120

Spatial Variation in Fine Sediment Transfer and the Impact on Biodiversity: The River Esk, North Yorkshire UK.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change, including the resulting changes in fine sediment supply, is seen as the most significant threat to global biodiversity (Sala et al. 2000). Silt is important for three reasons; firstly, it can act as a pollutant itself in silting up gravel spawning beds of fishes such as salmonids (Walling et al. 2003). Secondly it can have detrimental effects on conservation species such as freshwater pearl mussels through direct and indirect effects (pearl mussels rely on juvenile salmonids for lifecycle completion). Thirdly, sediment associated transport of nutrients and pollutants can result in long-term pollution problems detrimental to most species (Walling et al. 2001). However, some key conservation species such as lampreys require abundant silt for the larval lifecycle stage, as well as gravel for adult spawners. Hence, a plentiful silt supply and transport in river systems is not necessarily detrimental to some key biodiversity elements, but may be more damaging for others. This debate is compounded by a lack of data on silt in river systems. This paper; i) introduces Time Integrated Mass Flux Samples (TIMS) as a cheap, effective and efficient method of collecting data on spatial variations in fine sediment transfer; ii) presents data for variations in loads and specific yields of fine sediment in the River Esk (North Yorkshire, UK) and; iii) links these patterns of silt transfer to potential impacts of biodiversity and salmonids.

Bracken, L. J.; Warburton, J.

2006-12-01

121

DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern  

E-print Network

their distributions. Species-level diversity has long been the primary metric by which biodiversity is measured Introduction Projections of a rapidly changing climate and increasing human population in North America have

122

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to

J. R. Barker; D. T. Tingey

1992-01-01

123

Review of monitoring and assessing ground vegetation biodiversity in national forest inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground vegetation (GV) is an important component from which many forest biodiversity indicators can be estimated. To formulate\\u000a policies at European level, taking into account biodiversity, European National Forest Inventories (NFIs) are one of the most\\u000a important sources of forest information. However, for monitoring GV, there are several definitions, data collection methods,\\u000a and different possible indicators. Even though it must

I. Alberdi; S. Condés; J. Martínez-Millán

2010-01-01

124

Global biodiversity assessment and hyper-cryptic species complexes: more than one species of elephant in the room?  

PubMed

Several recent estimates of global biodiversity have concluded that the total number of species on Earth lies near the lower end of the wide range touted in previous decades. However, none of these recent estimates formally explore the real "elephant in the room", namely, what proportion of species are taxonomically invisible to conventional assessments, and thus, as undiagnosed cryptic species, remain uncountable until revealed by multi-gene molecular assessments. Here we explore the significance and extent of so-called "hyper-cryptic" species complexes, using the Australian freshwater fish Galaxias olidus as a proxy for any organism whose taxonomy ought to be largely finalized when compared to those in little-studied or morphologically undifferentiated groups. Our comprehensive allozyme (838 fish for 54 putative loci), mtDNA (557 fish for 605 bp of cytb), and morphological (1963-3389 vouchers for 17-58 characters) assessment of this species across its broad geographic range revealed a 1500% increase in species-level biodiversity, and suggested that additional taxa may remain undiscovered. Importantly, while all 15 candidate species were morphologically diagnosable a posteriori from one another, single-gene DNA barcoding proved largely unsuccessful as an a priori method for species identification. These results lead us to draw two strong inferences of relevance to estimates of global biodiversity. First, hyper-cryptic complexes are likely to be common in many organismal groups. Second, no assessment of species numbers can be considered "best practice" in the molecular age unless it explicitly includes estimates of the extent of cryptic and hyper-cryptic biodiversity. [Galaxiidae; global estimates; hyper-diverse; mountain galaxias; species counts; species richness.]. PMID:24627185

Adams, Mark; Raadik, Tarmo A; Burridge, Christopher P; Georges, Arthur

2014-07-01

125

Biodiversity in the Himalayas - Trends, Perception and Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains are remarkably diverse and globally important as centers of biological diversity. Mountains' greatest values may be as sources of all the world's major rivers, and those of the Himalayas are no less important in terms of provisioning the ecosystem services that has thus far sustained huge population of people and high levels of biodiversity. The survival of these ecosystems

Eklabya Sharma; Karma Tse-ring; Nakul Chettri; Arun Shrestha

126

The impact of logging on biodiversity and carbon sequestration in tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation is one of the most relevant environmental issues at planetary scale. Forest clearcutting has dramatic effect on local biodiversity, on the terrestrial carbon sink and atmospheric GHGs balance. In terms of protection of tropical forests selective logging is, instead, often regarded as a minor or even positive management practice for the ecosystem and it is supported by international certifications. However, few studies are available on changes in the structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services due to the selective logging of African forests. This paper presents the results of a survey on tropical forests of West and Central Africa, with a comparison of long-term dynamics, structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services (such as the carbon sequestration) of different types of forests, from virgin primary to selectively logged and secondary forest. Our study suggests that there is a persistent effect of selective logging on biodiversity and carbon stock losses in the long term (up to 30 years since logging) and after repeated logging. These effects, in terms of species richness and biomass, are greater than the expected losses from commercial harvesting, implying that selective logging in West and Central Africa is impairing long term (at least until 30 years) ecosystem structure and services. A longer selective logging cycle (>30 years) should be considered by logging companies although there is not yet enough information to consider this practice sustainable.

Cazzolla Gatti, R.

2012-04-01

127

Rapid Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring Method for Highly Diverse Benthic Communities: A Case Study of Mediterranean Coralligenous Outcrops  

PubMed Central

Increasing anthropogenic pressures urge enhanced knowledge and understanding of the current state of marine biodiversity. This baseline information is pivotal to explore present trends, detect future modifications and propose adequate management actions for marine ecosystems. Coralligenous outcrops are a highly diverse and structurally complex deep-water habitat faced with major threats in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its ecological, aesthetic and economic value, coralligenous biodiversity patterns are still poorly understood. There is currently no single sampling method that has been demonstrated to be sufficiently representative to ensure adequate community assessment and monitoring in this habitat. Therefore, we propose a rapid non-destructive protocol for biodiversity assessment and monitoring of coralligenous outcrops providing good estimates of its structure and species composition, based on photographic sampling and the determination of presence/absence of macrobenthic species. We used an extensive photographic survey, covering several spatial scales (100s of m to 100s of km) within the NW Mediterranean and including 2 different coralligenous assemblages: Paramuricea clavata (PCA) and Corallium rubrum assemblage (CRA). This approach allowed us to determine the minimal sampling area for each assemblage (5000 cm2 for PCA and 2500 cm2 for CRA). In addition, we conclude that 3 replicates provide an optimal sampling effort in order to maximize the species number and to assess the main biodiversity patterns of studied assemblages in variability studies requiring replicates. We contend that the proposed sampling approach provides a valuable tool for management and conservation planning, monitoring and research programs focused on coralligenous outcrops, potentially also applicable in other benthic ecosystems. PMID:22073264

Kipson, Silvija; Fourt, Maïa; Teixidó, Núria; Cebrian, Emma; Casas, Edgar; Ballesteros, Enric; Zabala, Mikel; Garrabou, Joaquim

2011-01-01

128

Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia) - a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic factors and their possible impact on biodiversity patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counter-clockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

Vogel, H.; Wessels, M.; Albrecht, C.; Stich, H.-B.; Wagner, B.

2010-05-01

129

Health impact assessment in Korea  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

Kang, Eunjeong, E-mail: marchej@kihasa.re.r [Division for Health Promotion Research, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 268 Jinheung-ro, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngsoo, E-mail: leeys@kei.re.k [Centre for Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheung-ro, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyeong-gu (Korea, Republic of); Harris, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.harris@unsw.edu.a [Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation, part of the UNSW, Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, UNSW, Locked Mail Bag 7103, Liverpool BC, NSW 1981 (Australia); Koh, Kwangwook, E-mail: kwkoh@hanafos.co [Department of Preventive Medicine, Kosin University, 149-1 Dongsam-1-dong, Youngdo-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keonyeop, E-mail: pmkky@knu.ac.k [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine and Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, KyungPook National University, 101 Dongin 2 , Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2011-07-15

130

DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/  

E-print Network

DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ INITIAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS: This Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (EA Impact Statement (EIS). The suggested modifications are minor changes to the boundaries of the closed

131

Biodiversity Assessment of the Fishes of Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species. The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites. A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are indicated in the annotated list. PMID:20505760

Williams, Jeffrey T.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Van Tassell, James L.; Hoetjes, Paul; Toller, Wes; Etnoyer, Peter; Smith, Michael

2010-01-01

132

Linking Topography, Hydrology, and Biodiversity to Understand Terrestrial Impacts on Aquatic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and managing biodiversity is complicated by the spatial complexity created by variations in physical environmental characteristics. Features such as climate, topography, soil nutrient availability and the distribution of water determine patterns of plant productivity across landscapes. Areas of high productivity react differently to natural and human-made disturbances than areas of low productivity. Understanding how disturbance and productivity interact to affect biodiversity can help natural resource managers maintain and restore biodiversity to an area. One of the primary issues for understanding patterns of species diversity, as well as hydrologic processes, is the interaction of climate and topography to produce variation in soil moisture conditions across landscapes. This soil moisture is the principal determinant of how quickly plants grow and how large they can become, assuming that conditions are warm enough for growth and adequate soil nutrients are available. Consequently, the spatial variation in soil moisture determines the spatial patterns of plant growth, forest structure, and many components of biodiversity on landscapes. We are developing a model that predicts spatial patterns of soil moisture by estimating the differences between topographically redistributed rainfall and spatial variation in evapotranspiration based on hourly variation in air temperature and solar radiation over the course of a day. When air temperatures are low and/or precipitation high, most of the landscape is wet and there should be little variation in vegetation type and structure over the landscape. In contrast, when air temperatures are higher and/or precipitation lower, there are strong differences in soil moisture availability, and thus in the types and sizes of plants that can survive on different portions of the landscape. We present test results of the model over different topography and climatic conditions.

Gomezdelcampo, E.; Huston, M. A.; Timmins, S. P.; Nesteruk, R. S.

2004-05-01

133

Privacy Impact Assessment Online Fundraising  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment Online Fundraising I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: Online Dann 6. SI Unit Director or Designee: Zully Dorr 7. Date: June 2009 8. Brief description of the system: Online fundraising provides Smithsonian supporters with the ability to make a credit card donation

Mathis, Wayne N.

134

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review of weed phenologies and a population model, we show that many weeds are unlikely to benefit because spraying is generally delayed insufficiently late in the season to allow most to set seed. The positive effects on biodiversity observed in trials lasting one or two seasons are thus likely to be transient. For one weed of particular significance (Chenopodium album, fat hen) we show that it is unlikely that the positive effects observed could be maintained by inputs of seed during other parts of the rotation. However, we find preliminary evidence that if spraying can be ceased earlier in the season, then a viable population of late-emerging weeds could be maintained. This strategy could benefit weeds in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops, but would probably lead to reduced inputs in GM systems compared with conventional ones. PMID:15058445

Freckleton, R. P.; Stephens, P. A.; Sutherland, W. J.; Watkinson, A. R.

2004-01-01

135

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review of weed phenologies and a population model, we show that many weeds are unlikely to benefit because spraying is generally delayed insufficiently late in the season to allow most to set seed. The positive effects on biodiversity observed in trials lasting one or two seasons are thus likely to be transient. For one weed of particular significance (Chenopodium album, fat hen) we show that it is unlikely that the positive effects observed could be maintained by inputs of seed during other parts of the rotation. However, we find preliminary evidence that if spraying can be ceased earlier in the season, then a viable population of late-emerging weeds could be maintained. This strategy could benefit weeds in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops, but would probably lead to reduced inputs in GM systems compared with conventional ones. PMID:15058445

Freckleton, R P; Stephens, P A; Sutherland, W J; Watkinson, A R

2004-02-01

136

SPECIAL FEATURE Determinants of Biodiversity Change: Ecological Tools  

E-print Network

the consequences for species richness of changes in drivers, such as land-use or climate change. Iba´ n~ ez et al was to identify the major drivers of biodiversity change in the next 50­100 years. Land-use change, climate change. explore new approaches to assess the impacts of climate change and land-use change on biodiversity that go

Jackson, Robert B.

137

Investigate Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great way to learn about biodiversity is by visiting Conservation International's Investigate Biodiversity Web site. Visitors can read about biodiversity hot spots and major threats to the world's species. Of particular interest is the Expeditions Online section, detailing scientific field expeditions. Through this section, you can read daily updates and see photos of teams of scientists conducting biological surveys in remote parts of the world. After learning about Conservation International's research projects, students can follow the online guide to developing their own biodiversity field study. This well designed Web sitehas plenty to offer to anyone interested in biodiversity.

2005-12-08

138

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater habitats and species living in freshwater are generally more prone to extinction than terrestrial or marine ones. Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are thus of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many

G. Kostoski; C. Albrecht; S. Trajanovski; T. Wilke

2010-01-01

139

Assessing latitudinal gradients in speciation rates and biodiversity at the global scale  

E-print Network

of mechanisms to account for the amount of biodiversity maintained in a community (Hubbell 2001): (i) dispersal 1967; Hubbell 2001); and (ii) niche­assembly mechanisms that focus on how functional differences among the number of species maintained in a community at macroevolutionary time scales (Hubbell 2001). However

Allen, Andrew P.

140

Lac Télé structure, Republic of Congo: Geological setting of a cryptozoological and biodiversity hotspot, and evidence against an impact origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lac Télé is a large lake, ˜5.6 km in diameter, with an ovoid shape, situated at 17°10'E, 1°20'N, in the great tropical rain forest region of the Republic of Congo. This lake has attracted widespread attention, mainly because of the legends among the local people that it harbours a strange animal known as the Mokele-Mbembe, but also because it is situated in a region that is a hotbed of biodiversity and conservation efforts with respect to various endangered mammalian species, including gorillas and chimpanzees. Because of its appearance, Lac Télé has been regarded as a possible meteorite impact structure. Various expeditions, studying cryptozoology, conservation ecology, biodiversity, and the impact hypothesis, have visited Lac Télé in the past several decades. The Lac Télé structure is located in the NW part of the intracratonic Congo Basin, in a region dominated by Holocene alluvium, dense tropical rain forest, and swamps which form part of the basin of the Likouala aux Herbes, a multi-branched meandering river flowing over very low gradients into the Sangha river, a major tributary of the Congo river. Previous bathymetric studies have shown that the average depth of Lac Télé is only 4 m, including organic-rich silty sediments. The structure is that of a flat-bottomed dish. Modelling of the Lac Télé as an impact structure indicates a number of features which ought to be present. The absence of any of these features, coupled with the irregular ovoid shape, the palynological record, and the location of the structure at the intersection of major regional lineaments, is regarded as evidence against the impact hypothesis. Lac Télé as an isolated lake ecosystem is not unique in the Congo Basin, and there are several other similar small shallow isolated lakes surrounded by rain forest and marshes, some of which formed by damming of drainage systems by neotectonic faults. It is suggested that the formation of Lac Télé may be related to its location over neotectonically reactivated regional lineaments, which are also seismically active. Lac Télé and other similar hydrologic systems may be biodiversity hotspots because they acted as refugia following neotectonic hydrological re-organization of the Congo Basin.

Master, Sharad

2010-11-01

141

Impact of fertilizing pattern on the biodiversity of a weed community and wheat growth.  

PubMed

Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

142

Impact of Fertilizing Pattern on the Biodiversity of a Weed Community and Wheat Growth  

PubMed Central

Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

143

[Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].  

PubMed

The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance. PMID:18290539

Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

2007-11-01

144

Modeling the local biodiversity impacts of agricultural water use: case study of a wetland in the coastal arid area of Peru.  

PubMed

Global water use is dominated by agriculture and has considerable influence on people's livelihood and ecosystems, especially in semiarid and arid regions. Methods to address the impacts of water withdrawal and consumption on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems within life cycle assessment are still sparse and very generic. Regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for a groundwater-fed wetland at the arid coast of Peru are developed for groundwater and surface water withdrawal and consumption in order to address the spatial dependency of water use related impacts. Several agricultural scenarios for 2020 were developed in a workshop with local stakeholders and used for calculating total biodiversity impacts. In contrast to assumptions used in top-down approaches (e.g., Pfister et al. Environ. Sci Technol. 2009, 43, 4098 ), irrigation with surface water leads in this specific region to benefits for the groundwater-fed wetland, due to additional groundwater recharge from surplus irrigation water. However, irrigation with groundwater leads to ecological damage to the wetland. The CFs derived from the different scenarios are similar and can thus be used as general CFs for this region, helping local decision-makers to plan future agricultural development, including irrigation technologies, crop choices, and protection of the wetland. PMID:22463711

Verones, Francesca; Bartl, Karin; Pfister, Stephan; Jiménez Vílchez, Ricardo; Hellweg, Stefanie

2012-05-01

145

Guidance for environmental impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) originated with the US National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) as one of several means specified for achieving NEPA's central purpose: the full incorporation of environmental considerations into the decision-making process of the federal government. Beyond EIA itself, which by its nature demands considerable use of science, NEPA requires agencies to use science in all planning and decision-making that may have an effect on the human environment. Indeed, scientific notions are pervasive in nearly every section of NEPA. In the 1970s, the use of science in EIA was addressed by scholars, court opinions, and unofficial guidelines, as the practice of EIA evolved and became a requirement of many state governments, numerous other nations, and several international agencies. Regulations issued in 1978 by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) clarified, elaborated, and standardized how impact assessment was to be done by agencies of the federal government.

