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1

Assessment of land use impact on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Land use and changes in land use have a significant impact on biodiversity. Still, there is no agreed upon methodology for\\u000a how this impact should be assessed and included in LCA. This paper presents a methodology for including land use impact on\\u000a biodiversity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment and provides a case example from forestry operations in

Ottar Michelsen

2008-01-01

2

Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

Soederman, Tarja [Senior Researcher, Lic. Phil., Finnish Environment Institute, Nature Division, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

2006-05-15

3

Biodiversity Impact Assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity has become one of the central environmental issues in the framework of recent policies and international conventions for the promotion of sustainable development. The reduction of habitat worldwide is currently considered as the main threat to biodiversity conservation. Transportation infrastructures, and above all road networks, are blamed for highly contributing to the decrease in both the quantity and the quality of natural habitat. Therefore, a sound Biodiversity Impact Assessment (BIA) in road planning and development needs to be coupled to other commonly considered aspects. This paper presents an approach to contribute to BIA of road projects that focuses on one type of impact: the direct loss of ecosystems. The first step consists in mapping the different ecosystem types, and in evaluating their relevance for biodiversity conservation. This is based on the assessment of ecosystem's rarity. Rarity is a measure of how frequently an ecosystem type is found within a given area. Its relevance is confirmed by the fact that the protection of rare ecosystems is often considered as the single most important function of biodiversity conservation. Subsequently, the impact of a road project can be quantified by spatially computing the expected losses of each ecosystem type. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology, a case study is presented dealing with the assessment of alternative routes for a highway development in northern Italy.

Geneletti, Davide

2003-05-01

4

AN INSIGHT INTO THE IMPACT OF ARABLE FARMING ON IRISH BIODIVERSITY: A SCARCITY OF STUDIES HINDERS A RIGOROUS ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help understand and counteract future agronomic challenges to farmland biodiversity, it is essential to know how present farming practices have affected biodiversity on Irish farms. We present an overview of existing research data and conclusions, describing the impact of crop cultivation on biodiversity on Irish arable farms. An extensive literature review clearly indicates that peer-reviewed publications on research conducted

Martin O'Brien; Charles Spillane; Conor Meade; Ewen Mullins

2008-01-01

5

Biodiversity and Human Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic issue that drives all concerns about biodiversity is the accelerating and irreplaceable loss of genes, species, populations, and ecosystems through environmental degradation such as deforestation, strip mining and other developmental projects. A...

J. R. Barker S. Henderson R. F. Noss D. T. Tingey

1990-01-01

6

Assessing the impact of biodiversity on tourism flows: an econometric model for tourist behaviour with implications for conservation policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis provides an example of how biodiversity can be measured by means of different indicators, and how the latter can be used to assess the influence of the biodiversity profile of a region on the tourism flows towards it. Domestic Irish tourist flows have been chosen as a case study. Results show that most of the biodiversity and landscape

Maria L. Loureiro; Giulia Macagno; Paulo A. L. D. Nunes; Richard Tol

2012-01-01

7

The concept of "sustainable ecological succession"; and its value in assessing the recovery of sediment seabed biodiversity from environmental impact.  

PubMed

The problem of determining whether the biodiversity of an impacted muddy seabed is recovering can be resolved by drawing on a concept termed "sustainable ecological succession". At a site impacted by discharge of mine tailings, a suite of approximately 6 primary opportunist species (mostly polychaete worms) had started to sustain itself within 1-2 years after discharge ceased (1995), within the mix of 100+ other species which were not sustaining themselves. The start of a sustaining ecological succession is easily measurable by repeat surveys, and requires only the services of one taxonomic identifier to demonstrate the consistent presence and numbers of a limited range of species. At the assessed site, by 2000, some secondary opportunist species had entered the succession, and the species richness of the impacted area had come to equal that of the reference areas. PMID:12535967

Ellis, Derek V

2003-01-01

8

Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The second cross-cutting topic is the rapidly advancing field of climate adaptation, where there has been significant progress in developing the conceptual framework, planning approaches, and strategies for safeguarding biodiversity and other ecological resources. At the same time, ecosystem-based adaptation is becoming more prominent as a way to utilize ecosystem services to help human systems adapt to climate change. In this summary, we present key findings of the technical input, focusing on themes that can be found throughout the report. Thus, this summary takes a more integrated look at the question of how climate change is affecting our ecological resources, the implications for humans, and possible response strategies. This integrated approach better reflects the impacts of climate in the real world, where changes in ecosystem structure or function will alter the viability of different species and the efficacy of ecosystem services. Likewise, adaptation to climate change will simultaneously address a range of conservation goals. Case studies are used to illustrate this complete picture throughout the report; a snapshot of one case study, 2011 Las Conchas, New Mexico Fire, is included in this summary.

Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart, III; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

9

Volunteers assess marine biodiversity.  

PubMed

Much less is known about marine biodiversity than that of terrestrial and freshwater environments. There is surprisingly little information about even the most common of organisms that live on the seashore. Science has limited resources to study them and volunteers can therefore make significant contributions. This article considers the value of a project in which volunteers are mapping the distribution and abundance of littoral animals and plants of the Northumberland coast. PMID:11509762

Evans, S M; Foster-Smith, J; Welch, R

2001-08-01

10

Spatial rule-based assessment of habitat potential to predict impact of land use changes on biodiversity at municipal scale.  

PubMed

In human dominated landscapes, ecosystems are under increasing pressures caused by urbanization and infrastructure development. In Alpine valleys remnant natural areas are increasingly affected by habitat fragmentation and loss. In these contexts, there is a growing risk of local extinction for wildlife populations; hence assessing the consequences on biodiversity of proposed land use changes is extremely important. The article presents a methodology to assess the impacts of land use changes on target species at a local scale. The approach relies on the application of ecological profiles of target species for habitat potential (HP) assessment, using high resolution GIS-data within a multiple level framework. The HP, in this framework, is based on a species-specific assessment of the suitability of a site, as well of surrounding areas. This assessment is performed through spatial rules, structured as sets of queries on landscape objects. We show that by considering spatial dependencies in habitat assessment it is possible to perform better quantification of impacts of local-level land use changes on habitats. PMID:21274530

Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

2011-01-28

11

Spatial Rule-Based Assessment of Habitat Potential to Predict Impact of Land Use Changes on Biodiversity at Municipal Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In human dominated landscapes, ecosystems are under increasing pressures caused by urbanization and infrastructure development. In Alpine valleys remnant natural areas are increasingly affected by habitat fragmentation and loss. In these contexts, there is a growing risk of local extinction for wildlife populations; hence assessing the consequences on biodiversity of proposed land use changes is extremely important. The article presents a methodology to assess the impacts of land use changes on target species at a local scale. The approach relies on the application of ecological profiles of target species for habitat potential (HP) assessment, using high resolution GIS-data within a multiple level framework. The HP, in this framework, is based on a species-specific assessment of the suitability of a site, as well of surrounding areas. This assessment is performed through spatial rules, structured as sets of queries on landscape objects. We show that by considering spatial dependencies in habitat assessment it is possible to perform better quantification of impacts of local-level land use changes on habitats.

Scolozzi, Rocco; Geneletti, Davide

2011-03-01

12

Improving consideration of biodiversity in NEPA assessments  

SciTech Connect

Loss of biological diversity is a major national, as well as global, environmental problem. Several federal agencies have begun to develop strategies to conserve biodiversity, but most agencies have not done so. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) can play an important role in assessing losses and identifying mitigating measures. In most cases, environmental impact assessments have addressed components of biodiversity, such as endangered species, rather than provided the more comprehensive assessments that will be required over the long run. Strategies to conserve biodiversity must be developed on a regional, landscape, or ecosystem scale, taking into account cumulative effects of development. Such strategies can also provide the framework for project-specific NEPA assessments. Progress in applying the pragmatic methods, techniques, and strategies that are now emerging will be limited by the recognition and priority agencies are willing to assign to biodiversity conservation in their programs. Despite current efforts, a more specific legislative mandate probably will be needed to assure adequate action to minimize losses of biological resources.

Hirsch, A. (Midwest Research Inst., Falls Church, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

13

Treatment of biodiversity impacts in a sample of US environmental impact statements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the project discussed here were to identify the level of documentation in US environmental impact statements dealing with biodiversity impact assessment, determine whether, in the years following release in 1993 of US Council on Environmental Quality guidelines on biodiversity, the treatment of the subject has changed, and identify deficiencies. A systematic review process examined 35 US impact

Samuel F. Atkinson; Sarika Bhatia; F. Andrew Schoolmaster; William T. Waller

2000-01-01

14

Coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity assessments of land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Geospatial details about land use are necessary to assess its potential impacts on biodiversity. Geographic information systems\\u000a (GIS) are adept at modeling land use in a spatially explicit manner, while life cycle assessment (LCA) does not conventionally\\u000a utilize geospatial information. This study presents a proof-of-concept approach for coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity\\u000a assessments of land use and applies it

Roland Geyer; David M. Stoms; Jan P. Lindner; Frank W. Davis; Bastian Wittstock

2010-01-01

15

Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.  

