Sample records for biodiversity impact assessment

  1. Biodiversity impact assessment in road development in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasa Vaišk?nait?; Pranas Mierauskas; Valdas Špakauskas

    2012-01-01

    Roads affect wildlife in different ways. Road construction increases fragmentation of habitats, influences landscape pattern and alters the physical environment. Roads act as barriers to animal movements, increase their mortality rates and cause other negative impacts on biodiversity. The current paper overviews the assessment of road impacts in Lithuania, reviews approaches applied to evaluation of road development impacts as well

  2. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja Söderman; Tarja

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiä in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the

  3. Biodiversity Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this field-based investigation, students survey vegetation and small animal diversity in a study plot. They calculate the biomass of different organisms, and create a habitat action plan based on their data. A student data sheet is included. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "Seeking Biodiversity," part of the unit Losing Biodiversity, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  4. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja [Senior Researcher, Lic. Phil., Finnish Environment Institute, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  5. Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide

    2003-05-01

    Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

  6. Assessing the impacts of livestock production on biodiversity in rangeland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Alkemade, Rob; Reid, Robin S.; van den Berg, Maurits; de Leeuw, Jan; Jeuken, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity in rangelands is decreasing, due to intense utilization for livestock production and conversion of rangeland into cropland; yet the outlook of rangeland biodiversity has not been considered in view of future global demand for food. Here we assess the impact of future livestock production on the global rangelands area and their biodiversity. First we formalized existing knowledge about livestock grazing impacts on biodiversity, expressed in mean species abundance (MSA) of the original rangeland native species assemblages, through metaanalysis of peer-reviewed literature. MSA values, ranging from 1 in natural rangelands to 0.3 in man-made grasslands, were entered in the IMAGE-GLOBIO model. This model was used to assess the impact of change in food demand and livestock production on future rangeland biodiversity. The model revealed remarkable regional variation in impact on rangeland area and MSA between two agricultural production scenarios. The area of used rangelands slightly increases globally between 2000 and 2050 in the baseline scenario and reduces under a scenario of enhanced uptake of resource-efficient production technologies increasing production [high levels of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (high-AKST)], particularly in Africa. Both scenarios suggest a global decrease in MSA for rangelands until 2050. The contribution of livestock grazing to MSA loss is, however, expected to diminish after 2030, in particular in Africa under the high-AKST scenario. Policies fostering agricultural intensification can reduce the overall pressure on rangeland biodiversity, but additional measures, addressing factors such as climate change and infrastructural development, are necessary to totally halt biodiversity loss. PMID:22308313

  7. Impact assessment of the European biofuel directive on land use and biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Hellmann; Peter H. Verburg

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the potential impact of the EUs biofuel directive on European land use and biodiversity. In a spatially explicit analysis, it is determined which ecologically valuable land use types are likely to be directly replaced by biofuel crops. In addition, it is determined which land use types may be indirectly replaced by biofuel crops through

  8. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

  9. BIODIVERSITY Assessing species vulnerability to

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Assessing species vulnerability to climate and land use change: the case projections of likely impacts of global change to identify the most vulner- able species. We suggest an original vulnerability index that integrates estima- tions of projected range change and different proxies

  10. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Crist; Thomas W. Kohley; John Oakleaf

    2000-01-01

    Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support

  11. Accounting for uncertainty factors in biodiversity impact assessment: lessons from a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, D.; Beinat, E.; Chung, C.F.; Fabbri, A.G.; Scholten, H.J

    2003-07-01

    For an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to effectively contribute to decision-making, it must include one crucial step: the estimation of the uncertainty factors affecting the impact evaluation and of their effect on the evaluation results. Knowledge of the uncertainties better orients the strategy of the decision-makers and underlines the most critical data or methodological steps of the procedure. Accounting for uncertainty factors is particularly relevant when dealing with ecological impacts, whose forecasts are typically affected by a high degree of simplification. By means of a case study dealing with the evaluation of road alternatives, this paper explores and discusses the main uncertainties that are related to the typical stages of a biodiversity impact assessment: uncertainty in the data that are used, in the methodologies that are applied, and in the value judgments provided by the experts. Subsequently, the effects of such uncertainty factors are tracked back to the result of the evaluation, i.e., to the relative performance of the project alternatives under consideration. This allows to test the sensitivity of the results, and consequently to provide a more informative ranking of the alternatives. The papers concludes by discussing the added-value for decision-making provided by uncertainty analysis within EIA.

  12. Biodiversity in Human-Impacted

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    1 #12;1 Biodiversity in Human-Impacted Landscapes Biodiversidad en Paisajes Intervenidos Volumen-1 complex and dynamic. Traditionally, efforts to protect biodiversity and address environmental problems abilities of policy makers and on-the-ground practitioners is essential to biodiversity conservation

  13. BIODIVERSITY AND HUMAN IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basic issue that drives all concerns about biodiversity is theaccelerating and irreplaceable loss of genes, species, populations,and ecosystems through environmental degradation such asdeforestation, strip mining and other developmental projects. Associated with these losses ...

  14. Assessing and Communicating the Loss of Biodiversity and

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Matthias

    Assessing and Communicating the Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services with Remote Sensing impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems and the services they provide. The summer school's goal is to learn about innovations in information technologies to generate information on changes of biodiversity

  15. Assessment of Research Quality Institute for Biodiversity

    E-print Network

    van Rooij, Robert

    Assessment of Research Quality Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics January 2007 Faculty of Science #12;Evaluation report Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit of the Universiteit van Amsterdam, the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED) was one

  16. Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This technical input to the National Climate Assessment synthesizes our scientific understanding of the way climate change is affecting biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and what strategies might be employed to decrease current and future risks. Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The second cross-cutting topic is the rapidly advancing field of climate adaptation, where there has been significant progress in developing the conceptual framework, planning approaches, and strategies for safeguarding biodiversity and other ecological resources. At the same time, ecosystem-based adaptation is becoming more prominent as a way to utilize ecosystem services to help human systems adapt to climate change. In this summary, we present key findings of the technical input, focusing on themes that can be found throughout the report. Thus, this summary takes a more integrated look at the question of how climate change is affecting our ecological resources, the implications for humans, and possible response strategies. This integrated approach better reflects the impacts of climate in the real world, where changes in ecosystem structure or function will alter the viability of different species and the efficacy of ecosystem services. Likewise, adaptation to climate change will simultaneously address a range of conservation goals. Case studies are used to illustrate this complete picture throughout the report; a snapshot of one case study, 2011 Las Conchas, New Mexico Fire, is included in this summary.

  17. Basin-wide Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems and Biodiversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mekong ecosystems are under pressure from a number of "drivers", including rapid economic development, population growth, unsustainable resource use, and climate change. Ecological modeling can help assess vulnerability and impacts of these drivers on the Lower Mekong Basin....

  18. Improving consideration of biodiversity in NEPA assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A. (Midwest Research Inst., Falls Church, VA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Loss of biological diversity is a major national, as well as global, environmental problem. Several federal agencies have begun to develop strategies to conserve biodiversity, but most agencies have not done so. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) can play an important role in assessing losses and identifying mitigating measures. In most cases, environmental impact assessments have addressed components of biodiversity, such as endangered species, rather than provided the more comprehensive assessments that will be required over the long run. Strategies to conserve biodiversity must be developed on a regional, landscape, or ecosystem scale, taking into account cumulative effects of development. Such strategies can also provide the framework for project-specific NEPA assessments. Progress in applying the pragmatic methods, techniques, and strategies that are now emerging will be limited by the recognition and priority agencies are willing to assign to biodiversity conservation in their programs. Despite current efforts, a more specific legislative mandate probably will be needed to assure adequate action to minimize losses of biological resources.

  19. ASSESSING MACROINVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES IN

    E-print Network

    Pfrender, Michael

    ASSESSING MACROINVERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES IN DNA, biodiversity, freshwater, next-generation sequencing abstract Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications

  20. Treatment of biodiversity impacts in a sample of US environmental impact statements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel F. Atkinson; Sarika Bhatia; F. Andrew Schoolmaster; William T. Waller

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the project discussed here were to identify the level of documentation in US environmental impact statements dealing with biodiversity impact assessment, determine whether, in the years following release in 1993 of US Council on Environmental Quality guidelines on biodiversity, the treatment of the subject has changed, and identify deficiencies. A systematic review process examined 35 US impact

  1. Landscape ecological assessment: A tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Balforsa

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape ecology can provide a conceptual framework for the assessment of consequences of long-term development processes like urbanisation on biodiversity

  2. The Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: A Tool for Creating Regional and National Lists of Invasive Nonnative Plants That Negatively Impact Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Randall; Larry E. Morse; Nancy Benton; Ron Hiebert; Stephanie Lu; Terri Killeffer

    2008-01-01

    We developed a protocol for categorizing nonnative plants according to their negative impacts on biodiversity in a large area such as a state, nation, or ecological region. Our objective was to provide a tool that makes the process of identifying, categorizing, and listing nonnative plants that cause negative impacts to biodiversity analytic, transparent, and equitable and that yields lists that

  3. Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use. PMID:21844695

  4. Combined impacts of global changes on biodiversity across the USA.

    PubMed

    Bellard, C; Leclerc, C; Courchamp, F

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of the effects of global changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat, but multiple threats lead to species extinction. We lack spatially explicit assessments of the intensity of multiple threats and their impacts on biodiversity. Here, we used a novel metric of cumulative threats and impacts to assess the consequences of multiple threats on 196 endemic species across the USA. We predict that large areas with high cumulative impact scores for amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles will be concentrated in the eastern part of the USA by the 2050?s and 2080?s. These high cumulative impact values are due mainly to the presence of invasive species, climate change, cropland and pasture areas; additionally, a significant proportion of endemic species are vulnerable to some of these threats where they occur. This analysis provides a useful means of identifying where conservation measures and monitoring programs that should consider multiple threats should be implemented in the future. PMID:26149694

  5. Combined impacts of global changes on biodiversity across the USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, C.; Leclerc, C.; Courchamp, F.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of the effects of global changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat, but multiple threats lead to species extinction. We lack spatially explicit assessments of the intensity of multiple threats and their impacts on biodiversity. Here, we used a novel metric of cumulative threats and impacts to assess the consequences of multiple threats on 196 endemic species across the USA. We predict that large areas with high cumulative impact scores for amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles will be concentrated in the eastern part of the USA by the 2050?s and 2080?s. These high cumulative impact values are due mainly to the presence of invasive species, climate change, cropland and pasture areas; additionally, a significant proportion of endemic species are vulnerable to some of these threats where they occur. This analysis provides a useful means of identifying where conservation measures and monitoring programs that should consider multiple threats should be implemented in the future. PMID:26149694

  6. Biodiversity in environmental assessment-current practice and tools for prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se; Balfors, Berit [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: balfors@kth.se; Moertberg, Ulla [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: mortberg@kth.se

    2006-04-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are essential instruments used in physical planning to address such problems. Yet there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity. In this study, a literature review was conducted on GIS-based ecological models that have potential as prediction tools for biodiversity assessment. Further, a review of environmental impact statements for road and railway projects from four European countries was performed, to study how impact prediction concerning biodiversity issues was addressed. The results of the study showed the existing gap between research in GIS-based ecological modelling and current practice in biodiversity assessment within environmental assessment.

  7. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY AND

    E-print Network

    POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE SAN this paper. #12;ii ABSTRACT The San Francisco Bay Area contains a rich array of plant and animal biodiversity planning in the Bay Area is under way to enhance biodiversity conservation through continued open space

  8. How does Human Impact affect the Biodiversity of

    E-print Network

    Mayes, Keith

    1 How does Human Impact affect the Biodiversity of Marshland in my local area? George Mayes (CRISP there was a significant link between human traffic and biodiversity. Point samples were obtained for 10 sites, each site that there is a strong relationship between human traffic on biodiversity #12;4 Introduction The aim of my investigation

  9. The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliette C. Young; Mariella Marzano; Rehema M. White; David I. McCracken; Steve M. Redpath; David N. Carss; Christopher P. Quine; Allan D. Watt

    2010-01-01

    Conflicts between the conservation of biodiversity and other human activities occur in all habitats and can impact severely\\u000a upon socio-economic and biological parameters. In a changing environment, with increasing pressure on ecosystem goods and\\u000a services and increasing urgency for biodiversity conservation, these conflicts are likely to increase in importance and magnitude\\u000a and negatively affect biodiversity and human well-being. It is

  10. PERSPECTIVE Towards a collaborative, global infrastructure for biodiversity assessment

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    IDEA AND PERSPECTIVE Towards a collaborative, global infrastructure for biodiversity assessment of Colorado Museum, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 3 Global Biodiversity-mail: robert.guralnick@colorado.edu Abstract Biodiversity data are rapidly becoming available over the Internet

  11. Accepted biodiversity loss of peatland habitats in Environmental Impact Assessments for onshore windfarm developments in the South West of Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Iain I

    2014-11-27

    Environmental Statements for onshore wind farms in the south west of Scotland found that peatland was present at multiple sites however impacts were often considered as insignificant. Analysis was conducted to determine the extent of these losses and whether...

  12. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative. PMID:22184674

  13. Assessing biodiversity loss due to land use with Life Cycle Assessment: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Souza, Danielle M; Teixeira, Ricardo F M; Ostermann, Ole P

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activities, with land use and land-use change at the forefront of the drivers that provoke global and regional biodiversity loss. The first step in addressing the challenge of how to reverse the negative outlook for the coming years starts with measuring environmental loss rates and assigning responsibilities. Pinpointing the global pressures on biodiversity is a task best addressed using holistic models such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is the leading method for calculating cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of products and services; it is actively promoted by many public policies, and integrated as part of environmental information systems within private companies. LCA already deals with the potential biodiversity impacts of land use, but there are significant obstacles to overcome before its models grasp the full reach of the phenomena involved. In this review, we discuss some pressing issues that need to be addressed. LCA mainly introduces biodiversity as an endpoint category modeled as a loss in species richness due to the conversion and use of land over time and space. The functional and population effects on biodiversity are mostly absent due to the emphasis on species accumulation with limited geographic and taxonomical reach. Current land-use modeling activities that use biodiversity indicators tend to oversimplify the real dynamics and complexity of the interactions of species among each other and with their habitats. To identify the main areas for improvement, we systematically reviewed LCA studies on land use that had findings related to global change and conservation ecology. We provide suggestion as to how to address some of the issues raised. Our overall objective was to encourage companies to monitor and take concrete steps to address the impacts of land use on biodiversity on a broader geographical scale and along increasingly globalized supply chains. PMID:25143302

  14. Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Ross H; Dunnett, Lisa J; Agapow, Paul-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set. PMID:19325850

  15. Road-networks, a practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in Tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, T.; Yamada, T.; Okuda, T.

    2014-02-01

    Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests.

  16. Biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Hansen, Lara; Inouye, David; Kelly, Brendan; Meyerson, Laura; Peterson, Bill; Shaw, Rebecca

    2008-05-27

    This synthesis and assessment report bulds on extensive scientific literature and series of recent assessments of the historical and potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on managed and unmanaged ecosystems.

  17. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P.; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà i Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A.; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation. PMID:26082547

  18. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M

    2015-06-16

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation. PMID:26082547

  19. biodiversity biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Bohanec, Marko

    ECOLOGY soil state nutrition state crop sub-type biodiversity soil biodiversity water quality of ecological and two groups of economic indicators: biodiversity, soil biodiversity, water quality, greenhouse

  20. Measuring biodiversity for conservation

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Measuring biodiversity for conservation Summary Policy document 10/03 May 2003 ISBN 0 85403 592 3 This report can be found at www.royalsoc.ac.uk #12;The reality of ongoing biodiversity loss The living world for assimilating data on the loss of biodiversity and for assessing its impact on society, does not exist. Losses

  1. Mapping More of Terrestrial Biodiversity for Global Conservation Assessment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SIMON FERRIER, GEORGE V. N. POWELL, KAREN S. RICHARDSON, GLENN MANION, JAKE M. OVERTON, THOMAS F. ALLNUTT, SUSAN E. CAMERON, KELLIE MANTLE, NEIL D. BURGESS, DANIEL P. FAITH, JOHN F. LAMOREUX, GEROLD KIER, ROBERT J. HIJMANS, VICKI A. FUNK, GERASIMOS A. CAS (; )

    2004-12-01

    This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal presents a new approach to describing and mapping the global distribution of terrestrial biodiversity. Global conservation assessments require information on the distribution of biodiversity across the planet. Yet this information is often mapped at a very coarse spatial resolution relative to the scale of most land-use and management decisions. Furthermore, such mapping tends to focus selectively on better-known elements of biodiversity (e.g., vertebrates). We introduce a new approach to describing and mapping the global distribution of terrestrial biodiversity that may help to alleviate these problems. This approach focuses on estimating spatial pattern in emergent properties of biodiversity (richness and compositional turnover) rather than distributions of individual species, making it well suited to lesser-known, yet highly diverse, biological groups. We have developed a global biodiversity model linking these properties to mapped ecoregions and fine-scale environmental surfaces. The model is being calibrated progressively using extensive biological data sets for a wide variety of taxa. We also describe an analytical approach to applying our model in global conservation assessments, illustrated with a preliminary analysis of the representativeness of the world's protected-area system. Our approach is intended to complement, not compete with, assessments based on individual species of particular conservation concern.

  2. Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200414 Biodiversity assessment in planted

    E-print Network

    Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003­200414 Biodiversity assessment in planted forests Publication of the results of the Biodiversity Assessment programme: Biodiversity in Britain's planted forests programme that investigated 54 plots of one hectare in 16 forests to capture a picture of the biodiversity

  3. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON DOD LANDS WITHIN THE CALIFORNIA MOJAVE DESERT: A RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research proposed in this document is to evaluate the effects of human activities on biodiversity and related environmental concerns within the Mojave ecoregion of California both at the present and in 2020. While planning efforts and analyses are ongoing withi...

  4. Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a natural gradient.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species * Corresponding author: paul.cavaille@cemagref.fr Keywords: beetles, biodiversity, ecological restoration, plant.). However, whether such installations can accommodate natural biodiversity has not been well assessed

  5. Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory David of the loss of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning are well established, the importance of the loss of biodiversity relative to other human-caused drivers of environ- mental change remains uncertain. Results of 11

  6. REVIEW doi:10.1038/nature09575 Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence

    E-print Network

    Holt, Robert D.

    REVIEW doi:10.1038/nature09575 Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission11 , Tiffany Bogich3 & Richard S. Ostfeld12 Current unprecedented declines in biodiversity reduce evidence that reduced biodiversity affects the transmission of infectious diseases of humans, other animals

  7. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations. PMID:25175402

  8. A Fragile Cornucopia: Assessing the Status of U.S. Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a national status assessment of biodiversity for the United States. Discusses a catalog of biodiversity, the condition of species, and the legacy of extinctions in the area. Provides information for many of the states. (DDR)

  9. Assessment of Climate Change Effect to Regional and Global Biodiversity: a MetaAnalysis

    E-print Network

    Breuer, Florian

    Assessment of Climate Change Effect to Regional and Global Biodiversity: a Meta­Analysis Talk given on biodiversity main- tenance in regional ecosystems. Based on works by Hans van Houwelingen and colleagues, we. The effect of this change on biodiversity has been widely discussed where peer-review publications have

  10. Assessing latitudinal gradients in speciation rates and biodiversity at the global scale

    E-print Network

    Allen, Andrew P.

    LETTER Assessing latitudinal gradients in speciation rates and biodiversity at the global scale for latitudinal biodiversity gradients have fascinated and perplexed biologists since the time of Darwin. Ecological theory has yielded two general classes of mechanisms to account for variation in biodiversity

  11. Biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.O.; Peter, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    In tropical forests, on coral reefs, and in other threatened habitats, countless plant, animal, and microbial species face possible extinction - their names unknown, their numbers uncounted, their value unreckoned. Although popular attention has focused on the plight of more visible and widely known species like the whooping crane or the African elephant, most-experts agree that the loss of less-obvious organisms could be much more devastating. This is the subject of the volume. It calls attention to a most urgent global problem: the rapidly accelerating loss of plant and animal species to increasing human-population pressure and the demands of economic development. The book explores biodiversity from a wide variety of viewpoints.

  12. Biogenic CO2 fluxes, changes in surface albedo and biodiversity impacts from establishment of a miscanthus plantation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Susanne V; Cherubini, Francesco; Michelsen, Ottar

    2014-12-15

    Depletion in oil resources and environmental concern related to the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in using second generation biomass as alternative feedstock for fuels and materials. However, the land use and land use change for producing second generation (2G) biomass impacts the environment in various ways, of which not all are usually considered in life cycle assessment. This study assesses the biogenic CO2 fluxes, surface albedo changes and biodiversity impacts for 100 years after changing land use from forest or fallow land to miscanthus plantation in Wisconsin, US. Climate change impacts are addressed in terms of effective forcing, a mid-point indicator which can be used to compare impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes and albedo changes. Biodiversity impacts are assessed through elaboration on two different existing approaches, to express the change in biodiversity impact from one human influenced state to another. Concerning the impacts from biogenic CO2 fluxes, in the case of conversion from a forest to a miscanthus plantation (case A) there is a contribution to global warming, whereas when a fallow land is converted (case B), there is a climate cooling. When the effects from albedo changes are included, both scenarios show a net cooling impact, which is more pronounced in case B. Both cases reduce biodiversity in the area where the miscanthus plantation is established, though most in case A. The results illustrate the relevance of these issues when considering environmental impacts of land use and land use change. The apparent trade-offs in terms of environmental impacts further highlight the importance of including these aspects in LCA of land use and land use changes, in order to enable informed decision making. PMID:25194521

  13. Biodiversity in strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of municipal spatial plans in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarja Söderman; Sanna-Riikka Saarela

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the current practices of Finnish SEA with regard to inclusion of biodiversity issues in land use planning. The study of local master planning revealed that impact predictions have a limited influence on final plans due to a missing link between baseline studies and impact prediction. Land use SEA is very baseline oriented. It overemphasizes certain narrow biodiversity

  14. Economic Assessment Environmental impact

    E-print Network

    - ". Economic Assessment Environmental impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides Background Economic Assessment Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 3 BACKGROUND Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) for Radionuclides. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS

  15. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity. PMID:20980318

  16. Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: advances and challenges in DNA-based approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate faunas in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify wate...

  17. ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLAR ORBIT ON TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    The terrestrial record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

  18. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  19. Assessing biodiversity of boreal forests with imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLancey, E.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, imaging spectrometry employing high spectral resolution has been applied to vegetation diversity assessment. A foundation for these studies is the idea of plant optical type, which is affected by canopy structure, leaf traits, and phenology. This study proposes that the optical variation of a forest canopy is strongly correlated to the vegetation diversity. Using data collected with an imaging spectrometer (pixel size 1m, and usable spectral range 400-900nm), flown over the North Saskatchewan River Valley, Edmonton, Alberta, we show that metrics of biodiversity (species richness and Simpson's Index of 30x30m plots) are strongly correlated to metrics of optical diversity (Optical Diversity Indices). These optical diversity indices (ODIs) were built using linear models correlating diversity indices to a combination of variables, which included: the standard deviation of NDVI (NDVIsd), PRI (PRIsd), principal component 1 (PC1sd), and principal component 2 (PC2sd). Three variations of ODIs were built based upon vegetation indices, principal components, and a combination of vegetation indices and principal components. Correlation values were 0.70, 0.80, and 0.86 respectively. In further analyses, PC1 was correlated to the green and NIR wavelengths where PC2 was correlated with blue and red chlorophyll absorption wavelengths. Variation in optical diversity was also clearly visible in spectra and airborne imagery. These indices show that spectral regions used to track the photosynthetic activity (PC2, PRI, and NDVI) and green canopy structure of plants (NDVI, and PC1) can be used to differentiate optical types in a way that yields information on biodiversity. Further experimental studies involving diversity manipulation are needed to answer the mechanisms behind optical diversity. Further testing of optical diversity across many ecosystems is also needed to develop operational methods to survey large areas from and aircraft or satellite. Two contrasting vegetation diversity plots. The left column is a low diversity (SR3) plot while the right plot has middle range diversity (SR6). The top panel is the first principal component of variation (red=high values, and blue=low values). The middle panel shows the average spectra for the plot (black line) and one standard deviation above and below the average (green). The bottom panel shows the correlation between species richness and ODI#3.

  20. Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Leadley, Paul; Thuiller, Wilfried; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in recent years have investigated the effects of climate change on the future of biodiversity. In this review, we first examine the different possible effects of climate change that can operate at individual, population, species, community, ecosystem and biome scales, notably showing that species can respond to climate change challenges by shifting their climatic niche along three non-exclusive axes: time (e.g., phenology), space (e.g., range) and self (e.g., physiology). Then, we present the principal specificities and caveats of the most common approaches used to estimate future biodiversity at global and sub-continental scales and we synthesize their results. Finally, we highlight several challenges for future research both in theoretical and applied realms. Overall, our review shows that current estimates are very variable, depending on the method, taxonomic group, biodiversity loss metrics, spatial scales and time periods considered. Yet, the majority of models indicate alarming consequences for biodiversity, with the worst-case scenarios leading to extinction rates that would qualify as the sixth mass extinction in the history of the earth. PMID:22257223

  1. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Worm; Edward B. Barbier; Nicola Beaumont; J. Emmett Duffy; Carl Folke; Benjamin S. Halpern; Jeremy B. C. Jackson; Heike K. Lotze; Fiorenza Micheli; Stephen R. Palumbi; Enric Sala; Kimberley A. Selkoe; John J. Stachowicz; Reg Watson

    2006-01-01

    Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration

  2. Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report presents the results of consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) concerning the consideration of biological diversity in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The report is intended to provide background on the emerging, complex subject of biodiversity, outline some general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, describe how the issue is currently addressed in NEPA analyses, and provide options for agencies undertaking NEPA analyses that consider biodiversity. The report does not establish new requirements for such analyses. It is not, and should not be viewed as, formal CEQ guidance on the matter, nor are the recommendations in the report intended to be legally binding. The report does not mean to suggest the biodiversity analyses should be included in every NEPA document, without regard to the degree of potential impact on biodiversity of the action under review.