Bartlett, R.V. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)); Malone, C.R. (Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office, Carson City, NV (United States))

1993-01-01

146

Long-Term Impacts of Forest Ditching on Non-Aquatic Biodiversity: Conservation Perspectives for a Novel Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to maintain stand structural complexity; (ii) context-dependent spatial analysis and planning of drained landscapes; and (iii) lists of focal species to monitor and guide ditching practices. PMID:23646179

Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

2013-01-01

147

Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.  

PubMed

Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

2008-01-01

148

NCEP Exercise- Why is Biodiversity Important: Using the IUCN Red List to Assess Importance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise has students use the IUCN species ÃÂRed ListÃÂ to become familiar with the current status of particular species around the world and to explore the likely consequences to humanity and the biota if the extinction of these species occurs. Additional teaching materials on topics relating to biodiversity conservation and ecology can be obtained free of charge by registering at the Network for Conservation Educators and PractitionersÃÂ website (http://ncep.amnh.org).

Gibbs, J. P.

2010-02-16

149

Biodiversity Month  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

May 2002 was the first US Biodiversity Month, coordinated by the International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY). Those who missed it can check out this Web site to learn the purpose of Biodiversity Month, the types of activities that were held, and how to be included in next year's events. Downloadable fact sheets and activity guides may be useful to a variety of site users during the remaining 11 months of the year.

2002-01-01

150

Biodiversity Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has a dozen kid-friendly books on a wide range of biodiversity topics. For each title, the author, publisher, and publication date are included along with a brief description of the book. The list includes field guides and other reference books to help students begin exploring plants, insects, birds, and other living things, easy-to-complete activities to bring the importance of biodiversity home, and engaging stories that introduce students to cultural tales that celebrate biodiversity.

151

Impact of biodiversity-climate futures on primary production and metabolism in a model benthic estuarine system  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the effects of anthropogenically-driven changes in global temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and biodiversity on the functionality of marine ecosystems is crucial for predicting and managing the associated impacts. Coastal ecosystems are important sources of carbon (primary production) to shelf waters and play a vital role in global nutrient cycling. These systems are especially vulnerable to the effects of human activities and will be the first areas impacted by rising sea levels. Within these coastal ecosystems, microalgal assemblages (microphytobenthos: MPB) are vital for autochthonous carbon fixation. The level of in situ production by MPB mediates the net carbon cycling of transitional ecosystems between net heterotrophic or autotrophic metabolism. In this study, we examine the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (370, 600, and 1000 ppmv), temperature (6°C, 12°C, and 18°C) and invertebrate biodiversity on MPB biomass in experimental systems. We assembled communities of three common grazing invertebrates (Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor) in monoculture and in all possible multispecies combinations. This experimental design specifically addresses interactions between the selected climate change variables and any ecological consequences caused by changes in species composition or richness. Results The effects of elevated CO2 concentration, temperature and invertebrate diversity were not additive, rather they interacted to determine MPB biomass, and overall this effect was negative. Diversity effects were underpinned by strong species composition effects, illustrating the importance of individual species identity. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that in natural systems, the complex interactions between changing environmental conditions and any associated changes in invertebrate assemblage structure are likely to reduce MPB biomass. Furthermore, these effects would be sufficient to affect the net metabolic balance of the coastal ecosystem, with important implications for system ecology and sustainable exploitation. PMID:21320339

2011-01-01

152

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

153

Biodiversity Law of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly online document details the legal technicalities of Costa Rica's Biodiversity Law, made public in July 1999. The document (.pdf format) contains the following sections, among others: Natural System of Conservation Areas; Guarantees of Environmental Safety; Conservation and Sustainable Use of Ecosystems and Species; Access to Genetic Components and Biochemicals and Protection of Associated Knowledge; Education and Public Awareness; Environmental Impact Assessments; Incentives; and Procedures, Processes, and Agreements. For those interested in conservation law or the intricacies of biological diversity protection in developing countries, this document will be of great interest.

154

Assessing Undergraduate University Students' Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour towards Biodiversity: A Case Study in Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biodiversity is a key resource as it provides both goods and services to society. However, humans value these resources differently, especially when biodiversity is exploited for its economic potential; a destruction on a scale rarely seen before. In order to decrease the threats that biodiversity is facing due to human activity, globally (climate…

Nisiforou, Olympia; Charalambides, Alexandros George

2012-01-01

155

The Impact of Land-Use Change on Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Returns to Landowners: A Case Study in the State of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change has a significant impact on the world’s ecosystems. Changes in the extent and composition of forests, grasslands,\\u000a wetlands and other ecosystems have large impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and returns\\u000a to landowners. While the change in private returns to landowners due to land-use change can often be measured, changes in\\u000a the supply and value

Stephen Polasky; Erik Nelson; Derric Pennington; Kris A. Johnson

2011-01-01

156

Privacy Impact Assessment Archives of American Art  

E-print Network

1 Privacy Impact Assessment Archives of American Art Collections Information System (AAACIS. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being collected: Information relating to a Privacy Assessment Name, Addresses, email, phone number, Fax number, and Occupation. Librarians who make an Interlibrary

Mathis, Wayne N.

157

Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

158

Australia's Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Australian Museum Online comes this informative presentation on biodiversity. This searchable site allows visitors to learn fun biodiversity facts (such as the evolutionary history of the platypus and the secret life of kelp forests), how to conserve biodiversity through sustainable living practices, and what's happening at the Australian Museum in Sydney. Many of the pages can also be downloaded in .pdf format. Features of the site include RealMedia films on such topics as the Lizard Island Research Station and Sydney's Coastal Reefs; a page about the interpretive strategies of the museum's exhibition, Biodiversity: life supporting life; and biodiversity and forestry case studies in Australia. Well organized and readable, this site will be enjoyable for both Aussies and non-Aussies interested in the science and wonder of life's diversity.

2008-04-01

159

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

160

Global Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

161

Issues in Ecology, Issue 04: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this report, biodiversity and its relevance to the ecosystems that support humanity is discussed. Ecosystem functioning is defined as the collective activities of all biota within an ecosystem and how they affect its chemical and physical factors; therefore, it can be negatively impacted by decreases in biodiversity-the wide variety of life forms inhabiting the planet. The ecological and economic consequences of losses in biodiversity are explained. Additionally, case studies of scientific efforts to understand ecosystem functioning and to assess biodiversity are presented. Issues in Ecology is an ongoing series of reports designed to present major ecological issues in an easy-to-read manner. This Issue summarizes the consensus of a panel of scientific experts based on the information that was current and available at the time of its publication in 1999.

Naeem, Shahid

2011-08-24

162

Air quality resolution for health impact assessment  

E-print Network

Air quality resolution for health impact assessment: influence of regional characterstics* T for health impact assessment: influence of regional characteristics T. M. Thompson1,*, R. K. Saari1,2, and N to: discover new interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess

163

Agent-based modeling for the landuse change of hunter-gather societies and the impacts on biodiversity in Guyana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions with animals are vital to the Amerindian, indigenous people, of Rupunini savannah-forest in Guyana. Their connections extend from basic energy and protein resource to spiritual bonding through "paring" to a certain animal in the forest. We collected extensive dataset of 23 indigenous communities for 3.5 years, consisting 9900 individuals from 1307 households, as well as animal observation data in 8 transects per communities (47,000 data entries). In this presentation, our research interest is to model the driver of land use change of the indigenous communities and its impacts on the ecosystem in the Rupunini area under global change. Overarching question we would like to answer with this program is to find how and why "tipping-point" from hunting gathering society to the agricultural society occurs in the future. Secondary question is what is the implication of the change to agricultural society in terms of biodiversity and carbon stock in the area, and eventually the well-being of Rupunini people. To answer the questions regarding the society shift in agriculture activities, we built as simulation with Agent-Based Modeling (Multi Agents Simulation). We developed this simulation by using Netlogo, the programming environment specialized for spatially explicit agent-based modeling (ABM). This simulation consists of four different process in the Rupunini landscape; forest succession, animal population growth, hunting of animals, and land clearing for agriculture. All of these processes are carried out by a set of computational unit, called "agents". In this program, there are four types of agents - patches, villages, households, and animals. Here, we describe the impacts of hunting on the biodiversity based on actual demographic data from one village named Crush Water. Animal population within the hunting territory of the village stabilized but Agouti/Paca dominates the landscape with little population of armadillos and peccaries. White-tailed deers, Tapirs, Capybara exist but very low. This finding is well aligned with the hunting dataset - Agouti/Paca consists 27% of total hunting. Based on our simulation, it seems the dominance of Agouti/Paca among hunted animals shown in the field data can be explained solely by their high carrying capacity against human extraction (population density of the Paca/Agouti = 60 per square km, whereas other animals ranges 0.63 to 7). When we incorporate agriculture, the "rodentation" of the animal population toward Agouti/Paca becomes more obvious. This simulation shows the interactions of people and animals through land change and hunting, which were observed in our fields.

Iwamura, T.; Fragoso, J.; Lambin, E.

2012-12-01

164

Including Past and Present Impacts in Cumulative Impact Assessments  

PubMed

Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for analyzing a proposed action's incremental contribution to cumulative impacts are generally less advanced than those for project-specific impacts.The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) defines cumulative impact to include the impacts of " past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions" regardless of who undertakes the action. Court decisions have helped clarify the distinction between reasonably foreseeable future actions and other possible future actions. This paper seeks to clarify how past and present impacts should be included in cumulative impact analyses.The definition of cumulative impacts implies that cumulative impact analyses should include the effects of all past and present actions on a particular resource. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments increases the likelihood of identifying significant impacts. NEPA requires agencies to give more consideration to alternatives and mitigation and to provide more opportunities for public involvement for actions that would have significant impacts than for actions that would not cause or contribute to significant impacts. For an action that would contribute to significant cumulative impacts, the additional cost and effort involved in increased consideration of alternatives and mitigation and in additional public involvement may be avoided if the action can be modified so that its contributions to significant cumulative impacts are eliminated.KEY WORDS: Cumulative impacts; Environmental impact assessment; National Environmental Policy Act; Significance; Mitigation PMID:8703113

McCold; Saulsbury

1996-09-01

165

Mosaic-Level Inference of the Impact of Land Cover Changes in Agricultural Landscapes on Biodiversity: A Case-Study with a Threatened Grassland Bird  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a “whole-landscape” approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated. PMID:22723899

Moreira, Francisco; Silva, Joao P.; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Marcia; Leitao, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Ines; Delgado, Ana

2012-01-01

166

Mosaic-level inference of the impact of land cover changes in agricultural landscapes on biodiversity: a case-study with a threatened grassland bird.  

PubMed

Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a "whole-landscape" approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated. PMID:22723899

Moreira, Francisco; Silva, João P; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Márcia; Leitão, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Inês; Delgado, Ana

2012-01-01

167

Backyard Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a field trip experience for the Earth Odyssey project for elementary school students focusing on biodiversity. Introduces the concept of diversity, field work, species richness, and the connection between animals and their habitat. (YDS)

Thompson, Sarah S.

2002-01-01

168

Soil Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There is considerable uncertainty as to the effect of global change on soil biodiversity. This is primarily due to a tremendous\\u000a lack of knowledge of soil organisms. The sheer abundance of species in the soil (millions·m?2), our naïvete of soil biodiversity at the species or molecular level for groups such as bacteria, fungi, and microinvertebrates,\\u000a the complexity of relationships of

Diana H. Wall; Gina Adams; Andrew N. Parsons

169

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ASH DIEBACK IN SCOTLAND  

E-print Network

Hogan (FC Biomass energy Centre) Forest Research: Alice Broome (impacts on lower plants), Anna Lawrence 4. POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY 17 4.1 Woodland and associated trees and shrubs 26 4.12 Monetary value of biodiversity 26 5. POTENTIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS

170

BIODIVERSITY Danielle Sinnett  

E-print Network

MAXIMISING BIODIVERSITY Danielle Sinnett BPG NOTE 9 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration, both in the land area they occupy and their variety. Habitat loss and fragmentation impacts' decreases to such an extent that they are influenced by negative edge effects. I Intensive management

171

Ecological-economic optimization of biodiversity conservation under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial investment in climate change research has led to dire predictions of the impacts and risks to biodiversity. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth assessment report cites 28,586 studies demonstrating significant biological changes in terrestrial systems. Already high extinction rates, driven primarily by habitat loss, are predicted to increase under climate change. Yet there is little specific advice or

Brendan A. Wintle; Sarah A. Bekessy; David A. Keith; Brian W. van Wilgen; Mar Cabeza; Boris Schröder; Silvia B. Carvalho; Alessandra Falcucci; Luigi Maiorano; Tracey J. Regan; Carlo Rondinini; Luigi Boitani; Hugh P. Possingham

2011-01-01

172

IMPACT 2002+: A new life cycle impact assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment methodology proposes a feasible implementation of a combined midpoint\\/damage\\u000a approach, linking all types of life cycle inventory results (elementary flows and other interventions) via 14 midpoint categories\\u000a to four damage categories. For IMPACT 2002+, new concepts and methods have been developed, especially for the comparative\\u000a assessment of human toxicity and ecotoxicity. Human

Olivier Jolliet; Manuele Margni; Raphaël Charles; Sébastien Humbert; Jérôme Payet; Gerald Rebitzer; Ralph Rosenbaum

2003-01-01

173

Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

Laurance, William F.

174

Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton

Manda G. Cattaneo; Christine Yafuso; Chris Schmidt; Cho-Ying Huang; Magfurar Rahman; Carl Olson; Christa Ellers-Kirk; Barron J. Orr; Stuart E. Marsh; Larry Antilla; Pierre Dutilleul; Yves Carrière

2006-01-01

175

Impacts of Land Use on Habitat Functions of Old-Growth Forests and their Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Based on a literature review we analysed the influence of historic and contemporary human impacts on the habitat function\\u000a of old-growth forests in the boreal, the tropics and in selected temperate regions. Old-growth and late-successional forests\\u000a are of singular relevance for many specialised plant and animal species. These forests possess complex structures. They exhibit\\u000a spatiotemporal stability and environmental continuity on

Dorothea Frank; Manfred Finckh; Christian Wirth

176

Impacts of bottom and suspended cultures of mussels Mytilus spp. on the surrounding sedimentary environment and macrobenthic biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of bottom and suspended mussel cultures, cultured in different physical environments, on the sedimentary environmental conditions and thereby the biodiversity structure of the associated macrofaunal community. We compared two bottom cultures (Limfjorden: microtidal, wind-driven; Oosterschelde: macrotidal) and one suspended culture (Ria de Vigo in an upwelling coastal region). The sedimentary environmental conditions (mud fraction, POC, PON, phosphorus content, chl a breakdown products) were significantly elevated underneath and surrounding bottom and suspended cultures compared to culture-free sediments that were nearby and hydrodynamically similar. The relative change in environmental conditions was more pronounced in the Oosterschelde compared to Limfjorden, most likely due to differences in hydrodynamic forcing and characteristics of the mussel bed. The effect of the suspended cultures in Ria de Vigo on the surrounding sediments was influenced by local topographic and hydrodynamic conditions. The impact of mussels on the benthic community due to biodeposition was clearly seen in the community structure. The species composition changed from species which are typically present in sandy environments to more small opportunistic species, which are typically present in organically enriched sediments. The impact of bottom cultures on the benthic community due to changes in the habitat under the presence of mussels was positive, especially in the Oosterschelde where an increase in the number of epibenthic species was seen. The influence of bottom cultures on the sedimentary environment and on the macrobenthic community seems to be very local. Within the mussel site in Limfjorden, differences were detected between sites where none or almost no mussels were present with sites where mussels were very abundant.

Ysebaert, Tom; Hart, Miron; Herman, Peter M. J.

2009-03-01

177

Offshore Wind Power Farm Environmental Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

Horns Rev Offshore Wind Power Farm Environmental Impact Assessment on Water Quality #12;Prepared Design ApS 04.05.2000 #12;Bio/consult Side 3 Horns Rev. Environmental Impact Assessment. Water Quality ................................................................................................................................. 12 4.2. WATER QUALITY

178

Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments  

SciTech Connect

Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for analyzing a proposed action`s incremental contribution to cumulative impacts are generally less advanced than those for project-specific impacts. The Presidents Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) defines cumulative impact to include the impacts of {open_quotes}past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions{close_quotes} regardless of who undertakes the action. Court decisions have helped clarify the distinction between reasonably foreseeable future actions and other possible future actions. This paper seeks to clarify how past and present impacts should be included in cumulative impact analyses. The definition of cumulative impacts implies that cumulative impact analyses should include the effects of all past and present actions on a particular resource. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments increases the likelihood of identifying significant impacts. NEPA requires agencies to give more consideration to alternatives and mitigation and to provide more opportunities for public involvement for actions that would have significant impacts than for actions that would not cause or contribute to significant impacts. For an action that would contribute to significant cumulative impacts, the additional cost and effort involved in increased consideration of alternatives and mitigation and in additional public involvement may be avoided if the action can be modified so that its contributions to significant cumulative impacts are eliminated. 18 refs., 4 figs.