PubMed

The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use. PMID:21844695

Carpenter, Janet E

16

Impacts of recreation on biodiversity in wilderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss seven recreational impacts on biodiversity in wilderness areas. These include: 1) construction of trails, 2) trampling of vegetation and soils on trails and campsites, 3) collection and burning of wood in campfires, 4) water pollution associated with camping activities, 5) unintentional harassment of animals, 6) hunting, fishing, and associated management programs, and 7) grazing by processes and functions

David N. Cole; Richard L. Knight

1990-01-01

17

Towards more rigorous Assessment of Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is often ill-defined and subjectively surveyed, resulting in inefficient and ambiguous estimates. Strengths and deficiencies of prevailing survey techniques are appraised through a review of selected literature. Analogies with forest inventory are used to suggest options for more efficient and rigorous biodiversity assessment. Techniques such as variable-probability and model-based sampling, especially when used in conjunction with generalized linear modelling,

JEROME K. VANCLAY

1998-01-01

18

Biodiversity in environmental assessment-current practice and tools for prediction  

SciTech Connect

Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are essential instruments used in physical planning to address such problems. Yet there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity. In this study, a literature review was conducted on GIS-based ecological models that have potential as prediction tools for biodiversity assessment. Further, a review of environmental impact statements for road and railway projects from four European countries was performed, to study how impact prediction concerning biodiversity issues was addressed. The results of the study showed the existing gap between research in GIS-based ecological modelling and current practice in biodiversity assessment within environmental assessment.

Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se; Balfors, Berit [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: balfors@kth.se; Moertberg, Ulla [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: mortberg@kth.se

2006-04-15

19

The Role of Indigenous Knowledge in Biodiversity Assessment and ...  

Treesearch

This concern has led to the development of rapid biodiversity assessment ... The study was meant to identify, select indicators for biodiversity assessment and ... thus empowering them to undertake sustainable management initiatives.

20

Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature.  

PubMed

Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set. PMID:19325850

Crozier, Ross H; Dunnett, Lisa J; Agapow, Paul-Michael

2007-02-21

21

Phylogenetic biodiversity assessment based on systematic nomenclature  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity assessment demands objective measures, because ultimately conservation decisions must prioritize the use of limited resources for preserving taxa. The most general framework for the objective assessment of conservation worth are those that assess evolutionary distinctiveness, e.g. Genetic (Crozier 1992) and Phylogenetic Diversity (Faith 1992), and Evolutionary History (Nee & May 1997). These measures all attempt to assess the conservation worth of any scheme based on how much of the encompassing phylogeny of organisms is preserved. However, their general applicability is limited by the small proportion of taxa that have been reliably placed in a phylogeny. Given that phylogenizaton of many interesting taxa or important is unlikely to occur soon, we present a framework for using taxonomy as a reasonable surrogate for phylogeny. Combining this framework with exhaustive searches for combinations of sites containing maximal diversity, we provide a proof-of-concept for assessing conservation schemes for systematized but un-phylogenised taxa spread over a series of sites. This is illustrated with data from four studies, on North Queensland flightless insects (Yeates et al. 2002), ants from a Florida Transect (Lubertazzi & Tschinkel 2003), New England bog ants (Gotelli & Ellison 2002) and a simulated distribution of the known New Zealand Lepidosauria (Daugherty et al. 1994). The results support this approach, indicating that species, genus and site numbers predict evolutionary history, to a degree depending on the size of the data set.

Crozier, Ross H; Dunnett, Lisa J; Agapow, Paul-Michael

2007-01-01

22

Biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

Traditional herbalists act as a first-level screen for plants which may contain chemicals with significant pharmaceutical potential. Unfortunately, the destruction of rain forests is likely to lead to the extinction of many plant species before their potential can be explored. 165,000 km[sup 2] of tropical forest and 90,000 km[sup 2] of range land are destroyed or degraded each year, an annual attrition rate of about 1% for tropical forest. If these losses continue until only land set aside in parks is left, 66% of plant and 69% of animal species may be lost. The burning of forests to clear land for human settlement also makes a significant contribution to the greenhouse gases that are raising global mean temperatures. There are synergisms--here between rainforest destruction, loss of biodiversity, and global climate change--with potential impacts on health. Some aspects will be explored more fully in the contributions on vector-borne diseases and direct impacts and in the collaborative review of monitoring with which the series ends.