  3. Phylogenetic and Functional Metagenomic Profiling for Assessing Microbial Biodiversity in Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kisand, Veljo; Valente, Angelica; Lahm, Armin; Tanet, Gerard; Lettieri, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Decisions guiding environmental management need to be based on a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity and functional capability within ecosystems. Microbes are of particular importance since they drive biogeochemical cycles, being both producers and decomposers. Their quick and direct responses to changes in environmental conditions modulate the ecosystem accordingly, thus providing a sensitive readout. Here we have used direct sequencing of total DNA from water samples to compare the microbial communities of two distinct coastal regions exposed to different anthropogenic pressures: the highly polluted Port of Genoa and the protected area of Montecristo Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of the metagenomes revealed significant differences in both microbial diversity and abundance between the two areas, reflecting their distinct ecological habitats and anthropogenic stress conditions. Our results indicate that the combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatics tools presents a new approach to monitor the diversity and the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Integration of metagenomics into environmental monitoring campaigns should enable the impact of the anthropogenic pressure on microbial biodiversity in various ecosystems to be better assessed and also predicted. PMID:22952724

  4. Impacts on Coralligenous Outcrop Biodiversity of a Dramatic Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006–2008) and after the impact (2009–2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

  5. Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Midgley; L. Hannah; D. Millar; M. C. Rutherford; L. W. Powrie

    2002-01-01

    Aim To compare theoretical approaches towards estimating risks of plant species loss to anthropogenic climate change impacts in a biodiversity hotspot, and to develop a practical method to detect signs of climate change impacts on natural populations. Location The Fynbos biome of South Africa, within the Cape Floristic Kingdom. Methods Bioclimatic modelling was used to identify envir- onmental limits for

  6. Oil Palm Research in Context: Identifying the Need for Biodiversity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm cultivation is frequently cited as a major threat to tropical biodiversity as it is centered on some of the world's most biodiverse regions. In this report, Web of Science was used to find papers on oil palm published since 1970, which were assigned to different subject categories to visualize their research focus. Recent years have seen a broadening in the scope of research, with a slight growth in publications on the environment and a dramatic increase in those on biofuel. Despite this, less than 1% of publications are related to biodiversity and species conservation. In the context of global vegetable oil markets, palm oil and soyabean account for over 60% of production but are the subject of less than 10% of research. Much more work must be done to establish the impacts of habitat conversion to oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Results from such studies are crucial for informing conservation strategies and ensuring sustainable management of plantations. PMID:18270566

  7. Evaluating rapid participatory rural appraisal as an assessment of ethnoecological knowledge and local biodiversity patterns.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jocelyn G; Assanou, Issoufou Hassane Bil; Dan Guimbo, Iro; Almedom, Astier M

    2010-02-01

    There is a pressing need to find both locally and globally relevant tools to measure and compare biodiversity patterns. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is important to biodiversity monitoring, but has a contested role in preliminary biodiversity assessments. We examined rapid participatory rural appraisal (rPRA) (a tool commonly used for local needs assessments) as an alternative to surveys of vascular plants conducted by people with local knowledge. We used rPRA to determine the local-knowledge consensus on the average richness, diversity, and height of local grasses and trees in three habitats surrounding Boumba, Niger, bordering Park-W. We then conducted our own vascular plant surveys to collect information on plant richness, abundance, and structure. Using a qualitative ranking, we compared TEK-based assessments of diversity patterns with our survey-based assessments. The TEK-based assessments matched survey-based assessments on measures of height and density for grasses and trees and tree richness. The two assessments correlated poorly on herb richness and Simpson's D value for both trees and grasses. Plant life form and gender of the participant affected the way diversity patterns were described, which highlights the usefulness of TEK in explaining local realities and indicates limitations of using TEK as a large-scale assessment tool. Our results demonstrate that rPRA can serve to combine local-knowledge inquiry with scientific study at a cost lower than vascular plant surveys and demonstrates a useful blunt tool for preliminary biodiversity assessment. PMID:20121846

  8. Quantifying the impacts on biodiversity of policies for carbon sequestration in forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Matthews; Raymond O'Connor; Andrew J. Plantinga

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest) to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. To date, economic analyses have focused on the costs of forest carbon sequestration policies related to foregone profits from agricultural production. No studies have examined additional costs or benefits associated with impacts on biodiversity.

  9. NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    markets. Farmers became rather workers of a growing agro-industry. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) a highlyNEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA CONSERVATION OF QUINOA: A LESSON FOR STRENGTHENING AND DEVELOPING NEW PARTNERSHIPS Enrique A. MARTÍNEZ*, Didier

  10. Impact on indigenous species biodiversity caused by the globalisation of alien recreational freshwater fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Cambray

    2003-01-01

    One of the most insidious threats to fish conservation around the world is deliberate or accidental introduction of fish species. The impact of alien invasive sport fish is for the most part unpredictable in time and space, with the introduction of relatively few species having resulted in many extirpations of indigenous fish species worldwide. More nations need to quantify biodiversity

  11. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

  12. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7), USA. Our assessment provides a method for identi...

  13. Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: Advances and challenges in dna-based approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfrender, M.E.; Ferrington, L.C., Jr.; Hawkins, C.P.; Hartzell, P.L.; Bagley, M.; Jackson, S.; Courtney, G.W.; Larsen, D.P.; Creutzburg, B.R.; Levesque, C.A.; Epler, J.H.; Morse, J.C.; Fend, S.; Petersen, M.J.; Ruiter, D.; Schindel, D.; Whiting, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago Press.

  14. Spatial patterns of biodiversity in the Black Sea: An assessment using benthic polychaetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surugiu, Victor; Revkov, Nikolai; Todorova, Valentina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Valavanis, Vasilis; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    The current study broadens the biodiversity information available for the Black Sea and neighbouring regions and improves our knowledge about the polychaete biogeographic patterns to be discerned in them. There appears to be a well-defined zoogeocline from the Marmara Sea and Bosphorus Strait to the inner parts of the region (Azov Sea), depicted both as a multivariate pattern and in terms of species (or taxa) numbers. The emergent multivariate pattern complies, to a certain extent, with Jakubova's (1935) views: three main sectors can be defined in the basin: (a) Prebosphoric, (b) the Black Sea and, (c) the Azov Sea, whereas the Bosphorus Strait and Marmara Sea show less faunal affinities with the afore-mentioned sectors. Patterns derived both from the cosmopolitan and Atlanto-Mediterranean species closely follow the one coming from the polychaete species and genera inventories. As a general trend, species numbers decrease along with the decrease in salinity towards the inner parts of the region. The trend is homologous to that seen in the benthic invertebrate inventories of all the major European semi-enclosed regional seas. Salinity and food availability appear to be the dominant abiotic factors correlated, though weakly, with the various patterns deriving from the taxonomic/zoogeographic categories. With the exception of the Anatolia, polychaete inventories from all sectors appear to be random samples of the total inventory of the region, in terms of taxonomic distinctness values. Therefore, these sectoral inventories can be used for future biodiversity/environmental impact assessment studies. A massive invasion of Mediterranean species after the opening of the Black Sea, in the lower Quaternary period, appears to be the likely biogeographic mechanism through which the old Sarmatic fauna was almost completely replaced by species of marine origin.

  15. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

    2012-10-01

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

  16. Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Isabel L; Bull, Joseph W; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor J; Esipov, Alexander V; Suttle, Kenwyn B

    2014-01-01

    Habitat degradation through anthropogenic development is a key driver of biodiversity loss. One way to compensate losses is "biodiversity offsetting" (wherein biodiversity impacted is "replaced" through restoration elsewhere). A challenge in implementing offsets, which has received scant attention in the literature, is the accurate determination of residual biodiversity losses. We explore this challenge for offsetting gas extraction in the Ustyurt Plateau, Uzbekistan. Our goal was to determine the landscape extent of habitat impacts, particularly how the footprint of "linear" infrastructure (i.e. roads, pipelines), often disregarded in compensation calculations, compares with "hub" infrastructure (i.e. extraction facilities). We measured vegetation cover and plant species richness using the line-intercept method, along transects running from infrastructure/control sites outward for 500 m, accounting for wind direction to identify dust deposition impacts. Findings from 24 transects were extrapolated to the broader plateau by mapping total landscape infrastructure network using GPS data and satellite imagery. Vegetation cover and species richness were significantly lower at development sites than controls. These differences disappeared within 25 m of the edge of the area physically occupied by infrastructure. The current habitat footprint of gas infrastructure is 220 ± 19 km(2) across the Ustyurt (total ? 100,000 km(2)), 37 ± 6% of which is linear infrastructure. Vegetation impacts diminish rapidly with increasing distance from infrastructure, and localized dust deposition does not conspicuously extend the disturbance footprint. Habitat losses from gas extraction infrastructure cover 0.2% of the study area, but this reflects directly eliminated vegetation only. Impacts upon fauna pose a more difficult determination, as these require accounting for behavioral and demographic responses to disturbance by elusive mammals, including threatened species. This study demonstrates that impacts of linear infrastructure in regions such as the Ustyurt should be accounted for not just with respect to development sites but also associated transportation and delivery routes. PMID:24455163

  17. Quantifying habitat impacts of natural gas infrastructure to facilitate biodiversity offsetting

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Isabel L; Bull, Joseph W; Milner-Gulland, Eleanor J; Esipov, Alexander V; Suttle, Kenwyn B

    2014-01-01

    Habitat degradation through anthropogenic development is a key driver of biodiversity loss. One way to compensate losses is “biodiversity offsetting” (wherein biodiversity impacted is “replaced” through restoration elsewhere). A challenge in implementing offsets, which has received scant attention in the literature, is the accurate determination of residual biodiversity losses. We explore this challenge for offsetting gas extraction in the Ustyurt Plateau, Uzbekistan. Our goal was to determine the landscape extent of habitat impacts, particularly how the footprint of “linear” infrastructure (i.e. roads, pipelines), often disregarded in compensation calculations, compares with “hub” infrastructure (i.e. extraction facilities). We measured vegetation cover and plant species richness using the line-intercept method, along transects running from infrastructure/control sites outward for 500 m, accounting for wind direction to identify dust deposition impacts. Findings from 24 transects were extrapolated to the broader plateau by mapping total landscape infrastructure network using GPS data and satellite imagery. Vegetation cover and species richness were significantly lower at development sites than controls. These differences disappeared within 25 m of the edge of the area physically occupied by infrastructure. The current habitat footprint of gas infrastructure is 220 ± 19 km2 across the Ustyurt (total ? 100,000 km2), 37 ± 6% of which is linear infrastructure. Vegetation impacts diminish rapidly with increasing distance from infrastructure, and localized dust deposition does not conspicuously extend the disturbance footprint. Habitat losses from gas extraction infrastructure cover 0.2% of the study area, but this reflects directly eliminated vegetation only. Impacts upon fauna pose a more difficult determination, as these require accounting for behavioral and demographic responses to disturbance by elusive mammals, including threatened species. This study demonstrates that impacts of linear infrastructure in regions such as the Ustyurt should be accounted for not just with respect to development sites but also associated transportation and delivery routes. PMID:24455163

  18. Impact of Biodiversity and Seasonality on Lyme Pathogen Transmission.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong; Wu, Xiaotian

    2014-11-28

    Lyme disease imposes increasing global public health challenges. To better understand the joint effects of seasonal temperature variation and host community composition on the pathogen transmission, a stage-structured periodic model is proposed by integrating seasonal tick development and activity, multiple host species and complex pathogen transmission routes between ticks and reservoirs. Two thresholds, one for tick population dynamics and the other for Lyme-pathogen transmission dynamics, are identified and shown to fully classify the long-term outcomes of the tick invasion and disease persistence. Seeding with the realistic parameters, the tick reproduction threshold and Lyme disease spread threshold are estimated to illustrate the joint effects of the climate change and host community diversity on the pattern of Lyme disease risk. It is shown that climate warming can amplify the disease risk and slightly change the seasonality of disease risk. Both the "dilution effect" and "amplification effect" are observed by feeding the model with different possible alternative hosts. Therefore, the relationship between the host community biodiversity and disease risk varies, calling for more accurate measurements on the local environment, both biotic and abiotic such as the temperature and the host community composition. PMID:25432469

  19. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Assessing the Economic Contribution of Native Bees to Crop Production

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Assessing the Economic Contribution of Native Bees to Crop on the role of native bees as crop pollinators in apple orchards in central NY. Our first two years of data reveal an enormous diversity of bee species (>80 species to date) in orchards ranging from 2 acres to up

  20. Biodiversity of Collembola in Urban Soils and the Use of Folsomia candida to Assess Soil `Quality'

    E-print Network

    Hopkin, Steve

    Biodiversity of Collembola in Urban Soils and the Use of Folsomia candida to Assess Soil `Quality contamination on natural populations of Collembola in soils from five sites in the Wolverhampton area (West at highlighting the differences between the Collembola com- munities. Indeed, the highest number of species were

  1. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  3. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

    2014-09-28

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

  4. Climate change in Europe. 1. Impact on terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Feehan; Mike Harley; Jell van Minnen

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems have an essential role in providing services to humankind such as nutrient cycling, pest control, pollination,\\u000a quality of life, and hydrological, atmospheric and climatic regulation. About 60% of the world’s known ecosystems are currently\\u000a used unsustainably. In Europe, the richness and abundance of biodiversity is undergoing significant decline, partly due to\\u000a climate change. This article outlines the impacts of

  5. Reduced-impact logging and biodiversity conservation: a case study from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Hsu, Wayne W; Benedick, Suzan; Wilcove, David S

    2012-03-01

    A key driver of rain forest degradation is rampant commercial logging. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques dramatically reduce residual damage to vegetation and soils, and they enhance the long-term economic viability of timber operations when compared to conventionally managed logging enterprises. Consequently, the application of RIL is increasing across the tropics, yet our knowledge of the potential for RIL also to reduce the negative impacts of logging on biodiversity is minimal. We compare the impacts of RIL on birds, leaf-litter ants, and dung beetles during a second logging rotation in Sabah, Borneo, with the impacts of conventional logging (CL) as well as with primary (unlogged) forest. Our study took place 1-8 years after the cessation of logging. The species richness and composition of RIL vs. CL forests were very similar for each taxonomic group. Both RIL and CL differed significantly from unlogged forests in terms of bird and ant species composition (although both retained a large number of the species found in unlogged forests), whereas the composition of dung beetle communities did not differ significantly among forest types. Our results show little difference in biodiversity between RIL and CL over the short-term. However, biodiversity benefits from RIL may accrue over longer time periods after the cessation of logging. We highlight a severe lack of studies investigating this possibility. Moreover, if RIL increases the economic value of selectively logged forests (e.g., via REDD+, a United Nations program: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries), it could help prevent them from being converted to agricultural plantations, which results in a tremendous loss of biodiversity. PMID:22611854

  6. Biodiversity conservation and NEPA

    SciTech Connect

    Southerland, M.T. (Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have recently developed new guidelines to facilitate the consideration of biodiversity in the preparation and review of environmental impact assessments. The purpose of these efforts is to facilitate the incorporation of biodiversity considerations into the ecological analyses of all federal agencies. Because federal decisions requiring environmental impact assessments under NEPA affect hundreds of millions of federal and non-federal lands and waters, improved consideration of the impacts of federal activities is essential to stemming the loss of biological diversity in the United States. The designation of ecosystems or habitats'' of concern is a useful first step identifying risks to biodiversity. After reviewing the status and trends of habitats within eight major regions of the US, the EPA guidelines identify habitats contributing to regional and global biodiversity such as remnant prairies, riparian habitats, and old-growth forests. This document also discusses how the impacts on habitats vary with the different activities of land conversion, timber harvesting, grazing, mining, and water management.

  7. Threats to biodiversity: Exotic Species I. Impacts of exotics

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Species: 2) Fire ants, 3) Asian Longhorn Beetle -destroyed hardwood trees in more than a half-dozen U of exotics IV. Controlling invasions I. Impacts of Exotic Species a) Predators & Grazers ­ b) Parasites Depression of the 1930s, the Soil Conservation Service promoted for erosion control. http

  8. Mapping Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

    This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

  9. The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Senior, Rebecca A; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; White, Hannah J; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Ancrenaz, Marc; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Barlow, Jos; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Berg, Åke; Berry, Nicholas J; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boekhout, Teun; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buscardo, Erika; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Cerda, Rolando; Cerezo, Alexis; Chauvat, Matthieu; Clarke, Frank M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Connop, Stuart P; D'Aniello, Biagio; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Dejean, Alain; Diekötter, Tim; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dormann, Carsten F; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fonte, Steven J; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Garden, Jenni G; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Gottschalk, Marco S; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Grogan, James; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Hernández, Lionel; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Horgan, Finbarr G; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Jonsell, Mats; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kessler, Michael; Knop, Eva; Kolb, Annette; K?rösi, Ádám; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Le Féon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Légaré, Jean-Philippe; Letcher, Susan G; Littlewood, Nick A; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Louhaichi, Mounir; Lövei, Gabor L; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marshall, E J P; Martínez, Eliana; Mayfield, Margaret M; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C; Miller, James R; Morales, Carolina L; Muchane, Mary N; Muchane, Muchai; Naidoo, Robin; Nakamura, Akihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A; Neuschulz, Eike L; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Nöske, Nicole M; O'Dea, Niall; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Chris O; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Pelegrin, Nicolás; Peres, Carlos A; Persson, Anna S; Petanidou, Theodora; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T Keith; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F; Presley, Steven J; Proença, Vânia; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A; Reid, J Leighton; Reis, Yana T; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Robles, Carolina A; Römbke, Jörg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J; Roulston, T'ai H; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P; Sáfián, Szabolcs; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Samnegård, Ulrika; Schüepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Sedlock, Jodi L; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Fernando A B; Slade, Eleanor M; Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Sodhi, Navjot S; Somarriba, Eduardo J; Sosa, Ramón A; Stout, Jane C; Struebig, Matthew J; Sung, Yik-Hei; Threlfall, Caragh G; Tonietto, Rebecca; Tóthmérész, Béla; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C; Tylianakis, Jason M; Vanbergen, Adam J; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A F; Vergara, Carlos H; Vergara, Pablo M; Verhulst, Jort; Walker, Tony R; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I; Wells, Konstans; Williams, Christopher D; Willig, Michael R; Woinarski, John C Z; Wolf, Jan H D; Woodcock, Ben A; Yu, Douglas W; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Collen, Ben; Ewers, Rob M; Mace, Georgina M; Purves, Drew W; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - http://www.predicts.org.uk). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015. PMID:25558364

  10. The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Senior, Rebecca A; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; White, Hannah J; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Ancrenaz, Marc; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Barlow, Jos; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Berg, Åke; Berry, Nicholas J; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boekhout, Teun; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buscardo, Erika; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Cerda, Rolando; Cerezo, Alexis; Chauvat, Matthieu; Clarke, Frank M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Connop, Stuart P; D'Aniello, Biagio; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Dejean, Alain; Diekötter, Tim; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dormann, Carsten F; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fonte, Steven J; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Garden, Jenni G; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Gottschalk, Marco S; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Grogan, James; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Hernández, Lionel; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Horgan, Finbarr G; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Jonsell, Mats; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kessler, Michael; Knop, Eva; Kolb, Annette; K?rösi, Ádám; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Le Féon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Légaré, Jean-Philippe; Letcher, Susan G; Littlewood, Nick A; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Louhaichi, Mounir; Lövei, Gabor L; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marshall, E J P; Martínez, Eliana; Mayfield, Margaret M; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C; Miller, James R; Morales, Carolina L; Muchane, Mary N; Muchane, Muchai; Naidoo, Robin; Nakamura, Akihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A; Neuschulz, Eike L; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Nöske, Nicole M; O'Dea, Niall; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Chris O; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Pelegrin, Nicolás; Peres, Carlos A; Persson, Anna S; Petanidou, Theodora; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T Keith; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F; Presley, Steven J; Proença, Vânia; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A; Reid, J Leighton; Reis, Yana T; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Robles, Carolina A; Römbke, Jörg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J; Roulston, T'ai H; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P; Sáfián, Szabolcs; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Samnegård, Ulrika; Schüepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Sedlock, Jodi L; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Fernando A B; Slade, Eleanor M; Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Sodhi, Navjot S; Somarriba, Eduardo J; Sosa, Ramón A; Stout, Jane C; Struebig, Matthew J; Sung, Yik-Hei; Threlfall, Caragh G; Tonietto, Rebecca; Tóthmérész, Béla; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C; Tylianakis, Jason M; Vanbergen, Adam J; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A F; Vergara, Carlos H; Vergara, Pablo M; Verhulst, Jort; Walker, Tony R; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I; Wells, Konstans; Williams, Christopher D; Willig, Michael R; Woinarski, John C Z; Wolf, Jan H D; Woodcock, Ben A; Yu, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species’ threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project – and avert – future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups – including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems – http://www.predicts.org.uk). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015. PMID:25558364

  11. "" EPAT# Risk Assessments Environmental Impact

    E-print Network

    "" EPAT# Risk Assessments Appendixes Environmental Impact Statement NESHAPS for Radionuclides for Hazardous Air Pollutants Risk Assessments Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS Radionuclides VOLUME 2 for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA 520.1'1.-89-006,-2 Risk Assessments Environmental Impact Statement for NESHAPS

  12. Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical engineering fields. Within this context, risk refers to exposure to the chance

  13. Hydrologic drivers of tree biodiversity: The impact of climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Konar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Azaele, S.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity of forests is of major importance for society. The possible impact of climate change on the characteristics of tree diversity is a topic of crucial importance with relevant implications for conservation campaigns and resource management. Here we present the main results of the expected biodiversity changes in the Mississippi-Missouri River Basin (MMRS) and two of its subregions under different scenarios of possible climate change. A mechanistic neutral metapopulation model is developed to study the main drivers of large scale biodiversity signatures in the MMRS system. The region is divided into 824 Direct Tributary Areas (DTAs), each one characterized by its own habitat capacity. Data for the spatial occurrence of the 231 species present in the system is taken from the US Forest Service Inventory and Analysis Database. The model has permeable boundaries to account for immigration from the regions surrounding the MMRS. The model accounts for key aspects of ecological dynamics (e.g., birth, death, speciation, and migration) and is fundamentally driven by the mean annual precipitation characteristic of each of the DTAs in the system. It is found that such a simple model, with only four parameters, yields an excellent representation of the observed local species richness (LSR), between-community (?) diversity, and species rank-occupancy function. The mean annual rainfall of each DTA is then changed according to the climate scenarios and new habitat capacities are thus obtained throughout the MMRS and its subregions. The resulting large-scale biodiversity signatures are computed and compared with those of the present scenario, showing that there are very important changes arising from the climate change conditions. For the dry scenarios, it is shown that there is a considerable decrease of species richness, both at local and regional scales, and a contraction of species' geographic ranges. These findings link the hydrologic and ecological dynamics of the MMRS under climate change conditions and are important for a comprehensive evaluation of the climate change impacts over the United States.

  14. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G., E-mail: luisgonzaga.garcia@upm.e [Dept. Forest Engineering, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Lopez, Elena, E-mail: elopez@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monzon, Andres, E-mail: amonzon@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Otero Pastor, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.otero@upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  15. Bottle Traps and Dipnetting: Evaluation of two Sampling Techniques for Assessing Macroinvertebrate Biodiversity in Depressional Wetlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serieyssol, C. A.; Bouchard, R. W.; Sealock, A. W.; Rufer, M. M.; Chirhart, J.; Genet, J.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    Dipnet (DN) sampling is routinely employed for macroinvertebrate bioassessments, however it has been shown that some taxa are more effectively sampled with activity traps, commonly called Bottle Traps (BT). In 2001, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency used both DN and BT sampling in nine depressional wetlands in the North Central Hardwood Forest Ecoregion to evaluate macroinvertebrate biodiversity for the purpose of assessing water quality and developing biological criteria. Both methods, consisting of five bottle trap samples and two dip net samples per wetland, were collected from each of two sites in each wetland. To determine the performance of each method in documenting biodiversity, we compared taxa and their abundances by wetland, for each type of sample. DN sampling was more effective, with 44 of 140 macroinvertebrate taxa only identified from DN, compared to 14 only from BT. By contrast, BT more effectively collected leeches and beetles, especially active swimmers such as Tropisternus and several genera of Dytiscidae. However, taxa richness patterns for BT and DN were not strongly correlated. Consequently, we conclude these two sampling methods complement each other, providing a better overall picture of macroinvertebrate biodiversity, and should be used jointly when investigating macroinvertebrate biodiversity in depressional wetlands.