McCold, L.N.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-09-01

179

Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental concerns such as loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion have heightened awareness of the need to assess cumulative impacts in environmental documents. More than 20 years of experience with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have provided analysts in the United States with opportunities for developing successful techniques to assess site-specific impacts of proposed actions. Methods for analyzing a proposed action's incremental contribution to cumulative impacts are generally less advanced than those for project-specific impacts. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) defines cumulative impact to include the impacts of “past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions” regardless of who undertakes the action. Court decisions have helped clarify the distinction between reasonably foreseeable future actions and other possible future actions. This paper seeks to clarify how past and present impacts should be included in cumulative impact analyses. The definition of cumulative impacts implies that cumulative impact analyses should include the effects of all past and present actions on a particular resource. Including past and present impacts in cumulative impact assessments increases the likelihood of identifying significant impacts. NEPA requires agencies to give more consideration to alternatives and mitigation and to provide more opportunities for public involvement for actions that would have significant impacts than for actions that would not cause or contribute to significant impacts. For an action that would contribute to significant cumulative impacts, the additional cost and effort involved in increased consideration of alternatives and mitigation and in additional public involvement may be avoided if the action can be modified so that its contributions to significant cumulative impacts are eliminated.

McCold, Lance N.; Saulsbury, James W.

1996-09-01

180

Novel strategies for assessing and managing the risks posed by invasive alien species to global crop production and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary International actions to combat the threat posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to crops and biodiversity have intensifi ed in recent years. The formulation of 15 guiding principles on IAS by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) stimulated the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) to review its role in protecting biodiversity. IPPC standards now demonstrate clearly that the risks

RICHARD BAKER; RAY CANNON; PAUL BARTLETT; IAN BARKER

2005-01-01

181

Enhancing impact: visualization of an integrated impact assessment strategy.  

PubMed

The environmental impact assessment process is over 40 years old and has dramatically expanded. Topics, such as social, health and human rights impact are now included. The main body of an impact analysis is generally hundreds of pages long and supported by countless technical appendices. For large, oil/gas, mining and water resources projects both the volume and technical sophistication of the reports has far exceeded the processing ability of host communities. Instead of informing and empowering, the reports are abstruse and overwhelming. Reinvention is required. The development of a visual integrated impact assessment strategy that utilizes remote sensing and spatial analyses is described. PMID:22639133

Krieger, Gary R; Bouchard, Michel A; de Sa, Isabel Marques; Paris, Isabelle; Balge, Zachary; Williams, Dane; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

2012-05-01

182

Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment Forestry Commission Equality Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

with a variety of organisations and bodies from a Regional and sub regional level, right down to very local stakeholder representatives to improve our knowledge and understanding in these areas. Summary of Impact

183

Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.  

PubMed

Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process. PMID:23279784

Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

2013-05-01

184

PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

At present, over 40% of the earth's land surface has been converted from its natural state to one dominated by human activities such as agriculture and development. The destruction and degradation of natural habitats has been clearly linked to the loss of biodiversity. Biodiver...

185

Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (<3 people/household) were 4 times as likely in natural areas as large households. Longer residency in natural areas predicted less environmentally oriented attitudes, suggesting that living in natural areas does not foster more concern for nature. Because populaces are rapidly aging, growing more educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity conservation. PMID:18445074

Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

2008-08-01

186

Measuring biodiversity and sustainable management in forests and agricultural landscapes  

PubMed Central

Most of the world's biodiversity will continue to exist outside protected areas and there are also managed lands within many protected areas. In the assessment of millennium targets, there is therefore a need for indicators to measure biodiversity and suitability of habitats for biodiversity both across the whole landscape/seascape and in specific managed habitats. The two predominant land uses in many inhabited areas are forestry and agriculture and these are examined. Many national-level criteria and indicator systems already exist that attempt to assess biodiversity in forests and the impacts of forest management, but there is generally less experience in measuring these values in agricultural landscapes. Existing systems are reviewed, both for their usefulness in providing indicators and to assess the extent to which they have been applied. This preliminary gap analysis is used in the development of a set of indicators suitable for measuring progress towards the conservation of biodiversity in managed forests and agriculture. The paper concludes with a draft set of indicators for discussion, with suggestions including proportion of land under sustainable management, amount of produce from such land, area of natural or high quality semi-natural land within landscapes under sustainable management and key indicator species. PMID:15814357

Dudley, Nigel; Baldock, David; Nasi, Robert; Stolton, Sue

2005-01-01

187

AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA thereby determines the momentum transfer from a known spacecraft impact and characterizes the resulting impact crater, in addition to studying other effects of the impact and providing valuable new insights into impact cratering and asteroid collisional evolution.

Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

2012-12-01

188

A Critical Assessment of Marine Aquarist Biodiversity Data and Commercial Aquaculture: Identifying Gaps in Culture Initiatives to Inform Local Fisheries Managers  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry “greenwashing” from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately, support aquaculture initiatives alongside well managed ornamental fisheries. PMID:25207538

Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.

2014-01-01

189

Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the erosion of the sand beneath the bordering sandstone benches, resulting in overhangs. These structures are the most common in the western district of the Fontainebleau Massif. Ponds develop on the tightly silicified and impermeable sandstone pans that form the "platières". There are permanent ponds and temporary wet zones, formed of interconnected or isolated depressions. The origin of these ponds has to be questioned with regard to the landscape shaping. Their origin is directly bound to the hollowing of uncemented, sandy zones, within the sandstone pans forming the "platières". Erosion by runoff cannot be considered; the only way to hollow them out is by deflation processes. No direct dating of the Quaternary dune and loess deposits of the Fontainebleau Massif exists. Nevertheless, dating of paleopodzols interlayered between drift sands, pond deposits and bones within congelifracts allow relating these periglacial features with the end of the last glacial period. For now, there is no dating to assess what belongs to older glacial periods. Distribution of the aeolian patterns The Fontainebleau Massif displays noteworthy morphological diversities in the various districts of the forest. Some of these differentiations result from geological features, but most of them are related to erosion processes, and among them deflation processes leaved different imprints in the western and eastern districts of the Fontainebleau Massif. The topography played an important role controlling the aeolian processes. Deflation was important in the westerly upwind district. In the westerly front face, aeolian erosion was activated by turbulences around the topographic obstacles. The reliefs funneled the winds and gave rise to swirls that hollow the blowouts. This area displays the sharpest and more chiseled landforms of the massif. Moreover, the sandstone scarps at the edge of the "platières" are high and uncovered, with frequent overhangs. The collapsed sandstone blocks of the "chaos" are im

Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

2009-04-01

190

AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth objects are small bodies orbiting the Sun near Earth’s orbit, some of which impact the Earth. The impact of an object as large as 30 m in diameter occurs every few centuries. The impact of such an object would already release an energy of at least a megaton of TNT, and the impact of a larger object, which would occur less often, would be even more hazardous. To protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is such an asteroid mitigation mission concept. This mission would be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid’s strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART study is coordinated with an ESA study of an Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which would rendezvous with the same target. AIDA follows the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, with the objective of demonstrating the ability to modify the trajectory of an asteroid and measure the trajectory change. Don Quijote involved an orbiter and an impactor spacecraft, with the orbiter arriving first and measuring the deflection, and with the orbiter making additional characterization measurements. Unlike Don Quijote, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid, with ground-based observations to measure the deflection as well as additional spacecraft observations from AIM. Low cost mission approaches will be presented.

Cheng, Andrew F.; Rivkin, A.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Reed, C.

2012-10-01

191

Assessing biogeographic patterns in the changes in soil invertebrate biodiversity due to acidic deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying the response of soil faunal communities to a gradient in acidic deposition across midwestern hardwood forests. We have documented a pattern of population decrease and species loss for soil invertebrates along the acidification gradient. We now ask the following question: When confronted with apparent diversity changes along a region-wide pollution gradient, how can one assess the possibility

P. M. Sugg; R. G. Kuperman; O. L. Loucks

1995-01-01

192

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE OLD QUESNEL LANDFILL  

E-print Network

#12;IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE OLD QUESNEL LANDFILL FINAL REPORT DOE FRAP 1995-05 Prepared for .................................................................................................................ll Leachate Seeps List of Figures Site Location/Legal Boundary Old Quesnel Landfill

193

AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Feb. 15, 2013, an exceptionally close approach to Earth by the small asteroid 2012 DA14 was eagerly awaited by observers, but another small asteroid impacted Earth over Chelyabinsk, Russia the same day without warning, releasing several hundred kilotons TNT of energy and injuring over 1500 people. These dramatic events remind us of the needs to discover hazardous asteroids and to learn how to mitigate them. The AIDA mission is the first demonstration of a mitigation technique to protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, by performing a spacecraft kinetic impact on an asteroid to deflect it from its trajectory. We will provide an update on the status of parallel AIDA mission studies supported by ESA and NASA. AIDA is an international collaboration consisting of two independent but mutually supporting missions, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor, and the other is the characterization spacecraft which will orbit the asteroid system to monitor the deflection experiment and measure the results. These two missions are the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), which is the kinetic impactor, and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which is the characterization spacecraft. The target of the AIDA mission will be a binary asteroid, in which DART will target the secondary, smaller member in order to deflect the binary orbit. The resulting period change can be measured to within 10% by ground-based observations. The asteroid deflection will be measured to higher accuracy, and additional results of the DART impact, like the impact crater, will be studied in great detail by the AIM mission. AIDA will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable, but when combined they provide a greatly increased knowledge return. The AIDA mission will combine US and European space experience and expertise to address an international problem, the asteroid impact hazard. AIDA will also be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. AIDA will furthermore return fundamental new science data on impact cratering, surface properties and interior structure. AIDA will target the binary Near-Earth asteroid Didymos with two independently launched spacecraft, with the deflection experiment to occur in October, 2022.

Cheng, Andrew; Michel, Patrick; Ulamec, Stephan; Reed, Cheryl; Galvez, Andres; Carnelli, Ian

194

34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section...601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall...with its application its assessment of the impact of...

2010-07-01

195

Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

Catalano, Ralph A.

1975-01-01

196

Biodiversity Action Reporting System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biodiversity Action Reporting System is "a web-based system that supports the planning, monitoring, and reporting requirements of national and local Biodiversity Action Plans (BAPs)". BAPs are used to plan the protection and sustainability of biodiversity in the four countries that make up the United Kingdom. The website has a members-only section, but it also contains a very extensive section open to non-members. The "Status & Trends" tab at the top of the page allows visitors to search the status or trend of "individual species" or "individual habitat". A visitor choosing to search by species will be taken to a page where the name of the plant or animal species can be typed in, or can be chosen from the link "Pick from A-Z list". The list gives the "Scientific Name" and "Common Name" to more easily find the animal or plant. Visitors will find that only the species and habitats that show data in "National Trends" and "National Status" are those that are deemed U.K. Priority Species and Habitats. The "Actions & Impacts" tab at the top of the page allows visitors to search for reports of "Threats to Biodiversity" and "Recorded Losses".

197

A framework to assess regional environmental impacts of dedicated energy crop production  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have evaluated air quality and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits of biomass energy systems, but the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale changes in land-use patterns needed to produce energy crops have not been qualified. This paper presents a framework to assess the potential soil, water, and biodiversity impacts that may result from the large-scale production of dedicated energy crops. The framework incorporates producer economic decision models with environmental models to assess changes in land use patterns and to quantify the consequent environmental impacts. Economic and policy issues that will affect decisions to produce energy crops are discussed. The framework is used to evaluate erosion and chemical runoff in two Tennessee regions. The analysis shows that production of dedicated energy crops in place of conventional crops will significantly reduce erosion and chemical runoff. 26 refs., 6 figs.

Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.; Walsh, M.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01

198

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

199

Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

2007-07-02

200

Assessing the IMPACT of Our Teaching  

E-print Network

Assessing the IMPACT of Our Teaching Rocky K. C. Chang Department of Computing The Hong Kong Polytechnic U. 4 January 2003 Rocky K. C. Chang, Department of Computing2 What to assess? · Teaching content ­ Syllabus, objectives, teaching materials, workload, assignments, projects, resources, etc. · Teaching

Chang, Rocky Kow-Chuen

201

Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

2013-01-01

202

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Help Desk Request  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Help Desk Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name form. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The user's contact information- name and email - is collected via a web form. The information is displayed and the user confirms

Mathis, Wayne N.

203

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name-3 times per month via email. Subscription is a free, voluntary service that the user signs up for online by filling in a web form. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected

Mathis, Wayne N.

204

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) SAO Conference Registration  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) SAO Conference Registration I. System Identification 1. IT System card. The credit card information is collected in a separate application. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The registrant's contact information- name, email

Mathis, Wayne N.

205

Assessing biogeographic patterns in the changes in soil invertebrate biodiversity due to acidic deposition  

SciTech Connect

We are studying the response of soil faunal communities to a gradient in acidic deposition across midwestern hardwood forests. We have documented a pattern of population decrease and species loss for soil invertebrates along the acidification gradient. We now ask the following question: When confronted with apparent diversity changes along a region-wide pollution gradient, how can one assess the possibility of natural biogeographic gradients accounting for the pattern? As a first approximation, we use published range maps from taxonomic monographs to determine the percent of the regional fauna with ranges encompassing each site. For staphylinid beetles, range data show no sign of a biogeographic gradient. Yet for soil staphylinids, a large decrease is seen in alpha diversity (as species richness) from low to high acid dose sites (from 20 species to 8). Staphylinid species turnover is greatest in the transition from low to intermediate dose sites.

Sugg, P.M.; Kuperman, R.G.; Loucks, O.L. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)]|[Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

206

Assessment of Helminth Biodiversity in Wild Rats Using 18S rDNA Based Metagenomics  

PubMed Central

Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity. PMID:25340824

Tsai, Isheng J.; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

2014-01-01

207

How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?  

PubMed

Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness. PMID:23495639

Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

2013-01-01

208

Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Climate Change on Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, between species and in ecosystems. Biodiversity contributes to regulating ecosystem services like climate, flood, disease, and water quality regulation. Biodiversity also supports and sustains ecosystem services that provide material goods like food, fiber, fuel, timber and water, and to non-material benefits like educational, recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimated that the rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has been more rapid than at any other time in human history, and that many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing. The strongest drivers of biodiversity loss include habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, climate change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen. Of these stressors, climate change and reactive nitrogen from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in consistent patterns of poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, causing changes in biodiversity. Warming has also resulted in changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events, migration, and lengthening of the growing season, disrupting predator-prey and plant-pollinator interactions. In addition to warming, elevated carbon dioxide by itself can affect biodiversity by influencing plant growth, soil water, tissue stoichiometry, and trophic interactions. Nitrogen enrichment also impacts ecosystems and biodiversity in a variety of ways. Nitrogen enhances plant growth, but has been shown to favor invasive, fast-growing species over native species adapted to low nitrogen conditions. Although there have been a limited number of empirical studies on climate change and nitrogen interactions, inferences can be drawn from observed responses to each stressor by itself. For example, in certain arid ecosystems of southern California, elevated nitrogen has promoted invasions of annual non-native grasses. At the same time, a period of above-normal precipitation years has exacerbated the grass invasions. Increased grass cover has altered the hydrologic cycle of these areas and increased fire risk, ultimately leading to conversion of the ecosystem from diverse shrublands to less diverse grasslands. In addition to empirical studies, modeling can be used to simulate climate change and nitrogen interactions. The ForSAFE-VEG model, for example, has been used to examine climate change and nitrogen interactions in Rocky Mountain alpine vegetation communities. Results from both empirical studies and modeling indicate that nitrogen and climate change interact to drive losses in biodiversity greater than those caused by either stressor alone. Reducing inputs of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen may be an effective mitigation strategy for protecting biodiversity in the face of climate change.

Porter, E. M.; Bowman, W. D.; Clark, C. M.; Compton, J. E.; Pardo, L. H.; Soong, J.

2011-12-01

209

Biodiversity Survey - A Unit Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of the terrestrial biodiversity survey is to examine the impact of humans upon the environment. Through a series of investigations students develop their own hypothesis about human impact and then test this on a site not previously examined. Final analysis and discussion of the results allows the students to develop a theory about the impact of humans upon the biodiversity. Students also are introduced to experimental design, use of statistics to determine whether to accept or reject a hypothesis, and the significance of taxonomy. The activity is used to introduce students to biology in general and the significance of environmental studies.

Jeb Schenck (Hot Springs County High School REV)

1995-06-30

210

Filling Gaps in Biodiversity Knowledge for Macrofungi: Contributions and Assessment of an Herbarium Collection DNA Barcode Sequencing Project  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1–2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa. PMID:23638077

Osmundson, Todd W.; Robert, Vincent A.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Baker, Lydia J.; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M.

2013-01-01

211

Invasions, DNA barcodes, and rapid biodiversity assessment using ants of Mauritius  

PubMed Central

Background Using an understudied taxon (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) found on a tropical island (Mauritius) where native flora and fauna have been threatened by 400 years of habitat modification and introduced species, we tested whether estimated incidences of diversity and complementarity were similar when measured by standard morphological alpha-taxonomy or phylogenetic diversity (PD) based on a standardized mitochondrial barcode and corroborating nuclear marker. Results We found that costs related to site loss (considered loss of evolutionary history measured as loss of barcode PD) were not significantly different from predictions made either a) using standard morphology-based taxonomy, or b) measured using a nuclear marker. Integrating morphology and barcode results permitted us to identify a case of initially morphologically-cryptic variation as a new and endemic candidate species. However, barcode estimates of the relative importance of each site or network of sites were dramatically affected when the species in question was known to be indigenous or introduced. Conclusion This study goes beyond a mere demonstration of the rapid gains possible for diversity assessment using a standardized DNA barcode. Contextualization of these gains with ecological and natural history information is necessary to calibrate this wealth of standardized information. Without such an integrative approach, critical opportunities to advance knowledge will be missed. PMID:20003263

2009-01-01

212

Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed.