Dobson, A. (Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Carper, R. (John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-10-30

23

Future environmental change impacts on rural land use and biodiversity: a synthesis of the ACCELERATES project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ACCELERATES project aimed to assess the vulnerability of European agro-ecosystems to environmental change in support of the conventions of climate change and biological diversity. This was based on a study of the impact of environmental change on land use and biodiversity (for selected species and habitats) in agro-ecosystems. The approach integrated existing models of agricultural land use, species distribution

M. D. A. Rounsevell; P. M. Berry; P. A. Harrison

2006-01-01

24

Impacts of agricultural land-use changes on biodiversity in Taihu Lake Basin, China: a multi-scale cause–effect approach considering multiple land-use functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to assess the impacts of agricultural land-use changes on biodiversity in Taihu Lake Basin, China, and to identify possible conservation strategies. We used the mean species abundance (MSA) approach, building on simple cause–effect relationships between environmental drivers and biodiversity impacts at the global level. Our assessment estimated that 21% of the original species in the undisturbed ecosystem

Masayasu Asai; Pytrik Reidsma; Shuyi Feng

2010-01-01

25

Evaluating a Multi-Component Assessment Framework for Biodiversity Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners (NCEP) is a global initiative that seeks to create opportunities for the broad exchange of educational and training information and strategies among conservation educators and practitioners. The lack of access to such resources is a significant obstacle to building capacity in biodiversity conservation. To expand teaching resources and availability, NCEP has created over sixty web-based curricular modules on biodiversity topics that emphasize active learning pedagogies and the application of critical thinking to conservation problems. To complement the modules, we developed a multi-component assessment framework that evaluates 1) content knowledge before and after using the modules, 2) student confidence in their knowledge of biodiversity, 3) interest in biodiversity topics, 4)development of process skills that are important for conservation, and 5) changes in worldview and environmental orientation. Using this framework, three NCEP modules were tested in five diverse undergraduate courses and institutions with various class sizes. We predicted significant learning gains in content knowledge and changes in ecological attitudes and worldviews. We found significant learning gains in content knowledge as well as increases in student confidence in content knowledge and greater interest in the field of biodiversity conservation. Module use did not change the overall environmental worldview of students in the study population. We also detected statistically significant declines in overall student confidence in process skills important to conservation. Analyses revealed no significant differences in any study variables based upon demographics such as school, gender, ethnicity, class standing, reason forenrollment or academic major. Results demonstrate the value of the NCEP modules in enhancing biodiversity education, and the value of assessing student ability and perceptions of ability as measures of the effectiveness of educational programs.

Hagenbuch, Brian E.

2011-08-24

26

Assessing Global Marine Biodiversity Status within a Coupled Socio-Ecological Perspective  

PubMed Central

People value the existence of a variety of marine species and habitats, many of which are negatively impacted by human activities. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international and national policy agreements have set broad goals for reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. However, efforts to conserve biodiversity cannot be effective without comprehensive metrics both to assess progress towards meeting conservation goals and to account for measures that reduce pressures so that positive actions are encouraged. We developed an index based on a global assessment of the condition of marine biodiversity using publically available data to estimate the condition of species and habitats within 151 coastal countries. Our assessment also included data on social and ecological pressures on biodiversity as well as variables that indicate whether good governance is in place to reduce them. Thus, our index is a social as well as ecological measure of the current and likely future status of biodiversity. As part of our analyses, we set explicit reference points or targets that provide benchmarks for success and allow for comparative assessment of current conditions. Overall country-level scores ranged from 43 to 95 on a scale of 1 to 100, but countries that scored high for species did not necessarily score high for habitats. Although most current status scores were relatively high, likely future status scores for biodiversity were much lower in most countries due to negative trends for both species and habitats. We also found a strong positive relationship between the Human Development Index and resilience measures that could promote greater sustainability by reducing pressures. This relationship suggests that many developing countries lack effective governance, further jeopardizing their ability to maintain species and habitats in the future.

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Best, Benjamin D.; Hardy, Darren; Elfes, Cristiane T.; Scarborough, Courtney; Kleisner, Kristin M.; Katona, Steven K.

2013-01-01

27

Assessing global marine biodiversity status within a coupled socio-ecological perspective.  