  16. Assessing the Primary Data Hosted by the Spanish Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, Javier; Ariño, Arturo H.; Encinas, María A.; Pando, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively understand and cope with the current ‘biodiversity crisis’, having large-enough sets of qualified data is necessary. Information facilitators such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) are ensuring increasing availability of primary biodiversity records by linking data collections spread over several institutions that have agreed to publish their data in a common access schema. We have assessed the primary records that one such publisher, the Spanish node of GBIF (GBIF.ES), hosts on behalf of a number of institutions, considered to be a highly representative sample of the total mass of available data for a country in order to know the quantity and quality of the information made available. Our results may provide an indication of the overall fitness-for-use in these data. We have found a number of patterns in the availability and accrual of data that seem to arise naturally from the digitization processes. Knowing these patterns and features may help deciding when and how these data can be used. Broadly, the error level seems low. The available data may be of capital importance for the development of biodiversity research, both locally and globally. However, wide swaths of records lack data elements such as georeferencing or taxonomical levels. Although the remaining information is ample and fit for many uses, improving the completeness of the records would likely increase the usability span for these data. PMID:23372828

  17. Scale matters: the impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Doreen; Sait, Steven M; Hodgson, Jenny A; Schmutz, Ulrich; Kunin, William E; Benton, Tim G

    2010-07-01

    There is increasing recognition that ecosystems and their services need to be managed in the face of environmental change. However, there is little consensus as to the optimum scale for management. This is particularly acute in the agricultural environment given the level of public investment in agri-environment schemes (AES). Using a novel multiscale hierarchical sampling design, we assess the effect of land use at multiple spatial scales (from location-within-field to regions) on farmland biodiversity. We show that on-farm biodiversity components depend on farming practices (organic vs. conventional) at farm and landscape scales, but this strongly interacts with fine- and coarse-scale variables. Different taxa respond to agricultural practice at different spatial scales and often at multiple spatial scales. Hence, AES need to target multiple spatial scales to maximize effectiveness. Novel policy levers may be needed to encourage multiple land managers within a landscape to adopt schemes that create landscape-level benefits. PMID:20482572

  18. Why evolutionary biologists should get seriously involved in ecological monitoring and applied biodiversity assessment programs

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Jakob; Seehausen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    While ecological monitoring and biodiversity assessment programs are widely implemented and relatively well developed to survey and monitor the structure and dynamics of populations and communities in many ecosystems, quantitative assessment and monitoring of genetic and phenotypic diversity that is important to understand evolutionary dynamics is only rarely integrated. As a consequence, monitoring programs often fail to detect changes in these key components of biodiversity until after major loss of diversity has occurred. The extensive efforts in ecological monitoring have generated large data sets of unique value to macro-scale and long-term ecological research, but the insights gained from such data sets could be multiplied by the inclusion of evolutionary biological approaches. We argue that the lack of process-based evolutionary thinking in ecological monitoring means a significant loss of opportunity for research and conservation. Assessment of genetic and phenotypic variation within and between species needs to be fully integrated to safeguard biodiversity and the ecological and evolutionary dynamics in natural ecosystems. We illustrate our case with examples from fishes and conclude with examples of ongoing monitoring programs and provide suggestions on how to improve future quantitative diversity surveys. PMID:25553061

  19. Tropical rainforest biodiversity: field and

    E-print Network

    Tropical rainforest biodiversity: field and GIS tools for assessing, monitoring and mapping II. Francesco Rovero, Curator, (tropical biodiversity and forest mammal expert) and Dr. Clara Tattoni, Research international biodiversity experts will teach specific modules. In collaboration with: Further information

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/

    E-print Network

    final action on the essential fish habitat (EFH) environmental impact statement (EIS) to adopt a suiteENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ FINAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS Juneau, AK 99802 (907) 586-7228 Abstract: This Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review

  1. A generic approach to integrate biodiversity considerations in screening and scoping for EIA

    SciTech Connect

    Slootweg, Roel; Kolhoff, Arend

    2003-10-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requires parties to apply environmental impact assessment (EIA) to projects that potentially negatively impact on biodiversity. As members of the International Association of Impact Assessment, the authors have developed a conceptual framework to integrate biodiversity considerations in EIA. By defining biodiversity in terms of composition, structure, and key processes, and by describing the way in which human activities affect these so-called components of biodiversity, it is possible to assess the potential impacts of human activities on biodiversity. Furthermore, the authors have translated this conceptual framework in generic guidelines for screening and scoping in impact assessment. Countries can use these generic guidelines to further operationalise the framework within the existing national procedures for impact assessment. This paper is fully coherent and partly overlapping with the guidelines recently adopted by the CBD, but differs in the sense that it provides more scientific background and is less policy-oriented.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  3. Assessment of regional-scale primary production in terrestrial ecosystems to estimate the possible influence of future climate change on biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Hibiki; Nishina, Kazuya; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, climate change including global warming has progressed worldwide and their influences on ecosystem structure and function that provide various goods and services to humans' well-being are of the greatest concerns. The ecosystem function and services are tightly coupled with the biodiversity particularly via food web and biogeochemical cycles, and here carbon is one of the central elements that also affect atmospheric CO2 concentration. Therefore mechanistic and quantitative understandings of the consequences among on-going climate change, ecosystem function, and biodiversity are urgent issues for seeking a better adaptation strategy. In order to tackle such tasks in the current environmental and ecological sciences, efforts have been made by numerous scientists and/or organizations to clarify the current status of and threats to biodiversity, responses of biogeochemical cycles to meteorological variables, and to construct climate change scenarios considering economic activities. However, to gain insights into the possible influence of climate change on biodiversity via altered ecosystem functions over broad temporal and spatial scales ranging from past to near-future periods and from landscape to global scales, further efforts to find the consequences are required, since the assessment of the influence of climate change on biodiversity is straightforward but difficult. For decades in climate change science, carbon flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems has attracted intensive attention as it connects the atmosphere and biosphere. Carbon flux in the biosphere is not only a process of biogeochemical material flux but also is an element to drive biological and ecological processes in ecosystems via food web beginning from photosynthetic carbon fixation by plants. Therefore focusing on photosynthetic production by plants, i.e. primary production of the ecosystem, may help us to estimate the possible influence of climate change on biodiversity. Photosynthetic carbon fixation, namely gross primary production (GPP), is a fundamental process of ecosystems and known to be highly sensitive to meteorological changes including radiation, temperature, precipitation and CO2 concentration. Thus analysis of the effect of future climate change on ecosystem GPP in a biogeographical region, which is important from the viewpoint of the biodiversity conservation, such as "biodiversity hotspot" and "Global 200 Ecoregion", might enable us to discuss the relevance between climate change and biodiversity. In ISI-MIP (Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project) phase 1, we have estimated GPP by seven global biome models under future climate based on four RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways for 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 W/m2 stabilization targets) and five global climate models. In present study, we analyzed these outputs to reveal the effect of future climate change on the ecosystem GPP in several biodiversity hotspots and will discuss the relevance between the climate change and biodiversity.

  4. Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Gilbert, A.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodiversity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens originating within or adjacent to 14 parks throughout the northeastern United States. We compared the number of specimens located to collection size to determine whether there was any effect on detection rate of specimens. We evaluated the importance of park characteristics (e.g., age since establishment, size, theme [natural vs. cultural]) for influencing the number of specimens found in a collection. We located >31,000 specimens and compiled associated records (hereafter referred to as specimens) from 78 collections; >9000 specimens were park-significant, originating either within park boundaries or in the local township where the park was located. We found >2000 specimens by means of manual searches, which cost $0.001?0.15 per specimen searched and $0.81?151.95 per specimen found. Collection effort appeared relatively uniform between 1890 and 1980, with low periods corresponding to significant sociopolitical events. Detection rates for specimens were inversely related to collection size. Although specimens were most often located in collections within the region of interest, specimens can be found anywhere, particularly in large collections international in scope, suggesting that global searches will be necessary to evaluate historical biodiversity. Park characteristics indicated that more collecting effort occurred within or adjacent to larger parks established for natural resources than in smaller historical sites. Because many institutions have not yet established electronic databases for collections, manual searches can be useful for retrieving specimens. Our results show that thorough, systematic searching of natural history collections for park-significant specimens can provide a historical perspective on biodiversity for park managers.

  5. Integrating conservation and development: incorporating vulnerability into biodiversity-assessment of areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Faith; P. A. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Protection of regional biodiversity requires that priority for protection of individual areas be based on both the contribution the area can make to representing overall biodiversity and the degree to which the area, in the absence of action, is vulnerable to loss of its biodiversity. Attempts to apply these criteria together largely have been ad hoc. A solution to this

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in Canadian

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    26/02/2014 1 Environmental Impact Assessment in Canadian Mine/Energy Development The Purpose energy projects/pipelines) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (for uranium mining, nuclear facilities players in environmental assessment and what roles do they play? What are some of the primary pitfalls

  7. GEOSS AIP2 Climate Change and Biodiversity Use Scenarios: Interoperability Infrastructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Nativi; Mattia Santoro

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, scientific community is producing great efforts in order to study the effects of climate change on life on Earth. In this general framework, a key role is played by the impact of climate change on biodiversity. To assess this, several use scenarios require the modeling of climatological change impact on the regional distribution of biodiversity species.

  8. Mitigating Nitrogen Deposition Impacts on Biodiversity in California: Generating Funding for Weed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    The impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on biodiversity are widespread and profound; N-inputs have far exceeded any historical range of variability and are altering ecosystem structure and function worldwide. Overwhelming scientific evidence documents acute threats to numerous California ecosystems and imperiled species through increased growth of invasive annual grasses and forbs, yet policy responses lag far behind the science. Since 2001, a confluence of several projects (gas-fired powerplants and highway improvements) in Santa Clara County set powerful precedents for mitigation of N-deposition impacts on ecosystems via the Endangered Species Act, with a focus on the Bay checkerspot butterfly. These projects have culminated in the Santa Clara Valley Habitat Plan, a 50-year $665,000,000 mitigation plan to conserve and manage habitat for 19 target species. Elsewhere, powerplants in San Diego and Contra Costa Counties have provided mitigation funds for habitat restoration and weed management. Building on these precedents, the California Invasive Plant Council, California Native Plant Society, and other groups are forming a coalition to extend this mitigation across California to generate money for weed management. Key elements of this incipient campaign include: 1) education of regulatory agencies, activists, and decision-makers about the threat; 2) generation of standard EIR comments with project specifics for developments that increase traffic or generate nitrogen emissions; 3) encouraging state and federal wildlife agencies to raise the issue in consultations and Habitat Conservation Plans; 4) policy and legal research to chart a course through the regulatory and political landscape; 5) collating research on impacts and development of tools to document those impacts; 6) media outreach, and 7) coalition building. The main mitigation strategy is funding for local weed management and stewardship groups through fees. There is a desperate need for stable long-term funding of weed management on parks, preserves and other wildlands, and mitigating N-deposition could provide one major source.

  9. DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/

    E-print Network

    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/ REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW/ INITIAL REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS: This Environmental Assessment/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (EA Impact Statement (EIS). The suggested modifications are minor changes to the boundaries of the closed

  10. A Hierarchical Classification of Benthic Biodiversity and Assessment of Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Lucinda L.; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S.; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided. PMID:25032993

  11. A hierarchical classification of benthic biodiversity and assessment of protected areas in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Lucinda L; Turner, Joel; Grantham, Hedley S; Kaiser, Stefanie; Constable, Andrew; Nicoll, Rob; Raymond, Ben; Post, Alexandra; Brandt, Angelika; Beaver, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided. PMID:25032993

  12. Pollination ecology and the possible impacts of environmental change in the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ryan D; Hopper, Stephen D; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2010-02-12

    The Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot contains an exceptionally diverse flora on an ancient, low-relief but edaphically diverse landscape. Since European colonization, the primary threat to the flora has been habitat clearance, though climate change is an impending threat. Here, we review (i) the ecology of nectarivores and biotic pollination systems in the region, (ii) the evidence that trends in pollination strategies are a consequence of characteristics of the landscape, and (iii) based on these discussions, provide predictions to be tested on the impacts of environmental change on pollination systems. The flora of southwestern Australia has an exceptionally high level of vertebrate pollination, providing the advantage of highly mobile, generalist pollinators. Nectarivorous invertebrates are primarily generalist foragers, though an increasing number of colletid bees are being recognized as being specialized at the level of plant family or more rarely genus. While generalist pollination strategies dominate among insect-pollinated plants, there are some cases of extreme specialization, most notably the multiple evolutions of sexual deception in the Orchidaceae. Preliminary data suggest that bird pollination confers an advantage of greater pollen movement and may represent a mechanism for minimizing inbreeding in naturally fragmented populations. The effects of future environmental change are predicted to result from a combination of the resilience of pollination guilds and changes in their foraging and dispersal behaviour. PMID:20047877

  13. What Is Biodiversity?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-11

    This unit on biodiversity includes three separate lesson plans and may be used for students in grades 6 through 10. The concepts touched upon in these activities include the diversity of life on earth, species, the interconnectedness of living things, humanity's impact on biodiversity, and biodiversity loss. Via these lesson plans, which include plans for a field trip, students will have a chance to observe and record their impressions in an outdoor site and later report their experiences to the class.

  14. Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools

    PubMed Central

    Hillel, Jossi; Groenen, Martien AM; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Korol, Abraham B; David, Lior; Kirzhner, Valery M; Burke, Terry; Barre-Dirie, Asili; Crooijmans, Richard PMA; Elo, Kari; Feldman, Marcus W; Freidlin, Paul J; Mäki-Tanila, Asko; Oortwijn, Marian; Thomson, Pippa; Vignal, Alain; Wimmers, Klaus; Weigend, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC), eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population (inbred C line) and the most polymorphic population (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were, respectively, as follows: number of alleles per locus, per population: 3.5, 1.3 and 5.2; average gene diversity across markers: 0.47, 0.05 and 0.64; and proportion of polymorphic markers: 0.91, 0.25 and 1.0. These were in good agreement with the breeding history of the populations. For instance, unselected populations were found to be more polymorphic than selected breeds such as layers. Thus DNA pools are effective in the preliminary assessment of genetic variation of populations and markers. Mean genetic distance indicates the extent to which a given population shares its genetic diversity with that of the whole tested gene pool and is a useful criterion for conservation of diversity. The distribution of population-specific (private) alleles and the amount of genetic variation shared among populations supports the hypothesis that the red jungle fowl is the main progenitor of the domesticated chicken. PMID:12939204

  15. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: The Importance of Topography and Geographical Location in Supporting Higher Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason’s richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM’s area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM’s area was in the 10°–20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM. PMID:25763820

  16. Citation patterns of a controversial and high-impact paper: Worm et al. (2006) "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services".

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A

    2013-01-01

    Citation patterns were examined for Worm et al. 2006 (Science 314:787-790), a high-impact paper that focused on relationships between marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper sparked much controversy through its projection, highlighted in the press release, that all marine fisheries would be collapsed by 2048. Analysis of 664 citing papers revealed that only a small percentage (11%) referred to the 2048 projection, while 39% referred to fisheries collapse in general, and 40% to biodiversity and ecosystem services. The 2048 projection was mentioned more often in papers published soon after the original paper, in low-impact journals, and in journals outside of fields that would be expected to focus on biodiversity. Citing papers also mentioned the 2048 projection more often if they had few authors (28% of single-author papers vs. 2% of papers with 10 or more authors). These factors suggest that the more knowledgeable the authors of citing papers were about the controversy over the 2048 projection, the less likely they were to refer to it. A noteworthy finding was that if the original authors were also involved in the citing papers, they rarely (1 of 55 papers, 2%) mentioned the 2048 projection. Thus the original authors have emphasized the broader concerns about biodiversity loss, rather than the 2048 projection, as the key result of their study. PMID:23437224

  17. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Brian T; Willig, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs) have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season) to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition) differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar estimates of species richness and composition for the region. Consequently, if single visits to sites or short-term monitoring are the goal, point counts will likely perform better than ARUs, especially if species are rare or vocalize infrequently. However, if seasonal or annual monitoring of sites is the goal, ARUs offer a viable alternative to standard point-count methods, especially in the context of large-scale or long-term monitoring of temperate forest birds. PMID:26038728

  18. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols

    PubMed Central

    Willig, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs) have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season) to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition) differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar estimates of species richness and composition for the region. Consequently, if single visits to sites or short-term monitoring are the goal, point counts will likely perform better than ARUs, especially if species are rare or vocalize infrequently. However, if seasonal or annual monitoring of sites is the goal, ARUs offer a viable alternative to standard point-count methods, especially in the context of large-scale or long-term monitoring of temperate forest birds.

  19. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

  20. Spatial Variation in Fine Sediment Transfer and the Impact on Biodiversity: The River Esk, North Yorkshire UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Warburton, J.

    2006-12-01

    Land use change, including the resulting changes in fine sediment supply, is seen as the most significant threat to global biodiversity (Sala et al. 2000). Silt is important for three reasons; firstly, it can act as a pollutant itself in silting up gravel spawning beds of fishes such as salmonids (Walling et al. 2003). Secondly it can have detrimental effects on conservation species such as freshwater pearl mussels through direct and indirect effects (pearl mussels rely on juvenile salmonids for lifecycle completion). Thirdly, sediment associated transport of nutrients and pollutants can result in long-term pollution problems detrimental to most species (Walling et al. 2001). However, some key conservation species such as lampreys require abundant silt for the larval lifecycle stage, as well as gravel for adult spawners. Hence, a plentiful silt supply and transport in river systems is not necessarily detrimental to some key biodiversity elements, but may be more damaging for others. This debate is compounded by a lack of data on silt in river systems. This paper; i) introduces Time Integrated Mass Flux Samples (TIMS) as a cheap, effective and efficient method of collecting data on spatial variations in fine sediment transfer; ii) presents data for variations in loads and specific yields of fine sediment in the River Esk (North Yorkshire, UK) and; iii) links these patterns of silt transfer to potential impacts of biodiversity and salmonids.

  1. Midwest Assessment of Regional Climate Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David McGinnis; Allen Bradley

    A new project under the NOAA Regional Impact Assessment program is proposed. The Midwest Assessment of Regional Climate Impacts (MARCI) project is a collaboration between Iowa State University, the University of Iowa, and the University of Northern Iowa. Through this initiative, regional impact assessments of climate variations on human societies will be conducted and findings used to enhance the use

  2. JiTT - Threats to Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Guertin

    1) How is climate change a threat to biodiversity? 2) What are the impacts of pesticides on animals (including insects) and humans? 3) Can human population growth really impact biodiversity? Explain your viewpoint.

  3. The impact of logging on biodiversity and carbon sequestration in tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical deforestation is one of the most relevant environmental issues at planetary scale. Forest clearcutting has dramatic effect on local biodiversity, on the terrestrial carbon sink and atmospheric GHGs balance. In terms of protection of tropical forests selective logging is, instead, often regarded as a minor or even positive management practice for the ecosystem and it is supported by international certifications. However, few studies are available on changes in the structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services due to the selective logging of African forests. This paper presents the results of a survey on tropical forests of West and Central Africa, with a comparison of long-term dynamics, structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services (such as the carbon sequestration) of different types of forests, from virgin primary to selectively logged and secondary forest. Our study suggests that there is a persistent effect of selective logging on biodiversity and carbon stock losses in the long term (up to 30 years since logging) and after repeated logging. These effects, in terms of species richness and biomass, are greater than the expected losses from commercial harvesting, implying that selective logging in West and Central Africa is impairing long term (at least until 30 years) ecosystem structure and services. A longer selective logging cycle (>30 years) should be considered by logging companies although there is not yet enough information to consider this practice sustainable.

  4. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  5. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

    2000-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed.

  6. DNA Barcoding Simplifies Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Biodiverse Regions

    PubMed Central

    Nzeduru, Chinyere V.; Ronca, Sandra; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored. PMID:22567120

  7. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany) [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany)] [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  8. Relationship between Floristic and Phenologic Similarity in Temperate Forests: Implications for the Synoptic Assessment and Monitoring of Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vina, A.; Xu, W.; Tuanmu, M.; Li, Y.; Ouyang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2008-12-01

    As human activities continue to increase pressure on biodiversity, it is imperative to understand its status and responses to human disturbances. Although biodiversity varies greatly across space, most studies were conducted at limited spatial extents. While these studies have provided useful information at local scales, they are not suitable when a regional view is required, particularly when one is interested in evaluating large- scale effects of human activities and establishing sustainable management practices at regional levels. The synoptic view provided by imaging sensors constitutes a useful way of analyzing biodiversity at large scales. In this study we assessed the structure and tree species composition of temperate forests in the Qinling mountain region of Shaanxi province (China) at plot scales and analyzed their phenologic characteristics across the entire region using multi-temporal remotely sensed data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results show that areas floristically similar (i.e., composed of the same tree species associations) also exhibit comparable phenologic characteristics, implying a direct relationship between floristic and phenologic similarity. Therefore, the phenologic characteristics, as evaluated through remote sensing techniques, can be scaled-up to map and monitor the spatial distribution of particular tree species associations across broad geographic regions.

  9. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  10. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  11. Long-Term Impacts of Forest Ditching on Non-Aquatic Biodiversity: Conservation Perspectives for a Novel Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to maintain stand structural complexity; (ii) context-dependent spatial analysis and planning of drained landscapes; and (iii) lists of focal species to monitor and guide ditching practices. PMID:23646179

  12. Investigate Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A great way to learn about biodiversity is by visiting Conservation International's Investigate Biodiversity Web site. Visitors can read about biodiversity hot spots and major threats to the world's species. Of particular interest is the Expeditions Online section, detailing scientific field expeditions. Through this section, you can read daily updates and see photos of teams of scientists conducting biological surveys in remote parts of the world. After learning about Conservation International's research projects, students can follow the online guide to developing their own biodiversity field study. This well designed Web sitehas plenty to offer to anyone interested in biodiversity.

  13. Air-pollution effects on biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

    1992-04-01

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

  14. Mass invasion of non-native Elodea canadensis Michx. in a large, clear-water, species-rich Norwegian lake -- Impact on macrophyte biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marit Mjelde; Dag Berge; Stein W. Johansen

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Elodea canadensis on aquatic macrophyte biodiversity in (Lake) Steinsfjord has been studied through extensive lake-wide surveys and photographic sampling. E. canadensis greatly expanded in Steinsfjord since its appearance in 1978 and still dominated the macrophyte community in 2004. The areal distribution of E. canadensis peaked within 6 years from invasion and has remained relatively stable since; however,

  15. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  16. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  17. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  18. 10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

  19. Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam

    E-print Network

    Geest, Harm G. van der

    1 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Rapid screening for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Polluted wetland soils and sediments · Cie for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam Sediment quality in Flanders, triad assessment

  20. Hydrobiologia 500: 203211, 2003. K. Martens (ed.), Aquatic Biodiversity.

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    Hydrobiologia 500: 203­211, 2003. K. Martens (ed.), Aquatic Biodiversity. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 203 Biodiversity: bridging the gap between condition and conservation words: rivers, biodiversity assessment, conservation, restoration, predictive models Abstract The aim

  1. 1: Naming and recognition of species in participatory biodiversity inventory ERP project R7112 - Development and promotion of improved methods for identification, assessment and evaluation of biodiversity for tropical mountain environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Wong; Rita Lysinge; David Kenfack; John Healey; John Hall

    Contribution to the ETFRN workshop on Participatory monitoring and evaluation of biodiversity: the art and the science. 7-25 January 2002. This paper outlines work undertaken by ERP project R7112 in thr ee communities (Ekona Lelu, Bakingili and Bova) on Mount Cameroon during the period 1999-2001. The results illustrate points arising out of the background paper 'Participatory assessment, monitoring and evaluation

  2. Assessing Undergraduate University Students' Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour towards Biodiversity: A Case Study in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisiforou, Olympia; Charalambides, Alexandros George

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is a key resource as it provides both goods and services to society. However, humans value these resources differently, especially when biodiversity is exploited for its economic potential; a destruction on a scale rarely seen before. In order to decrease the threats that biodiversity is facing due to human activity, globally (climate…

  3. Big moving day for biodiversity? A macroecological assessment of the scope for assisted colonization as a conservation strategy under global warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Christian Svenning; Camilla Fløjgaard; Naia Morueta-Holme; Jonathan Lenoir; Signe Normand; Flemming Skov

    2009-01-01

    Future climate change constitutes a major threat to Earth's biodiversity. If anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, 21st century climate change is likely to exceed the natural adaptive capacity of many natural ecosystems and a large proportion of species may risk extinction. A recurrent finding is that the degree of negative impact depends strongly on the dispersal potential of the

  4. Enhancing impact: visualization of an integrated impact assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Gary R; Bouchard, Michel A; de Sa, Isabel Marques; Paris, Isabelle; Balge, Zachary; Williams, Dane; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-05-01

    The environmental impact assessment process is over 40 years old and has dramatically expanded. Topics, such as social, health and human rights impact are now included. The main body of an impact analysis is generally hundreds of pages long and supported by countless technical appendices. For large, oil/gas, mining and water resources projects both the volume and technical sophistication of the reports has far exceeded the processing ability of host communities. Instead of informing and empowering, the reports are abstruse and overwhelming. Reinvention is required. The development of a visual integrated impact assessment strategy that utilizes remote sensing and spatial analyses is described. PMID:22639133

  5. Handbook for value-impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Burnham, J.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Mullen, M.F.; Nesse, R.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Triplett, M.B.; Weakley, S.A.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1983-12-01

    The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues.

  6. Biodiversity Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference list has a dozen kid-friendly books on a wide range of biodiversity topics. For each title, the author, publisher, and publication date are included along with a brief description of the book. The list includes field guides and other reference books to help students begin exploring plants, insects, birds, and other living things, easy-to-complete activities to bring the importance of biodiversity home, and engaging stories that introduce students to cultural tales that celebrate biodiversity.

  7. Privacy Impact Assessment Archives of American Art

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    1 Privacy Impact Assessment Archives of American Art Collections Information System (AAACIS. Privacy Assessment 1. What information is being collected: Information relating to a Privacy Assessment. · Smithsonian-wide Web user survey administered by ForeSee results collects online visitor satisfaction data

  8. Primary Forests Are Vital For Sustaining Tropical Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. M.; Gibson, L.; Koh, L. P.; Brook, B. W.; Gardner, T. A.; Barlow, J.; Peres, C. A.; Bradshaw, C. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Lovejoy, T. E.; Sodhi, N.

    2011-12-01

    Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity, particularly in tropical forests where species diversity and human pressures on natural environments are high. The rapid conversion of tropical forests for agriculture and other uses has generated vast human-dominated landscapes with potentially dire consequences for tropical biodiversity. Presently, few truly undisturbed tropical forests exist, whereas those degraded from repeated logging and fires, as well as secondary and plantation forests, are rapidly expanding. Here we provide a first global assessment of the impact of disturbance and land-conversion on biodiversity in tropical forests using a meta-analysis of 138 studies. We collected and analysed 2220 pairwise comparisons of biodiversity values in primary (with little or no human disturbance) and disturbed forests. We found that biodiversity values were substantially lower in degraded forests, but this varied considerably by geographic region, taxonomic group, ecological metric and disturbance type. Even after partially accounting for confounding factors, our findings reveal that most forms of forest degradation have an overwhelmingly detrimental effect on tropical biodiversity. Our results clearly indicate that when it comes to maintaining tropical biodiversity, there is no substitute for primary forests.

  9. Biodiversity Concepts and

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    Biodiversity Concepts and Measures Dr. Stacy Philpott Conservation Biology EEES 4750/5750/7750 #12;Biodiversity · What is biodiversity? · How much biodiversity is there? · Where is biodiversity found? · How do we measure biodiversity? · How do we collect and analyze biodiversity data? #12;Biodiversity · What

  10. Mosaic-level inference of the impact of land cover changes in agricultural landscapes on biodiversity: a case-study with a threatened grassland bird.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisco; Silva, João P; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Márcia; Leitão, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Inês; Delgado, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a "whole-landscape" approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated. PMID:22723899

  11. Mosaic-Level Inference of the Impact of Land Cover Changes in Agricultural Landscapes on Biodiversity: A Case-Study with a Threatened Grassland Bird

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Francisco; Silva, João P.; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Márcia; Leitão, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Inês; Delgado, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a “whole-landscape” approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated. PMID:22723899

  12. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom) [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability (Australia) [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa) [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa)] [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Gunn, Jill A.E., E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  13. Biodiversity Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

    In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

  14. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  15. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  16. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  17. Agent-based modeling for the landuse change of hunter-gather societies and the impacts on biodiversity in Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, T.; Fragoso, J.; Lambin, E.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions with animals are vital to the Amerindian, indigenous people, of Rupunini savannah-forest in Guyana. Their connections extend from basic energy and protein resource to spiritual bonding through "paring" to a certain animal in the forest. We collected extensive dataset of 23 indigenous communities for 3.5 years, consisting 9900 individuals from 1307 households, as well as animal observation data in 8 transects per communities (47,000 data entries). In this presentation, our research interest is to model the driver of land use change of the indigenous communities and its impacts on the ecosystem in the Rupunini area under global change. Overarching question we would like to answer with this program is to find how and why "tipping-point" from hunting gathering society to the agricultural society occurs in the future. Secondary question is what is the implication of the change to agricultural society in terms of biodiversity and carbon stock in the area, and eventually the well-being of Rupunini people. To answer the questions regarding the society shift in agriculture activities, we built as simulation with Agent-Based Modeling (Multi Agents Simulation). We developed this simulation by using Netlogo, the programming environment specialized for spatially explicit agent-based modeling (ABM). This simulation consists of four different process in the Rupunini landscape; forest succession, animal population growth, hunting of animals, and land clearing for agriculture. All of these processes are carried out by a set of computational unit, called "agents". In this program, there are four types of agents - patches, villages, households, and animals. Here, we describe the impacts of hunting on the biodiversity based on actual demographic data from one village named Crush Water. Animal population within the hunting territory of the village stabilized but Agouti/Paca dominates the landscape with little population of armadillos and peccaries. White-tailed deers, Tapirs, Capybara exist but very low. This finding is well aligned with the hunting dataset - Agouti/Paca consists 27% of total hunting. Based on our simulation, it seems the dominance of Agouti/Paca among hunted animals shown in the field data can be explained solely by their high carrying capacity against human extraction (population density of the Paca/Agouti = 60 per square km, whereas other animals ranges 0.63 to 7). When we incorporate agriculture, the "rodentation" of the animal population toward Agouti/Paca becomes more obvious. This simulation shows the interactions of people and animals through land change and hunting, which were observed in our fields.