W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

2001-06-01

213

Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies  

PubMed Central

The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

214

The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index  

PubMed Central

Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized biodiversity data; (b) assisting countries potentially in need (for example mega-diverse) to mobilize resources and collect data that could be used in decision-making; and (c) allowing identification of which biodiversity informatics-resourced countries could afford to assist countries lacking in biodiversity informatics capacity, and which data-rich countries should benefit most from such help. PMID:22373233

2011-01-01

215

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

216

HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN THE NEW ZEALAND POLICY CONTEXT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the health impact of policy outside the health sector is a key part of public health policy making. Policy makers use health impact assessment to improve, promote and protect the health of populations. This paper defines health impact assessment and provides justification for the use of formal health impact assessment tools. The New Zealand policy-making process and the mechanisms

Louise Signal; Gillian Durham

2001-01-01

217

Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem services will be necessary to fully understand the links between land-allocation strategies and long-term ecosystem service provision. PMID:24764180

Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

2014-07-01

218

Environmental services of biodiversity.  

PubMed Central

Humans derive many utilitarian benefits from the environmental services of biotas and ecosystems. This is often advanced as a prime argument to support conservation of biodiversity. There is much to be said for this viewpoint, as is documented in this paper through a summary assessment of several categories of environmental services, including regulation of climate and biogeochemical cycles, hydrological functions, soil protection, crop pollination, pest control, recreation and ecotourism, and a number of miscellaneous services. It is shown that the services are indeed significant, whether in ecological or economic senses. Particularly important is the factor of ecosystem resilience, which appears to underpin many of the services. It should not be supposed, however, that environmental services stem necessarily and exclusively from biodiversity. While biodiversity often plays a key role, the services can also derive from biomass and other attributes of biotas. The paper concludes with a brief overview assessment of economic values at issue and an appraisal of the implications for conservation planning. PMID:11607645

Myers, N

1996-01-01

219

Let us make impact assessment more accessible  

SciTech Connect

Impact assessment professionals have traditionally written documents for themselves. Often, their work appears to be received with indifference by business professionals and decision makers who have different needs and interests. The two groups conflict when they should be thinking and planning together at the 'big picture' level (including the understanding of the social factors at work in environmental impact assessment) and developing related and workable 'site-specific' implementation that characterizes socially acceptable decision making. To achieve this goal, the IA professional needs to rethink the approach. IA professionals often focus on the traditional 'physical' environment, confining the assessment to facts and figures about hard aspects of the environment. Reams of detailed data are compiled to demonstrate impact assessment and to achieve a degree of certainty and precision. However, the sheer bulk of data assures that it will not be read by those who most need to use it. The IA professional must learn to prepare assessments that effectively consider less quantifiable, 'softer' aspects of the environment. We advocate preparation of an impact analysis that management decision makers and environmental stewards can use as a reference tool. The goal is to reduce or eliminate the hundreds of unread pages containing lengthy modeling runs and obscure details, and instead to prepare documents that are useful in both courtroom and boardroom. This convenient and quick-study 'consumer report' style combines with a tiered decision making process that assures broad long-term thinking and planning, and focused short-term detailed implementation, using a level of detail appropriate to the decision at hand. This methodology integrates social factors into decision making, so as to provide meaningful discussion and analysis. These principles, which have been proven in US boardrooms and courtrooms, will be illustrated with actual examples from broad policy-level impact assessments undertaken by the Bonneville Power Administration, and successfully implemented in managerial- and project-level actions.

Alton, Charles C.; Underwood, P. Benjamin

2003-03-01

220

Life cycle assessment based evaluation of regional impacts from agricultural production at the Peruvian coast.  

PubMed

Crop and technology choices in agriculture, which largely define the impact of agricultural production on the environment, should be considered in agricultural development planning. A life cycle assessment of the dominant crops produced in a Peruvian coastal valley was realized, in order to establish regionalized life cycle inventories for Peruvian products and to provide the basis for a regional evaluation of the impacts of eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and biodiversity loss due to water use. Five scenarios for the year 2020 characterized by different crop combinations and irrigation systems were considered as development options. The results of the regional assessment showed that a business-as-usual scenario, extrapolating current trends of crop cultivation, would lead to an increase in nitrate leaching with eutrophying effects. On the other hand, scenarios of increased application of drip irrigation and of mandarin area expansion would lead to a decrease in nitrate leaching. In all scenarios the human toxicity potential would decrease slightly, while an increase in irrigation water use would benefit the biodiversity of a nearby groundwater-fed wetland. Comparisons with results from other studies confirmed the importance of regionalized life cycle inventories. The results can be used as decision support for local farmers and authorities. PMID:22894858

Bartl, Karin; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

2012-09-18

221

Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population

Roy E. Kwiatkowski; Maria Ooi

222

Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a

Peter J. Irvine; Andy Ridgwell; Daniel J. Lunt

2010-01-01

223

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

224

Imbibing Wisdom of Environmental Impact Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning module for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the relationship between EIA objectives and those of the module. Discusses constraints influencing the form of the subject and the range of possible training techniques. Presents details of the module's structure and comments on its approach. (Contains 16 references.) (MDH)

Thomas, Ian

1992-01-01

225

Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating `novel' conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a

Peter J. Irvine; Andy Ridgwell; Daniel J. Lunt

2010-01-01

226

Quantitative assessments of ecological impact/recovery in freshwater systems  

SciTech Connect

Long-term studies were undertaken to evaluate the fidelity of multi-metric scoring systems, and other means of quantifying effects of chemical stresses on aquatic biota. Integrity of macroinvertebrate communities was assessed using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III; trophic group analysis, diversity indices and various individual parameters, including species richness, abundance and indicator species. In addition, chemical and toxicological monitoring data and periphyton studies were used in the evaluations. Surveys were performed at monitoring stations selected for comparable conditions, and included upstream reference and downstream recovery areas. In two streams, ecological impact varied from severe to extreme near point-source outfalls and decreased progressively with distance downstream. Station to station scoring with Protocol III and diversity indices correlated well with independent chemical and toxicological evaluations. However, in metal-stressed streams affected by slight to moderate impact, or which were in early recovery, Protocol III scoring and other family-level metrics did not consistently reflect losses in species richness and mean abundance up to 32% and 75%, respectively. Observations on morphological deformities (e.g., eyespots, gills), selected subfamily and species-level metrics, including ratios of metal sensitive to metal tolerant chironomids, gave greater accuracy in characterizing low to moderate perturbations. However, in conclusion, it appeared that marginal losses in biodiversity over time may not be detectable with current procedures. Major factors affecting precision included the normal range of seasonal and annual fluctuations in ecological parameters within and among stream systems, inadequate historical data, as well as drought and high water events.

Birge, W.J.; Keogh, D.P.; Zuiderveen, J.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); [Columbus College, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

227

An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for adaptation, mitigation and post-hazard recovery and resettlement measures. Providing basic necessities such as water, food and power, maintaining public health, implementing protective measures in the coastal zones and modifications in the urban infrastructure, especially in the coastal megacities become expensive. Impact of extremes on rails, roads and building are also becoming a major issue in the coastal zones and urban centres. Industrial sector is facing a threat from the falling reliable supply of water and power. However, procedure for the implementation of the strategies to mitigate the climate change impact and of the policy for the adaptation to climate change is slow. There are several hurdles for this, including various ecological, socio-economic, technical and political issues, alterations of the physical environment, inability of certain habitats and species to adapt to a new environment, abject poverty, lack of awareness, and the inefficient administrative mechanism. A comprehensive assessment of the shifts in regional climate and the impact of climate change on different facets of life in India, and of the current strategies and polices to face such challenges is made in this study. Suggestions for the improvement of the climate policy and adaptation strategy have been provided.

Nair, K. S.

2009-09-01

228

Making Robust Policy Decisions Using Global Biodiversity Indicators  

PubMed Central

In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change. PMID:22815938

Nicholson, Emily; Collen, Ben; Barausse, Alberto; Blanchard, Julia L.; Costelloe, Brendan T.; Sullivan, Kathryn M. E.; Underwood, Fiona M.; Burn, Robert W.; Fritz, Steffen; Jones, Julia P. G.; McRae, Louise; Possingham, Hugh P.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

2012-01-01

229

A model-based evaluation of the impacts of urban expansion on flow variability and aquatic biodiversity in the Big River watershed in eastern Missouri (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural flow regimes in aquatic systems sustain biodiversity and provide support for basic ecological processes. Nevertheless, the hydrology of aquatic systems is heavily impacted by human activities including land use changes associated with urbanization. Small increases in urban expansion can greatly increase surface runoff while decreasing infiltration. These changes in land use can also affect aquifer recharge and alter streamflow, thus impacting water quality, aquatic biodiversity, and ecosystem productivity. However, there are few studies predicting the effects of various levels of urbanization on flow regimes and the subsequent impacts of these flow alterations on ecosystem endpoints at the watershed scale. We quantified the potential effects of varying degrees of urban expansion on the discharge, velocity, and water depth in the Big River watershed in eastern Missouri using a physically-based watershed model, MIKE-SHE, and a 1D hydrodynamic river model, MIKE-11. Five land cover scenarios corresponding to increasing levels of urban expansion were used to determine the sensitivity of flow in the Big River watershed to increasing urbanization. Results indicate that the frequency of low flow events decreases as urban expansion increases, while the frequency of average and high-flow events increases as urbanization increases. We used current estimates of flow from the MIKE-SHE model to predict variation in fish species richness at 44 sites across the watershed based on standardized fish collections from each site. This model was then used with flow estimates from the urban expansion hydrological models to predict potential changes in fish species richness as urban areas increase. Responses varied among sites with some areas predicted to experience increases in species richness while others are predicted to experience decreases in species richness. Taxonomic identity of species also appeared to influence results with the number of species of Cyprinidae (minnows) expected to increase across the watershed, while the number of species of Centrachidae (bass and sunfish) is expected to decrease across the watershed.

Knouft, J.; Chu, M. L.

2013-12-01

230

Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

231

Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

2014-07-01

232

Impact Hazard Assessment for 2011 AG5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2011 AG5 is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid roughly 140 m in diameter. The current orbit determination, based on 213 optical measurements from 2010-Nov-08.6 to 2011-Sep-21.4, allows for the possibility of an Earth impact on 2040-Feb-05.2 with probability 0.2%. The 2040 potential impact is a 17:10 resonant return from a 2023 Earth encounter, where if the asteroid passes through a 365 km keyhole, it will go on to impact in 2040. We discuss the critical points on the decision tree for averting this potential impact. The decision to proceed with a deflection mission should not be made prematurely, when there is still a chance for eliminating the impact hazard through observations rather than intervention, and yet the decision must not be delayed past the point where it is no longer feasible to achieve a deflection. Thus the decision tree is informed by the evolution of the asteroid’s orbital uncertainty and by the available mission scenarios. We approach the orbital prediction problem by assessing the expected future evolution of the orbital uncertainty at the 2040 encounter based on various observational scenarios. We find that observations made at the next favorable apparition in 2013 are 95% likely to eliminate the possibility of a 2040 impact altogether. With the addition of 2015-16 observations, this likelihood increases to about 99%. Conversely, if the asteroid turns out to really be on an Earth impacting trajectory, the 2013 observations could raise the chance of impact to 10-15%, and observations in 2015-2016 could raise the chance of impact to 70%. On the deflection side, we describe a range of viable kinetic deflection mission scenarios. Mission timelines allow detailed planning to be delayed until after the 2013 observations and spacecraft fabrication to be delayed until after the 2015-16 observations. The full report is available at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news175.html.

Chesley, Steven R.; Bhaskaran, S.; Chodas, P. W.; Grebow, D.; Landau, D.; Petropoulos, A. E.; Sims, J. A.; Yeomans, D. K.

2012-10-01

233

Assessing biodiversity of a freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate community through non-destructive environmental barcoding of DNA from preservative ethanol  

PubMed Central

Background Characterizing biodiversity in a habitat or in targeted taxonomically or socioeconomically important groups remains a challenge. Standard DNA-based biodiversity identification tools such as DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are rapidly changing the landscape of biodiversity analysis by targeting various habitats and a wide array of organisms. However, effective use of these technological advances requires optimized protocols and benchmarking against traditional tools. Here we investigate the use of commonly used preservative ethanol as a non-destructive and inexpensive source of DNA for NGS biodiversity analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates. We used the preservative ethanol added to field collected organisms (live sorted bulk benthic samples) as a source of community DNA for NGS environmental barcoding. We directly compare this approach with a DNA barcode library generated using Sanger sequencing of all individuals separated from abenthic sample as well as with NGS environmental barcoding of DNA extracted from mixed/homogenized tissue specimens of the same benthic sample. We also evaluate a multiplex PCR strategy, as compared to commonly used single amplicon workflow, using three newly designed primer sets targeting a wide array of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. Results Our results indicate the effectiveness of ethanol-based DNA in providing sequence information from 87% of taxa identified individually from mixture as compared to 89% in conventional tissue extracted DNA. Missing taxa in both DNA sources were from species with the lowest abundance (e.g. 1 individual) in the benthic mixture. Interestingly, we achieved 100% detection for taxa represented with more than 1% individuals in the mixture in both sources of DNA. Our multiplex amplification regime increased the detection as compared to any single primer set indicating the usefulness of using multiple primer sets in initial amplification of target genes. Conclusions Although NGS approaches have significantly increased the potential of using DNA information in biodiversity analysis, robust methods are needed to provide reliable data and alleviate sample-processing bottlenecks. Here we coupled non-destructive DNA access and a multiplex PCR approach in NGS environmental barcoding for effective data generation from benthic live-sorted samples collected in bulk and preserved in ethanol. Our study provides a possible solution to sampling and vouchering challenges in using benthic samples through next-generation environmental barcoding and facilitates wider utility of DNA information, especially species-specific DNA barcodes, in ecological and environmental studies and real-world applications such as biomonitoring programs. PMID:23259585

2012-01-01

234

What is Biodiversity? Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document contains a lesson plan on biodiversity for grades 6-12. Students will learn the definition of biodiversity, discuss facts and issues related to California biodiversity, and list reasons why biodiversity is important. The document is available in Microsoft Word format at: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/Lesson_biodiversity.doc

2012-02-16

235

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

236

A process-driven sedimentary habitat modelling approach, explaining seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve good environmental status, by 2020, for European seas. This study analyses the applicability of a process-driven benthic sedimentary habitat model, to be used in the implementation of the MSFD in relation to biodiversity and seafloor integrity descriptors for sedimentary habitats. Our approach maps the major environmental factors influencing soft-bottom macrobenthic community structure and the life-history traits of species. Among the 16 environmental variables considered, a combination of water depth, mean grain size, a wave-induced sediment resuspension index and annual bottom maximum temperature, are the most significant factors explaining the variability in the structure of benthic communities in the study area. These variables are classified into those representing the ‘Disturbance' and ‘Scope for Growth' components of the environment. It was observed that the habitat classes defined in the process-driven model reflected different structural and functional characteristics of the benthos. Moreover, benthic community structure anomalies due to human pressures could also be detected within the model produced. Thus, the final process-driven habitat map can be considered as being highly useful for seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment, within the European MSFD as well as for conservation, environmental status assessment and managing human activities, especially within the marine spatial planning process.

Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Pascual, Marta; Muxika, Iñigo

2013-10-01

237

Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biodiversity Bulletin No 1, from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre is now online and is entitled "Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics,"by Michael Green and others. The bulletin provides an assessment of "the extent to which habitats in the tropics are protected and guidance on prioritising conservation action from global and national perspectives."

Bunting, Gillian C.; Green, Michael J.; Murray, Martyn G.; Paine, James R.

1998-01-01

238

Deforestation and biodiversity conservation in Mexico1 Vctor Snchez-Cordero1  

E-print Network

Deforestation and biodiversity conservation in Mexico1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1180, USA. Abstract Deforestation is one of the main factors negatively affecting the conservation of biological diversity. We assess the impact of deforestation

Sarkar, Sahotra

239

Cryptic biodiversity loss linked to global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change (GCC) significantly affects distributional patterns of organisms, and considerable impacts on biodiversity are predicted for the next decades. Inferred effects include large-scale range shifts towards higher altitudes and latitudes, facilitation of biological invasions and species extinctions. Alterations of biotic patterns caused by GCC have usually been predicted on the scale of taxonomically recognized morphospecies. However, the effects of climate change at the most fundamental level of biodiversity--intraspecific genetic diversity--remain elusive. Here we show that the use of morphospecies-based assessments of GCC effects will result in underestimations of the true scale of biodiversity loss. Species distribution modelling and assessments of mitochondrial DNA variability in nine montane aquatic insect species in Europe indicate that future range contractions will be accompanied by severe losses of cryptic evolutionary lineages and genetic diversity within these lineages. These losses greatly exceed those at the scale of morphospecies. We also document that the extent of range reduction may be a useful proxy when predicting losses of genetic diversity. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific patterns of genetic diversity should be considered when estimating the effects of climate change on biodiversity.