PubMed

People value the existence of a variety of marine species and habitats, many of which are negatively impacted by human activities. The Convention on Biological Diversity and other international and national policy agreements have set broad goals for reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. However, efforts to conserve biodiversity cannot be effective without comprehensive metrics both to assess progress towards meeting conservation goals and to account for measures that reduce pressures so that positive actions are encouraged. We developed an index based on a global assessment of the condition of marine biodiversity using publically available data to estimate the condition of species and habitats within 151 coastal countries. Our assessment also included data on social and ecological pressures on biodiversity as well as variables that indicate whether good governance is in place to reduce them. Thus, our index is a social as well as ecological measure of the current and likely future status of biodiversity. As part of our analyses, we set explicit reference points or targets that provide benchmarks for success and allow for comparative assessment of current conditions. Overall country-level scores ranged from 43 to 95 on a scale of 1 to 100, but countries that scored high for species did not necessarily score high for habitats. Although most current status scores were relatively high, likely future status scores for biodiversity were much lower in most countries due to negative trends for both species and habitats. We also found a strong positive relationship between the Human Development Index and resilience measures that could promote greater sustainability by reducing pressures. This relationship suggests that many developing countries lack effective governance, further jeopardizing their ability to maintain species and habitats in the future. PMID:23593188

Selig, Elizabeth R; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Best, Benjamin D; Hardy, Darren; Elfes, Cristiane T; Scarborough, Courtney; Kleisner, Kristin M; Katona, Steven K

2013-04-11

28

Biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

In tropical forests, on coral reefs, and in other threatened habitats, countless plant, animal, and microbial species face possible extinction - their names unknown, their numbers uncounted, their value unreckoned. Although popular attention has focused on the plight of more visible and widely known species like the whooping crane or the African elephant, most-experts agree that the loss of less-obvious organisms could be much more devastating. This is the subject of the volume. It calls attention to a most urgent global problem: the rapidly accelerating loss of plant and animal species to increasing human-population pressure and the demands of economic development. The book explores biodiversity from a wide variety of viewpoints.

Wilson, E.O.; Peter, F.M.

1988-01-01

29

Impact of land use on the biodiversity integrity of the moist sub-biome of the grassland biome, South Africa.  

PubMed

South Africa's moist grassland harbours globally significant biodiversity, supplies essential ecosystem services, supports crop and livestock agriculture, forestry and settlement, yet is poorly conserved. Ongoing transformation and limited opportunity for expanding the protected area network require instead that biodiversity conservation is 'mainstreamed' within other land uses. This exercise sought to identify the relative compatibility of 10 land uses (conservation, livestock or game ranching, tourism/recreation, rural settlement, dryland cropping, irrigated cropping, dairy farming, plantation forestry, and urban settlement) with maintaining biodiversity integrity. This was assessed using 46 indicators for biodiversity integrity that covered landscape composition, structure, and functioning. Data was integrated into a single measure per land use through application of the analytic hierarchy process, with supporting information gained from interviews with experts. The rank order of importance amongst indicators was landscape structure, functioning and composition. Consistent differences among land uses for all three categories revealed two clear groupings. Conservation, livestock or game ranching had the lowest impact and retained substantial natural asset, while that for tourism/recreation was intermediate. All other land uses had a severe impact. Impact on biodiversity integrity depended mainly on the extent of transformation and fragmentation, which accounted for the greatest impact on habitats and species, and impairment of landscape functioning. It is suggested that a strategic intervention for maintaining biodiversity integrity of moist grassland is to support livestock or game ranching and limit ongoing urban sprawl. PMID:18082314

O'Connor, T G; Kuyler, P

2007-12-21

30

Detectability Counts when Assessing Populations for Biodiversity Targets  

PubMed Central

Efficient, practical and accurate estimates of population parameters are a necessary basis for effective conservation action to meet biodiversity targets. The brown hare is representative of many European farmland species: historically widespread and abundant but having undergone rapid declines as a result of agricultural intensification. As a priority species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, it has national targets for population increase that are part of wider national environmental indicators. Previous research has indicated that brown hare declines have been greatest in pastural landscapes and that gains might be made by focussing conservation effort there. We therefore used hares in pastural landscapes to examine how basic changes in survey methodology can affect the precision of population density estimates and related these to national targets for biodiversity conservation in the UK. Line transects for hares carried out at night resulted in higher numbers of detections, had better-fitting detection functions and provided more robust density estimates with lower effort than those during the day, due primarily to the increased probability of detection of hares at night and the nature of hare responses to the observer. Hare spring densities varied widely within a single region, with a pooled mean of 20.6 hares km?2, significantly higher than the reported national average of hares in pastures of 3.3 hares km?2. The high number of encounters allowed us to resolve hare densities at site, season and year scales. We demonstrate how survey conduct can impact on data quantity and quality with implications for setting and monitoring biodiversity targets. Our case study of the brown hare provides evidence that for wildlife species with low detectability, large scale volunteer-based monitoring programmes, either species specific or generalist, might be more successfully and efficiently carried out by a small number of trained personnel able to employ methods that maximise detectability.

Petrovan, Silviu O.; Ward, Alastair I.; Wheeler, Philip

2011-01-01

31

Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades.  