  18. Impacts of Intensive Logging on the Trophic Organisation of Ant Communities in a Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Newton, Rob J.; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging. These food webs appear able to bend without breaking in the face of some forms of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:23593302

  19. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA thereby determines the momentum transfer from a known spacecraft impact and characterizes the resulting impact crater, in addition to studying other effects of the impact and providing valuable new insights into impact cratering and asteroid collisional evolution.

  20. Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact

    E-print Network

    Funk, W. Chris

    58 4 Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact: An Application to Pond autonomously to climate change-induced shifts as a result of extensive human modifications of these ecosystems, amphibians may be especially vulnerable to climate change impacts in both sets of landscapes, and some

  1. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  2. Aquatic Baseline Studies for Environmental Impact Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willis E. Pequegnat

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, those living components of an estuary\\/continental shelf environmental complex that are potentially vulnerable to various degrading impacts of anthropogenic origin are identified. The latter are principally associated with the establishment in the complex of sewage and industrial outfalls, power plants, and disposal sites for dredged material. In order to assess the effects of these impacts and to

  3. Global Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

  4. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  5. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew; Michel, Patrick; Ulamec, Stephan; Reed, Cheryl; Galvez, Andres; Carnelli, Ian

    On Feb. 15, 2013, an exceptionally close approach to Earth by the small asteroid 2012 DA14 was eagerly awaited by observers, but another small asteroid impacted Earth over Chelyabinsk, Russia the same day without warning, releasing several hundred kilotons TNT of energy and injuring over 1500 people. These dramatic events remind us of the needs to discover hazardous asteroids and to learn how to mitigate them. The AIDA mission is the first demonstration of a mitigation technique to protect the Earth from a potential asteroid impact, by performing a spacecraft kinetic impact on an asteroid to deflect it from its trajectory. We will provide an update on the status of parallel AIDA mission studies supported by ESA and NASA. AIDA is an international collaboration consisting of two independent but mutually supporting missions, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor, and the other is the characterization spacecraft which will orbit the asteroid system to monitor the deflection experiment and measure the results. These two missions are the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), which is the kinetic impactor, and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, which is the characterization spacecraft. The target of the AIDA mission will be a binary asteroid, in which DART will target the secondary, smaller member in order to deflect the binary orbit. The resulting period change can be measured to within 10% by ground-based observations. The asteroid deflection will be measured to higher accuracy, and additional results of the DART impact, like the impact crater, will be studied in great detail by the AIM mission. AIDA will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact and key physical properties of the target asteroid. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable, but when combined they provide a greatly increased knowledge return. The AIDA mission will combine US and European space experience and expertise to address an international problem, the asteroid impact hazard. AIDA will also be a valuable precursor to human spaceflight to an asteroid, as it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength and internal structure and would be particularly relevant to a human mission for asteroid mitigation. AIDA will furthermore return fundamental new science data on impact cratering, surface properties and interior structure. AIDA will target the binary Near-Earth asteroid Didymos with two independently launched spacecraft, with the deflection experiment to occur in October, 2022.

  6. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should consider the distances at which impacts occur in the vicinity of the forest ecosystem, and these considerations should include the impacts on forest vegetation and bird species. Impacts can be mitigated by considering the distances at which these influences occur. In particular, this paper presents an integrated environmental impact assessment system to be applied in the SEIA process. The integrated assessment system permits the assessment of the cumulative impacts of land development on multiple scales. -- Highlights: • The model is to assess the impact of forest fragmentation across multiple scales. • The paper suggests the type of forest fragmentation on a regional scale. • The type can be used to evaluate the location and size of a land development. • The paper shows the influence distance of land development on a local scale. • The distance can be used to mitigate the impact at an EIA process.

  7. Indicators for Monitoring Biodiversity: A Hierarchical Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REED F. NOSS

    1990-01-01

    Abstract: Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. It has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real-world regulatoy and managernentproblems. This problem can be corrected ifbio- diversity is recognized as an end in itsea and if measurable indicators can be selected to assess the status of biodiversity over time. Biodiversity, as

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW

    E-print Network

    or Candidate Species13 2.3 Impacts on Marine Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4 Coastal Zone Management the Council was considering its Salmon Bycatch Control Policy, Terra Marine Research and Education MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR GROUNDFISH OF THE GULF OF ALASKA NMFS AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTION OF SALMON BYCATCH

  9. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN THE KOREAN HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANG DON LEE

    2005-01-01

    Biological diversity (biodiversity) is an essential issue in conservation and environmental impact assessment (EIA). Though Korea is relatively small, the country harbours over 29,800 species, making biodiversity and ecosystem conservation a central issue when an EIA is undertaken during development site selection. Indeed, an unfavourable biodiversity evaluation can halt a proposed or in-progress development, creating a societal conflict between conservationists

  10. Novel strategies for assessing and managing the risks posed by invasive alien species to global crop production and biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD BAKER; RAY CANNON; PAUL BARTLETT; IAN BARKER

    2005-01-01

    Summary International actions to combat the threat posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to crops and biodiversity have intensifi ed in recent years. The formulation of 15 guiding principles on IAS by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) stimulated the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) to review its role in protecting biodiversity. IPPC standards now demonstrate clearly that the risks

  11. Highly Diverse, Poorly Studied and Uniquely Threatened by Climate Change: An Assessment of Marine Biodiversity on South Georgia's Continental Shelf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver T. Hogg; David K. A. Barnes; Huw J. Griffiths; Simon Thrush

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet.Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports,

  12. Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurance, William F.

    Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

  13. Impacts of Land Use on Habitat Functions of Old-Growth Forests and their Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothea Frank; Manfred Finckh; Christian Wirth

    \\u000a Based on a literature review we analysed the influence of historic and contemporary human impacts on the habitat function\\u000a of old-growth forests in the boreal, the tropics and in selected temperate regions. Old-growth and late-successional forests\\u000a are of singular relevance for many specialised plant and animal species. These forests possess complex structures. They exhibit\\u000a spatiotemporal stability and environmental continuity on

  14. Biodiversity of Collembola in urban soils and the use of Folsomia candida to assess soil 'quality'.

    PubMed

    Fountain, M T; Hopkin, S P

    2004-08-01

    The effects of metal contamination on natural populations of Collembola in soils from five sites in the Wolverhampton area (West Midlands, England) were examined. Analysis revealed that metal concentrations were elevated above background levels at all sites. One location in particular (Ladymoor, a former smelting site) was highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at more than 20 times background levels. Biodiversity indices (Shannon-Weiner, Simpson index, Margalef index, alpha index, species richness, Shaneven (evenness) and Berger-Parker dominance) were calculated. Of these indices, estimates of species richness and evenness were most effective at highlighting the differences between the Collembola communities. Indeed, the highest number of species were found at the most contaminated site, although the Collembola population also had a comparatively low evenness value, with just two species dominating. The number of individuals per species were allocated into geometric classes and plotted against the cumulative number of species as a percentage. At Ladymoor, there were more geometric classes, and the slope of the line was shallower than at the other four sites. This characteristic is a feature of polluted sites, where a few species are dominant and most species are rare. The Ladymoor soil also had a dominance of Isotomurus palustris, and was the only site in which Ceratophysella denticulata was found. Previous studies have shown that these two species are often found in sites subject to high metal contamination. Survival and reproduction of the "standard" test springtail, Folsomia candida (Willem), were determined in a 4 week exposure test to soils from all five sites. Mortality was significantly increased in adults and reproduction significantly lower in the Ladymoor soil in comparison to the other four sites. This study has shown that severe metal contamination can be related to the population structure of Collembola in the field, and performance of F. candida (in soils from such sites) in the laboratory. PMID:15526861

  15. Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region

    SciTech Connect

    Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se

    2007-07-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

  16. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    PubMed

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches. PMID:22956430

  17. Towards complete biodiversity assessment: an evaluation of the subterranean bacterial communities in the Oklo region of the sole surviving natural nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Crozier; P.-M. Agapow; K. Pedersen

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater bacterial rRNA sequences extracted from the natural nuclear reactor region of Gabon are used to demonstrate the application of phylogenetic methods to biodiversity assessment. Clones were provisionally placed in `genera' using either the genus of the closest named EMBL entry, or by grouping clones at least 97.5% identical. The community is small, with 24 putative genera under the `closest-match'

  18. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process. PMID:23279784

  19. Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Privacy Impact Assessment Chandra Digest Request I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: Chandra EPO Digest (http://chandra.harvard.edu/chronicle/news_priv.html) 2. IT System Sponsor: Van Mc digest. 4. With whom the information will be shared. #12;Only the providers of the material (certain CXC

  20. Privacy Impact Assessment OFEO Smithsonian Parking

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Privacy Impact Assessment OFEO Smithsonian Parking I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: Smithsonian Parking System 2. System Sponsor Unit: OFEO Office of Protection Services (OPS) Parking Office 3 Parking Office 5. IT System Manager: Michelle T. Gooch, Manager, OCIO FMS Systems Manager 6. PIA Author

  1. Assessing state-wide biodiversity in the Florida Gap analysis project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Pearlstine; S. E. Smith; L. A. Brandt; C. R. Allen; W. M. Kitchens; J. Stenberg

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Gap (Fl-Gap) project provides an assessment of the degree to which native animal species and natural communities are or are not represented in existing conservation lands. Those species and communities not adequately represented in areas being managed for native species constitute ‘gaps’ in the existing network of conservation lands. The United States Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program is

  2. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates in altitudinal lotic ecosystems of Serra do Cipó (MG, Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. GALDEAN; M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. BARBOSA

    2001-01-01

    Five lotic systems of Serra do Cipó, south-east Brazil, were investigated in order to assess the existing diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates, habitats-microhabitats, and the available trophic resources. For each river it was analysed the communities of benthic macroinvertebrates and the com- position of some taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera Chirono- midae): the community with Bivalvia Sphaeriidae, Oligochaeta and

  3. Scaling Disturbance Instead of Richness to Better Understand Anthropogenic Impacts on Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Stephen J.; Cahill, James F.; He, Fangliang; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    A primary impediment to understanding how species diversity and anthropogenic disturbance are related is that both diversity and disturbance can depend on the scales at which they are sampled. While the scale dependence of diversity estimation has received substantial attention, the scale dependence of disturbance estimation has been essentially overlooked. Here, we break from conventional examination of the diversity-disturbance relationship by holding the area over which species richness is estimated constant and instead manipulating the area over which human disturbance is measured. In the boreal forest ecoregion of Alberta, Canada, we test the dependence of species richness on disturbance scale, the scale-dependence of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and the consistency of these patterns in native versus exotic species and among human disturbance types. We related field observed species richness in 1 ha surveys of 372 boreal vascular plant communities to remotely sensed measures of human disturbance extent at two survey scales: local (1 ha) and landscape (18 km2). Supporting the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, species richness-disturbance relationships were quadratic at both local and landscape scales of disturbance measurement. This suggests the shape of richness-disturbance relationships is independent of the scale at which disturbance is assessed, despite that local diversity is influenced by disturbance at different scales by different mechanisms, such as direct removal of individuals (local) or indirect alteration of propagule supply (landscape). By contrast, predictions of species richness did depend on scale of disturbance measurement: with high local disturbance richness was double that under high landscape disturbance. PMID:25951058

  4. Life cycle assessment based evaluation of regional impacts from agricultural production at the Peruvian coast.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Karin; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-09-18

    Crop and technology choices in agriculture, which largely define the impact of agricultural production on the environment, should be considered in agricultural development planning. A life cycle assessment of the dominant crops produced in a Peruvian coastal valley was realized, in order to establish regionalized life cycle inventories for Peruvian products and to provide the basis for a regional evaluation of the impacts of eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and biodiversity loss due to water use. Five scenarios for the year 2020 characterized by different crop combinations and irrigation systems were considered as development options. The results of the regional assessment showed that a business-as-usual scenario, extrapolating current trends of crop cultivation, would lead to an increase in nitrate leaching with eutrophying effects. On the other hand, scenarios of increased application of drip irrigation and of mandarin area expansion would lead to a decrease in nitrate leaching. In all scenarios the human toxicity potential would decrease slightly, while an increase in irrigation water use would benefit the biodiversity of a nearby groundwater-fed wetland. Comparisons with results from other studies confirmed the importance of regionalized life cycle inventories. The results can be used as decision support for local farmers and authorities. PMID:22894858

  5. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 711723, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Glor, Rich

    Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 711­723, 2001. © 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed 2000 Abstract. Understanding the impact of agriculture on biodiversity is critical for effective to maintain the region's lizard diversity. Key words: agroecology, Anolis, biodiversity, Dominican Republic

  6. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the erosion of the sand beneath the bordering sandstone benches, resulting in overhangs. These structures are the most common in the western district of the Fontainebleau Massif. Ponds develop on the tightly silicified and impermeable sandstone pans that form the "platières". There are permanent ponds and temporary wet zones, formed of interconnected or isolated depressions. The origin of these ponds has to be questioned with regard to the landscape shaping. Their origin is directly bound to the hollowing of uncemented, sandy zones, within the sandstone pans forming the "platières". Erosion by runoff cannot be considered; the only way to hollow them out is by deflation processes. No direct dating of the Quaternary dune and loess deposits of the Fontainebleau Massif exists. Nevertheless, dating of paleopodzols interlayered between drift sands, pond deposits and bones within congelifracts allow relating these periglacial features with the end of the last glacial period. For now, there is no dating to assess what belongs to older glacial periods. Distribution of the aeolian patterns The Fontainebleau Massif displays noteworthy morphological diversities in the various districts of the forest. Some of these differentiations result from geological features, but most of them are related to erosion processes, and among them deflation processes leaved different imprints in the western and eastern districts of the Fontainebleau Massif. The topography played an important role controlling the aeolian processes. Deflation was important in the westerly upwind district. In the westerly front face, aeolian erosion was activated by turbulences around the topographic obstacles. The reliefs funneled the winds and gave rise to swirls that hollow the blowouts. This area displays the sharpest and more chiseled landforms of the massif. Moreover, the sandstone scarps at the edge of the "platières" are high and uncovered, with frequent overhangs. The collapsed sandstone blocks of the "chaos" are im

  7. Biodiversity Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiversity management is summarized for the global chickpea (Cicer arietinum) crop germplasm held in genebanks as ex situ collections. Morphological diversity is presented with the range of variation reported from the global collections. The largest collections are held at international agricult...

  8. Biodiversity hotspots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter V Reid

    1998-01-01

    Hotspots of biodiversity—areas particularly rich in species, rare species, threatened species, or some combination of these attributes—are increasingly being delineated to help set priorities for conservation. Only recently have we begun to test key assumptions that determine how useful a hotspot approach can be for conservation planning. The evidence suggests that although at large geographic scales hotspots do provide useful

  9. Biodiversity and stability in grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Tilman; John A. Downing

    1994-01-01

    ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been debated1-7, however, with many theoretical explorations2-6,8-11 but few field studies12-15. Here we describe a long-term study of grasslands16,17 which shows that primary productivity in more diverse plant communities is more resistant to, and recovers

  10. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  11. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  12. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  13. Impact damage assessment by using peridynamic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oterkus, Erkan; Guven, Ibrahim; Madenci, Erdogan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an application of peridynamic theory for predicting residual strength of impact damaged building components by considering a reinforced panel subjected to multiple load paths. The validity of the approach is established first by simulating a controlled experiment resulting in mixed-mode fracture of concrete. The agreement between the PD prediction and the experimentally observed behavior is remarkable especially considering the simple material model used for the concrete. Subsequently, the PD simulation concerns damage assessment and residual strength of a reinforced panel under compression after impact due to a rigid penetrator.

  14. Assessment of Helminth Biodiversity in Wild Rats Using 18S rDNA Based Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Isheng J.; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity. PMID:25340824

  15. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative homogeneity and labeling these areas using categories defined by the classification system. The variables were linked to the 1:100,000-scale streams of the National Hydrography Dataset of the USGS. Through discussions with Ohio aquatic experts, OH-GAP identified eight separate enduring physical features which, when combined, form the physical habitat type: * Shreve link (a measure of stream size) * Downstream Shreve link (a measure of stream connectivity and size) * Sinuosity * Gradient * Bedrock * Stream temperature * Character of glacial drift * Glacial-drift thickness Potential distribution models were developed for 130 fish, 70 bivalve, and 17 native crayfish species. These models are based on 5,686 fish, 4,469 crayfish, and 2,899 freshwater bivalve (mussels and clams) sampling locations, the variables describing the physical habitat types, and variables indicating the major drainage basins and Omernik's Level III ecoregion. All potential species distributions are displayed and analyzed at the 14-digit hydrologic unit (14-HUs), or subwatershed, level. Mainland Ohio contains 1,749 14-HUs. All statistics and conclusions, as well as spatial data, are discussed and presented in terms of these units. The Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis Project compiled a map of public and private conservation lands and OH-GAP classified the lands into four status categories (status 1 through status 4) by the degree of protection offered based on management practices. A status of 1 denotes the highest, most permanent level of maintenance, and status 4 represents the lowest level of biodiversity management, or unknown status. The results of this mapping show that only about 3.7 percent of the state's land (4.3 percent if lakes and reservoirs are also included) is protected for conservation, either publicly or privately. Of this total, state agencies control about 52 percent, and Federal agencies control about 29 percent. Conservation areas that presently protect

  16. Biodiversity Action Reporting System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Biodiversity Action Reporting System is "a web-based system that supports the planning, monitoring, and reporting requirements of national and local Biodiversity Action Plans (BAPs)". BAPs are used to plan the protection and sustainability of biodiversity in the four countries that make up the United Kingdom. The website has a members-only section, but it also contains a very extensive section open to non-members. The "Status & Trends" tab at the top of the page allows visitors to search the status or trend of "individual species" or "individual habitat". A visitor choosing to search by species will be taken to a page where the name of the plant or animal species can be typed in, or can be chosen from the link "Pick from A-Z list". The list gives the "Scientific Name" and "Common Name" to more easily find the animal or plant. Visitors will find that only the species and habitats that show data in "National Trends" and "National Status" are those that are deemed U.K. Priority Species and Habitats. The "Actions & Impacts" tab at the top of the page allows visitors to search for reports of "Threats to Biodiversity" and "Recorded Losses".

  17. AIDA: Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Galvez, A.; Reed, C.; Carnelli, I.; Abell, P.; Ulamec, S.; Rivkin, A.; Biele, J.; Murdoch, N.

    2015-03-01

    AIDA (Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment) is a project of a joint mission demonstration of asteroid deflection and characterisation of the kinetic impact effects. It involves the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (with support from members of NASA centers including Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and the European Space Agency (with support from members of the french CNRS/Cte dAzur Observatory and the german DLR). This assessment will be done using a binary asteroid target. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission concepts, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterisation spacecraft. The objective and status of the project will be presented.

  18. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  19. Biodiversity Survey - A Unit Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeb Schenck (Hot Springs County High School REV)

    1995-06-30

    The focus of the terrestrial biodiversity survey is to examine the impact of humans upon the environment. Through a series of investigations students develop their own hypothesis about human impact and then test this on a site not previously examined. Final analysis and discussion of the results allows the students to develop a theory about the impact of humans upon the biodiversity. Students also are introduced to experimental design, use of statistics to determine whether to accept or reject a hypothesis, and the significance of taxonomy. The activity is used to introduce students to biology in general and the significance of environmental studies.

  20. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  1. Secretarial Review Draft Environmental Assessment/ Regulatory Impact Review/ Initial Regulatory

    E-print Network

    Environmental Impact Statement ESA Endangered Species Act FFP Federal Fisheries Permit FMP fishery management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement RFA Regulatory Flexibility Act RFFA reasonably foreseeable futureSecretarial Review Draft Environmental Assessment/ Regulatory Impact Review/ Initial Regulatory

  2. SECRETARIAL REVIEW DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT / REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW /

    E-print Network

    essential fish habitat EIS Environmental Impact Statement ESA Endangered Species Act ESU endangered speciesSECRETARIAL REVIEW DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT / REGULATORY IMPACT REVIEW / INITIAL REGULATORY prohibited species catch PRA Paperwork Reduction Act PSEIS Programmatic Supplemental Environmental Impact

  3. Introducing Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-02-23

    In this lesson, biodiversity is introduced by having students identify and talk about what they know about the various habitats around them, including the amazing variety of life. Using online resources, they identify the basic components necessary for biodiversity, the critical and countless benefits of habitats, as well as the serious present and future threats to their ongoing existence. Students will learn that minor disruptions in a particular ecosystem tend to lead to changes that eventually restore the system. But large disturbances of living populations or their environments may result in irreversible changes. Maintaining diversity increases the likelihood that some varieties will have characteristics suitable to survival under changed conditions.This lecture is based on the two classification lessons, which are prerequisites for this lesson

  4. Biodiversity Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

  5. Enabling cyber situation awareness, impact assessment, and situation projection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lundy Lewis; Gabriel Jakobson; John Buford

    2008-01-01

    In the paper we focus on (i) an assessment of impact on missions or business processes resulting from cyber attacks and (ii) the subsequent projection of further possible attacks and corresponding impact assessments. A reference model for impact assessment and situation projection (IASP) is provided, based on which we propose a constraint satisfaction (CS) algorithmic approach for performing IASP. The

  6. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on... § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment...economic values based on the factors set forth in this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 true Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on... § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment...economic values based on the factors set forth in this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on... § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment...economic values based on the factors set forth in this subpart...

  9. Globally downscaled climate projections for assessing the conservation impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Karyn; Williams, John W

    2010-03-01

    Assessing the potential impacts of 21st-century climate change on species distributions and ecological processes requires climate scenarios with sufficient spatial resolution to represent the varying effects of climate change across heterogeneous physical, biological, and cultural landscapes. Unfortunately, the native resolutions of global climate models (usually approximately 2 degrees x 2 degrees or coarser) are inadequate for modeling future changes in, e.g., biodiversity, species distributions, crop yields, and water resources. Also, 21st-century climate projections must be debiased prior to use, i.e., corrected for systematic offsets between modeled representations and observations of present climates. We have downscaled future temperature and precipitation projections from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) CMIP3 multi-model data set to 10-minute resolution and debiased these simulations using the change-factor approach and observational data from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). These downscaled data sets are available online and include monthly mean temperatures and precipitation for 2041-2060 and 2081-2100, for 24 climate models and the A1B, A2, and B1 emission scenarios. This paper describes the downscaling method and compares the downscaled and native-resolution simulations. Sharp differences between the original and downscaled data sets are apparent at regional to continental scales, particularly for temperature in mountainous areas and in areas with substantial differences between observed and simulated 20th-century climatologies. Although these data sets in principle could be downscaled further, a key practical limitation is the density of observational networks, particularly for precipitation-related variables in tropical mountainous regions. These downscaled data sets can be used for a variety of climate-impact assessments, including assessments of 21st-century climate-change impacts on biodiversity and species distributions. PMID:20405806

  10. Assessing the regional impacts of increased energy maize cultivation on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karoline; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The increasing cultivation of energy crops in Germany substantially affects the habitat function of agricultural landscapes. Precise ex ante evaluations regarding the impacts of this cultivation on farmland bird populations are rare. The objective of this paper was to implement a methodology to assess the regional impacts of increasing energy maize cultivation on the habitat quality of agricultural lands for farmland birds. We selected five farmland bird indicator species with varying habitat demands. Using a crop suitability modelling approach, we analysed the availability of potential habitat areas according to different land use scenarios for a real landscape in Northeast Germany. The model was based on crop architecture, cultivation period, and landscape preconditions. Our results showed that the habitat suitability of different crops varied between bird species, and scenario calculations revealed an increase and a decrease in the size of the potential breeding and feeding habitats, respectively. The effects observed in scenario 1 (increased energy maize by 15%) were not reproduced in all cases in scenario 2 (increased energy maize by 30%). Spatial aggregation of energy maize resulted in a negative effect for some species. Changes in the composition of the farmland bird communities, the negative effects on farmland bird species limited in distribution and spread and the relevance of the type of agricultural land use being replaced by energy crops are also discussed. In conclusion, we suggest a trade-off between biodiversity and energy targets by identifying biodiversity-friendly energy cropping systems. PMID:24323319

  11. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized biodiversity data; (b) assisting countries potentially in need (for example mega-diverse) to mobilize resources and collect data that could be used in decision-making; and (c) allowing identification of which biodiversity informatics-resourced countries could afford to assist countries lacking in biodiversity informatics capacity, and which data-rich countries should benefit most from such help. PMID:22373233

  12. A First Assessment of Lichen Diversity for One of North America's ‘Biodiversity Hotspots’ in the Southern Appalachians of Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan P. Hodkinson

    2010-01-01

    Though the Appalachian Mountains of southwestern Virginia, USA, are known to represent a major 'hotspot' of biodiversity for North America, no significant survey of overall lichen diversity has been conducted in the region thus far. Presented here is a list of 221 distinct taxa of lichens, lichenicolous fungi, and 'lichen allies' collected during the 2008 Hugo L. Blomquist Bryological and

  13. Rapid assessment of invertebrate biodiversity on rocky shores: where there’s a whelk there’s a way

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. A. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The lack of species inventory data for most marine habitats currently hampers the objective management of marine biodiversity. There is thus a clear need to find reliable indicator taxa that can be targeted in marine conservation studies, providing cost-effective data for planning and monitoring. Using the rocky shores of the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia, as a model, I

  14. Climate change, plant migration, and range collapse in a global biodiversity hotspot: the Banksia (Proteaceae) of Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T THEW C. F ITZP; A ARON; D. G OVE; HAN J. S AN DE R S; ROBERT R. DUNN

    Climate change has already altered global patterns of biodiversity by modifying the geographic distributions of species. Forecasts based on bioclimatic envelop modeling of distributions of species suggests greater impacts can be expected in the future, but such projections are contingent on assumptions regarding future climate and migration rates of species. Here, we present a first assessment of the potential impact

  15. STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to create a strategy for the development of climate scenarios for use in impact assessment, potential techniques of development were reviewed and the information needs of potential users assessed. vailable techniques were assessed through literature reviews and consultat...

  16. Biodiversity of Australasian

    E-print Network

    Cranston, Peter S.