Bálint, M.; Domisch, S.; Engelhardt, C. H. M.; Haase, P.; Lehrian, S.; Sauer, J.; Theissinger, K.; Pauls, S. U.; Nowak, C.

2011-09-01

240

AIDA: The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA, and DLR, is the first demonstration of asteroid deflection and assessment via kinetic impact. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission elements, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterization spacecraft. These two missions are, respectively, JHU/APL's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Investigation Mission (AIM) missions. As in the separate DART and AIM studies, the target of this mission is the binary asteroid [65803] Didymos in October, 2022. For a successful joint mission, one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos system while AIM would observe and measure any change in the relative orbit. AIM will be the first probe to characterise a binary asteroid, especially from the dynamical point of view, but also considering its interior and subsurface composition. The mission concept focuses on the monitoring aspects i.e., the capability to determine in-situ the key physical properties of a binary asteroid playing a role in the system's dynamic behavior. DART will be the first ever space mission to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid in a measurable way.- It is expected that the deflection can be measured as a change in the relative orbit period with a precision better than 10%. The joint AIDA mission will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact [1,2].

Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A. F.; Reed, C.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Abell, P.; Landis, R.

2013-09-01

241

Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

1996-03-01

242

Highly Diverse, Poorly Studied and Uniquely Threatened by Climate Change: An Assessment of Marine Biodiversity on South Georgia's Continental Shelf  

PubMed Central

We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet. Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports, papers and databases, collectively representing over 125 years of polar exploration. Classification of each specimen was recorded to species level and fully geo-referenced by depth, latitude and longitude. This information was integrated with physical data layers (e.g. temperature, salinity and flow) providing a visualisation of South Georgia's biogeography across spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales, placing it in the wider context of the Southern Hemisphere. This study marks the first attempt to map the biogeography of an archipelago south of the Polar Front. Through it we identify the South Georgian shelf as the most speciose region of the Southern Ocean recorded to date. Marine biodiversity was recorded as rich across taxonomic levels with 17,732 records yielding 1,445 species from 436 families, 51 classes and 22 phyla. Most species recorded were rare, with 35% recorded only once and 86% recorded <10 times. Its marine fauna is marked by the cumulative dominance of endemic and range-edge species, potentially at their thermal tolerance limits. Consequently, our data suggests the ecological implications of environmental change to the South Georgian marine ecosystem could be severe. If sea temperatures continue to rise, we suggest that changes will include depth profile shifts of some fauna towards cooler Antarctic Winter Water (90–150 m), the loss of some range-edge species from regional waters, and the wholesale extinction at a global scale of some of South Georgia's endemic species. PMID:21647236

Hogg, Oliver T.; Barnes, David K. A.; Griffiths, Huw J.

2011-01-01

243

Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (<3000 m) areas with xeric, tropical, and temperate ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cantu, C.; Wright, R. G.; Scott, J. M.; Strand, E.

2004-01-01

244

Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

Stronko, Jakob M.

2013-01-01

245

Assessing the Impact of Instructional Methods  

E-print Network

In an era of increased accountability in assessing student learning outcomes, greater emphasis has been focused on factors that influence student learning. In this paper we examine the impact of instructional methods and information technology on student learning styles, all critical factors affecting student learning. A research framework that suggests the relationship of instructional processes and information technology to learning styles is proposed. Using the framework, preand post–tests based on the Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scales were used to assess changes in student learning styles over the course of a semester in three college-level courses. Through specific instructional intervention coupled with collaborative projects and the use of course-management software, the results of the assessments showed a significant increase in students ’ Collaborative, Participant, and Independent learning styles over the course of the semester. Implications for practice and additional research are suggested.

Learning Styles; Anil Kumar; Karl Smart

246

SECRETARIAL REVIEW DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT / REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW /  

E-print Network

essential fish habitat EIS Environmental Impact Statement ESA Endangered Species Act ESU endangered speciesSECRETARIAL REVIEW DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT / REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW / INITIAL REGULATORY prohibited species catch PRA Paperwork Reduction Act PSEIS Programmatic Supplemental Environmental Impact

247

Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity  

E-print Network

diversity, insurance hypothesis, mycorrhizal fungi, quantitative PCR, selection effect, soil biodiversity of biodiversity effects has yet to be used to assess the functioning of soil microbial communities. Soil microbesLETTER Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity Cameron

Bruns, Tom

248

A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability.

Young, J. A.; Smith, D. R.; Snyder, C. D.; Lemarie, D. P.

2002-01-01

249

pollution response in emergencies marine impact assessment and monitoring  

E-print Network

pollution response in emergencies marine impact assessment and monitoring post-incident monitoring, Pembrokeshire SA72 4UN. pollution response in emergencies marine impact assessment and monitoring #12;POST, as a deliverable within project ME5407: "PREMIAM: Pollution Response in Emergencies Marine Impact Assessment

250

40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on... § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment...recycling will be made based on the effect on esthetic, recreational...

2010-07-01

251

Integrating ongoing biodiversity monitoring: potential benefits and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halting the loss of biodiversity comes along with the need to quantify biodiversity composition and dynamics at large spatial\\u000a and temporal scales. Highly standardized, international monitoring networks would be ideal, but they do not exist yet. If\\u000a we are to assess changes in biodiversity now, combining output available from ongoing monitoring initiatives is the only option.\\u000a However, integration of biodiversity

Pierre-Yves Henry; Szabolcs Lengyel; Piotr Nowicki; Romain Julliard; Jean Clobert; Tatjana ?elik; Bernd Gruber; Dirk S. Schmeller; Valerija Babij; Klaus Henle

2008-01-01

252

Tropical rainforest biodiversity: field and  

E-print Network

Tropical rainforest biodiversity: field and GIS tools for assessing, monitoring and mapping II with Tanzania National ParksTanzania National Parks andand Wildlife Conservation SocietyWildlife Conservation at the Udzungwa Ecological Monitoring Centre, aUdzungwa Ecological Monitoring Centre, a field station annexed

253

Ecological ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: ecological and taxonomic severities are decoupled  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past two decades have seen extensive analyses of the taxonomic severity of major biodiversity crises in geologic time. In contrast, we propose here an alternative analysis of the ecological severity of biodiversity crises. It is clear that the ecological impacts of the five Phanerozoic biodiversity crises were not all the same. Ranking the five Phanerozoic biodiversity crises by ecological

George R. McGhee Jr; Peter M. Sheehanb; David J. Bottjerc; Mary L. Droserd

254

Biodiversity: a lichenological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

[General discussion of the biodiversity and ecological importance of lichens, with special reference to areas of biodiversity, lichen biomass, food chains, nutrient cycling, carbon sinks, biomonitoring, climate change, conservation, and lichen identification.

D. J. Galloway

1992-01-01

255

Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

256

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

257

Suggested Readings on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 25 books on biodiversity. For each title, the book's author, publisher, and publication date are given. The diverse list includes broad introductions to biodiversity, insightful looks at evolution and extinction, examinations of the partnership between insects and flowers, portraits of vanishing species and explorations of the factors contributing to a global biodiversity crisis.

258

Assessing regional impacts and adaptation strategies for climate change: the Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change in the twenty-first century will strongly affect the processes that define natural and human systems. The Washington\\u000a Climate Change Impacts Assessment (WACCIA) was intended to identify the nature and effects of climate change on natural and\\u000a human resources in Washington State over the next century. The assessment focused on eight sectors that were identified as\\u000a being potentially most

Edward L. Miles; Marketa M. Elsner; Jeremy S. Littell; Lara Whitely Binder; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2010-01-01

259

Children Prioritize Virtual Exotic Biodiversity over Local Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1) a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2) an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords) was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect “virtual” (unseen, exotic) rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity. PMID:21829710

Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Brischoux, Francois; Bonnet, Xavier

2011-01-01

260

A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets.  

PubMed

In 2010, the international community, under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, agreed on 20 biodiversity-related "Aichi Targets" to be achieved within a decade. We provide a comprehensive mid-term assessment of progress toward these global targets using 55 indicator data sets. We projected indicator trends to 2020 using an adaptive statistical framework that incorporated the specific properties of individual time series. On current trajectories, results suggest that despite accelerating policy and management responses to the biodiversity crisis, the impacts of these efforts are unlikely to be reflected in improved trends in the state of biodiversity by 2020. We highlight areas of societal endeavor requiring additional efforts to achieve the Aichi Targets, and provide a baseline against which to assess future progress. PMID:25278504

Tittensor, Derek P; Walpole, Matt; Hill, Samantha L L; Boyce, Daniel G; Britten, Gregory L; Burgess, Neil D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Leadley, Paul W; Regan, Eugenie C; Alkemade, Rob; Baumung, Roswitha; Bellard, Céline; Bouwman, Lex; Bowles-Newark, Nadine J; Chenery, Anna M; Cheung, William W L; Christensen, Villy; Cooper, H David; Crowther, Annabel R; Dixon, Matthew J R; Galli, Alessandro; Gaveau, Valérie; Gregory, Richard D; Gutierrez, Nicolas L; Hirsch, Tim L; Höft, Robert; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Karmann, Marion; Krug, Cornelia B; Leverington, Fiona J; Loh, Jonathan; Lojenga, Rik Kutsch; Malsch, Kelly; Marques, Alexandra; Morgan, David H W; Mumby, Peter J; Newbold, Tim; Noonan-Mooney, Kieran; Pagad, Shyama N; Parks, Bradley C; Pereira, Henrique M; Robertson, Tim; Rondinini, Carlo; Santini, Luca; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Schindler, Stefan; Sumaila, U Rashid; Teh, Louise S L; van Kolck, Jennifer; Visconti, Piero; Ye, Yimin

2014-10-10

261

Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E. [USEPA, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-10-01

262

Impacts of deep open drains on water quality and biodiversity of receiving waterways in the Wheatbelt of Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive networks of deep drains are being built in Western Australia to reduce the effects of dryland salinity on agricultural\\u000a lands. Most of these drains discharge into natural river and wetland systems, with little consideration given to the environmental\\u000a impacts. This study examined the downstream ecological impacts of one of the oldest deep drain networks in Western Australia,\\u000a located in

Barbara Stewart; Karin Strehlow; Jenny Davis

2009-01-01

263

Invasive plant suppresses charismatic seabird – the construction of attitudes towards biodiversity management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards biodiversity issues and the value judgments underlying biodiversity management and conservation are still poorly understood. This has raised serious concerns regarding the effective use of public participation in biodiversity policy making. We conducted quantitative face-to-face interviews with members of the general public in southeast Scotland to assess attitudes towards biodiversity management and examine attitude formation. For this,

Anke Fischer; René van der Wal

2007-01-01

264

Plant biodiversity and vegetation structure in traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon under different management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic surveys were performed in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens under different management regimes in the humid forest\\u000a area of southern Cameroon, to assess the impact of intensification on plant biodiversity. This impact was evaluated by analyzing\\u000a species richness, vegetation structure, carbon sequestration and above ground biomass. We hypothesize that: (a) plant (tree\\u000a and herbs) species richness is negatively correlated

Stefan Vidal

2008-01-01

265

Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.

Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

2010-09-01

266

Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.  

PubMed

Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches. PMID:23861863

Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

2013-01-01

267

Non-Linear Interactions Determine the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Estuarine Benthic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes  

PubMed Central

Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches. PMID:23861863

Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C. L.

2013-01-01

268

Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.  

PubMed

The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

2003-01-01

269

The substantial first impact of bottom fishing on rare biodiversity hotspots: a dilemma for evidence-based conservation.  

PubMed

This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.). One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90%) or scallop dredge (59%), as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids) were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a 'priority habitat' the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive) as well as indicators of 'Good Environmental Status' under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management. PMID:23967063

Cook, Robert; Fariñas-Franco, Jose M; Gell, Fiona R; Holt, Rohan H F; Holt, Terry; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S; Seed, Ray; Skates, Lucie R; Stringell, Thomas B; Sanderson, William G

2013-01-01

270

The Substantial First Impact of Bottom Fishing on Rare Biodiversity Hotspots: A Dilemma for Evidence-Based Conservation  

PubMed Central

This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.). One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90%) or scallop dredge (59%), as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids) were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a ‘priority habitat’ the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive) as well as indicators of ‘Good Environmental Status’ under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management. PMID:23967063

Cook, Robert; Farinas-Franco, Jose M.; Gell, Fiona R.; Holt, Rohan H. F.; Holt, Terry; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S.; Seed, Ray; Skates, Lucie R.; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanderson, William G.

2013-01-01

271

40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact....

2014-07-01

272

EqIA Summary Equality Impact Assessment Summary  

E-print Network

EqIA Summary Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service FCS Climate of Impact Race, gender, disability, sexual orientation, religion or belief and age will all be indirectly

273

Global Biodiversity Information Facility: Biodiversity Data Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Data Portal website is hosted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, March 14, 2001), an international organization committed to providing "free and universal access to data regarding the world's diversity." As its name indicates, the Data Portal provides access to biodiversity information from around the world and allows site visitors to browse for taxonomic data organized by Kingdom of Life, country, or data providers. Visitors can search for specimen or field observation data by data providers as well. The site also contains a search engine with search options that include many different countries, scientific name, common name in any language, English name, and more. This website is available in French, English, and Danish. Note: Prior to viewing data, site visitors must first agree to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Interim Data Use Agreement.

274

Remote sensing for hurricane Andrew impact assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center personnel flew a Learjet equipped with instrumentation designed to acquire imagery in many spectral bands into areas most damaged by Hurricane Andrew. The calibrated airborne multispectral scanner (CAMS), a NASA-developed sensor, and a Zeiss camera acquired images of these areas. The information derived from the imagery was used to assist Florida officials in assessing the devastation caused by the hurricane. The imagery provided the relief teams with an assessment of the debris covering roads and highways so cleanup plans could be prioritized. The imagery also mapped the level of damage in residential and commercial areas of southern Florida and provided maps of beaches and land cover for determination of beach loss and vegetation damage, particularly the mangrove population. Stennis Space Center personnel demonstrated the ability to respond quickly and the value of such response in an emergency situation. The digital imagery from the CAMS can be processed, analyzed, and developed into products for field crews faster than conventional photography. The resulting information is versatile and allows for rapid updating and editing. Stennis Space Center and state officials worked diligently to compile information to complete analyses of the hurricane's impact.

Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas

1994-01-01

275

Impacts of socio-economic and climate change scenarios on wetlands: linking water resource and biodiversity meta-models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-modelling approach has been adopted to link simulations of low and high water flows with simulations of suitable climate\\u000a space for a selection of fen and bog species with differing drought and flood tolerance. The linked meta-models were used\\u000a to examine the impacts of socio-economic and climate change scenarios on wetlands in two contrasting regions of the UK. The

P. A. Harrison; P. M. Berry; C. Henriques; I. P. Holman

2008-01-01

276

Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

1994-11-30

277

Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of a sunshade SRM intervention on a world with 4 times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We employ a number of new methods to analyse these results, looking at: the regional responses, global aggregation of ‘recipients’ of climate impacts and classifying ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2010]. We find that the precipitation impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions, with most regions drying but with others becoming wetter with increased levels of SRM. We show that the ‘optimal’ level of SRM for each region would differ, for example in our simulations the USA becomes drier at higher levels of SRM, with pre-industrial precipitation conditions restored at ~50% SRM, whereas Australia starts much drier at 4xCO2 and gets wetter with increasing SRM, returning to pre-industrial precipitation conditions at 100% SRM. ‘Novel’ precipitation conditions, such as the drier-than-pre-industrial conditions in the USA, are experienced across a large fraction of the Earth for all but the lowest levels of SRM, whereas ‘novel’ (cooler) temperature conditions only occur at the highest levels of geoengineering in tropical regions [Govindasamy et al., 2003]. This work shows that the impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions and that a large fraction of the world would have to contend with a regional climate that is ‘novel’ in some way, i.e. with more extreme changes than due to global warming alone. However, we find that it may be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple mitigation targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2009]. The HadCM3L simulations carried out for this work include a pre-industrial control, a simulation with 4xCO2, and 10 simulations with 4xCO2 and different levels of SRM geoengineering ranging from 10% to 100% of a full intervention sufficient to cool the climate to pre-industrial average surface air temperature. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell (2000), Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, 408(6809), 184-187. Govindasamy, B., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate climate change from a quadrupling of CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 37(1-2), 157-168. Irvine, P. J., D. J. Lunt, E. J. Stone, and A. Ridgwell (2009), The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world, Environmental Research Letters, 4(4). Irvine, P., A. Ridgwell, and D. Lunt (2010), Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering Impacts, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL044447, in press

Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

2010-12-01

278

Coffee and Biodiversity Conservation in El Salvador  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural History Museum (London) provides this Webpage, highlighting a three-year project funded by the UK Government's Darwin Initiative. The aim of this particular project is "to promote the conservation of biodiversity by providing the tools, training and information necessary to empower local people to monitor and assess the biodiversity of the forests associated with Shade Coffee farms in El Salvador." The site's main sections describe the Coffee and Biodiversity Conservation in El Salvador project, including economics of the project and a training course that offers basic biodiversity assessment skills to Salvadorans. Of interest to ecologists, the site also provides species lists for the trees and Pimplinae wasps of the Shade Forest (giving Family, scientific name, and local name). A selection of interesting links (featuring Central American sites) fills out this concise and well-illustrated site.