PubMed

Plant diversity generally promotes biomass production, but how the shape of the response curve changes with time remains unclear. This is a critical knowledge gap because the shape of this relationship indicates the extent to which loss of the first few species will influence biomass production. Using two long-term (?13 years) biodiversity experiments, we show that the effects of diversity on biomass productivity increased and became less saturating over time. Our analyses suggest that effects of diversity-dependent ecosystem feedbacks and interspecific complementarity accumulate over time, causing high-diversity species combinations that appeared functionally redundant during early years to become more functionally unique through time. Consequently, simplification of diverse ecosystems will likely have greater negative impacts on ecosystem functioning than has been suggested by short-term experiments. PMID:22556253

Reich, Peter B; Tilman, David; Isbell, Forest; Mueller, Kevin; Hobbie, Sarah E; Flynn, Dan F B; Eisenhauer, Nico

2012-05-01

32

How should we grow cities to minimize their biodiversity impacts?  

PubMed

Urbanization causes severe environmental degradation and continues to increase in scale and intensity around the world, but little is known about how we should design cities to minimize their ecological impact. With a sprawling style of urban development, low intensity impact is spread across a wide area, and with a compact form of development intense impact is concentrated over a small area; it remains unclear which of these development styles has a lower overall ecological impact. Here, we compare the consequences of compact and sprawling urban growth patterns on bird distributions across the city of Brisbane, Australia. We predicted the impact on bird populations of adding 84,642 houses to the city in either a compact or sprawling design using statistical models of bird distributions. We show that urban growth of any type reduces bird distributions overall, but compact development substantially slows these reductions at the city scale. Urban-sensitive species particularly benefited from compact development at the city scale because large green spaces were left intact, whereas the distributions of nonnative species expanded as a result of sprawling development. As well as minimizing ecological disruption, compact urban development maintains human access to public green spaces. However, backyards are smaller, which impacts opportunities for people to experience nature close to home. Our results suggest that cities built to minimize per capita ecological impact are characterized by high residential density, with large interstitial green spaces and small backyards, and that there are important trade-offs between maintaining city-wide species diversity and people's access to biodiversity in their own backyard. PMID:23504779

Sushinsky, Jessica R; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Possingham, Hugh P; Gill, Tony K; Fuller, Richard A

2012-11-06

33

Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective  

PubMed Central

Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity.

Morris, Rebecca J.

2010-01-01

34

Predictive Models for Fish Assemblages in Eastern U.S. Streams: Implications for Assessing Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management and conservation of aquatic systems require the ability to assess biological conditions and identify changes in biodiversity. Predictive models for fish assemblages were constructed to assess biological condition and changes in biodiversity for streams sampled in the eastern United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Separate predictive models were developed for northern

Michael R. Meador; Daren M. Carlisle

2009-01-01

35

Biodiversity: Function and Assessment in Agricultural Areas: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity has become a central concept in agronomical research since the Rio de Janeiro summit in 1992. Agricultural areas include a unique biological diversity which is the basis of human activities. Conservation of this biodiversity in agricultural and protected areas is therefore fundamental and requires an operational approach. Biodiversity is a complex entity which can be spread over several levels

Boris Clergue; Bernard Amiaud; Frank Pervanchon; Françoise Lasserre-Joulin; Sylvain Plantureux

36

Assessing Paleo-Biodiversity Using Low Proxy Influx  

PubMed Central

We developed an algorithm to improve richness assessment based on paleoecological series, considering sample features such as their temporal resolutions or their volumes. Our new method can be applied to both high- and low-count size proxies, i.e. pollen and plant macroremain records, respectively. While pollen generally abounds in sediments, plant macroremains are generally rare, thus leading to difficulties to compute paleo-biodiversity indices. Our approach uses resampled macroremain influxes that enable the computation of the rarefaction index for the low influx records. The raw counts are resampled to a constant resolution and sample volume by interpolating initial sample ages at a constant time interval using the age?depth model. Then, the contribution of initial counts and volume to each interpolated sample is determined by calculating a proportion matrix that is in turn used to obtain regularly spaced time series of pollen and macroremain influx. We applied this algorithm to sedimentary data from a subalpine lake situated in the European Alps. The reconstructed total floristic richness at the study site increased gradually when both pollen and macroremain records indicated a decrease in relative abundances of shrubs and an increase in trees from 11,000 to 7,000 cal BP. This points to an ecosystem change that favored trees against shrubs, whereas herb abundance remained stable. Since 6,000 cal BP, local richness decreased based on plant macroremains, while pollen-based richness was stable. The reconstructed richness and evenness are interrelated confirming the difficulty to distinguish these two aspects for the studies in paleo-biodiversity. The present study shows that low-influx bio-proxy records (here macroremains) can be used to reconstruct stand diversity and address ecological issues. These developments on macroremain and pollen records may contribute to bridge the gap between paleoecology and biodiversity studies.