    Chapter 6 Biodiversity of Australasian insects Peter S. Cranston Department of Entomology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 USA Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society, 1st uch Australasian biodiversity, lacking the decimating effects of the predominantly northern hemisphere

  17. Environmental services of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1996-04-01

    Humans derive many utilitarian benefits from the environmental services of biotas and ecosystems. This is often advanced as a prime argument to support conservation of biodiversity. There is much to be said for this viewpoint, as is documented in this paper through a summary assessment of several categories of environmental services, including regulation of climate and biogeochemical cycles, hydrological functions, soil protection, crop pollination, pest control, recreation and ecotourism, and a number of miscellaneous services. It is shown that the services are indeed significant, whether in ecological or economic senses. Particularly important is the factor of ecosystem resilience, which appears to underpin many of the services. It should not be supposed, however, that environmental services stem necessarily and exclusively from biodiversity. While biodiversity often plays a key role, the services can also derive from biomass and other attributes of biotas. The paper concludes with a brief overview assessment of economic values at issue and an appraisal of the implications for conservation planning. PMID:11607645

  18. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  19. Assessing regional impacts and adaptation strategies for climate change: the Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Miles; Marketa M. Elsner; Jeremy S. Littell; Lara Whitely Binder; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

    2010-01-01

    Climate change in the twenty-first century will strongly affect the processes that define natural and human systems. The Washington\\u000a Climate Change Impacts Assessment (WACCIA) was intended to identify the nature and effects of climate change on natural and\\u000a human resources in Washington State over the next century. The assessment focused on eight sectors that were identified as\\u000a being potentially most

  20. Biodiversity Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

  1. Deforestation and biodiversity conservation in Mexico1 Vctor Snchez-Cordero1

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    Deforestation and biodiversity conservation in Mexico1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1180, USA. Abstract Deforestation is one of the main factors negatively affecting the conservation of biological diversity. We assess the impact of deforestation

  2. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  3. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Walpole, Matt; Collen, Ben; Van Strien, Arco; Scharlemann, Jorn P.W.; Almond, Rosamunde E.A.; Baillie, Jonathan E.M.; Bomhard, Bastian; Brown, Claire; Bruno, John; Carpenter, Kent E.; Carr, Genevieve M.; Chanson, Janice; Chenery, Anna M.; Csirke, Jorge; Davidson, Nick C.; Dentener, Frank; Foster, Matt; Galli, Alessandro; Galloway, James N.; Genovesi, Piero; Gregory, Richard D.; Hockings, Marc; Kapos, Valerie; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Leverington, Fiona; Loh, Jonathan; McGeoch, Melodie A.; McRae, Louise; Minasyan, Anahit; Morcillo, Monica Hernandez; Oldfield, Thomasina E.E.; Pauly, Daniel; Quader, Suhel; Revenga, Carmen; Sauer, John R.; Skolnik, Benjamin; Spear, Dian; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Stuart, Simon N.; Symes, Andy; Tierney, Megan; Tyrrell, Tristan D.; Vie, Jean-Christophe; Watson, Reg

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate change impacts) showed increases. Despite some local successes and increasing responses (including extent and biodiversity coverage of protected areas, sustainable forest management, policy responses to invasive alien species, and biodiversity-related aid), the rate of biodiversity loss does not appear to be slowing.

  4. Functional measures of stream impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more impacted sites. Overall, functional measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal impacts from less impacted sites.

  5. Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E. [USEPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

  6. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  7. Big moving day for biodiversity? A macroecological assessment of the scope for assisted colonization as a conservation strategy under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Lenoir, Jonathan; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-11-01

    Future climate change constitutes a major threat to Earth's biodiversity. If anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, 21st century climate change is likely to exceed the natural adaptive capacity of many natural ecosystems and a large proportion of species may risk extinction. A recurrent finding is that the degree of negative impact depends strongly on the dispersal potential of the species. However, there is a growing realization that many, if not most species would be unlikely to disperse as fast and far as required. As a consequence, it has been proposed that species at risk should be actively translocated into unoccupied, but environmentally suitable areas that are likely to stay suitable over the next 100 or more years (assisted colonization or assisted migration). This solution is controversial, though, reflecting negative experiences with introduced exotics and probably also the traditional emphasis in conservation management on preserving a certain local, often historical situation with a static species composition, and a tendency among ecologists to think of biological communities as generally saturated with species. Using the European flora as a case study, we here estimate the main environmental controls of plant species richness, assess how the maximum observed species richness depends on these environmental controls, and based here on estimate how many species could at least be added to an area before further species additions would perhaps inevitably lead to corresponding losses locally. Our results suggest that there is substantial room for additional plant species across most areas of Europe, indicating that there is considerable scope for implementing assisted colonization as a proactive conservation strategy under global warming without necessarily implicating negative effects on the native flora in the areas targeted for establishment of translocated populations. Notably, our results suggest that 50% of the cells in Northern Europe, the likely target area for many translocations, could harbor at least 1/3 as many additional species as they have native species. However, we also emphasize that other, more traditional conservation strategies should also be strengthened, notably providing more space for nature and reducing nitrogen deposition to increase population resilience and facilitate unassisted colonization. Furthermore, any implementation of assisted colonization should be done cautiously, with a careful analysis on a species-by-species case.

  8. Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Nutrient enrichment, biodiversity loss, and consequent declines in ecosystem productivity Forest in biodiversity, species compo- sition, and ecosystem functioning. It remains unknown whether such shifts in biodiversity and species composition may, them- selves, be major contributors to the total, long-term impacts

  9. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K., E-mail: rkm@geography.otago.ac.nz [Centre for Impact Assessment Research and Training, Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hart, Andrew [Centre for Impact Assessment Research and Training, Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Freeman, Claire, E-mail: cf@geography.otago.ac.nz [Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Coutts, Brian, E-mail: bcoutts@surveying.otago.ac.nz [School of Surveying, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew [Centre for Impact Assessment Research and Training, Department of Geography, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2012-01-15

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be reflected in the depth and length of such training; and any impact assessment training provided within a profession will often have the 'cultural' imprint of that profession.

  10. Assessing biodiversity of a freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate community through non-destructive environmental barcoding of DNA from preservative ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterizing biodiversity in a habitat or in targeted taxonomically or socioeconomically important groups remains a challenge. Standard DNA-based biodiversity identification tools such as DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are rapidly changing the landscape of biodiversity analysis by targeting various habitats and a wide array of organisms. However, effective use of these technological advances requires optimized protocols and benchmarking against traditional tools. Here we investigate the use of commonly used preservative ethanol as a non-destructive and inexpensive source of DNA for NGS biodiversity analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates. We used the preservative ethanol added to field collected organisms (live sorted bulk benthic samples) as a source of community DNA for NGS environmental barcoding. We directly compare this approach with a DNA barcode library generated using Sanger sequencing of all individuals separated from abenthic sample as well as with NGS environmental barcoding of DNA extracted from mixed/homogenized tissue specimens of the same benthic sample. We also evaluate a multiplex PCR strategy, as compared to commonly used single amplicon workflow, using three newly designed primer sets targeting a wide array of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. Results Our results indicate the effectiveness of ethanol-based DNA in providing sequence information from 87% of taxa identified individually from mixture as compared to 89% in conventional tissue extracted DNA. Missing taxa in both DNA sources were from species with the lowest abundance (e.g. 1 individual) in the benthic mixture. Interestingly, we achieved 100% detection for taxa represented with more than 1% individuals in the mixture in both sources of DNA. Our multiplex amplification regime increased the detection as compared to any single primer set indicating the usefulness of using multiple primer sets in initial amplification of target genes. Conclusions Although NGS approaches have significantly increased the potential of using DNA information in biodiversity analysis, robust methods are needed to provide reliable data and alleviate sample-processing bottlenecks. Here we coupled non-destructive DNA access and a multiplex PCR approach in NGS environmental barcoding for effective data generation from benthic live-sorted samples collected in bulk and preserved in ethanol. Our study provides a possible solution to sampling and vouchering challenges in using benthic samples through next-generation environmental barcoding and facilitates wider utility of DNA information, especially species-specific DNA barcodes, in ecological and environmental studies and real-world applications such as biomonitoring programs. PMID:23259585

  11. Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bunting, Gillian C.

    1998-01-01

    Biodiversity Bulletin No 1, from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre is now online and is entitled "Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics,"by Michael Green and others. The bulletin provides an assessment of "the extent to which habitats in the tropics are protected and guidance on prioritising conservation action from global and national perspectives."

  12. Application of Non-Human Biota Assessment Methodologies to the Assessment of Potential Impacts from a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.L.; Robinson, C.A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd, D5 Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ikonen, A.T.K. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has become increasingly more topical over the last few years as the intentions enshrined in international principles and agreements have become more binding through national and international law. For example, the Directive on impact of certain projects on the environment (EIA Directive 85/337/EEC) [CEC, 1985], amended in 1997 [CEC, 1997], places a mandatory requirement on all EU Member States to conduct environmental impact assessments for a range of project having potential impact on the environment, including radioactive waste disposal. Such assessments must consider humans, fauna and flora, the abiotic environment (soil, water, air), material assets and cultural heritage as well as the interactions between these factors. In Finland, Posiva Oy are responsible for the overall repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and, as such, are conducting the Safety Case Assessment for a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste. Within the European legislation framework, the Finnish regulatory body requires that the repository safety case assessment should include not only human radiological safety, but also an assessment of the potential impact upon populations of non-human biota. Specifically, the Safety Case should demonstrate that there will be: - no decline in the biodiversity of currently living populations; - no significant detriment to populations of fauna and flora; and, - no detrimental effects on individuals of domestic animals and rare plants and animals. At present, there are no internationally agreed criteria that explicitly address protection of the environment from ionising radiation. However, over recent years a number of assessment methodologies have been developed including, at a European level, the Framework for the Assessment of Environmental impact (FASSET) and Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants (ERICA). The International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) have also proposed an approach to allow for assessments of potential impacts on non-human species, in its report in 2003. This approach is based on the development and use of a small set of reference animals and plants, with their associated dose models and data sets. Such approaches are broadly applicable to the Posiva Safety Case. However, the specific biota of concern and the current climatic conditions within Finland present an additional challenge to the assessment. The assessment methods most applicable to the Posiva Safety Case have therefore been reviewed in consideration of the regulatory requirements for the assessment and recommendations made on a suitable assessment approach. This has been applied within a test case and adaptations to the overall assessment method have been made to enable both population and individual impacts to be assessed where necessary. The test case has been undertaken to demonstrate the application of the recommended methodology, but also to identify data gaps, uncertainties and other specific issues associated with the application of an assessment method within the regulatory context. (authors)

  13. Valuing Indigenous Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Krausse; Robert R. Alexander

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of an individual’s knowledge of biodiversity on the nature of his or her preferences for its preservation. Previous research suggests that individuals have a limited understanding of the concept of biodiversity and that some may be unwilling to trade-off changes in biodiversity against income. We hypothesize that the way in which individuals understand biodiversity is

  14. Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

    1997-01-01

    1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

  15. Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities T. M. Brooks,1,2,3 * R. A. Mittermeier,1 G. A. B. da. Rodrigues5 The location of and threats to biodiversity are distributed unevenly, so prioritization is essential to minimize biodiversity loss. To address this need, biodiversity conservation organizations have

  16. Scientists on Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  18. Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2010-09-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.

  19. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

  20. SPECIAL FEATURE Determinants of Biodiversity Change: Ecological Tools

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    SPECIAL FEATURE Determinants of Biodiversity Change: Ecological Tools for Building Scenarios1 As defined in the recent Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), biodiversity scenarios are ``plausible alternative futures.'' They do not attempt to predict the precise future state of biodiversity, but rather

  1. BIODIVERSITY Range size, taxon age and hotspots of

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Nathan

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Range size, taxon age and hotspots of neoendemism in the California flora on the assessment of biodiversity have become increasingly important to conservation efforts in recent years (Erwin-scale biodiversity conservation plans must strike a balance between a focus on patterns of current-day diversity (the

  2. Assessing health impact assessment: multidisciplinary and international perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Northridge, M; Gruskin, S; Quinn, M; Kriebel, D; Davey, S; Bassett, M; Rehkopf, D; Miller, C

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) seeks to expand evaluation of policy and programmes in all sectors, both private and public, to include their impact on population health. While the idea that the public's health is affected by a broad array of social and economic policies is not new and dates back well over two centuries, what is new is the notion—increasingly adopted by major health institutions, such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Kingdom National Health Services (NHS)—that health should be an explicit consideration when evaluating all public policies. In this article, it is argued that while HIA has the potential to enhance recognition of societal determinants of health and of intersectoral responsibility for health, its pitfalls warrant critical attention. Greater clarity is required regarding criteria for initiating, conducting, and completing HIA, including rules pertaining to decision making, enforcement, compliance, plus paying for their conduct. Critical debate over the promise, process, and pitfalls of HIA needs to be informed by multiple disciplines and perspectives from diverse people and regions of the world. PMID:12933768

  3. Catalysis-by-design impacts assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L L; Young, J K [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Sen, R K [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (USA)

    1991-05-01

    Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In assessing the potential impacts of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will impact both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term impacts will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment of the proposed dumping and possible alternative methods of disposal or recycling will be made based on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in this...

  5. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity Turtle Biodiversity and Conservation

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity Turtle Biodiversity and Conservation Joseph C. Mitchell, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,Washington, D.C. T urtles are freshwater, marine, and terrestrial

  6. Remote sensing for hurricane Andrew impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center personnel flew a Learjet equipped with instrumentation designed to acquire imagery in many spectral bands into areas most damaged by Hurricane Andrew. The calibrated airborne multispectral scanner (CAMS), a NASA-developed sensor, and a Zeiss camera acquired images of these areas. The information derived from the imagery was used to assist Florida officials in assessing the devastation caused by the hurricane. The imagery provided the relief teams with an assessment of the debris covering roads and highways so cleanup plans could be prioritized. The imagery also mapped the level of damage in residential and commercial areas of southern Florida and provided maps of beaches and land cover for determination of beach loss and vegetation damage, particularly the mangrove population. Stennis Space Center personnel demonstrated the ability to respond quickly and the value of such response in an emergency situation. The digital imagery from the CAMS can be processed, analyzed, and developed into products for field crews faster than conventional photography. The resulting information is versatile and allows for rapid updating and editing. Stennis Space Center and state officials worked diligently to compile information to complete analyses of the hurricane's impact.

  7. Molecular and morphological assessment of Delma australis Kluge (Squamata: Pygopodidae), with a description of a new species from the biodiversity 'hotspot' of southwestern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maryan, Brad; Brennan, Ian G; Adams, Mark; Aplin, Ken P

    2015-01-01

    The Australian pygopodid lizard genus Delma is characterised by morphologically conservative but genetically divergent lineages and species. An initial assessment of molecular and morphological variation in Delma australis Kluge, 1974 throughout its main distribution in Western and South Australia reveals at least two undescribed species that are presently included under this epithet. Here we describe the most distinctive and easily diagnosed taxon of these, D. hebesa sp. nov., from the proteaceous scrub and mallee heath on the south coast sandplains of southwestern Western Australia. We also foreshadow the need for an expanded genetic framework to assist in unequivocally diagnosing additional candidate species in D. australis, which is redescribed herein and shown to be monophyletic for those specimens sampled, albeit displaying geographic variation in a range of molecular and morphological characters. Delma hebesa sp. nov. differs from all other described Delma species, including regional populations of D. australis, by a combination of molecular genetic markers, colouration and scalation. Based on phylogenetic affinities and shared morphologies, a D. australis species-group is proposed to accommodate D. australis, D. torquata and the new species described herein. The addition of another new vertebrate species from southwestern Western Australia, recognised globally as a biodiversity 'hotspot', underlines our lack of understanding of genetic diversity and evolutionary histories in this biodiverse region. PMID:25947694

  8. Visual impact assessment: A neglected component of environmental impact statements in Ireland?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paddy Prendergast; Krysia Rybaczuk

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an analysis of Visual Impact Assessments (VIA) within a sample of Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) in Ireland. The standard of VIA conducted within the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process for three categories of development; piggeries, quarries and urban developments between 1997 and 1999 are evaluated. The extent to which VIA have complied with the

  9. biodiversity over the past two decades, but, except for a few flagship species, detailed

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    biodiversity over the past two decades, but, except for a few flagship species, detailed studies disturbance from increased navigation are also likely to negatively impact the riverine biodiversity. To alleviate these problems and conserve biodiversity, establishing nature reserves in biodiversity hotspots

  10. Terrestrial vertebrate fauna surveys for the preparation of environmental impact assessments; how can we do it better? A Western Australian example

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Graham G. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup Dr., Joondalup, Western Australia 6010 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.thompson@ecu.edu.au

    2007-01-15

    The Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) in 2002 released Position Statement, No. 3, Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of Biodiversity Protection outlining how terrestrial fauna survey data are to be used and interpreted in the preparation of environmental impact assessments (EIA). In 2004, the EPA released its Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors, Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, No. 56. This paper briefly assesses the adequacy of recent terrestrial fauna surveys undertaken to support publicly released EIAs and indicates that the EPA is not always adhering to its own position and guidance statements. This paper argues that the current fauna survey guidelines are in need of improvement. The approach and requirements of some other Australian states are briefly assessed to identify similarities and where improvements can be made to the Western Australian (WA) guidelines. This paper concludes with suggestions on how the process and the guidelines in WA can be revised to more adequately assess the impact of developments on terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function. These suggestions may have relevance for other areas where fauna surveys are undertaken to support EIAs.

  11. A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Snyder, C.D.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability.

  12. Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of a sunshade SRM intervention on a world with 4 times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We employ a number of new methods to analyse these results, looking at: the regional responses, global aggregation of ‘recipients’ of climate impacts and classifying ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2010]. We find that the precipitation impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions, with most regions drying but with others becoming wetter with increased levels of SRM. We show that the ‘optimal’ level of SRM for each region would differ, for example in our simulations the USA becomes drier at higher levels of SRM, with pre-industrial precipitation conditions restored at ~50% SRM, whereas Australia starts much drier at 4xCO2 and gets wetter with increasing SRM, returning to pre-industrial precipitation conditions at 100% SRM. ‘Novel’ precipitation conditions, such as the drier-than-pre-industrial conditions in the USA, are experienced across a large fraction of the Earth for all but the lowest levels of SRM, whereas ‘novel’ (cooler) temperature conditions only occur at the highest levels of geoengineering in tropical regions [Govindasamy et al., 2003]. This work shows that the impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions and that a large fraction of the world would have to contend with a regional climate that is ‘novel’ in some way, i.e. with more extreme changes than due to global warming alone. However, we find that it may be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple mitigation targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2009]. The HadCM3L simulations carried out for this work include a pre-industrial control, a simulation with 4xCO2, and 10 simulations with 4xCO2 and different levels of SRM geoengineering ranging from 10% to 100% of a full intervention sufficient to cool the climate to pre-industrial average surface air temperature. Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell (2000), Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, 408(6809), 184-187. Govindasamy, B., K. Caldeira, and P. B. Duffy (2003), Geoengineering Earth's radiation balance to mitigate climate change from a quadrupling of CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 37(1-2), 157-168. Irvine, P. J., D. J. Lunt, E. J. Stone, and A. Ridgwell (2009), The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world, Environmental Research Letters, 4(4). Irvine, P., A. Ridgwell, and D. Lunt (2010), Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering Impacts, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL044447, in press

  13. Biodiversity monitoring the missing ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamaljit S. Bawa; Shaity Menon

    1997-01-01

    With mounting losses in biological diversity, inventorying and monitoring of biodiversity to assess the magnitude and rate of losses are emerging as dominant themes in conservation biology. Inventorying has been defined as the surveying, sorting, cataloging, quantifying and mapping of entities ranging from genes to landscapes1 and monitoring has been defined as the surveillance of the compliance with or deviation

  14. Redesigning biodiversity conservation projects for climate change: examples from the field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. PoianiRebecca; Rebecca L. Goldman; Jennifer Hobson; Jonathan M. Hoekstra; Kara S. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Few conservation projects consider climate impacts or have a process for developing adaptation strategies. To advance climate\\u000a adaptation for biodiversity conservation, we tested a step-by-step approach to developing adaptation strategies with 20 projects\\u000a from diverse geographies. Project teams assessed likely climate impacts using historical climate data, future climate predictions,\\u000a expert input, and scientific literature. They then developed adaptation strategies that

  15. Biodiversity and industry ecosystem management

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, W.G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Biodiversity describes the array of interacting, genetically distinct populations and species in a region, the communities they are functioning parts. Ecosystem health is a process identifying biological indicators, end points, and values. The decline of populations or species, an accelerating trend worldwide, can lead to simplification of ecosystem processes, thus threatening the stability an sustainability of ecosystem services directly relevant to human welfare in the chain of economic and ecological relationships. The challenge of addressing issues of such enormous scope and complexity has highlighted the limitations of ecology-as-science. Additionally, biosphere-scale conflicts seem to lie beyond the scope of conventional economics, leading to differences of opinion about the commodity value of biodiversity and of the services that intact ecosystems provide. In the fact of these uncertainties, many scientists and economists have adopted principles that clearly assign burdens of proof to those who would promote the loss of biodiversity and that also establish {open_quotes}near-trump{close_quotes} (preeminent) status for ecological integrity. Electric utility facilities and operations impact biodiversity whenever construction, operation, or maintenance of generation, delivery, and support facilities alters landscapes and habitats and thereby impacts species. Although industry is accustomed to dealing with broad environmental concerns (such as global warming or acid rain), the biodiversity issue invokes hemisphere-side, regional, local, and site-specific concerns all at the same time. Industry can proactively address these issues of scope and scale in two main ways: first, by aligning strategically with the broad research agenda put forth by informed scientists and institutions; and second, by supporting focused management processes whose results will contribute incrementally to the broader agenda of rebuilding or maintaining biodiversity. 40 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Economic Impact Assessment: Laser and Fiberoptic Power and

    E-print Network

    00-3 Planning Report Economic Impact Assessment: NIST-EEEL Laser and Fiberoptic Power Office Strategic Planning and Economic Analysis Group August 2000 U.S Department of Commerce Technology Administration #12;FINAL REPORT ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: NIST-EEEL LASER AND FIBEROPTIC POWER AND ENERGY

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF THE JFK GROUND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF THE JFK GROUND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Steven Stroiney and Benjamin Levy, Saab and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Abstract The Ground Management Program and after departure metering was initiated at JFK, to assess its impacts. The results show that airport

  18. 76 FR 19110 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of...and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between May 3, 2010 and January 7...Impact Assessments are available on the DHS Web site until June 6, 2011, after which...

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment of Carbon Capture & Storage in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris Koornneef; Wim Turkenburg

    This paper provides a concise insight into the application of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures for future Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. Main environmental impacts allocated to the three parts of a CCS chain (capture of CO2 from power plants, transport through pipelines and onshore geological storage) are identified by reviewing analogue EIA's. Furthermore, bottlenecks regarding the assessment of

  20. The future of human rights impact assessments of trade agreements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Walker

    2009-01-01

    The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken into account when negotiating trade agreements. The thesis sets out the various ways

  1. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  2. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Wilkinson; G. P. Brumburgh; T. A. Edmunds; D. Kay

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton`s Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety

  3. a Unified Approach to Environmental Noise Impact Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Man-Ming Lee

    1978-01-01

    Current methods employed in ambient noise survey, forecast of future noise condition, and impact evaluation are often inadequate and incompatible with the accuracy requirements of environmental noise impact assessment criterion. A review of noise regulations and of the state-of-the-art in noise survey, prediction, and impact evaluation methodologies is conducted. Optimal network designs for regional point, areal mean, and areal mean

  4. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  5. Comparative assessment of transport risks — how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tord Kjellstrom; Lorrae van Kerkhoff; Gabriele Bammer; Tony McMichael

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy- makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as

  6. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K., E-mail: rkm@geography.otago.ac.n

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  7. Mapping Biodiversity Geoffrey C. Bowker

    E-print Network

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.

    1 Mapping Biodiversity Geoffrey C. Bowker Department of Communication University of California, San Diego. Keywords: Biodiversity, GIS, Information Integration; Scientific Communication Acknowledgements in biodiversity and thus to problems of adopting GIS for producing maps of biodiversity. To the contrary

  8. Asteroid Impact Tsunami: A Probabilistic Hazard Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven N. Ward; Erik Asphaug

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the generation, propagation, and probabilistic hazard of tsunami spawned by oceanic asteroid impacts. The process first links the depth and diameter of parabolic impact cavities to asteroid density, radius, and impact velocity by means of elementary energy arguments and crater scaling rules. Then, linear tsunami theory illustrates how these transient cavities evolve into vertical sea surface waveforms at

  9. Including the introduction of exotic species in life cycle impact assessment: the case of inland shipping.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Leuven, Rob S E W; Sommerwerk, Nike; Tockner, Klement; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-12-17

    While the ecological impact of anthropogenically introduced exotic species is considered a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystems functioning, it is generally not accounted for in the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of products. In this article, we propose a framework that includes exotic species introduction in an LCA context. We derived characterization factors for exotic fish species introduction related to the transport of goods across the Rhine-Main-Danube canal. These characterization factors are expressed as the potentially disappeared fraction (PDF) of native freshwater fish species in the rivers Rhine and Danube integrated over space and time per amount of goods transported (PDF·m(3)·yr·kg(-1)). Furthermore, we quantified the relative importance of exotic fish species introduction compared to other anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater environment (i.e., eutrophication, ecotoxicity, greenhouse gases, and water consumption) for transport of goods through the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway. We found that the introduction of exotic fish species contributed to 70-85% of the total freshwater ecosystem impact, depending on the distance that goods were transported. Our analysis showed that it is relevant and feasible to include the introduction of exotic species in an LCA framework. The proposed framework can be further extended by including the impacts of other exotic species groups, types of water bodies and pathways for introduction. PMID:24251685

  10. Children Prioritize Virtual Exotic Biodiversity over Local Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1) a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2) an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords) was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect “virtual” (unseen, exotic) rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity. PMID:21829710

  11. The Impact of Assessment Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the impact of assessment tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic assessment tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using assessment tasks. The main…

  12. Characterization of Biodiversity Lead Authors

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    2 Characterization of Biodiversity FA. BISBY Lead Authors: F.A. Bisby and J. Coddington (Chapter 2 to the characterization of biodiversity 27 2.0.1 What is biodiversity? 27 2.0.2 What components of biodiversity are to be characterized? 27 2.0.3 What is meant by characterizing biodiversity? 27 2.1 Biodiversity from a taxonomic

  13. Calculating a Biodiversity Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

  14. BIODIVERSITY Danielle Sinnett

    E-print Network

    MAXIMISING BIODIVERSITY Danielle Sinnett BPG NOTE 9 Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration Introduction Biodiversity refers to the biological diversity of an area and can be defined as `the variety of biodiversity is widely publicised, but is often thought of in terms of very specific and vulnerable areas

  15. Suggested Readings on Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference list has more than 25 books on biodiversity. For each title, the book's author, publisher, and publication date are given. The diverse list includes broad introductions to biodiversity, insightful looks at evolution and extinction, examinations of the partnership between insects and flowers, portraits of vanishing species and explorations of the factors contributing to a global biodiversity crisis.