1994-01-01

279

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

280

Terrestrial vertebrate fauna surveys for the preparation of environmental impact assessments; how can we do it better? A Western Australian example  

SciTech Connect

The Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) in 2002 released Position Statement, No. 3, Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of Biodiversity Protection outlining how terrestrial fauna survey data are to be used and interpreted in the preparation of environmental impact assessments (EIA). In 2004, the EPA released its Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors, Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, No. 56. This paper briefly assesses the adequacy of recent terrestrial fauna surveys undertaken to support publicly released EIAs and indicates that the EPA is not always adhering to its own position and guidance statements. This paper argues that the current fauna survey guidelines are in need of improvement. The approach and requirements of some other Australian states are briefly assessed to identify similarities and where improvements can be made to the Western Australian (WA) guidelines. This paper concludes with suggestions on how the process and the guidelines in WA can be revised to more adequately assess the impact of developments on terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function. These suggestions may have relevance for other areas where fauna surveys are undertaken to support EIAs.

Thompson, Graham G. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup Dr., Joondalup, Western Australia 6010 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.thompson@ecu.edu.au

2007-01-15

281

GIS based procedure of cumulative environmental impact assessment.  

PubMed

Scale and spatial limits of impact assessment study in a GIS platform are two very important factors that could have a bearing on the genuineness and quality of impact assessment. While effect of scale has been documented and well understood, no significant study has been carried out on spatial considerations in an impact assessment study employing GIS technique. A novel technique of impact assessment demonstrable through GIS approach termed hereby as 'spatial data integrated GIS impact assessment method (SGIAM)' is narrated in this paper. The technique makes a fundamental presumption that the importance of environmental impacts is dependent, among other things, on spatial distribution of the effects of the proposed action and of the affected receptors in a study area. For each environmental component considered (e.g., air quality), impact indices are calculated through aggregation of impact indicators which are measures of the severity of the impact. The presence and spread of environmental descriptors are suitably quantified through modeling techniques and depicted. The environmental impact index is calculated from data exported from ArcINFO, thus giving significant importance to spatial data in the impact assessment exercise. PMID:21117434

Balakrishna Reddy, M; Blah, Baiantimon

2009-07-01

282

Visual impact assessment: A neglected component of environmental impact statements in Ireland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the results of an analysis of Visual Impact Assessments (VIA) within a sample of Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) in Ireland. The standard of VIA conducted within the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process for three categories of development; piggeries, quarries and urban developments between 1997 and 1999 are evaluated. The extent to which VIA have complied with the

Paddy Prendergast; Krysia Rybaczuk

2004-01-01

283

Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas  

PubMed Central

China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by high productivity and represent spawning and nursery areas for several economically important species. In the long term, climate change is also a major threat. Finally, challenges in marine biodiversity studies are briefly discussed along with suggestions to strengthen the field. Since 2004, China has participated in the Census of Marine Life, through which advances in the study of zooplankton and zoobenthos biodiversity were finally summarized. PMID:23320065

2013-01-01

284

Projecting Land-Use Change and Its Consequences for Biodiversity in Northern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The model results indicated that only establishing a fixed percentage of forest was not efficient in conserving biodiversity. Measures aimed at the conservation of locations with high biodiversity values, limited fragmentation, and careful consideration of road expansion in pristine forest areas may be more efficient to achieve biodiversity conservation.

Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H.

2010-03-01

285

Projecting land-use change and its consequences for biodiversity in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The model results indicated that only establishing a fixed percentage of forest was not efficient in conserving biodiversity. Measures aimed at the conservation of locations with high biodiversity values, limited fragmentation, and careful consideration of road expansion in pristine forest areas may be more efficient to achieve biodiversity conservation. PMID:20131051

Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H

2010-03-01

286

Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity.  

PubMed

Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans. PMID:25382656

Teichert, Sebastian

2014-01-01

287

Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans. PMID:25382656

Teichert, Sebastian

2014-01-01

288

Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

Hollick, Malcolm

1986-03-01

289

NSTAR Ion Thruster Plume Impact Assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were performed to establish 30-cm ion thruster plume impacts, including plume characterizations via near and farfield ion current measurements, contamination, and sputtering assessments. Current density measurements show that 95% of the beam was enclosed within a 22 deg half-angle and that the thrust vector shifted by less than 0.3 deg during throttling from 2.3 to 0.5 kW. The beam flatness parameter was found to be 0.47, and the ratio of doubly charged to singly charged ion current density decreased from 15% at 2.3 kW to 5% at 0.5 kW. Quartz sample erosion measurements showed that the samples eroded at a rate of between 11 and 13 pm/khr at 25 deg from the thruster axis, and that the rate dropped by a factor of four at 40 deg. Good agreement was obtained between extrapolated current densities and those calculated from tantalum target erosion measurements. Quartz crystal microbalance and witness plate measurements showed that ion beam sputtering of the tank resulted in a facility material backflux rate of -10 A/hr in a large space simulation chamber.

Myers, Roger M.; Pencil, Eric J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael; Oden, Katessha

1995-01-01

290

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?  

PubMed Central

Given the increased use of traditional medicines, possibilities that would ensure its successful integration into a public health framework should be explored. This paper discusses some of the links between biodiversity and traditional medicine, and addresses their implications to public health. We explore the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services to global and human health, the risks which human impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity present to human health and welfare. PMID:17376227

2007-01-01

291

The 6\\/94 gap in health impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20–30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental

Tobias E. Erlanger; Gary R. Krieger; Burton H. Singer; Juerg Utzinger

2008-01-01

292

Project Title: Social Impact Assessment of Caf 101  

E-print Network

Project Title: Social Impact Assessment of Café 101 Bachelor of Arts Internship Company and Reboot, and how these are negotiated and articulated in the context the University of Canterbury. Assuming an advocacy role, the intern will produce a small scale social impact assessment that evaluates

Hickman, Mark

293

The Impact of a Computerized Dietary Assessment on Nutrition Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…

Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don

2004-01-01

294

E nvironmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this article was to review prospects and constraints of LCA as a tool to assess the integrated environmental impact of conventional

Imke J. M. de Boer

295

HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT Clark County Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan  

E-print Network

HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT Clark County Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan October, 2010 Brendon Haggerty, Clark County Public Health Brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov #12;Overview · Introduction to HIA · Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan HIA · Lessons learned #12;Health Impact Assessment Screening · Scoping

Bertini, Robert L.

296

Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.  

PubMed

Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and Red Green and Blue (RGB) imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa?=?0.8) and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2) of 0.8-0.9) allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented enables the integration of site-based biotic assessment with structural vegetation types for the rapid delineation and prioritization of key refugia. PMID:24416149

Schut, Antonius G T; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W; Yates, Colin J; Keppel, Gunnar; Baran, Ireneusz; Franklin, Steven E; Hopper, Stephen D; Van Niel, Kimberley P; Mucina, Ladislav; Byrne, Margaret

2014-01-01

297

Management Implications of the Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Impacts of Shrimp Trawler By-Catch in Bah?a de Kino, Sonora, M?xico  

PubMed Central

The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006–2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries. PMID:22719827

Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S.; Fleishman, Abram B.

2012-01-01

298

A new composite structure impact performance assessment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

While previous researchers have conducted their study on the relative impact performance of composite structures from a force or an energy standpoint only, this proposed Composite Structure Impact Performance Assessment Program (CSIPAP) suggests a multi-parameter methodology to gain further insight in the impact behavior of composite structures. These are peak and critical force; critical and dissipated energy; contact duration and

Paolo Feraboli; Keith T. Kedward

2006-01-01

299

Assessing Environmental Impact: A Secondary School Learning Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains information on teaching about environmental impact. Background information is included on the role of environmental impact on our society and environmental risk is also discussed. Environmental impacts are studied using Stages of Assessment. Learning activities and seven lesson plans include: (1) "The Community Initiative";…

Nous, Albert P.

300

Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death

Deborah Imel Nelson; Deborah Imel

2003-01-01

301

A New Impact Assessment Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources  

PubMed Central

Rationale Methods to systematically measure the impact of knowledge resources on health professionals would enhance evaluation of these resources in the real world. Objective To propose a new impact assessment method. Background We demonstrated the feasibility of combining a 4-level scale with Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (CEMA) for efficiently measuring the impact of a knowledge resource. Method We critically reviewed the world literature regarding the impact of clinical information-retrieval technology on trainees and doctors, and retained 26 papers for qualitative content analysis. Findings Of those, 21 use a nominal scale (yes/no), none systematically measures the impact of searches for information outside of a laboratory setting, and none uses an ordinal scale. The literature supports the proposed levels of impact, and suggests a fifth level. Conclusion A new impact assessment method is proposed, which combines a 5-level revised scale and CEMA. PMID:16779112

Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M.; Stephenson, Randolph; Dunikowski, Lynn G.

2005-01-01

302

Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.  

PubMed

While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction. PMID:24251685

Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

2013-12-17

303

Interbasin Water Transfer, Riverine Connectivity, and Spatial Controls on Fish Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities. Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in assessing impacts of IBWT projects and balancing ecosystem and societal demands for freshwater, even in cases where biodiversity data are limited. PMID:22470533

Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

2012-01-01

304

Interbasin water transfer, riverine connectivity, and spatial controls on fish biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in assessing impacts of IBWT projects and balancing ecosystem and societal demands for freshwater, even in cases where biodiversity data are limited.

Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Muthukumarasamy, Arunachalam; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

2012-01-01

305

Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

306

Towards the global monitoring of biodiversity change.  

PubMed

Governments have set the ambitious target of reducing biodiversity loss by the year 2010. The scientific community now faces the challenge of assessing the progress made towards this target and beyond. Here, we review current monitoring efforts and propose a global biodiversity monitoring network to complement and enhance these efforts. The network would develop a global sampling programme for indicator taxa (we suggest birds and vascular plants) and would integrate regional sampling programmes for taxa that are locally relevant to the monitoring of biodiversity change. The network would also promote the development of comparable maps of global land cover at regular time intervals. The extent and condition of specific habitat types, such as wetlands and coral reefs, would be monitored based on regional programmes. The data would then be integrated with other environmental and socioeconomic indicators to design responses to reduce biodiversity loss. PMID:16701487

Pereira, Henrique M; David Cooper, H

2006-03-01

307

The Impact of Assessment Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the impact of assessment tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic assessment tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using assessment tasks. The main…

Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke

2013-01-01

308

AMBIENT TOXICITY TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The frequent occurrence of xenobiotic chemicals in surface water is of concern to regulatory agencies and the public. The impact of these must be distinguished from impacts due to other factors such as low oxygen, habitat or dredging before an understanding of expected improvemen...

309

Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

Bay Area Economics

1996-12-01

310

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased use of traditional medicines, possibilities that would ensure its successful integration into a public health framework should be explored. This paper discusses some of the links between biodiversity and traditional medicine, and addresses their implications to public health. We explore the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services to global and human health, the risks which human impacts

Rômulo RN Alves; Ierecê ML Rosa

2007-01-01

311

Energy mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity: Synergies and antagonisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the current impacts of different energy producers (and energy conservation) on biodiversity and investigate the potential for achieving positive biodiversity effects along with mitigation and adaptation objectives. Very few energy producers achieve all three aims - although it may be possible with careful choice of location and management. In some instances, energy conservation can provide

P. M. Berry; J. S. Paterson

2009-01-01

312

Energy mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity: Synergies and antagonisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the current impacts of different energy producers (and energy conservation) on biodiversity and investigate the potential for achieving positive biodiversity effects along with mitigation and adaptation objectives. Very few energy producers achieve all three aims – although it may be possible with careful choice of location and management. In some instances, energy conservation can provide

P M Berry; J S Paterson

2009-01-01

313

Student Teachers' Understanding of the Terminology, Distribution, and Loss of Biodiversity: Perspectives from a Biodiversity Hotspot and an Industrialized Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of biodiversity is one of the most urgent global environmental problems of our time. Public education and awareness building is key to successful biodiversity protection. Knowledgeable and skilled student teachers are a key component for the successful implementation of biodiversity education in schools. Yet, little empirical evidence exists on teachers' detailed understanding of biodiversity. This study aimed to assess student teachers' conceptions of the terminology as well as their understanding of the distribution and loss of biodiversity. Data were collected from a qualitative in-depth interview study of student biology teachers from Costa Rica and Germany ( n = 24). Both verbal and visual methods were used to elicit responses. The results show that participants from both countries equated biodiversity with species diversity and had misconceptions about genetic diversity. Costa Rican student teachers seemed to have a more local perspective on biodiversity and unanimously described their local biodiversity as high, and under threat. In contrast, German teachers showed a more global view and were mostly uncertain about the level and threat status of local biodiversity. Prevailing associations explaining the global distribution and loss of biodiversity were heavily based on everyday assumptions, such as the presence/absence of humans, cities, and industries. Additionally, the transnational character of many of the socioeconomic drivers causing biodiversity loss was largely neglected. Although most participants were unfamiliar with the scientific concept of biodiversity hotspots, they implicitly used a naive biodiversity hotspots concept to explain the distribution and loss of global biodiversity. The results are discussed in terms of the educational implications.

Fiebelkorn, Florian; Menzel, Susanne

2013-08-01

314

Application of Semiochemicals to Assess the Biodiversity of Subcortical Insects following an Ecosystem Disturbance in a Sub-boreal Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 through 2003 we used semiochemical-baited traps in northeastern Minnesota, USA, to assess changes in assemblages\\u000a of subcortical forest insects after a catastrophic wind storm in 1999 and subsequent (1999–2000) fuel-reduction activities\\u000a (salvage-logging and prescribed-burning). We determined the regional efficacy of fifteen semiochemical blends (pheromones\\u000a and kairomones) as attractants for target and non-target subcortical insect species (Coleoptera: Anthribidae, Buprestidae,

Kamal J. K. Gandhi; Daniel W. Gilmore; Robert A. Haack; Steven A. Katovich; Steven J. Krauth; William J. Mattson; John C. Zasada; Steven J. Seybold

2009-01-01

315

How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforesta- tion and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil

Emily B. Fitzherbert; Matthew J. Struebig; Alexandra Morel; Finn Danielsen; Carsten A. Brühl; Paul F. Donald; Ben Phalan

2008-01-01

316

The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet—undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea), western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1). PMID:20689844

Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S.; Gasol, Josep M.; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, Joao; Guilhaumon, Francois; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; Lopez-Fe de la Cuadra, Carlos M.; Lotze, Heike K.; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, Jose; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

2010-01-01

317

Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into minimizing impacts of road networks on key ecosystem services.

Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

318

Assessing the impact of environmental impact statements on citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is no secret that environmental impact statements (EISs) are often difficult for citizens to read and comprehend, on research has examined the actual understanding citizens gain from reading an EIS. We presented the project description portion of an EIS for flood control measures on the Hickory Creek in Joliet, Illinois to 113 Joliet citizens who read the materials

William C. Sullivan; Frances E. Kuo; Mona Prabhu

1996-01-01

319

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

320

Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating `novel' conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of

P. J. Irvine; A. J. Ridgwell; D. J. Lunt

2010-01-01

321

Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.  

PubMed

Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in areas of high fish endemism (e.g., Southeast), additional management and policy actions will be needed to minimize further species imperilment. PMID:23185581

McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

2012-01-01

322

Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?  

PubMed

Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk. PMID:24933803

Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

323

Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental impacts, preliminary assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present power plant assessment factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) impacts. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use impacts result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality impacts of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes impacts are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other impacts such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed.

Livingston, F. R.

1978-01-01

324

An Initial Assessment of Hanford Impact Performed with the System Assessment Capability  

SciTech Connect

The System Assessment Capability is an integrated system of computer models and databases to assess the impact of waste remaining at Hanford. This tool will help decision makers and the public evaluate the cumulative effects of contamination from Hanford. This report describes the results of an initial assessment performed with the System Assessment Capability tools.

Bryce, Robert W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Morasch, Launa F.

2002-09-27

325

Integrated Economic and Climate Projections for Impact Assessment  

E-print Network

We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario ...

Paltsev, Sergey

326

Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fire on Forest Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for assessing the impact of fire on forest recreation were studied in a literature search and an experiment. Contingent market valuation appeared the most promising. This direct, economic approach uses personal interviews and sets up a hypothetica...

H. J. Vaux, P. D. Gardner, T. J. Mills

1984-01-01

327

Health Enrollment Assessment Review (Hear): Its Impact on Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the Health Enrollment Assessment Review (HEAR) program to determine its impact on utilization. Additionally, the HEAR program is lacking useful metrics to track the success of the system. By conducting comparisons ...

W. D. Judd

2000-01-01

328

Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

329

Operationalizing biodiversity for conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity has acquired such a general meaning that people now find it difficult to pin down a precise sense for planning\\u000a and policy-making aimed at biodiversity conservation. Because biodiversity is rooted in place, the task of conserving biodiversity\\u000a should target places for conservation action; and because all places contain biodiversity, but not all places can be targeted\\u000a for action, places

Sahotra Sarkar; Chris Margules

2002-01-01

330

IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MEASUREMENT PROGRAM (IAM)-(SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Impact Assessment and Measurement (IAM) program focuses on the research, development and application of environmental impact assessment and progress measurement for environmental decision making. Current projects include development of impact assessment methodologies, tools, ...