Blarquez, Olivier; Finsinger, Walter; Carcaillet, Christopher

2013-01-01

37

Assessing paleo-biodiversity using low proxy influx.  

PubMed

We developed an algorithm to improve richness assessment based on paleoecological series, considering sample features such as their temporal resolutions or their volumes. Our new method can be applied to both high- and low-count size proxies, i.e. pollen and plant macroremain records, respectively. While pollen generally abounds in sediments, plant macroremains are generally rare, thus leading to difficulties to compute paleo-biodiversity indices. Our approach uses resampled macroremain influxes that enable the computation of the rarefaction index for the low influx records. The raw counts are resampled to a constant resolution and sample volume by interpolating initial sample ages at a constant time interval using the age?depth model. Then, the contribution of initial counts and volume to each interpolated sample is determined by calculating a proportion matrix that is in turn used to obtain regularly spaced time series of pollen and macroremain influx. We applied this algorithm to sedimentary data from a subalpine lake situated in the European Alps. The reconstructed total floristic richness at the study site increased gradually when both pollen and macroremain records indicated a decrease in relative abundances of shrubs and an increase in trees from 11,000 to 7,000 cal BP. This points to an ecosystem change that favored trees against shrubs, whereas herb abundance remained stable. Since 6,000 cal BP, local richness decreased based on plant macroremains, while pollen-based richness was stable. The reconstructed richness and evenness are interrelated confirming the difficulty to distinguish these two aspects for the studies in paleo-biodiversity. The present study shows that low-influx bio-proxy records (here macroremains) can be used to reconstruct stand diversity and address ecological issues. These developments on macroremain and pollen records may contribute to bridge the gap between paleoecology and biodiversity studies. PMID:23776556

Blarquez, Olivier; Finsinger, Walter; Carcaillet, Christopher

2013-06-11

38

Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this methodology to redefine species ranges in a more biophysically reasonable way. If a specific variable is important for a species, a change in that variable is likely to impact the species. Chapter 3 presents a methodology to identify the impact of environmental changes on 6362 species of mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, based on per-species measures of sensitivity, marginality, range restriction and trends in remotely sensed bioclimatic variables. Maps of the impact of environmental changes on vertebrates of South America were generated, with the Andes, Patagonia and the Atlantic Forest experiencing the strongest impact of environmental change in this over the past quarter century. Contributions of this dissertation include the development of new range polygons for all mammals, amphibians and birds of South America, as well as a methodology to re-draw the polygons in any other region of the world. This dataset is essential for both biodiversity analysis and conservation prioritization. Other contributions are the generation of maps of impact of global change on biodiversity, together with a framework for the development and updating of those maps. Conservation and monitoring agencies will find this research useful not only for the selection of new conservation areas but also for prioritizing areas for field monitoring.

Sangermano, Florencia

39

Odonata enter the biodiversity crisis debate: The first global assessment of an insect group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status and trends of global biodiversity are often measured with a bias towards datasets limited to terrestrial vertebrates. The first global assessment of an insect order (Odonata) provides new context to the ongoing discussion of current biodiversity loss. A randomly selected sample of 1500 (26.4%) of the 5680 described dragonflies and damselflies was assessed using IUCN’s Red List criteria.

Viola Clausnitzer; Vincent J. Kalkman; Mala Ram; Ben Collen; Jonathan E. M. Baillie; Matjaž Bedjani?; William R. T. Darwall; Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra; Rory Dow; John Hawking; Haruki Karube; Elena Malikova; Dennis Paulson; Kai Schütte; Frank Suhling; Reagan J. Villanueva; Natalia von Ellenrieder; Keith Wilson

2009-01-01

40

Synoptic assessment of wetland function: a planning tool for protection of wetland species biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment provides a method for prioritizing sub-basins potentially critical for supporting wetland species biodiversity and may assist environmental managers and conservationists constrained

E. William Schweiger; Scott G. Leibowitz; Jeffrey B. Hyman; Walt E. Foster; Marla C. Downing

2002-01-01

41

Potential impacts of petroleum exploration and exploitation on biodiversity in a Patagonian Nature Reserve, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum exploration and extraction are common on the Patagonian steppe, but their impacts on the native biodiversity have not been properly evaluated. We describe both activities in a Patagonian nature reserve and consider their potential impacts on biodiversity. More than 2025 km of seismic lines inside the reserve resulted in 87.21 m2\\/ha (0.9%) of directly affected land, and 793 fragments