  16. Dimensions of Biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    Dimensions of Biodiversity National Science Foundation Fiscal Year 2010 ­ 2011 Projects #12;Blank, assisted in the development and implementation of the Dimensions of Biodiversity competitions that resulted in the projects described herein. The Dimensions of Biodiversity investigators are thanked and congratulated

  17. Biodiversity and Conservation Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

  18. Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    Centre for Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology No one knows how many species live in the sea Biodiversity & Biotechnology. The CMBB was established in 1999 to tackle the challenges of understanding marine biodiversity, unlock the biotechnological potential of marine organisms and understand how marine life can cope

  19. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

  20. A Multidisciplinary multi-scale framework for assessing vulnerability to global change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARC J. METZGER; RIK LEEMANS; D. Schöter

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems provide a number of vital services for people and society, e.g. biodiversity, food, fibre, water resources, carbon sequestration, and recreation. The future capability of ecosystems to provide these services is determined by changes in socio-economic characteristics, land use, biodiversity, atmospheric composition and climate. Most published impact assessments do not address the vulnerability of ecosystems and ecosystem services under

  1. IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MEASUREMENT PROGRAM (IAM)-(SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Impact Assessment and Measurement (IAM) program focuses on the research, development and application of environmental impact assessment and progress measurement for environmental decision making. Current projects include development of impact assessment methodologies, tools, ...

  2. Assessing impacts of roads: Application of a standard assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts of network impacts on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...

  3. Biodiversity: Everything Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This overview of biodiversity allows students to explore a tree of life cladogram, learn facts about different species, and explore biodiversity and efforts to save species in the Bahamas, Australia, and Madagascar. There are sections to explore the benefits of biodiversity, such as: providing our daily products and the ingredients in things we eat, stories about the Dzanga Sangha rain forest, explanations of extinction and its causes, and facts about species that thrive in the city. There are also biodiversity activities to do offline, such as drawing a monarch butterfly and feeding birds, and a biodiversity quiz.

  4. Health impact assessment needs in south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.

    2003-01-01

    A situation analysis was undertaken to assess impediments to health impact assessment (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were assessed on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329

  5. The Substantial First Impact of Bottom Fishing on Rare Biodiversity Hotspots: A Dilemma for Evidence-Based Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert; Fariñas-Franco, Jose M.; Gell, Fiona R.; Holt, Rohan H. F.; Holt, Terry; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S.; Seed, Ray; Skates, Lucie R.; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanderson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.). One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90%) or scallop dredge (59%), as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids) were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a ‘priority habitat’ the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive) as well as indicators of ‘Good Environmental Status’ under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management. PMID:23967063

  6. Some common shortcomings in the treatment of impacts of linear infrastructures on natural habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA), University of Trento, Via Mesiano, 77, 38100 Trento (Italy)]. E-mail: davide.geneletti@ing.unitn.it

    2006-04-15

    This paper aims at presenting and discussing some of the main shortcomings that affect the assessment of impacts on biodiversity in current Environmental Impact Assessment practice. In particular, the analysis focuses on one specific type of projects, linear infrastructures, and on one specific aspect of biodiversity, natural habitats. The review highlighted a number of limitations, affecting the baseline study, as well as the impact prediction and the impact assessment stages. Among the most critical shortcomings are the delimitation of the study area on a non-ecological basis, the lack of measurable indicators and quantitative predictions, and the fact that the assessment of the impact relevance, if carried out at all, is unclear and poorly structured. The results of this piece of research reaffirm the need for further research in the field of biodiversity and ecological impact assessment.

  7. Present patterns and future prospects for biodiversity in the Western Hemisphere

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    LETTER Present patterns and future prospects for biodiversity in the Western Hemisphere Sandy J rich in biodiversity from the adverse impacts of anthropogenic change is a critical and urgent task. We where conservation investments may have the greatest impact in preventing biodiversity losses. Keywords

  8. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  9. AQUARIUS RADIOMETER RFI DETECTION, MITIGATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Ruf, Christopher

    AQUARIUS RADIOMETER RFI DETECTION, MITIGATION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Christopher Ruf1 , David Chen1 Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation algorithms used by the Aquarius microwave radiometer algorithm, which removes samples with detected RFI from subsequent averaging. The mitigation algorithm

  10. Impact of weather and climate scenarios on conservation assessment outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews selected watershed studies of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) and interprets findings from the perspective of potential climate change impacts on conservation outcomes. Primary foci are runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, watershed sediment yield, and asso...

  11. Integrating Fuzzy Logic, Optimization, and GIS for Ecological Impact Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Juárez, Lourdes; Cruz-Bello, Gustavo

    2002-09-01

    Appraisal of ecological impacts has been problematic because of the behavior of ecological system and the responses of these systems to human intervention are far from fully understood. While it has been relatively easy to itemize the potential ecological impacts, it has been difficult to arrive at accurate predictions of how these impacts affect populations, communities, or ecosystems. Furthermore, the spatial heterogeneity of ecological systems has been overlooked because its examination is practically impossible through matrix techniques, the most commonly used impact assessment approach. Besides, the public has become increasingly aware of the importance of the EIA in decision-making and thus the interpretation of impact significance is complicated further by the different value judgments of stakeholders. Moreover, impact assessments are carried out with a minimum of data, high uncertainty, and poor conceptual understanding. Hence, the evaluation of ecological impacts entails the integration of subjective and often conflicting judgments from a variety of experts and stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to present an environmental impact assessment approach based on the integration fuzzy logic, geographical information systems and optimization techniques. This approach enables environmental analysts to deal with the intrinsic imprecision and ambiguity associated with the judgments of experts and stakeholders, the description of ecological systems, and the prediction of ecological impacts. The application of this approach is illustrated through an example, which shows how consensus about impact mitigation can be attained within a conflict resolution framework.

  12. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into minimizing impacts of road networks on key ecosystem services.

  13. Projecting Land-Use Change and Its Consequences for Biodiversity in Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H.

    2010-03-01

    Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The model results indicated that only establishing a fixed percentage of forest was not efficient in conserving biodiversity. Measures aimed at the conservation of locations with high biodiversity values, limited fragmentation, and careful consideration of road expansion in pristine forest areas may be more efficient to achieve biodiversity conservation.

  14. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  15. APPENDIX 2 --ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT This document assesses the probable impacts on the human

    E-print Network

    APPENDIX 2 -- ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 1. SUMMARY This document assesses the probable impacts on the human environment of the alternatives contained in the draft Fourth Amendment of the Fishery Management to define overfishing will have no significant impacts on the human environment, on marine mammals

  16. Coffee and Biodiversity Conservation in El Salvador

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Natural History Museum (London) provides this Webpage, highlighting a three-year project funded by the UK Government's Darwin Initiative. The aim of this particular project is "to promote the conservation of biodiversity by providing the tools, training and information necessary to empower local people to monitor and assess the biodiversity of the forests associated with Shade Coffee farms in El Salvador." The site's main sections describe the Coffee and Biodiversity Conservation in El Salvador project, including economics of the project and a training course that offers basic biodiversity assessment skills to Salvadorans. Of interest to ecologists, the site also provides species lists for the trees and Pimplinae wasps of the Shade Forest (giving Family, scientific name, and local name). A selection of interesting links (featuring Central American sites) fills out this concise and well-illustrated site.

  17. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  18. Assessing the impact of environmental impact statements on citizens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Sullivan; Frances E. Kuo; Mona Prabhu

    1996-01-01

    While it is no secret that environmental impact statements (EISs) are often difficult for citizens to read and comprehend, on research has examined the actual understanding citizens gain from reading an EIS. We presented the project description portion of an EIS for flood control measures on the Hickory Creek in Joliet, Illinois to 113 Joliet citizens who read the materials

  19. A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    A Global Assessment of Salmon Aquaculture Impacts on Wild Salmonids Jennifer S. Ford* , Ransom A, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have

  20. Assessing the Impact Risk of Orbital Debris on Space Tethers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Anselmo; C. Pardini

    1999-01-01

    Tethers are being proposed for a growing number of space applications. However, they may be particularly vulnerable to orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. In order to provide useful reference data for tether systems design, detailed analytical and numerical computations were carried out to assess the average impact rate of artificial debris and meteoroids. The specific geometric properties of tethers as

  1. COMBINING CLIMATE MODEL PREDICTIONS, HYDROLOGICAL MODELING, AND ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING ALGORITHMS TO PREDICT THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this research will provide a broad taxonomic and regional assessment of the impacts of climate change on aquatic species in the United States by producing predictions of current and future habitat quality for aquatic taxa based on multiple climate change scen...

  2. Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by high productivity and represent spawning and nursery areas for several economically important species. In the long term, climate change is also a major threat. Finally, challenges in marine biodiversity studies are briefly discussed along with suggestions to strengthen the field. Since 2004, China has participated in the Census of Marine Life, through which advances in the study of zooplankton and zoobenthos biodiversity were finally summarized. PMID:23320065

  3. Interbasin water transfer, riverine connectivity, and spatial controls on fish biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Muthukumarasamy, Arunachalam; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in assessing impacts of IBWT projects and balancing ecosystem and societal demands for freshwater, even in cases where biodiversity data are limited.

  4. Global Biodiversity Information Facility: Biodiversity Data Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Biodiversity Data Portal website is hosted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, March 14, 2001), an international organization committed to providing "free and universal access to data regarding the world's diversity." As its name indicates, the Data Portal provides access to biodiversity information from around the world and allows site visitors to browse for taxonomic data organized by Kingdom of Life, country, or data providers. Visitors can search for specimen or field observation data by data providers as well. The site also contains a search engine with search options that include many different countries, scientific name, common name in any language, English name, and more. This website is available in French, English, and Danish. Note: Prior to viewing data, site visitors must first agree to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Interim Data Use Agreement.

  5. Identifying and assessing environmental impacts: investigating ISO 14001 approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lawrence; D. Andrews; B. Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Due to the similarities in structure ISO 14001 is often “sold” to companies on the back of the ISO 9000 quality systems standard. However, there is no ISO 9000 equivalent to the identification and assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. Based on practical experiences within a UK automotive supplier, this paper compares and contrasts two approaches for identifying and assessing

  6. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  7. 75 FR 51468 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    The Privacy Office of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is making available thirty-five Privacy Impact Assessments on various programs and systems in the Department. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between October 1, 2009 and May 31,...

  8. Assessing social impacts in urban waterfront regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Sairinen, Rauno [Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 9300, 02015 TKK (Finland)]. E-mail: Rauno.Sairinen@tkk.fi; Kumpulainen, Satu [Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 9300, 02015 TKK (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.kumpulainen@saunalahti.fi

    2006-01-15

    The target of this article is to identify the social impacts of urban waterfront regeneration. For this purpose, four different dimensions of social impacts in urban waterfront planning are presented: resources and identity, social status, access and activities and waterfront experience. The four social dimensions refer to the different ways of experiencing and using the edges of the sea, lake or river to make an understanding of their qualities to the community. The contents of this typology are illustrated by analysing some basic features of three different newly built waterfront areas in Helsinki. The article is based on post-evaluation.

  9. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Thomas F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St.Gallen (Switzerland)], E-mail: thomas.ruddy@empa.ch; Hilty, Lorenz M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St.Gallen (Switzerland)

    2008-02-15

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

  10. Global Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Will Turner (University of the Philippines; World Agroforestry Center)

    2007-11-01

    This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines conservation strategies to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services.Habitat destruction has driven much of the current biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans derive from functioning ecosystems. Securing both species and ecosystem services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial ecosystem service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.

  11. VTAC: virtual terrain assisted impact assessment for cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).

  12. Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Given the increased use of traditional medicines, possibilities that would ensure its successful integration into a public health framework should be explored. This paper discusses some of the links between biodiversity and traditional medicine, and addresses their implications to public health. We explore the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services to global and human health, the risks which human impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity present to human health and welfare. PMID:17376227

  13. Regional assessment of climate change impacts on coastal and fluvial ecosystems and the scope for adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Richards; M. Mokrech; P. M. Berry; R. J. Nicholls

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem changes in floodplains could be a major issue during the twenty-first century as designated habitat areas are affected\\u000a by climate change and floodplain management options. As part of the RegIS project, a Regional Impact Simulator has been developed\\u000a to investigate these potential changes. This paper presents the methodologies and results of biodiversity metamodels used\\u000a within the Regional Impact Simulator

  14. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Napier; B. L. Harper; D. L. Strenge; R. B. Spivey

    1996-01-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The

  15. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  16. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans. PMID:25382656

  17. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  18. Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

  19. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  20. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

  1. Why Preserve Biodiversity?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

  2. World Bank: Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Many people are familiar with the World Bank's work in the areas of international finance and economic development, but they may not be aware of their work in the area of biodiversity. The World Bank happens to be the world's largest financier of biodiversity, and their work includes supporting the sustainable use of biodiversity outside protected areas, eradication of alien species, and land conservation. First-time visitors may wish to start their journey through the site by clicking on the "What's New" area. Here they will find reports on biodiversity, the role of indigenous peoples in biodiversity conservation, and a review of the World Bank's conservation projects during the past twenty years. Another way to look through the materials on the site is by using the drop-down menus that read "Topic", "Country", and "Region/Income". Visitors can also read overview statements that cover the Bank's work on biodiversity and poverty, biosafety, and mountain ecosystems.

  3. Essential biodiversity variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  4. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Schut, Antonius G T; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W; Yates, Colin J; Keppel, Gunnar; Baran, Ireneusz; Franklin, Steven E; Hopper, Stephen D; Van Niel, Kimberley P; Mucina, Ladislav; Byrne, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and Red Green and Blue (RGB) imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa?=?0.8) and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2) of 0.8-0.9) allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented enables the integration of site-based biotic assessment with structural vegetation types for the rapid delineation and prioritization of key refugia. PMID:24416149

  5. Rapid Characterisation of Vegetation Structure to Predict Refugia and Climate Change Impacts across a Global Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Antonius G. T.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Yates, Colin J.; Keppel, Gunnar; Baran, Ireneusz; Franklin, Steven E.; Hopper, Stephen D.; Van Niel, Kimberley P.; Mucina, Ladislav; Byrne, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and Red Green and Blue (RGB) imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa?=?0.8) and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R2 of 0.8–0.9) allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented enables the integration of site-based biotic assessment with structural vegetation types for the rapid delineation and prioritization of key refugia. PMID:24416149

  6. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Nielsen, P H

    2001-04-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990 (EP(j)90) divided by the population. The weighting factor was determined as the normalization reference (ER(j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 based on Chinese political reduction plans, ER(j)T2000. This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation and generation of bulk waste, hazardous waste and slag and ashes. PMID:11590744

  7. An integrated approach to hydropower impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Rørslett

    1989-01-01

    The submerged aquatic vegetation of 17 Norwegian lakes is described and related to the environmental impacts that result from hydro-electric power (HEP) use of these lakes. Largely based upon physiognomical features, three main community types are discerned. These are denoted as (a) shallow-water, (b) mid-depth, and (c) deep-water community, respectively. The aquatic macrophytes are classified into a plant strategy framework.

  8. Methodology for energy solid waste impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Meier; D. Guenther

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for the environmental assessment of solid waste related to the coal fuel cycle. The methodology requires as its key input a county level siting and energy use file. Given also a database of coal characteristics, and the process characteristics of the coal utilizing technology, the model generates a detailed picture of residuals, including criteria pollutants,

  9. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. PMID:25552747

  10. Estimating biodiversity of dry forests and coral reefs with hyperspectral data: a NASA EPSCOR project at UPRM

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Estimating biodiversity of dry forests and coral reefs with hyperspectral data: a NASA EPSCOR and modelsensing and field data to assess and model components of ecosystem biodiversity · Utilize hyperspectral service in PR and PR department ofp Natural Resources #12;What is ecosystem biodiversity ?biodiversity ? D

  11. Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, Alex; Kopp, Robert E.; Shouse, Kate C.; Griffiths, Charles; Hodson, Elke L.; Kopits, Elizabeth; Mignone, Bryan K.; Moore, Chris; Newbold, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wolverton, Ann

    2013-04-01

    The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a monetized metric for evaluating the benefits associated with marginal reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. It represents the expected welfare loss from the future damages caused by the release of one tonne of CO2 in a given year, expressed in consumption equivalent terms. It is intended to be a comprehensive measure, taking into account changes in agricultural productivity, human health risks, loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity, and the frequency and severity of flooding and storms, among other possible impacts. Estimating the SCC requires long-term modeling of global economic activity, the climate system, and the linkages between the two through anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of changing climatic conditions on economic activity and human well-being. The United States government currently uses the SCC in regulatory benefit-cost analyses to assess the welfare effects of changes in CO2 emissions. Consistent application of the SCC to federal rulemaking analyses began in 2009-2010 with the development of a set of global SCC estimates that employed three prominent integrated assessment models (IAMs) -- DICE, FUND, and PAGE. The U.S. government report identified a number of limitations associated with SCC estimates in general and its own assumptions in particular: an incomplete treatment of damages, including potential “catastrophic” impacts; uncertainty regarding the extrapolation of damage functions to high temperatures; incomplete treatment of adaptation and technological change; and the evaluation of uncertain outcomes in a risk-neutral fashion. External experts have identified other potential issues, including how best to model long-term socio-economic and emissions pathways, oversimplified physical climate and carbon cycle modeling within the IAMs, and an inconsistency between non-constant economic growth scenarios and constant discount rates. The U.S. government has committed to updating the estimates regularly as modeling capabilities and scientific and economic knowledge improves. To help foster further improvements in estimating the SCC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy hosted a pair of workshops on “Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis.” The first focused on conceptual and methodological issues related to integrated assessment modeling and the second brought together natural and social scientists to explore methods for improving damage assessment for multiple sectors. These two workshops provide the basis for the 13 papers in this special issue.

  12. Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Agroecosystems

    E-print Network

    Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Agroecosystems A New Conservation Paradigm Ivette Perfectoa. This conclusion has major consequences for biodiversity con- servation in fragmented tropical forests the literature on biodiversity in tropical agricul- tural landscapes and present evidence that many tropical

  13. Why the Taralga Windfarm Environmental Impact Statement - Noise Impact Assessment is critically flawed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Miskelly

    This document aims to illustrate why the Noise Impact Assessment (NIA) provided in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Taralga Windfarm is flawed to the point that it has no real value. It will focus on the fact that the NIA has made an assumption which is only applicable a certain amount of the time. That assumption is that

  14. The quality of environmental impact statements and environmental impact assessment practice in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Zobaidul Kabir; Salim Momtaz

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the quality of environmental impact statements (EISs) and gives us an understanding about the performance of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice in Bangladesh. EIA has been formally practised in Bangladesh since 1995.However, no study has yet been conducted on the quality of EISs. This study fills this gap. This empirical study shows that the quality of EISs

  15. Utility of fuzzy cross-impact simulation in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, A. [Government Post Graduate Narmada Coll., Hoshangabad (India)] [Government Post Graduate Narmada Coll., Hoshangabad (India); Paliwal, R.; Rambabu, P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Inst., Nagpur (India)] [National Environmental Engineering Research Inst., Nagpur (India)

    1997-11-01

    Fuzzy cross-impact simulation is a qualitative technique, where interactions within a system are represented by a cross-impact matrix that includes linguistic elements. It can be used effectively to visualize dynamic evolution of a system. The utility of the fuzzy cross-impact simulation approach is: (1) in dealing with uncertainties in environment-development systems; (2) scoping cumulative effect assessment; and (3) integrating societal response structure in environment impact assessment. Use of the method is illustrated in a case concerning the textile industry in Indore, India. Consequences of policy alternatives for cleanup and pollution abatement are predicted in terms of environmental quality and quality of life, using the simulation model. The consequence analysis is used to arrive at preferred policy options.

  16. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

  17. Food-web constraints on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Thébault; Michel Loreau

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services have aroused considerable interest during the past decade. Recent work has focused mainly on the impact of species diversity within single trophic levels, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have usually showed increased plant biomass and productivity with increasing plant diversity. Changes in biodiversity, however, may affect ecosystem processes through

  18. Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Heemsbergen; M. P. Berg; M. Loreau; Hal van J. R; J. H. Faber; H. A. Verhoef

    2004-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity can have significant impacts on ecosystem functioning, but the mechanisms involved lack empirical confirmation. Using soil microcosms, we show experimentally that functional dissimilarity among detritivorous species, not species number, drives community compositional effects on leaf litter mass loss and soil respiration, two key soil ecosystem processes. These experiments confirm theoretical predictions that biodiversity effects on ecosystem

  19. Nontrophic Interactions, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Functioning: An Interaction Web Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Goudard; Michel Loreau

    2008-01-01

    Research into the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on the effects of species diversity on ecosystem properties in plant communities and, more recently, in food webs. Although there is growing recognition of the significance of nontrophic interactions in ecology, these interactions are still poorly studied theoretically, and their impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is largely

  20. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR FOUR GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second in a series of reports concerning the environmental assessments of effluent extraction, energy conversion, and waste disposal in geothermal systems. This study involves the subsurface environmental impact of the Imperial Valley and The Geysers, California; Klam...

  1. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  2. Student Teachers' Understanding of the Terminology, Distribution, and Loss of Biodiversity: Perspectives from a Biodiversity Hotspot and an Industrialized Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebelkorn, Florian; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    The loss of biodiversity is one of the most urgent global environmental problems of our time. Public education and awareness building is key to successful biodiversity protection. Knowledgeable and skilled student teachers are a key component for the successful implementation of biodiversity education in schools. Yet, little empirical evidence exists on teachers' detailed understanding of biodiversity. This study aimed to assess student teachers' conceptions of the terminology as well as their understanding of the distribution and loss of biodiversity. Data were collected from a qualitative in-depth interview study of student biology teachers from Costa Rica and Germany ( n = 24). Both verbal and visual methods were used to elicit responses. The results show that participants from both countries equated biodiversity with species diversity and had misconceptions about genetic diversity. Costa Rican student teachers seemed to have a more local perspective on biodiversity and unanimously described their local biodiversity as high, and under threat. In contrast, German teachers showed a more global view and were mostly uncertain about the level and threat status of local biodiversity. Prevailing associations explaining the global distribution and loss of biodiversity were heavily based on everyday assumptions, such as the presence/absence of humans, cities, and industries. Additionally, the transnational character of many of the socioeconomic drivers causing biodiversity loss was largely neglected. Although most participants were unfamiliar with the scientific concept of biodiversity hotspots, they implicitly used a naive biodiversity hotspots concept to explain the distribution and loss of global biodiversity. The results are discussed in terms of the educational implications.

  3. Assessing the Assessment Methods: Climate Change and Hydrologic Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, L. D.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Pruitt, T.; Arnold, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other water management agencies have an interest in developing reliable, science-based methods for incorporating climate change information into longer-term water resources planning. Such assessments must quantify projections of future climate and hydrology, typically relying on some form of spatial downscaling and bias correction to produce watershed-scale weather information that subsequently drives hydrology and other water resource management analyses (e.g., water demands, water quality, and environmental habitat). Water agencies continue to face challenging method decisions in these endeavors: (1) which downscaling method should be applied and at what resolution; (2) what observational dataset should be used to drive downscaling and hydrologic analysis; (3) what hydrologic model(s) should be used and how should these models be configured and calibrated? There is a critical need to understand the ramification of these method decisions, as they affect the signal and uncertainties produced by climate change assessments and, thus, adaptation planning. This presentation summarizes results from a three-year effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of widely applied methods for downscaling climate projections and assessing hydrologic conditions. Methods were evaluated from two perspectives: historical fidelity, and tendency to modulate a global climate model's climate change signal. On downscaling, four methods were applied at multiple resolutions: statistically using Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation, Bias Correction Constructed Analogs, and Asynchronous Regression; dynamically using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Downscaling results were then used to drive hydrologic analyses over the contiguous U.S. using multiple models (VIC, CLM, PRMS), with added focus placed on case study basins within the Colorado Headwaters. The presentation will identify which types of climate changes are expressed robustly across methods versus those that are sensitive to method choice; which method choices seem relatively more important; and where strategic investments in research and development can substantially improve guidance on climate change provided to water managers.

  4. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  5. GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity Use Scenarios: Interoperability Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia

    2010-05-01

    In the last years, scientific community is producing great efforts in order to study the effects of climate change on life on Earth. In this general framework, a key role is played by the impact of climate change on biodiversity. To assess this, several use scenarios require the modeling of climatological change impact on the regional distribution of biodiversity species. Designing and developing interoperability infrastructures which enable scientists to search, discover, access and use multi-disciplinary resources (i.e. datasets, services, models, etc.) is currently one of the main research fields for the Earth and Space Science Informatics. This presentation introduces and discusses an interoperability infrastructure which implements the discovery, access, and chaining of loosely-coupled resources in the climatology and biodiversity domains. This allows to set up and run forecast and processing models. The presented framework was successfully developed and experimented in the context of GEOSS AIP-2 (Global Earth Observation System of Systems, Architecture Implementation Pilot- Phase 2) Climate Change & Biodiversity thematic Working Group. This interoperability infrastructure is comprised of the following main components and services: a)GEO Portal: through this component end user is able to search, find and access the needed services for the scenario execution; b)Graphical User Interface (GUI): this component provides user interaction functionalities. It controls the workflow manager to perform the required operations for the scenario implementation; c)Use Scenario controller: this component acts as a workflow controller implementing the scenario business process -i.e. a typical climate change & biodiversity projection scenario; d)Service Broker implementing Mediation Services: this component realizes a distributed catalogue which federates several discovery and access components (exposing them through a unique CSW standard interface). Federated components publish climate, environmental and biodiversity datasets; e)Ecological Niche Model Server: this component is able to run one or more Ecological Niche Models (ENM) on selected biodiversity and climate datasets; f)Data Access Transaction server: this component publishes the model outputs. This framework was assessed in two use scenarios of GEOSS AIP-2 Climate Change and Biodiversity WG. Both scenarios concern the prediction of species distributions driven by climatological change forecasts. The first scenario dealt with the Pikas specie regional distribution in the Great Basin area (North America). While, the second one concerned the modeling of the Arctic Food Chain species in the North Pole area -the relationships between different environmental parameters and Polar Bears distribution was analyzed. The scientific patronage was provided by the University of Colorado and the University of Alaska, respectively. Results are published in the GEOSS AIP-2 web site: http://www.ogcnetwork.net/AIP2develop.