331

75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for License...Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for License...significantly impact the quality...draft of this Environmental Assessment to the...

2010-06-18

332

76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and...Significant Impact (FONSI...ACTION: Environmental Assessment (EA...Significant Impact (FONSI...Environmental Assessment (EA) to...potential environmental impacts related...

2011-12-23

333

Application of semiochemicals to assess the biodiversity of subcortical insects following an ecosystem disturbance in a sub-boreal forest.  

PubMed

From 2000 through 2003 we used semiochemical-baited traps in northeastern Minnesota, USA, to assess changes in assemblages of subcortical forest insects after a catastrophic wind storm in 1999 and subsequent (1999-2000) fuel-reduction activities (salvage-logging and prescribed-burning). We determined the regional efficacy of fifteen semiochemical blends (pheromones and kairomones) as attractants for target and non-target subcortical insect species (Coleoptera: Anthribidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cleridae, Cucujidae, Curculionidae, Histeridae, Nemonychidae, Salpingidae, Scolytidae, Tenebrionidae, and Hymenoptera: Siricidae). During the four summers, we trapped 86,471 subcortical insects (143 species) in baited and unbaited Lindgren funnel traps, and 500 beetles (44 species) in baited and unbaited pitfall traps. We report 23 new state collection records of subcortical insects from Minnesota. Trap catches of subcortical insects were greatest in the wind-disturbed areas 2 years after the event, and declined thereafter. Similar trends were observed for subcortical insects in the burned areas. Both wind-disturbance and burning increased the subcortical insect species richness and diversity on the landscape. The subcortical insect species compositions of the salvaged and burned forest areas differed from those of the undisturbed and wind-disturbed areas. Trap catches of subcortical insects in response to semiochemical treatments also varied with year of sampling and land-area treatment. The greatest diversity of subcortical beetle species was in traps baited with attractants for the scolytids, Dendroctonus valens [(+)-?-pinene and (?)-?-pinene] and Dryocoetes spp. [exo-brevicomin and (?)-?-pinene], perhaps reflecting the generic nature of the baits. The most distinct species compositions were collected in response to the woodborer and Dendroctonus simplex baits, whereas the species compositions in traps with the D. valens and Dryocoetes spp. baits, and the unbaited funnel trap were the most similar. The variation in trap catch with time and across landscapes suggests that the responses of subcortical insects to semiochemicals are more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:20066478

Gandhi, Kamal J K; Gilmore, Daniel W; Haack, Robert A; Katovich, Steven A; Krauth, Steven J; Mattson, William J; Zasada, John C; Seybold, Steven J

2009-12-01

334

Biofilms and Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson introduces students to issues of biodiversity in Chesapeake Bay. It features background information, as well as directions on how to conduct biofilm experiments using plexiglass discs or CDs to culture communities in your local body of water. The experiments demonstrate how water quality, depth, and biodiversity are linked. For students whose school is not near the original site, data and images from the original experiments are available for analysis.

335

Biodiversity of Feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into biodiversity. Groups of learners will go to the zoo to look at animal feet, making a list of ten different animals at the zoo and writing down a description of their feet. This collected data is then analyzed to envision how each animalâs use of its feet helps it live in its environment. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Biodiversity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

336

Social impact assessment: the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social impact assessment (SIA) is now conceived as being the process of managing the social issues of development. There is consensus on what ‘good’ SIA practice is – it is participatory; it supports affected peoples, proponents and regulatory agencies; it increases understanding of change and capacities to respond to change; it seeks to avoid and mitigate negative impacts and to

Ana Maria Esteves; Daniel Franks; Frank Vanclay

2012-01-01

337

Assessment of Potential Aquatic Herbicide Impacts to California Aquatic Ecosystems  

E-print Network

Assessment of Potential Aquatic Herbicide Impacts to California Aquatic Ecosystems Geoffrey S and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide association with herbicide appli- cations. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat

338

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids  

E-print Network

A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

Myers, Ransom A.

339

Problems in Assessing Adverse Impact: 80% Rule and Statistical Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential first step in the investigation of employment discrimination is establishing that the selection procedure has had an adverse impact. The 80% rule and statistical significance (as determined with a chi-square test), two methods of assessing adverse impact, were compared considering the variables: number of applicants (N), proportion of…

Dalessio, Anthony; And Others

340

Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service  

E-print Network

for Wales - WAG Equality Impact Assessment. In addition to the evidence collated in that exercise. New this exercise has been incorporated in the policy position. Comments received were considered and where require more focused EqIAs to consider impacts and give opportunities to promote diversity. Local

341

BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan

342

Niche construction, co-evolution and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organisms modulate the availability of resources to other species, in the process changing the selection to which they and other organisms are exposed (niche construction). Niche construction drives co-evolutionary episodes, and builds connectance between the biotic components of ecosystems. Organisms have significant non-trophic impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity. Based on a review of the most recent literature,

Kevin N. Lalanda; Neeltje J. Boogert

2010-01-01

343

Global Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots.

JAY R. MALCOLM; CANRAN LIU; RONALD P. NEILSON; LARA HANSEN; LEE HANNAH

2006-01-01

344

Biodiversity components and conservation of mediterranean healthlands in Southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is a complex issue which has frequently been extremely simplified both by equating it with species richness, and by addressing it at the level of regional floras or faunas. In this paper we carry out a detailed assessment of biodiversity for conservation of Mediterranean heathlands and related woodland understoreys on acidic ‘islands’ in the Gibraltar Strait region which are

F. Ojeda; J. Arroyo; T. Marañón

1995-01-01

345

Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact  

E-print Network

between many species' life histories and aquatic hydropattern, which is the "normal" cycling of high-Breeding Frogs and Shifting Hydropatterns John H. Matthews, W. Chris Funk, and Cameron K. Ghalambor Applications ecosystems through their life histories, amphibians may be especially vulnerable to climate change impacts

Funk, W. Chris

346

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

347

LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

348

Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels

Rok Fink; Sašo Medved

2012-01-01

349

Overestimation of molecular and modelling methods and underestimation of traditional taxonomy leads to real problems in assessing and handling of the world's biodiversity.  

PubMed

Since the 1992 Rio Convention on Biological Diversity, the earth's biodiversity is a matter of constant public interest, but the community of scientists who describe and delimit species in mega-diverse animal groups, i.e. the bulk of global biodiversity, faces ever-increasing impediments. The problems are rooted in poor understanding of specificity of taxonomy, and overestimation of quantitative approaches and modern technology. A high proportion of the animal species still remains to be discovered and studied, so a more balanced approach to the situation is needed. PMID:24871190

Löbl, Ivan

2014-01-01

350

Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater utility to industry stakeholders.

Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

2012-12-01

351

Generic health impact prediction and assessment methodology for environmental impact studies  

SciTech Connect

Human health impacts have been given minimal attention in most environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies despite the increasing awareness that many projects may have the potential for causing adverse health effects. The need to address human health in EIA studies was recognized in the 1970 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and, more explicitly, in the 1979 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations. In this study a generic health impact prediction and assessment methodology for EIA studies was developed and presented. The first phase of this study consisted of establishing the need for such a methodology. A review of 39 selected EISs showed that human health impacts, although not completely ignored, are typically given inadequate attention. Among those EISS that assessed health impacts, only 27% used risk assessment techniques for assessing all the health impacts addressed. This review was complemented with a more detailed analysis of two EISs that used risk assessment techniques. This analysis showed a lack of integration of the risk assessment elements into the overall EIA process. In the second phase of the study the methodology was developed by aggregating principles contained in risk assessment methods as well as in traditional approaches used in EIA studies. The main consideration was that it should be integrated into the unified analytical process that is basic in an EIA study. Consequently, the generic methodology was organized according to the activities conducted in a typical environmental impact study, with these activities linked to such tasks as scoping, impact identification, impact quantification and evaluation, and aggregation with other impacts. The proposed methodology was tested in a generic case study involving a coal gasification complex. This case study showed that the methodology can be applied to EIA studies.

Arquiaga, M.C.

1991-01-01

352

40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA...9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator...

2010-07-01

353

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact. 1.1308...the National Environmental Policy Act of...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact....

2010-10-01

354

Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds  

SciTech Connect

As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

1993-09-01

355

INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION  

E-print Network

@mindspring.com 2School of Natural Resources, 344 Aiken Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, U, at the focus of economic damage assessments. The implications of decreases in predictability for the modelingINCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION EVELYN L

Vermont, University of

356

Training for Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with the methodology and practices for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Describes the EIA process, prediction process, alternative assessment methods, training needs, major activities, training provision and material, main deficiencies and the precautions, and real world training examples. (Author/YP)

Vougias, S.

1988-01-01

357

Privacy Impact Assessment National Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

1 Privacy Impact Assessment National Museum of Natural History Education Discovery Room is submitted online, reviewed and responded to by a staff member. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The system collects names, addresses, email addresses, and phone numbers

Mathis, Wayne N.

358

Privacy Impact Assessment National Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment National Museum of Natural History AnthroNotes Signup I. System: May 2009 II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The Signup Anthro Publication for Educators. The Signup form requests name, address, email information, affiliation, grade level

Mathis, Wayne N.

359

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Chandra Education Materials Request  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Chandra Education Materials Request I. System Identification 1-rom formats) online by filling in a web form. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The registrant's contact information- name, title, institution, mailing address, phone, email

Mathis, Wayne N.

360

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) SAO HITRAN Data Request  

E-print Network

. Users may email www- admin@cfa.harvard.edu to update their information. Privacy Documentation mayPrivacy Impact Assessment (PIA) SAO HITRAN Data Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name) Database and associated software. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be

Mathis, Wayne N.

361

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) SAO MicroObservatory Guest Portal  

E-print Network

Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) SAO MicroObservatory Guest Portal I. System Identification 1 of the public to use remote robotic telescopes to take images of the sky. II. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being (or will be) collected. The user's email address, age range, and state are collected via

Mathis, Wayne N.

362

Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors.  

PubMed

The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990 (EP(j)90) divided by the population. The weighting factor was determined as the normalization reference (ER(j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 based on Chinese political reduction plans, ER(j)T2000. This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation and generation of bulk waste, hazardous waste and slag and ashes. PMID:11590744

Yang, J X; Nielsen, P H

2001-04-01

363

Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission  

SciTech Connect

Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

Ruddy, Thomas F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St.Gallen (Switzerland)], E-mail: thomas.ruddy@empa.ch; Hilty, Lorenz M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St.Gallen (Switzerland)

2008-02-15

364

VTAC: virtual terrain assisted impact assessment for cyber attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).

Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

2008-03-01

365

Assessing the Impact of Acquaintance Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study consisting of in-depth interviews with 12 women who were victims\\/survivors of acquaintance rape while attending a university in the Northeast. The interviews focused on research questions concerning actions taken by the victim\\/survivor after the assault, reactions to her disclosure of the assault, and the impact of assault. It was found that a majority of the women

Sarah M. Guerette; Sandra L. Caron

2007-01-01

366

LOX/GOX mechanical impact tester assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performances of three existing high pressure oxygen mechanical impact test systems were tested at two different test sites. The systems from one test site were fabricated from the same design drawing, whereas the system tested at the other site was of different design. Energy delivered to the test sample for each test system was evaluated and compared. Results were compared to the reaction rates obtained.

Bransford, J. W.; Bryan, C. J.; Frye, G. W.; Stohler, S. L.

1980-01-01

367

Aquaculture Production and Biodiversity Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview examines the status and trends of seafood production, and the positive and negative impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity conservation. Capture fisheries have been stabilized at about 90 million metric tons since the late 1980s, whereas aquaculture increased from 12 million metric tons in 1985 to 45 million metric tons by 2004. Aquaculture includes species at any trophic level that are grown for domestic consumption or export. Aquaculture has some positive impacts on biodiversity; for example, cultured seafood can reduce pressure on overexploited wild stocks, stocked organisms may enhance depleted stocks, aquaculture often boosts natural production and species diversity, and employment in aquaculture may replace more destructive resource uses. On the negative side, species that escape from aquaculture can become invasive in areas where they are nonnative, effluents from aquaculture can cause eutrophication, ecologically sensitive land may be converted for aquaculture use, aquaculture species may consume increasingly scarce fish meal, and aquaculture species may transmit diseases to wild fish. Most likely, aquaculture will continue to grow at significant rates through 2025, and will remain the most rapidly increasing food production system.

James Diana (University of Michigan;School of Natural Resources and Environment)

2009-01-01

368

Systems in peril: Climate change, agriculture and biodiversity in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reflects on the interplay amongst three closely linked systems - climate, agriculture and biodiversity - in the Australian context. The advance of a European style of agriculture has imperilled Australian biodiversity. The loss and degradation of biodiversity has, in turn, had negative consequences for agriculture. Climate change is imposing new pressures on both agriculture and biodiversity. From a policy and management perspective, though, it is possible to envisage mitigation and adaptation responses that would alleviate pressures on all three systems (climate, agriculture, biodiversity). In this way, the paper seeks to make explicit the important connections between science and policy. The paper outlines the distinctive features of both biodiversity and agriculture in the Australian context. The discussion then addresses the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, followed by an overview of how climate change is impacting on both of these systems. The final section of the paper offers some commentary on current policy and management strategies that are targeted at mitigating the loss of biodiversity and which may also have benefits in terms of climate change.

Cocklin, Chris; Dibden, Jacqui

2009-11-01

369

Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use  

EPA Science Inventory

According to the Millennium Assessment: ?Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

370

Local people's perceptions of forest biodiversity in the walnut fruit forests of Kyrgyzstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodiversity of the walnut fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan is under huge pressure due to various socio-economic challenges and anthropogenic factors. In this context, the participation of local people plays a significant role in the conservation of biodiversity. This study assessed local people's understanding of forest biodiversity and evaluated their knowledge of the wildlife at three different locations. The research

Gulnaz Jalilova; Harald Vacik

2012-01-01

371

Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

2001-01-01

372

Relationships between Meiofaunal Biodiversity and Prokaryotic Heterotrophic Production in Different Tropical Habitats and Oceanic Regions  

PubMed Central

Tropical marine ecosystems are among the most diverse of the world oceans, so that assessing the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem functions (BEF) is a crucial step to predict consequences of biodiversity loss. Most BEF studies in marine ecosystems have been carried out on macrobenthic diversity, whereas the influence of the meiofauna on ecosystem functioning has received much less attention. We compared meiofaunal and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production across seagrass, mangrove and reef sediments in the Caribbean, Celebes and Red Seas. For all variables we report the presence of differences among habitats within the same region, and among regions within the same habitat. In all regions, the richness of meiofaunal taxa in reef and seagrass sediments is higher than in mangrove sediments. The sediments of the Celebes Sea show the highest meiofaunal biodiversity. The composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies significantly among habitats in the same region. The nematode beta diversity among habitats within the same region is higher than the beta diversity among regions. Although one site per habitat was considered in each region, these results suggest that the composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies primarily among biogeographic regions, whereas the composition of nematode assemblages varies more considerably among habitats. Meiofauna and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, even after the removal of covariate effects linked with longitude and the quantity and nutritional quality of organic matter, are positively and linearly linked both across regions and within each habitat type. Our results confirm that meiofauna and nematode biodiversity may influence benthic prokaryotic activity, which, in turn, implies that diversity loss could have negative impacts on ecosystem functioning in these systems. PMID:24603709

Pusceddu, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Scopa, Mariaspina; Danovaro, Roberto

2014-01-01

373

[Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].  

PubMed

For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long-term consideration. Assessing the direct impact of projects on human beings should be rank first in the list of priorities. The Hygiene Institute supports the efforts of the Public Health departments by providing professional consultant services to ensure consistency in the application of procedures. PMID:12632322

Thriene, B

2003-02-01

374

Research Spotlight: Assessing regional impacts of geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the climate warms along with rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), geoengineering has been suggested as an emergency option to cool the planet. One possibility is implementing a solar radiation management project, such as injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere or deploying a solar "sunshade," to counteract global warming by decreasing the amount of sunlight that reaches Earth's surface. However, a global intervention would have different regional impacts. For instance, geoengineering could result in decreased precipitation and increased droughts in some regions, with serious consequences for some human populations.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2010-12-01

375

Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process  

SciTech Connect

As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

Lein, J.K. (Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1993-01-01

376

Social impact assessment - new dimensions in project planning  

SciTech Connect

The Objective of the presentation is to provide understanding of how to improve attention to the social dimensions of EP projects. Social Impacts are the consequences to human populations, communities or individuals resulting from a project or activity. Such impacts may change the way in which people live, relate to one another, organize and cope as members of society. There is an increasing demand and expectation that Exploration and Production activities will both understand their impacts and define benefits for the local communities. Social Impact Assessment can be considered a branch of Environmental Impact Assessment. It has become a tool in its own fight due to the focus that was paid to the natural and physical issues within the EIA process. However there are still strong alignments and the wise project planner will integrate social and environmental issues within their project planning process. This can be done through a combination of studies but can result in a single report. The benefits of SIA will be demonstrated to include: (1) obtaining approvals (2) forward planning and design (3) increased project success-benefits to local community (4) economic benefits (5) decision making by management The types of impacts including demographic, socioeconomic, health, social infrastructure, resources, psychological and community, cultural and social equity will be reviewed. Methods and techniques to identify and assess impacts will be addressed. One of the main challenges in SIA is to reach the right audience. Methods to scope studies and implement consultation will be addressed.

Jones, M.G.; Hartog, J.J.; Sykes, R.M.

1996-11-01

377

How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

Leviäkangas, P.

2010-09-01

378

Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability—for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs—whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity.

Smythe, Katie D.; Bernabo, J. Christopher; Carter, Thomas B.; Jutro, Peter R.

1996-11-01

379

Why the Taralga Windfarm Environmental Impact Statement - Noise Impact Assessment is critically flawed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document aims to illustrate why the Noise Impact Assessment (NIA) provided in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Taralga Windfarm is flawed to the point that it has no real value. It will focus on the fact that the NIA has made an assumption which is only applicable a certain amount of the time. That assumption is that

Andrew Miskelly

380

The quality of environmental impact statements and environmental impact assessment practice in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the quality of environmental impact statements (EISs) and gives us an understanding about the performance of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice in Bangladesh. EIA has been formally practised in Bangladesh since 1995.However, no study has yet been conducted on the quality of EISs. This study fills this gap. This empirical study shows that the quality of EISs

S. M. Zobaidul Kabir; Salim Momtaz

2012-01-01

381

An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

1996-01-01

382

A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton`s Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations.

Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kay, D. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

383

Biodiversity laws: State experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Governors' Association (WGA) includes both the public lands states with their issues and the plains states, which are 98% privately owned. WGA deals with most legislation affecting biodiversity, whether the effect is direct or tangential. It will probably not be possible, or desirable, for one entity to be in charge of biodiversity conservation. The Endangered Species Act, public lands laws, agricultural laws, water law, environmental laws, and funding legislation all affect biodiversity conservation and the responsibility for it. None of them on their own are enough, and most can cause harmful unintended consequences for biodiversity. The experience of western states in developing consensus principles for reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act provides an example of common-sense ways to improve management of biodiversity, notwithstanding the complexity and large stakes involved. The WGA's proposed changes call for increasing the role of states, streamlining the act, and increasing certainty for landowners and water users. To achieve sustainable conservation for biodiversity, the better question is not “Who is/should be in charge?”, it is “How do we get this done?” To answer this, we need goals, guidance, and bottom lines from federal laws, and management and oversight at the state level, but they all need to support local on-the-ground partnerships. Sustainable conservation requires the active participation of those who live there. WGA's experience in coordinating the Great Plains Partnership as well as its work with watershed efforts shed light on what to expect. Multilevel partnerships are not easy and require a different way of doing business. The ad hoc, sitespecific processes that result do not lend themselves to being legislated, fit into organizational boxes, or scored on a budget sheet. They do require common sense and a longterm perspective.

Clark, Jo

1996-11-01

384

Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reading in science class doesn't have to be boring, but it's no secret to students or teachers that textbooks aren't much fun to read. To enhance and integrate your science curriculum, try using alternative reading resources such as Biodiversity , by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent and The Andromeda Strain by Michael Crichton. Students will soon discover that the right combination of nonfiction and science fiction reading with correlated labs, inquiry-based activities, and simulations can make for a fun learning experience while exploring concepts related to environmental science, evolution, adaptation, and biodiversity.

Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

2007-01-01

385

Soil and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the soil diversity-biodiversity system in terrestrial ecosystems operates in spatiotemporal unity, which\\u000a manifests itself at different hierarchical levels of their structural-functional organization: successional-evolutionary,\\u000a zonal geographic, landscape, biogeocenotic, soil-type, horizon-layer, geochemical, and the levels of elementary soil processes\\u000a and soil fertility. Arguments confirming the functional relationship between organisms and soils are considered. Effective\\u000a biodiversity conservation is possible

F. Kh. Khaziev

2011-01-01

386

Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects  

SciTech Connect

Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2013-09-15

387

Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe's Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterizat ion in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining health indicators in LCIA is summarized in this document, promising approaches are addressed

Wolfram Krewitt; David W. Pennington; Stig I. Olsen; Pierre Crettaz; Olivier Jolliet

388

Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils  

SciTech Connect

The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

Atalay, A.

1990-10-01

389

Assessing the impact of global price interdependencies.  

PubMed

Documented launch delays and the ensuing debate over their underlying causes have focused on assessment from the individual country's perspective. Seen in a larger game theoretical framework this may cause problems, because although the countries see an individual game, the pharmaceutical firm sees a repeated linked game. The links are due to external reference pricing and parallel trade. Behaviours that are optimal in the single, individual game (for either the country or the pharmaceutical firm) may no longer be optimal when considering the global repeated game. A theoretical mixed integer linear model of the firm's launch and pricing decisions is presented along with examples wherein international price dependencies most likely played a role. This model can help countries understand the implication of their external reference pricing policies on the global repeated pricing game. Understanding the behaviour of the pharmaceutical firm in this global context aids countries in designing policies to maximize the welfare of their citizens. PMID:18620459

Richter, Anke

2008-01-01

390

Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. Design: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). Main results: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitative estimates of change in exposure to determinants, and 16 gave quantified health outcomes. Eleven (categories of) determinants were quantified up to the level of health outcomes. Methods for exposure impact assessment were: estimation on the basis of routine data and measurements, and various kinds of modelling of traffic related and environmental factors, supplemented with experts' estimates and author's assumptions. Some studies used estimates from other documents pertaining to the policy. For the calculation of health outcomes, variants of epidemiological and toxicological risk assessment were used, in some cases in mathematical models. Conclusions: Quantification is comparatively rare in HIA. Methods are available in the areas of environmental health and, to a lesser extent, traffic accidents, infectious diseases, and behavioural factors. The methods are diverse and their reliability and validity are uncertain. Research and development in the following areas could benefit quantitative HIA: methods to quantify the effect of socioeconomic and behavioural determinants; user friendly simulation models; the use of summary measures of public health, expert opinion and scenario building; and empirical research into validity and reliability. PMID:15831683

Veerman, J; Barendregt, J; Mackenbach, J

2005-01-01

391

Biodiversity matters in a changing world  

PubMed Central

It is now widely accepted that the climate of our planet is changing, but it is still hard to predict the consequences of these changes on ecosystems. The impact is worst at the poles, with scientists concerned that impacts at lower latitudes will follow suit. Canada has a great responsibility and potential for studying the effects of climate changes on the ecological dynamics, given its geographical location and its scientific leadership in this field. The 5th annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution was held in the International Year of Biodiversity, to share recent advances in a wide variety of disciplines ranging from molecular biology to behavioural ecology, and to integrate them into a general view that will help us preserve biodiversity and limit the impact of climate change on ecosystems. PMID:20659919

Di Poi, Carole; Diss, Guillaume; Freschi, Luca

2011-01-01

392

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

SciTech Connect

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

Lindhjem, Henrik [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1 Yuhuinanlu, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu [College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

2007-01-15

393

Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.  

PubMed

A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management. PMID:19569336

Pfister, Stephan; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

2009-06-01

394

Environmental impact assessment: National approaches and international needs.  

PubMed

This paper examines the spread and development of 'environmental impact assessment' (EIA) since the enactment of the U.S. Environmental Policy Act on January 1, 1970, which established for the first time under any jurisdiction the formal requirement that an EIA be made and that an 'environmental impact statement' (EIS) be filed prior to implementation of certain major development projects.The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, we briefly review the forms of EIA introduced in the western industrial countries and contrast these with developments in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in the Third World. The approaches to EIA adopted by five countries - the United States, Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviet Union - are used to illustrate the types of national approaches that have been followed. In the second part of the paper, we use some questions raised by impact assessments as codified in legislation or regulations at the national level to highlight some of the limitations of impact assessment. Finally, we turn to international impact assessments and describe the modest progress made to date. Key impediments to the development of appropriate conceptual and institutional frameworks and methodologies for international EIAs are noted.In conclusion, we offer some suggestions about needed actions at both the national and international levels. PMID:24258931

Burton, I; Wilson, J; Munn, R E

1983-06-01

395

Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale  

SciTech Connect

Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

Schirmer, Jacki, E-mail: jacki.schirmer@anu.edu.a

2011-04-15

396

Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

Pennock, Michael, E-mail: michael.pennock@viha.c [Vancouver Island Health Authority, 450-1900 Richmond Ave, Victoria, Britich Columbia, V8V 4L1 (Canada); Ura, Karma [Centre for Bhutan Studies, Thimphu (Bhutan)

2011-01-15

397

Biodiversity and the lexicon zoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists and natural resource managers struggle to define and relate biodiversity, biocomplexity, ecological integrity, ecosystem services, and related concepts; to describe effects of disturbance dynamics on biodiversity; and to understand how biodiversity relates to resilience, resistance, and stability of ecosystems and sustainability of resource conditions. Further diversifying this “lexicon zoo” are the ecological roles of rare species and refugia, and

Bruce G. Marcot

2007-01-01

398

Sampling Biodiversity in Bornean Frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

AssTRACT.-Analysis of biodiversity is attracting increasing interest within the public arena, with many articles appearing in newspapers and popular magazines. This change is understandable because of the relationship of biodiversity to conservation in an increasingly stressed global environment. There is equal interest in biodiversity and related issues in scientific circles because of their relationship to questions in ecology, evolutionary biology,

Robert F. INGER

399

Investigating Biodiversity in your schoolyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field lab students will investigate the biodiversity around their school. Students will perform a biodiversity count using transect line. The students will develop multiple hypotheses relating to biodiversity and propose additional procedures for studying, collecting and testing these questions.

400

Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth’s biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability. PMID:24639507

Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S. Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

2014-01-01

401

A new composite structure impact performance assessment program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, incident kinetic energy has been employed to assess impact threats for the damage-tolerant design of composite structures, and the impact tests performed to assess the dynamic performance of such structures have been described accordingly. In order to quantify the impact damage threshold and extent, recent research programs have indicated contact force as a more favorable metric, and based damage resistance and tolerance considerations on the its peak recorded value. However, many problems arise with the use of such a parameter, and this research program highlights the need for a multi-parameter approach for a greater insight in the interpretation of low velocity impact events. In the first section, an experimental database is gathered through drop tower impact testing by means of a rigid striker on clamped laminate plates, for a particular polymer composite system and structural configuration. Understanding of contact force, absorbed energy and other available parameters, such as contact duration and coefficient of restitution, which are related to the effective structural stiffness of the target, is fundamental in the design of a methodology for assessing impact performance. In the second section, an extensive parametric investigation is performed to extend the proposed CSIPAP (Composite Structure Impact Performance Assessment Program), defined in the previous section, to other structural configurations. In particular, different values of laminate thickness, support span, impactor mass, size and material, and boundary conditions are considered, and similar results are obtained. Lastly, existing analytical models, which proved to be incomplete, have been modified through experimental data fitting and numerical modeling to account for the phenomena reported during this program.

Feraboli, Paolo

402

Economics of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) manages this clearinghouse on the economics of biodiversity in support of equitable and sustainable natural resource use. IUCN arranges their discussion papers in full-text by theme, and a mixture of relevant economic, legal, and policy information is highlighted throughout the site.

403

Consequences of changing biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems. The large ecological and societal

Erika S. Zavaleta; Valerie T. Eviner; Rosamond L. Naylor; Peter M. Vitousek; Heather L. Reynolds; David U. Hooper; Sandra Lavorel; Osvaldo E. Sala; Sarah E. Hobbie; Michelle C. Mack; Sandra Díaz; F. Stuart Chapin III

2000-01-01

404

Global patterns in biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a first approximation, the distribution of biodiversity across the Earth can be described in terms of a relatively small number of broad-scale spatial patterns. Although these patterns are increasingly well documented, understanding why they exist constitutes one of the most significant intellectual challenges to ecologists and biogeographers. Theory is, however, developing rapidly, improving in its internal consistency, and more

Kevin J. Gaston

2000-01-01

405

CAN NEPA PROTECT BIODIVERSITY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodiversity has emerged as a prominent issue in the scientific andconservation communities, and is of increasing concern to thegeneral public. s with other "new" environmental probLems (e.g..global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion), biodiversityis difficult to evalu...

406

Biodiversity and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-16

407

Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

2007-01-01

408

Planted Forests and Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest ecosystems shelter a major part of terrestrial biological diversity, and over the past decades, conservation of biodiversity has become a key element in national forest policies and planning. Plantation forests are cultivated forest ecosystems established primarily for wood biomass production but also for soil and water conservation or wind protection. During the past decade, the global forest plantation area

J-M Carnus; J Parrotta; EG Brockerhoff; M Arbez; H Jactel; A Kremer; D Lamb; K O'Hara; B Walters

2003-01-01

409

INVENTION SUMMARY: TRACI: TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

TRACI is an impact assessment tool being developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory, EPA, Cincinnati to assist environmental decision making. It includes impact assessment methodologies and supporting databases to allow a screening level assessment in seven im...

410

76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2009-0435] Final Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact for the Proposed...of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding...Significant Impact...issuing a final environmental assessment (EA)...

2011-10-26

411

NEA discovery, orbit calculation and impact probability assessment  

E-print Network

NEA discovery, orbit calculation and impact probability assessment Asteroid Grand Challenge Seminar of HI Haleakala, Maui · Currently, most Near-Earth Asteroid discoveries are made by: Catalina Sky Survey. #12;Discovery of 2012 DA14 · Discovered by an amateur astronomer in La Sagra, Spain using a state

Waliser, Duane E.

412

Impact Assessment of a Disease Vaccination Project in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the socioeconomic impact of the Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Control Research Project, a chicken vaccination project designed by the GL-CRSP Avian Flu School (AFS), on villagers and households in rural Iringa, Tanzania. Findings showed that households in project villages kept significantly more chickens than households in control villages, however, there was

Danielle Knueppel

413

PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT (PIA) National Institute of Standards and Technology  

E-print Network

PII such as home phone number or cell phone number, along with BII. The administration and management1 PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT (PIA) National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Laboratory and phone number, and other PII to facilitate admission to the facility and temporary appointment

414

NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT FROM ROOFTOP PV  

EPA Science Inventory

This effort will determine the emissions impacts to the U.S. PV generated electricity when PV systems are installed on building rooftops and employed as demand-side power supplies. The national assessment will be based on data provided by existing rooftop PV systems that have be...

415

AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to p...

416

AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

417

Food safety regulation, economic impact assessment and quantitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with a call for more efficient regulations in the EU, there is a growing demand for transparency in the evaluation techniques to assess and predict their effects. This article explores the potential impacts of food safety regulations and discusses the quantitative methods used in the policy evaluation literature. Along with the strengths and limitations of each method, this review

Maddalena Ragona; Mario Mazzocchi

2008-01-01

418

Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.  

PubMed

Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction. PMID:18853818

Geyer, Roland

2008-09-15

419

Privacy Impact Assessment National Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

1 Privacy Impact Assessment National Museum of Natural History Paleobiology Training Program I, laboratories and field trips to expose students to the fundamentals of Geology and Paleontology. The program usually begins in March and continues into July and meets once a week in the Natural History Museum

Mathis, Wayne N.

420

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...

421

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF RESOURCE RECOVERY ON THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This assessment of the environmental impact of resource recovery examines the environmental effects that will derive from municipal solid waste disposal in 1990 and the changes in these effects that will result from implementation of resource recovery from municipal solid waste. ...

422

Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice: Exploring the Contradictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction into Canada in 1973, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been controversial. Proponents argue that EIA is a practical means of achieving sustainable development because major projects are subject to an independent review before they are issued a license to proceed. However, the government's role in promoting resource-based development such as the ALPAC pulp mill (northern Alberta) and

Joel Novek

1993-01-01

423

AQUATIC PLANT COMMUNITIES FOR IMPACT MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The studies revewed here suggest that both structural and functional assessments of aquatic plant communities are valuable tools in the determination of environmental impacts and water quality. I am not suggesting that aquatic plants be used in lieu of macronivertebrates or fish ...

424

Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

2004-01-01

425

Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service  

E-print Network

Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service Water and Soils and Welsh&D evidence is reflected in the Water and Soils and Welsh Woodlands and Trees policy position is found Woodlands and Trees Policy Position. Purpose and aim(s) of the policy, function or service This policy

426

Assessing Impacts of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach is proposed to assess the possible impacts of the global climate change on tropical cyclone (TC) tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) basin. The idea is based on the premise that the future change of TC track characteristics is primarily determined by changes in large-scale environmental steering flows and in formation locations.It is demonstrated that the

Liguang Wu; Bin Wang

2004-01-01

427

Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service  

E-print Network

Equality Impact Assessment Summary Name of policy, function or service Education, Learning in Wales. Who will benefit mainly from this policy, function or service? . The target audiences;publication is reproduced as an appendix to the Education, Learning and Skills Benefits from Welsh Woodlands

428

40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The assessment of impact on other uses of the ocean will consider both temporary and long-range effects within the state of the art, but particular emphasis will be placed on any irreversible or irretrievable commitment of resources that would result from the proposed...

2010-07-01

429

Assessing the Impact of a University Teaching Development Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four different indicators are used to assess the impact of a year-long university teaching development programme in an Australian research-led university. All four indicators show small positive outcomes. Teachers who complete the programme have higher rates of receipt of teaching awards and teaching development grants than their colleagues who do…