  6. Environmental impact assessment: National approaches and international needs.

    PubMed

    Burton, I; Wilson, J; Munn, R E

    1983-06-01

    This paper examines the spread and development of 'environmental impact assessment' (EIA) since the enactment of the U.S. Environmental Policy Act on January 1, 1970, which established for the first time under any jurisdiction the formal requirement that an EIA be made and that an 'environmental impact statement' (EIS) be filed prior to implementation of certain major development projects.The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, we briefly review the forms of EIA introduced in the western industrial countries and contrast these with developments in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in the Third World. The approaches to EIA adopted by five countries - the United States, Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviet Union - are used to illustrate the types of national approaches that have been followed. In the second part of the paper, we use some questions raised by impact assessments as codified in legislation or regulations at the national level to highlight some of the limitations of impact assessment. Finally, we turn to international impact assessments and describe the modest progress made to date. Key impediments to the development of appropriate conceptual and institutional frameworks and methodologies for international EIAs are noted.In conclusion, we offer some suggestions about needed actions at both the national and international levels. PMID:24258931

  7. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhjem, Henrik [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway)]. E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy of the State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1 Yuhuinanlu, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon [ECON Analysis, P.O. Box 5, N-0051, Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian [Institute of Environmental Economics (IEE), School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Dajie, Haidian District, Beijing 100872 (China)]. E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu [College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

  8. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scolozzi, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.scolozzi@fmach.it [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all& #x27; Adige, (Italy); Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: geneletti@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  9. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki, E-mail: jacki.schirmer@anu.edu.a

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  10. Biodiversity populations of

    E-print Network

    and water supplies ·alleviates mental fatigue ·provides warnings of toxins and other environmental health for Biodiversity and Conservation American Museum of Natural History B I O D I V E RS I TY HUMAN HEALTH A Guide for Policymakers #12;HumanHealth T he loss of biodiversity­the Earth's plants, ani- mals, fungi and microbes

  11. Beyond Biodiversity: Fish Metagenomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alba Ardura; Serge Planes; Eva Garcia-Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals.

  12. Biodiversity in forage stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers often plant monocultures or simple grass-legume mixtures in their pastures. Increased biodiversity in pastures may be one tool to improve sustainability and productivity. For this production guide, we will focus on plant biodiversity because it is the most amenable to management in pastures....

  13. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. PMID:25430966

  14. Assessment of Climate Impact Changes on Forest Vegetation Dynamics by Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temper-ature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of climate and anthropogenic changes impacts and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate in-teractions. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vege-tation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homo-geneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and ETM satellite images and meteorological data over l995-2007 period. For investigated test area, considerable NDVI decline was observed between 1995 and 2008 due to the drought events during 2003 and 2007 years. Under stress conditions, it is evident that environmental factors such as soil type, parent material, and to-pography are not correlated with NDVI dynamics. Specific aim of this paper was to assess, forecast, and mitigate the risks of climatic changes on forest systems and its biodiversity as well as on adjacent environment areas and to provide early warning strategies on the basis of spectral information derived from satellite data regarding atmospheric effects of forest biome degradation . The paper aims to describe observed trends and potential impacts based on scenarios from simulations with regional climate models and other downscaling procedures.

  15. Assessment of climate change impact on Eastern Washington agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio O. Stöckle; Roger L. Nelson; Stewart Higgins; Jay Brunner; Gary Grove; Rick Boydston; Mathew Whiting; Chad Kruger

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of the potential impact of climate change and the concurrent increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on eastern Washington State agriculture was conducted. Climate projections from four selected general circulation\\u000a models (GCM) were chosen, and the assessment included the crops with larger economic value for the state (apples, potatoes,\\u000a and wheat). To evaluate crop performance, a cropping system simulation

  16. Changes in Human P opulation Structure: Implications for Biodiversity Conservatio n

    E-print Network

    Changes in Human P opulation Structure: Implications for Biodiversity Conservatio n Jianguo Liu recognized as important factors affect- ing biodiversity, but the impacts of population structural changeson biodiversity are not clear. In this paper, we made the first attempt to link human population structural

  17. A new composite structure impact performance assessment program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feraboli, Paolo

    Traditionally, incident kinetic energy has been employed to assess impact threats for the damage-tolerant design of composite structures, and the impact tests performed to assess the dynamic performance of such structures have been described accordingly. In order to quantify the impact damage threshold and extent, recent research programs have indicated contact force as a more favorable metric, and based damage resistance and tolerance considerations on the its peak recorded value. However, many problems arise with the use of such a parameter, and this research program highlights the need for a multi-parameter approach for a greater insight in the interpretation of low velocity impact events. In the first section, an experimental database is gathered through drop tower impact testing by means of a rigid striker on clamped laminate plates, for a particular polymer composite system and structural configuration. Understanding of contact force, absorbed energy and other available parameters, such as contact duration and coefficient of restitution, which are related to the effective structural stiffness of the target, is fundamental in the design of a methodology for assessing impact performance. In the second section, an extensive parametric investigation is performed to extend the proposed CSIPAP (Composite Structure Impact Performance Assessment Program), defined in the previous section, to other structural configurations. In particular, different values of laminate thickness, support span, impactor mass, size and material, and boundary conditions are considered, and similar results are obtained. Lastly, existing analytical models, which proved to be incomplete, have been modified through experimental data fitting and numerical modeling to account for the phenomena reported during this program.

  18. Motivation Literature Trans. Networks and Emissions Assessment Indices Link Importance Numerical Examples Summary Environmental Impact Assessment of

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Examples Summary Environmental Impact Assessment of Transportation Networks with Degradable Links in an Era The Environmental Impact Assessment Indices 5 Link Importance Identification and Ranking 6 Numerical Examples 7 The Environmental Impact Assessment Indices 5 Link Importance Identification and Ranking 6 Numerical Examples 7

  19. Motivation Literature Trans. Networks and Emissions Assessment Indices Link Importance Numerical Examples Summary a Environmental Impact Assessment of

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Examples Summary a Environmental Impact Assessment of Transportation Networks with Degradable Links The Environmental Impact Assessment Indices 5 Link Importance Identification and Ranking 6 Numerical Examples 7 The Environmental Impact Assessment Indices 5 Link Importance Identification and Ranking 6 Numerical Examples 7

  20. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in areas of high fish endemism (e.g., Southeast), additional management and policy actions will be needed to minimize further species imperilment. PMID:23185581

  1. Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Olden, Julian D.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Miller, William M.; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18–24%, going from 1,993,000–2,628,000 Mm3 in 2010 to 2,359,000–3,271,000 Mm3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700–46,400 Mm3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000–58,400 Mm3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27–36 m3GJ?1 (0.1–0.5 m3GJ?1 consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4–0.7 m3GJ?1 (0.2–0.3 m3GJ?1 consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm3 (20,300 Mm3 consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in areas of high fish endemism (e.g., Southeast), additional management and policy actions will be needed to minimize further species imperilment. PMID:23185581

  2. Biodiversity patterns and processes Figure 1: Aspects of biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Biodiversity patterns and processes Figure 1: Aspects of biodiversity Charles Darwin (1975 only gain glimpses of the past moves. The pattern of moves has resulted in the patterns of biodiversity-being and perhaps to slow the decay of biodiversity in the future (Daily and Ehrlich 1996). All of the above

  3. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity Why Is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining?

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity Why Is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining? Louis A. Helfrich in a changing world. Water animals and plants are our aquatic heritage, and sustaining their biodiversity must be our legacy to future generations. Declining biodiversity worldwide is a major and ongoing

  4. Assessing the impact of Mali's water privatization across stakeholders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Estache; Emili Grifell-Tatjé

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a quantitative evaluation of the distribution of the welfare of a water privatization experience in Mali among labor, investors,intermediate input providers, users and taxpayers. The assessment is based on an index number inspired by Bennet (1920). We find four main impacts. First, taxpayers are the main losers as subsidies are still needed. Second, users benefited through lower

  5. Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

  6. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on the quality of the environment in accordance with section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11514 (34 FR 4247). (Authority: 20...

  7. An Approach for Environmental impacts Assessment using Belief Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Omrani; L. Ion-Boussier; P. Trigano

    2006-01-01

    A novel methodology for decision-making under uncertainty in environmental assessment of urban mobility is proposed. The problem treated is complex with insufficient, fuzzy and uncertain data. Hence, we propose to use belief theory (Dempster-Shafer theory) in order to combine the opinions of experts to evaluate the environmental impact of an ameliorative action to be carried out in the sector of

  8. Radionuclide speciation and its relevance in environmental impact assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Salbu; O. C. Lind; L. Skipperud

    2004-01-01

    To assess the long-term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source terms including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptake is needed. A major fraction of refractory radionuclides released from nuclear sources such as nuclear weapons tests and reactor accidents is present as radioactive particles, whilst radionuclides are also present as colloids or low molecular mass species in

  9. A SYNOPTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING CUMULATIVE IMPACTS TO WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Wetlands Research Program has developed the synoptic approach as a proposed method for assessing cumulative impacts to wetlands by providing both a general and a comprehensive view of the environment. It can also be applied more broadly to...

  10. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  11. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Eslinger; L. R. Huesties; A. D. Maughan; T. B. Miley; W. H. Walters

    1994-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river

  12. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Napier; N. C. Batishko; D. A. Heise-Craff; M. F. Jarvis; S. F. Snyder

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human

  13. Effects of Topography on Assessing Wind Farm Impacts Using

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Liming

    Effects of Topography on Assessing Wind Farm Impacts Using MODIS Data Liming Zhou* Department) there is a pattern of LST change associated with the de- velopment of wind farms and (ii) the warming effect over wind farms reported previously is an artifact of varied surface topography. Spatial pattern and time

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT DATABASE SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EDEIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abd Azim Abdul Ghani; Elsadig Abdalla Aljack; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie

    1999-01-01

    Expert Database System for Environmental Impact Assessment (EDEIA) was developed using FoxPro and CLIPS. It consists of a database and an expert system prototype. The EDEIA system developed a database system that allows an EIA expert to manage EIA report information and produced a set of rules that enable the ES to be aware of the existing environment component classes.

  15. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  16. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to p...

  17. Privacy Impact Assessment SAO MOSART Science Test Resource Registration

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Privacy Impact Assessment SAO MOSART Science Test Resource Registration I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: MOSART Science Test Resource Registration www.cfa.harvard.edu/smgphp/mosart 2. IT System: September 2009 8. Brief (one paragraph) description of the system: The MOSART Self Service Test Resource

  18. Privacy Impact Assessment Full Entry Name: Abt General Support System

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    to privacy and/or security incidents policies. Yes Access controls: Yes Technical controls (safeguardsPrivacy Impact Assessment Full Entry Name: Abt General Support System NASA Center: NASA-copy forms or through on-line registration forms, consent forms and surveys by third-party education service

  19. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment...of disposal or recycling will be made based on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set...

  20. RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON BEHALF OF OIL\\/GAS INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Botezatu; C. Grecea

    Aim: to assess the radiological impact of oil and gas industry on the environment and population. Material and Methods: Since 1999 we made environmental monitoring of radioactivity in the surrounding of six oil fields in Bac?u and Br?ila districts. The ground and surface water samples originating from oil areas and the formation water samples arising from oil wells, water injection

  1. Health Impact Assessment as a Student Service Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…

  2. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) NMAH Collections Information System

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) NMAH Collections Information System I. System Identification 1. IT System Name: MIMSY XG Collections Information System (CIS) 2. IT System Sponsor: National Museum Museum of American History (NMAH) Collection Information System (CIS) uses the MIMSY XG database

  3. Privacy Impact Assessment Art Collection Information System (ArtCIS)

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    1 Privacy Impact Assessment Art Collection Information System (ArtCIS) I. System Identification 1 of the system: The ArtCIS collects and stores text and image information pertaining to art objects from ten. IT System Name: ArtCIS 2. System Sponsor: Shannon Perry, ArtCIS Steering Committee Chair 3. IT System

  4. Mission cyber security situation assessment using impact dependency graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Jakobson

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a conceptual framework and a method for assessing impact that cyber attacks might have to cyber assets, services, and missions. The paper describes the model of a cyber attack based on an extended conceptual graph. It introduces the notion of a cyber-terrain as a multi- level information structure containing assets and services, and their inter-dependencies. It also

  5. Integrated economic and climate projections for impact assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the ?no climate policy? scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...

  6. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT FROM ROOFTOP PV

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort will determine the emissions impacts to the U.S. PV generated electricity when PV systems are installed on building rooftops and employed as demand-side power supplies. The national assessment will be based on data provided by existing rooftop PV systems that have be...

  7. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  8. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  9. Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong

    Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment Yong Chen1, *, Liqiao Chen2 population dynamics of fish stocks is essential in developing optimal fisheries man- agement strategies. This is often obtained through fitting mathematical models to information/data collected from the fisheries

  10. A fuzzy logic approach for the impact assessment in LCA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B González; B Adenso-D??az; P. L González-Torre

    2002-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an effective tool for evaluating the environmental impacts of a product. Companies find on LCA a good support when defining their environmental strategies, since it applies an overall view to detect those phases of the product life cycle where major environmental effects occur. However, applying strictly this methodology can be a costly, time-consuming process,

  11. Impact of a Reaffirmation Accreditation Program on Institutional Assessment Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Karen Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In the period between 2004 and 2006, several publications were released questioning the quality of higher education: One such report was from the 2006 Spellings Commission of the U.S. Secretary of Education, which prompted accrediting agencies to review institutional assessment practices. This research was designed to measure the impact Academy…

  12. Elements of impact assessment: a case study with cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanchieh Jay; Holsopple, Jared; Liu, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Extensive discussions have taken place in recent year regarding impact assessment - what is it and how can we do it? It is especially intriguing in this modern era where non-traditional warfare has caused either information overload or limited understanding of adversary doctrines. This work provides a methodical discussion of key elements for the broad definition of impact assessment (IA). The discussion will start with a process flow involving components related to IA. Two key functional components, impact estimation and threat projection, are compared and illustrated in detail. These details include a discussion of when to model red and blue knowledge. Algorithmic approaches will be discussed, augmented with lessons learned from our IA development for cyber situation awareness. This paper aims at providing the community with a systematic understanding of IA and its open issues with specific examples.

  13. Utility Terrestrial Biodiversity Issues

    PubMed

    BREECE; WARD

    1996-11-01

    / Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Utilities; Rights-of-way; Terrestrial; Management PMID:8895401

  14. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  15. Overestimation of molecular and modelling methods and underestimation of traditional taxonomy leads to real problems in assessing and handling of the world's biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Löbl, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1992 Rio Convention on Biological Diversity, the earth's biodiversity is a matter of constant public interest, but the community of scientists who describe and delimit species in mega-diverse animal groups, i.e. the bulk of global biodiversity, faces ever-increasing impediments. The problems are rooted in poor understanding of specificity of taxonomy, and overestimation of quantitative approaches and modern technology. A high proportion of the animal species still remains to be discovered and studied, so a more balanced approach to the situation is needed. PMID:24871190

  16. Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Protection Agency

    1997-01-01

    This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

  17. Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Loreau; Andy Hector

    2001-01-01

    The impact of biodiversity loss on the functioning of ecosystems and their ability to provide ecological services has become a central issue in ecology. Several experiments have provided evidence that reduced species diversity may impair ecosystem processes such as plant biomass production. The interpretation of these experiments, however, has been controversial because two types of mechanism may operate in combination.

  18. BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Nathan

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

  19. Spatial Analysis and Visualization of Genetic Biodiversity Robert G. Beiko1,*

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Stephen

    Spatial Analysis and Visualization of Genetic Biodiversity Robert G. Beiko1,* , Jacqueline Whalley2 of the Earth's biodiversity. Until recently, it has been nearly impossible to study these microorganisms-scale examination. New ways of assessing microbial biodiversity and ecology have already produced stunning results

  20. ESTIMATING BIODIVERSITY OF DRY FORESTS AND CORAL REEFS WITH HYPERPECTRAL DATA

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    ESTIMATING BIODIVERSITY OF DRY FORESTS AND CORAL REEFS WITH HYPERPECTRAL DATA: A NASA EPSCOR effective biodiversity assessment methodologies for a gradient of Neotropical habitats from coastal marine is to develop remote-sensing derived surrogates of biodiversity that are applicable across different ecosystems

  1. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  2. Relationships between Meiofaunal Biodiversity and Prokaryotic Heterotrophic Production in Different Tropical Habitats and Oceanic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Scopa, Mariaspina; Danovaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Tropical marine ecosystems are among the most diverse of the world oceans, so that assessing the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem functions (BEF) is a crucial step to predict consequences of biodiversity loss. Most BEF studies in marine ecosystems have been carried out on macrobenthic diversity, whereas the influence of the meiofauna on ecosystem functioning has received much less attention. We compared meiofaunal and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production across seagrass, mangrove and reef sediments in the Caribbean, Celebes and Red Seas. For all variables we report the presence of differences among habitats within the same region, and among regions within the same habitat. In all regions, the richness of meiofaunal taxa in reef and seagrass sediments is higher than in mangrove sediments. The sediments of the Celebes Sea show the highest meiofaunal biodiversity. The composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies significantly among habitats in the same region. The nematode beta diversity among habitats within the same region is higher than the beta diversity among regions. Although one site per habitat was considered in each region, these results suggest that the composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies primarily among biogeographic regions, whereas the composition of nematode assemblages varies more considerably among habitats. Meiofauna and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, even after the removal of covariate effects linked with longitude and the quantity and nutritional quality of organic matter, are positively and linearly linked both across regions and within each habitat type. Our results confirm that meiofauna and nematode biodiversity may influence benthic prokaryotic activity, which, in turn, implies that diversity loss could have negative impacts on ecosystem functioning in these systems. PMID:24603709

  3. Assessing the ecological effects of human impacts on coral reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Janina; González, Cindy T; Carballo-Bolaños, Rodrigo; Berry, Kathryn; Heiss, Georg A; Struck, Ulrich; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

    2014-03-01

    Environmental and biological reef monitoring was conducted in Almirante Bay (Bahía Almirante) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, to assess impacts from anthropogenic developments. An integrated monitoring investigated how seasonal temperature stress, turbidity, eutrophication and physical impacts threatened reef health and biodiversity throughout the region. Environmental parameters such as total suspended solids [TSS], carbon isotopes (?(13)C), C/N ratios, chlorophyll a, irradiance, secchi depth, size fractions of the sediments and isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] of the water were measured throughout the years 2010 and 2011 and were analysed in order to identify different impact sources. Compared to data from Collin et al. (Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:324-334, 2009) chlorophyll a has doubled at sites close to the city and the port Almirante (from 0.46-0.49 to 0.78-0.97 ?g l(-1)) and suspension load increased, visible by a decrease in secchi depth values. Visibility decreased from 9-13 m down to 4 m at the bay inlet Boca del Drago, which is strongly exposed to river run off and dredging for the shipping traffic. Eutrophication and turbidity levels seemed to be the determining factor for the loss of hard coral diversity, most significant at chlorophyll a levels higher than 0.5 ?g l(-1) and TSS levels higher than 4.7 mg l(-1). Hard coral cover within the bay has also declined, at some sites down to <10 % with extremely low diversities (7 hard coral species). The hard coral species Porites furcata dominated the reefs in highly impacted areas and showed a strong recovery after bleaching and a higher tolerance to turbidity and eutrophication compared to other hard coral species in the bay. Serious overfishing was detected in the region by a lack of adult and carnivorous fish species, such as grunts, snappers and groupers. Study sites less impacted by anthropogenic activities and/or those with local protection showed a higher hard coral cover and fish abundance; however, an overall loss of hard coral diversity was observed. PMID:24254491

  4. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  5. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    PubMed

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  6. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    PubMed

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater deviances for organic systems between the amount of N calculated by emission models and the actual amount of N available for emissions. Improvements are needed regarding a more precise differentiation between farming systems and regarding the development of N emission models that better represent actual N-fluxes within different systems. We recommend adjusting N- and C-emissions during farmyard manure management and farmyard manure fertilization in plant production to the feed ration provided in the animal production of the respective farming system leading to different N- and C-compositions within the excrement. In the future, more representative background data on organic farming systems (e.g. N content of farmyard manure) should be generated and compiled so as to be available for use within LCA inventories. Finally, we recommend conducting consequential LCA - if possible - when using LCA for policy-making or strategic environmental planning to account for different functions of the analyzed farming systems. PMID:25463583

  7. Biofilms and Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive lesson introduces students to issues of biodiversity in Chesapeake Bay. It features background information, as well as directions on how to conduct biofilm experiments using plexiglass discs or CDs to culture communities in your local body of water. The experiments demonstrate how water quality, depth, and biodiversity are linked. For students whose school is not near the original site, data and images from the original experiments are available for analysis.

  8. Biodiversity of Feet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into biodiversity. Groups of learners will go to the zoo to look at animal feet, making a list of ten different animals at the zoo and writing down a description of their feet. This collected data is then analyzed to envision how each animal’s use of its feet helps it live in its environment. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Biodiversity.

  9. Biological Review of Draft Environmental Impact Statement Akyem Project, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott G. Cardiff

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This document is a review of the biological aspects of the April 2008 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) of the proposed Akyem gold mine in Eastern Ghana. The DEIS is an inadequate assessment of existing biodiversity in the Akyem project area and is not an acceptable documentation of probable environmental impacts of the proposed mine. Information in the DEIS

  10. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breece, Gary Allen; Ward, Bobby J.

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.

  11. Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

  12. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. PMID:25971645

  13. Assessing regional and warming level dependent differences in climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohland, Jan; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Lissner, Tabea; Fischer, Erich M.; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Differentiation between climate impacts at different levels of warming is of great relevance for scientists and policy makers. Knowledge of the consequences of different development and temperature pathways is essential to inform international climate negotiations and regional adaptation planning alike. At the same time, not only the warming dimension but also the regional dimension of changes in impacts is of interest, since regional changes might not be linearly related to global mean temperature increase. A detailed understanding of regionally differentiated impacts is an important basis on which to develop suitable coping strategies and adaptation options. Here we present a framework that allows for a differentiation of regional changes in climate impacts at different levels of temperature increase. Based on data from the CMIP5 archive as well as output from the AgMIP project, we assess the climate impact projections for an increase in global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels for the 26 regions used in the IPCC SREX report. We show results for several extreme event indices as well as projections of water availability and agricultural yields. Based on a method developed by Fischer et al. (2013), we are able to test for statistical significance of changes in climate impact projections between the different warming levels across the model ensemble. References: Fischer, E. M., Beyerle, U. & Knutti, R. Robust spatially aggregated projections of climate extremes. Nature Climate Change 3, 1033-1038 (2013).

  14. Aquaculture Production and Biodiversity Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Diana (University of Michigan; School of Natural Resources and Environment)

    2009-01-01

    This overview examines the status and trends of seafood production, and the positive and negative impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity conservation. Capture fisheries have been stabilized at about 90 million metric tons since the late 1980s, whereas aquaculture increased from 12 million metric tons in 1985 to 45 million metric tons by 2004. Aquaculture includes species at any trophic level that are grown for domestic consumption or export. Aquaculture has some positive impacts on biodiversity; for example, cultured seafood can reduce pressure on overexploited wild stocks, stocked organisms may enhance depleted stocks, aquaculture often boosts natural production and species diversity, and employment in aquaculture may replace more destructive resource uses. On the negative side, species that escape from aquaculture can become invasive in areas where they are nonnative, effluents from aquaculture can cause eutrophication, ecologically sensitive land may be converted for aquaculture use, aquaculture species may consume increasingly scarce fish meal, and aquaculture species may transmit diseases to wild fish. Most likely, aquaculture will continue to grow at significant rates through 2025, and will remain the most rapidly increasing food production system.

  15. An airport community noise-impact assessment model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model was developed to assess the noise impact of an airport on the community which it serves. Assessments are made using the Fractional Impact Method by which a single number describes the community aircraft noise environment in terms of exposed population and multiple event noise level. The model is comprised of three elements: a conventional noise footprint model, a site specific population distribution model, and a dose response transfer function. The footprint model provides the noise distribution for a given aircraft operating scenario. This is combined with the site specific population distribution obtained from a national census data base to yield the number of residents exposed to a given level of noise. The dose response relationship relates noise exposure levels to the percentage of individuals highly annoyed by those levels.

  16. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  17. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-161 AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF GREAT LAKES AQUATIC

    E-print Network

    NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-161 AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF GREAT LAKES AQUATIC NONINDIGENOUS products or the tests of such products for publicity or advertising purposes is not authorized ............................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Review of Impact Assessments

  18. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No...

  19. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section...Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a...

  20. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No...

  1. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section...Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section...Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a...

  3. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No...

  4. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section...Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section...Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a...

  7. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...102(2) Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No...

  8. Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition.

    PubMed

    Allan, Eric; Manning, Pete; Alt, Fabian; Binkenstein, Julia; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Böhm, Stefan; Grassein, Fabrice; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Morris, E Kathryn; Oelmann, Yvonne; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Solly, Emily; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffen-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Fischer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Global change, especially land-use intensification, affects human well-being by impacting the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (multifunctionality). However, whether biodiversity loss is a major component of global change effects on multifunctionality in real-world ecosystems, as in experimental ones, remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed biodiversity, functional composition and 14 ecosystem services on 150 agricultural grasslands differing in land-use intensity. We also introduce five multifunctionality measures in which ecosystem services were weighted according to realistic land-use objectives. We found that indirect land-use effects, i.e. those mediated by biodiversity loss and by changes to functional composition, were as strong as direct effects on average. Their strength varied with land-use objectives and regional context. Biodiversity loss explained indirect effects in a region of intermediate productivity and was most damaging when land-use objectives favoured supporting and cultural services. In contrast, functional composition shifts, towards fast-growing plant species, strongly increased provisioning services in more inherently unproductive grasslands. PMID:26096863

  9. Uncertainty in epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Briggs; Clive E. Sabel; Kayoung Lee

    2009-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology and health risk and impact assessment have long grappled with problems of uncertainty in data and\\u000a their relationships. These uncertainties have become more challenging because of the complex, systemic nature of many of the\\u000a risks. A clear framework defining and quantifying uncertainty is needed. Three dimensions characterise uncertainty: its nature,\\u000a its location and its level. In terms of

  10. Assessment Of Bacterial Sources Impacting Lake Waco And Belton Lake 

    E-print Network

    Giovanni, G.

    2006-01-01

    in Lake Waco and Belton Lake watersheds. Potential fecal sources were identified through a sanitary survey conducted by Parsons. Between October 2003 and October 2004, a total of 994 fecal samples were collected from known sources. Municipal...SR-2006-07 Assessment Of Bacterial Sources Impacting Lake Waco And Belton Lake Prepared for: TEXAS FARM BUREAU Prepared by: PARSONS TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & EXTENSION CENTER AT EL PASO, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION...

  11. Health Impact Assessment Schiphol airport. Overview of results until 1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franssen EAM; Lebret E; Staatsen BAM

    2007-01-01

    This report provides an English overview of the current results of the\\u000aHealth Impact Assessment Schiphol (HIAS) research programme. This\\u000aprogramme consists of a series of studies with different designs. \\u000aResults are rather described for each separate health end-point than by\\u000athe separate studies: annoyance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep\\u000adisturbance, respiratory diseases, perceived health, neurobehavioral\\u000aeffects, birth weight and perception of

  12. Assessment of Bioaerosols in Swine Barns by Filtration and Impaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo Z. Predicala; James E. Urban; Ronaldo G. Maghirang; Sheryll B. Jerez; Robert D. Goodband

    2002-01-01

    Bioaerosol concentrations inside one naturally ventilated and one mechanically ventilated swine finishing barn were assessed\\u000a by sampling air using membrane filtration and impaction (six-stage Andersen sampler), and assayed by culture method. The barns,\\u000a located on the same commercial farm in northeast Kansas, did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05) in concentrations of total and respirable airborne microorganisms. The

  13. Biodiversity Governance: A Tower of Babel of Scales and Cultures

    E-print Network

    Soberó n, Jorge; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2015-03-12

    The recently created Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), originally focused on multilateral and global issues, is shifting its focus to address local issues and to include in its assessments local stakeholders...

  14. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  15. Biodiversity and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Jean-Charles; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2006-10-01

    First we remind general considerations concerning biodiversity on earth and particularly the loss of genetic biodiversity that seems irreversible whether its origin is directly or indirectly linked to human activities. Urgent and considerable efforts must be made from now on to cataloge, understand, preserve, and enhance the value of biodiversity while ensuring food safety and human and animal health. Ambitious integrated and multifield research programs must be implemented in order to understand the causes and anticipate the consequences of loss of biodiversity. Such losses are a serious threat to sustainable development and to the quality of life of future generations. They have an influence on the natural balance of global biodiversity in particularly in reducing the capability of species to adapt rapidly by genetic mutations to survive in modified ecosystems. Usually, the natural immune systems of mammals (both human and animal), are highly polymorphic and able to adapt rapidly to new situations. We more specifically discuss the fact that if the genetic diversity of the affected populations is low the invading microorganisms, will suddenly expand and create epidemic outbreaks with risks of pandemic. So biodiversity appears to function as an important barrier (buffer), especially against disease-causing organisms, which can function in different ways. Finally, we discuss the importance of preserving biodiversity mainly in the wildlife ecosystems as an integrated and sustainable approach among others in order to prevent and control the emergence or reemergence of diseases in animals and humans (zoonosis). Although plants are also part of this paradigm, they fall outside our field of study. PMID:17135490

  16. Using soil functional indices to assess wildfire impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana

    2014-05-01

    Disturbance impact on ecosystem are often based on functional indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem functions. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil functions after fire as a function of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape Functional Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling functions for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the impact of fire on soil functions using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface functions to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil functions to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and functional traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil functional status of recently burned areas.

  17. Health impact assessment of the Merseyside local transport plan … work in progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Ardern

    2000-01-01

    1. Project Description I am conducting a health impact assessment of the Local Transport Plan on behalf of the Merseyside Transport, Health and Environment Forum, using the methods and procedures set out in The Merseyside Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment. This will include implementation of the recommendations of the health impact assessment of the Merseyside Integrated Transport Strategy (MERITS), and

  18. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup\\/interim-storage remedial action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wyman

    1982-01-01

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup\\/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or

  19. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.

  20. How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.

    PubMed

    Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

    2000-09-01

    / The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:10977880

  1. Leading North American programs in clinical assessment research: an assessment of productivity and impact.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C

    2010-05-01

    To identify doctoral programs with strong concentrations in clinical assessment, I measured productivity and impact of faculty at North American institutions with American Psychological Association accredited clinical programs. Publications, citations, and h-indexes derived from 4 top assessment journals were calculated over a 10-year period (1999-2009). I identified a total of 42 leading programs that collectively accounted for more than half of the publications and citations in these journals. I found a moderate relationship between assessment productivity and both US News & World Report program rankings as well as general productivity rankings of clinical programs reported in an earlier study. PMID:20408020

  2. Biodiversity as spatial insurance in heterogeneous landscapes

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Andrew

    Biodiversity as spatial insurance in heterogeneous landscapes Michel Loreau* , Nicolas Mouquet January 15, 2003) The potential consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and services biodiversity affects ecosystem processes and stability at larger spatial scales. We propose that biodiversity

  3. Climatic impact of land use in LCA—carbon transfers between vegetation\\/soil and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruedi Müller-Wenk; Miguel Brandão

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Human use of land areas leads to impacts on nature in several ways. Within the framework of the UNEP\\/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative,\\u000a it was stated that life cycle assessment (LCA) of land use should assess at least the impact on biodiversity, the impact on\\u000a biotic production, and the impact on the regulating functions of the natural environment.

  4. The 6/94 gap in health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Erlanger, Tobias E. [Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland)], E-mail: tobias.erlanger@unibas.ch; Krieger, Gary R. [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)], E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com; Singer, Burton H. [Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: singer@princeton.edu; Utzinger, Juerg [Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland)], E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch

    2008-05-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20-30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental and social impact assessments. This assumption needs to be supported by evidence however. Within the context of projects in developing country settings, HIA is simply a slogan without a clearly articulated and relevant methodology, offered by academia and having little or no salience in the decision-making process regarding impacts. This harsh assertion is supported by posing a simple question: 'Where in the world have HIAs been carried out?' To answer this question, we systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature and online HIA-specific databases. We identified 237 HIA-related publications, but only 6% of these publications had a focus on the developing world. What emerges is, therefore, a huge disparity, which we coin the 6/94 gap in HIA, even worse than the widely known 10/90 gap in health research (10% of health research funding is utilized for diseases causing 90% of the global burden of disease). Implications of this 6/94 gap in HIA are discussed with pointed emphasis on extractive industries (oil/gas and mining) and water resources development. We conclude that there is a pressing need to institutionalize HIA in the developing world, as a consequence of current predictions of major extractive industry and water resources development, with China's investments in these sectors across Africa being particularly salient.

  5. Uncertainty assessment tool for climate change impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Jacob, Daniela; Rechid, Diana; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Juckes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A major difficulty in the study of climate change impact indicators is dealing with the numerous sources of uncertainties of climate and non-climate data . Its assessment, however, is needed to communicate to users the degree of certainty of climate change impact indicators. This communication of uncertainty is an important component of the FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC). CLIPC is developing a portal to provide a central point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change. In this project the Climate Service Center 2.0 is in charge of the development of a tool to assess the uncertainty of climate change impact indicators. The calculation of climate change impact indicators will include climate data from satellite and in-situ observations, climate models and re-analyses, and non-climate data. There is a lack of a systematic classification of uncertainties arising from the whole range of climate change impact indicators. We develop a framework that intends to clarify the potential sources of uncertainty of a given indicator and provides - if possible - solutions how to quantify the uncertainties. To structure the sources of uncertainties of climate change impact indicators, we first classify uncertainties along a 'cascade of uncertainty' (Reyer 2013). Our cascade consists of three levels which correspond to the CLIPC meta-classification of impact indicators: Tier-1 indicators are intended to give information on the climate system. Tier-2 indicators attempt to quantify the impacts of climate change on biophysical systems (i.e. flood risks). Tier-3 indicators primarily aim at providing information on the socio-economic systems affected by climate change. At each level, the potential sources of uncertainty of the input data sets and its processing will be discussed. Reference: Reyer, C. (2013): The cascade of uncertainty in modeling forest ecosystem responses to environmental change and the challenge of sustainable resource management, Math. Fak. II Humbodt Unviversität. Berlin, 168. Available from: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/reyer-christopher-2013-04-25/METADATA/abstract.php?id=40150.

  6. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. (Exxon Company, U.S.A., Anchorage, AK (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  7. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  8. The value of mainstreaming human rights into health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  9. Nontarget effects of broadleaf herbicide on a native perennial forb: a demographic framework for assessing and minimizing impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth E. Crone; Marilyn Marler; Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Summary 1. Invasive species are one of the leading threats to biodiversity worldwide. Therefore, chemical herbicides are increasingly used to control invasive plants in natural and semi-natural areas. Little is known about the non-target impacts of these chemicals on native species. 2. We conducted an experiment to test the demographic effects of the herbicide picloram on a native dominant forb,

  10. Assessing the end-of-life impacts of buildings.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Pedro Santos; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-07-01

    This paper builds on previous research on end of life of products by synthesizing some of the theories proposed in the literature and presenting a method for environmental decision-making related to buildings. This is achieved through different solutions, but most significantly through the use of hybrid life-cycle assessment and the definition of allocation boundaries in a way that decreases the uncertainty associated with technologicalforecasting. Results show that there is no significant difference between the results of two major end-of-life assessment approaches (attributional and consequential), and that the choice between the use of one or the other for buildings may not be a critical decision. Assessing the impacts of recycling polices requires accounting for product substitutions, market analysis, and the full supply chain impacts of the recycling chains. Increasing the recycling of concrete from deconstructed buildings from the current 27% rate to 50% could yield a 2-3% (2.7-5.6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalents) reduction in buildings' greenhouse gas emissions, or the equivalent of removing 408,000-847,000 typical cars from U.S. roads. PMID:18677988

  11. VALUE-ADDED ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING IN THE LIBERAL ARTS: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ENGAGED LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    VALUE-ADDED ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING IN THE LIBERAL ARTS: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ENGAGED arts education, respondents who answered yes were compared to those who answered no on several key) are graduates of strong liberal arts colleges. #12;

  12. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Heijungs, R

    2014-01-15

    Noise is a serious stressor affecting the health of millions of citizens. It has been suggested that disturbance by noise is responsible for a substantial part of the damage to human health. However, no recommended approach to address noise impacts was proposed by the handbook for life cycle assessment (LCA) of the European Commission, nor are characterisation factors (CFs) and appropriate inventory data available in commonly used databases. This contribution provides CFs to allow for the quantification of noise impacts on human health in the LCA framework. Noise propagation standards and international reports on acoustics and noise impacts were used to define the model parameters. Spatial data was used to calculate spatially-defined CFs in the form of 10-by-10-km maps. The results of this analysis were combined with data from the literature to select input data for representative archetypal situations of emission (e.g. urban day with a frequency of 63 Hz, rural night at 8000 Hz, etc.). A total of 32 spatial and 216 archetypal CFs were produced to evaluate noise impacts at a European level (i.e. EU27). The possibility of a user-defined characterisation factor was added to support the possibility of portraying the situation of full availability of information, as well as a highly-localised impact analysis. A Monte Carlo-based quantitative global sensitivity analysis method was applied to evaluate the importance of the input factors in determining the variance of the output. The factors produced are ready to be implemented in the available LCA databases and software. The spatial approach and archetypal approach may be combined and selected according to the amount of information available and the life cycle under study. The framework proposed and used for calculations is flexible enough to be expanded to account for impacts on target subjects other than humans and to continents other than Europe. PMID:24035845

  13. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  14. Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Governor

    2007-01-01

    Reading in science class doesn't have to be boring, but it's no secret to students or teachers that textbooks aren't much fun to read. To enhance and integrate your science curriculum, try using alternative reading resources such as Biodiversity , by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent and The Andromeda Strain by Michael Crichton. Students will soon discover that the right combination of nonfiction and science fiction reading with correlated labs, inquiry-based activities, and simulations can make for a fun learning experience while exploring concepts related to environmental science, evolution, adaptation, and biodiversity.

  15. Introducing Habitats and Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students identify habitats in Arizona, define and illustrate a food web in a kinesthetic exercise, and explain the importance of biodiversity in a writing assignment. Required materials include a ball of yarn or string. The resource includes two student worksheets, a data sheet, answer keys, and Web links. This is Lesson 1 in the unit on Biodiversity, part of IMAGERS, Interactive Media Adventures for Grade School Education using Remote Sensing. The website provides hands-on activities in the classroom supporting the science content in two interactive media books, The Adventures of Echo the Bat and Amelia the Pigeon.

  16. A user's guide to biodiversity EASACii | March 2005 | A user's guide to biodiversity indicators

    E-print Network

    Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    of selected species 18 A.3 Change in status of threatened and/or protected species 19 A.4 Trends in genetic 24 A.9 Impact of climate change on biodiversity 24 A.10 Marine trophic index 25 A.11 Connectivity the period 1900-2002 5 Trends in mean trophic levels of fisheries landings, 1950 to 2000 26 6 The Living

  17. Qualitative assessment of the impacts of proposed system operating strategies to resident fish within selected Columbia River Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Geist, D.R.; Mavros, W.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) are presently conducting the System Operation Review (SOR) for the Columbia River basin. The SOR began in 1990 and is expected to provide an operating strategy that will take into consideration multiple uses of the Columbia River system including navigation, flood control, irrigation, power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, water supply, and water quality. This report provides descriptions of each of the non-modeled reservoirs and other specified river reaches. The descriptions focus on the distinct management goals for resident fish: biodiversity, species-specific concerns, and sport fisheries. In addition, this report provides a qualitative assessment of impacts to the resident fish within these reservoirs and river reaches from the 7 alternative system operating strategies. In addition to this introduction, the report contains four more sections. Section 2.0 provides the methods that were used. Reservoir descriptions appear in Section 3.0, which is a synthesis of our literature review and interviews with resident fish experts. Section 4.0 contains a discussion of potential impacts to fish within each of these reservoirs and river reaches from the 7 proposed system operating strategies. The references cited are listed in Section 5.0.

  18. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of natural resources. PMID:25409183

  19. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of natural resources. PMID:25409183

  20. Assessment of antipodal-impact terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The regions anitpodal to Mars' three largest impact basins, Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre, were assessed for evidence of impact-induced disrupted terrains. Photogeology and computer modeling using the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (SALE) finite element code suggest that such terrains could have been found by the Hellas impact. Maximum antipodal pressures are 1100 MPa for Hellas, 520 MPa for Isidis, and 150 MPa for Argyre. The results suggest that if antipodal fracturing were associated with later volcanism, then Alba Patera may be related to the Hellas event, as proposed by Peterson (1978). Alba Patera is a unique volcano in the solar system, being a shield volcano which emitted large volume lava flows. This volcanism could be the result of the focusing of seismic energy which created a fractured region that served as a volcanic conduit for the future release of large volumes of magma. No disrupted terrain features are observed antipodal to the Isidis or Argyre basins, although some of the old fractures in Noctis Labyrinthus could have originated in response to the Isidis impact, and later have been reactivated by the Tharsis tectonics assumed to have produced Noctis. If the lower calculated antipodal pressures for Argyre were capable of producing disrupted terrains, then the terrains have been covered subsequently by volcanic or aeolian material, or modified beyond recognition.

  1. Assessment of the health impacts of climate change in Kiribati.

    PubMed

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Kiribati-a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation-is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  2. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  3. Quantitative estimation in Health Impact Assessment: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Rajiv, E-mail: rajiv.bhatia@sfdph.or [San Francisco Department of Public Health, CA (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of California at Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) considers multiple effects on health of policies, programs, plans and projects and thus requires the use of diverse analytic tools and sources of evidence. Quantitative estimation has desirable properties for the purpose of HIA but adequate tools for quantification exist currently for a limited number of health impacts and decision settings; furthermore, quantitative estimation generates thorny questions about the precision of estimates and the validity of methodological assumptions. In the United States, HIA has only recently emerged as an independent practice apart from integrated EIA, and this article aims to synthesize the experience with quantitative health effects estimation within that practice. We use examples identified through a scan of available identified instances of quantitative estimation in the U.S. practice experience to illustrate methods applied in different policy settings along with their strengths and limitations. We then discuss opportunity areas and practical considerations for the use of quantitative estimation in HIA.

  4. Getting the measure of biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Purvis; Andy Hector

    2000-01-01

    The term ‘biodiversity’ is a simple contraction of ‘biological diversity’, and at first sight the concept is simple too: biodiversity is the sum total of all biotic variation from the level of genes to ecosystems. The challenge comes in measuring such a broad concept in ways that are useful. We show that, although biodiversity can never be fully captured by

  5. Focus On.... Biodiversity and Conservation

    E-print Network

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    Focus On.... Biodiversity and Conservation This resource guide aims to provide useful, detailed, high quality sources of information on biodiversity and conservation for students in Higher and Further at http://www.intute.ac.uk/biologicalsciences/ This Focus On... guide is located at: http://www.intute.ac.uk/supportdocs/focuson/biodiversity

  6. Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

  7. Biodiversity Toolkit Planting for bees

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Biodiversity Toolkit Bees Planting for bees The collegiate University is working to help the environment and wildlife, in line with the University Biodiversity Policy, which was agreed by University Council in 2008: www.admin.ox.ac.uk/estates/environment/biodiversity Bees and other pollinating insects

  8. Investigating Biodiversity in your schoolyard

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this field lab students will investigate the biodiversity around their school. Students will perform a biodiversity count using transect line. The students will develop multiple hypotheses relating to biodiversity and propose additional procedures for studying, collecting and testing these questions.

  9. Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER 24 Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity Jianguo Liu Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Michigan State University, MI, USA INTRODUCTION Global biodiversity continues along a trajectory of the most biodiversity-rich countries in the world (Liu and Raven, 2010; Ministry of Environmental

  10. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  11. Possible origin of stagnation and variability of earth's biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Stollmeier, Frank; Geisel, Theo; Nagler, Jan

    2014-06-01

    The magnitude and variability of Earth's biodiversity have puzzled scientists ever since paleontologic fossil databases became available. We identify and study a model of interdependent species where both endogenous and exogenous impacts determine the nonstationary extinction dynamics. The framework provides an explanation for the qualitative difference of marine and continental biodiversity growth. In particular, the stagnation of marine biodiversity may result from a global transition from an imbalanced to a balanced state of the species dependency network. The predictions of our framework are in agreement with paleontologic databases. PMID:24949790

  12. Assessing Health Impacts within Environmental Impact Assessments: An Opportunity for Public Health Globally Which Must Not Remain Missed

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick; Viliani, Francesca; Spickett, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Within the member states of the United Nations 190 of 193 have regulated Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) which is a systematic process to prevent and mitigate the potential environmental impacts of industry development projects before these occur. However, the routine and comprehensive assessment of health impacts within EIAs remains underdeveloped. Focusing, as an example, on the risks to global health from the global shift in the mining industry towards Low and Middle Income Countries LMIC), this viewpoint details why connecting with EIA is an essential task for the health system. Although existing knowledge is out of date in relation to global practice we identify how health has been included, to some extent, in High Income Country EIAs and the institutional requirements for doing so. Using arguments identified by industry themselves about requiring a ‘social license to operate’, we conclude that EIA regulations provide the best current mechanism to ensure health protection is a core aspect in the decision making process to approve projects. PMID:25608592

  13. Video Lectures on Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darcy B. Kelley (Columbia University; )

    2010-06-18

    In three video lectures available from Columbia Universityâ??s Frontiers of Science Online (FoSO) website, developed by HHMI Professor Darcy Kelley, biologist Don Melnick explains why the loss of biodiversity is occurring, why its loss matters, and what people can do to fix the problem.

  14. ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    McCain, Christy M.

    ELEVATIONAL TRENDS IN BIODIVERSITY John-Arvid Grytnesn and Christy M. McCainw n University of Bergen and w University of California I. Introduction II. History of Elevational Studies III. Observed that are net exporters of individuals and pop- ulations that are net importers of individuals. ELEVATIONAL

  15. Introduction to Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this week-long unit, students explore biodiversity and learn why conservation efforts are important. Throughout the unit, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials include individually downloadable readings, detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, strategies for using the activities, a portfolio grading sheet, a project rubric sheet, additional readings and instructions for four classroom activities.

  16. Consequences of changing biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika S. Zavaleta; Valerie T. Eviner; Rosamond L. Naylor; Peter M. Vitousek; Heather L. Reynolds; David U. Hooper; Sandra Lavorel; Osvaldo E. Sala; Sarah E. Hobbie; Michelle C. Mack; Sandra Díaz; F. Stuart Chapin III

    2000-01-01

    Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems. The large ecological and societal

  17. Economics of Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) manages this clearinghouse on the economics of biodiversity in support of equitable and sustainable natural resource use. IUCN arranges their discussion papers in full-text by theme, and a mixture of relevant economic, legal, and policy information is highlighted throughout the site.

  18. Dissecting Amazonian Biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Tuomisto; Kalle Ruokolainen; Risto Kalliola; Ari Linna; Walter Danjoy; Zoila Rodriguez

    1995-01-01

    Biogeographical and biodiversity studies in lowland Amazonian rain forests typically refer to observed or postulated distribution barriers such as past unfavorable climates, mountains, rivers, and river floodplains that divide the uniform tierra firme (noninundated) forest. Present-day ecological heterogeneity within tierra firme has hardly been discussed in this context, although edaphic differences are known to affect species distribution patterns in both

  19. CAN NEPA PROTECT BIODIVERSITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiversity has emerged as a prominent issue in the scientific andconservation communities, and is of increasing concern to thegeneral public. s with other "new" environmental probLems (e.g..global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion), biodiversityis difficult to evalu...

  20. Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

  1. Global patterns in biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2000-01-01

    To a first approximation, the distribution of biodiversity across the Earth can be described in terms of a relatively small number of broad-scale spatial patterns. Although these patterns are increasingly well documented, understanding why they exist constitutes one of the most significant intellectual challenges to ecologists and biogeographers. Theory is, however, developing rapidly, improving in its internal consistency, and more

  2. Biodiversity and Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-02-16

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  3. Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.; Ashcroft, I. A.

    2011-07-01

    Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.

  4. Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity.

    PubMed

    Heemsbergen, D A; Berg, M P; Loreau, M; van Hal, J R; Faber, J H; Verhoef, H A

    2004-11-01

    The loss of biodiversity can have significant impacts on ecosystem functioning, but the mechanisms involved lack empirical confirmation. Using soil microcosms, we show experimentally that functional dissimilarity among detritivorous species, not species number, drives community compositional effects on leaf litter mass loss and soil respiration, two key soil ecosystem processes. These experiments confirm theoretical predictions that biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning can be predicted by the degree of functional differences among species. PMID:15528441

  5. Cenozoic biodiversity: goals, challenges and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, David

    2014-05-01

    Understanding biodiversity is a major goal of modern science. Biologists document living diversity; study the factors that maintain it, and the effects biodiversity has on ecosystem services. Paleontologists try to understand these same issues by examining biodiversity in the geologic past, and how this history correlates to changes in past environments. Both research agendas are driven by concerns about how biodiversity can be sustained into the future, despite human impacts on biodiversity, including climate change. Measuring biodiversity is a major challenge. Generally only a subset of the total diversity that exist(s/ed) at any one location can actually be recorded, due to rarity of many species, or (for fossils) species that were not preserved. Taxa occurrence data not collected for biodiversity studies is also frequently incompletely recorded. Incomplete, inconsistent taxonomy; and for fossils also incorrect geologic ages for observations are other major sources of error. Several different methods are used to correct for these problems, such as subsampling occurrence data or using expert-compiled taxonomic catalogs. No method is normally fully satisfactory, but, depending on data quality, can often yield useful approximations of actual (usually relative) diversity. Assuming that diversity has been accurately estimated, a second challenge comes in comparing diversity to possible causal factors. A common approach is a statistical comparison between diversity and environmental data series. Whether this is a meaningful exercise depends on the underlying statistical model, and whether this is similar to the processes that we are trying to understand. If for example, we suspect diversity to respond largely only when environmental thresholds are crossed, a linear regression test is not very informative. Our understanding of possible processes is however still primitive, and a poor guide to model selection and analysis. Scale is also important (temporal, geographic, taxic). Long-term trends in diversity and environment for example may show different patterns, and be due to different processes, than diversity responses to shorter-term environmental change. Much paleodiversity research in recent years has looked at Phanerozoic trends, with data binned to ca 10 my long intervals. This seems too long: for comparison, it is doubtful we would have discovered much of what we now know about interactions and processes in Cenozoic paleoceanography and paleoclimates if our data was only at this temporal resolution. Given such challenges in data quality and methods, we need urgently to pay more attention to the relatively high resolution, well preserved Cenozoic records of biodiversity and paleoenvironments. While not perfect, these are perhaps the best fossil/environmental records available to understand how diversity on earth is maintained, and how much is at risk as humanity alters the planet.

  6. Policy Development for Environmental Licensing and Biodiversity Offsets in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance. PMID:25191758

  7. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  8. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  9. Identifying drivers of biodiversity change from fossil long-lived lakes: lessons for risk and resilience of todays long-lived lake biota.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesselingh, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Several fossil long-lived lake systems exist that have a very good spatiotemporal geological and faunal record enabling us to study timeseries of biodiversity change. These complexes, such as the Miocene Pannonian and Quaternary Pontocaspian systems of Europe, Quaternary Lake Biwa in Japan and the Miocene Pebas System in South America enable us to assess the impact of environmental stability and pertubation on component processes of turnover, e.g. migration, speciation and extinction/ extirpation. Also, the temporal dimensions of such processes can be clarified and compared to the nature and rates of current turnover in long-lived lake systems. Our studies suggest that we are currently witnessing dramatic biodiversity loss caused mostly by habitat degradation and destruction in smaller lakes and invasives in larger lakes that may exceed the potential of endemic lake biota to recover. Long-live lakes should serve as an excellent illustration of the magnitude of the current anthropogenic-induced biodiversity crisis.

  10. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  11. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  12. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union

    PubMed Central

    Lock, K.; McKee, M.

    2005-01-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  13. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    SciTech Connect

    Vanclay, Frank [Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)]. E-mail: Frank.Vanclay@utas.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Monjezi; K. Shahriar; H. Dehghani; F. Samimi Namin

    2009-01-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects\\u000a include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process\\u000a in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish\\u000a them. This paper applies

  15. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding HIA practice comprehensively. It seems to be feasible to develop a universal guide that covers all principles required. PMID:24987717

  16. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants ( AS-GMP Method)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katia Regina Evaristo de Jesus-Hitzschky; José Maria F. J. da Silveira

    2009-01-01

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact

  17. Application of Remote Sensing for Environmental Impact Assessment in the Central Rand Goldfield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Mphephu; M. J. Viljoen; H. J. Annegarn

    Environmental impact assessment is now an integral part of the mining operation in South Africa. However, this was not practiced during early mining due to lack of environmental legal requirements relating to environmental impact assessment. The lack of environmental management programme has led to legacy of environmental impacts associated with the post- closure of the mines of the Central Rand

  18. An Investigation of Hypothesis Testing and Power Analysis in Impact Assessment,

    E-print Network

    Burgman, Mark

    An Investigation of Hypothesis Testing and Power Analysis in Impact Assessment, using Case Studies or failure. In this thesis, several BACI-style statistical tests for impact and their statistical power were of Marine Infauna. Janet M. Carey Abstract Statistical analysis is now widely used in impact assessment

  19. Assessing the impact on Agriculture from Climate Douglas Nychka, Sarah Streett and Linda Mearns

    E-print Network

    Nychka, Douglas

    to the atmosphere Climate, Weather, the Sun, Ocean/atmosphere, Ecosystems, Economic impacts, Air qualityAssessing the impact on Agriculture from Climate Change Douglas Nychka, Sarah Streett and Linda. " Report of the National Assessment Synthesis Team: Climate Change Impacts on the United States (2001

  20. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.