Sandra Marcela Fiori; Sergio Martín Zalba

2003-01-01

42

Assessing the Influence of the Solar Orbit on Terrestrial Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial fossil record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

2013-05-01

43

Towards a collaborative, global infrastructure for biodiversity assessment  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity data are rapidly becoming available over the Internet in common formats that promote sharing and exchange. Currently, these data are somewhat problematic, primarily with regard to geographic and taxonomic accuracy, for use in ecological research, natural resources management and conservation decision-making. However, web-based georeferencing tools that utilize best practices and gazetteer databases can be employed to improve geographic data. Taxonomic data quality can be improved through web-enabled valid taxon names databases and services, as well as more efficient mechanisms to return systematic research results and taxonomic misidentification rates back to the biodiversity community. Both of these are under construction. A separate but related challenge will be developing web-based visualization and analysis tools for tracking biodiversity change. Our aim was to discuss how such tools, combined with data of enhanced quality, will help transform today's portals to raw biodiversity data into nexuses of collaborative creation and sharing of biodiversity knowledge.

Guralnick, Robert P; Hill, Andrew W; Lane, Meredith

2007-01-01

44

Monitoring Freshwater Biodiversity at Large Scales: An Assessment of Potential Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation of freshwater biodiversity is a priority for both government agencies and national and international conservation organizations. A number of large-scale conservation plans specifically targeting freshwater biodiversity have been, or will soon be, implemented across the globe. Although numerous potential biodiversity indicators have been proposed for monitoring the status of freshwater ecosystems, few of these indicators have been evaluated. Choice of indicator is especially problematic in many parts of the developing world, where biodiversity data are sparse in general and budgets are limited. In contrast, many developed countries have created freshwater biological assessment programs, which are generally based on measuring aspects of macroinvertebrate assemblages. However, macroinvertebrate-based assessments have not been generally applied to biodiversity conservation, and the extent to which macroinvertebrate-based measures reflect trends or responses in other taxa is unclear. We reviewed the extensive biodiversity and bioassessment literature to identify a practical set of biodiversity indicators for monitoring the success of freshwater conservation plans. After defining the properties that such indicators should possess, we concluded that no single extant indicator can adequately assess the biodiversity status of freshwater fauna. We highlight areas for further research and suggest combinatorial approaches that may prove adequate in the interim.

Simmons, T.; Hawkins, C. P.; Thieme, M.

2005-05-01

45

Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.  

PubMed

Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

2012-03-09

46

Wildfires in Bamboo-Dominated Amazonian Forest: Impacts on Above-Ground Biomass and Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p?=?0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sebastien; Cochrane, Mark A.

2012-01-01

47

Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation

Simon G. Haberle

2007-01-01

48

Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration

Boris Worm; Edward B. Barbier; Nicola Beaumont; J. Emmett Duffy; Carl Folke; Benjamin S. Halpern; Jeremy B. C. Jackson; Heike K. Lotze; Fiorenza Micheli; Stephen R. Palumbi; Enric Sala; Kimberley A. Selkoe; John J. Stachowicz; Reg Watson

2006-01-01

49

Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

The report presents the results of consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) concerning the consideration of biological diversity in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The report is intended to provide background on the emerging, complex subject of biodiversity, outline some general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, describe how the issue is currently addressed in NEPA analyses, and provide options for agencies undertaking NEPA analyses that consider biodiversity. The report does not establish new requirements for such analyses. It is not, and should not be viewed as, formal CEQ guidance on the matter, nor are the recommendations in the report intended to be legally binding. The report does not mean to suggest the biodiversity analyses should be included in every NEPA document, without regard to the degree of potential impact on biodiversity of the action under review.

Not Available

1993-01-01

50

Alien mammals in Europe: updated numbers and trends, and assessment of the effects on biodiversity.  

PubMed

This study provides an updated picture of mammal invasions in Europe, based on detailed analysis of information on introductions occurring from the Neolithic to recent times. The assessment considered all information on species introductions, known extinctions and successful eradication campaigns, to reconstruct a trend of alien mammals' establishment in the region. Through a comparative analysis of the data on introduction, with the information on the impact of alien mammals on native and threatened species of Europe, the present study also provides an objective assessment of the overall impact of mammal introductions on European biodiversity, including information on impact mechanisms. The results of this assessment confirm the constant increase of mammal invasions in Europe, with no indication of a reduction of the rate of introduction. The study also confirms the severe impact of alien mammals, which directly threaten a significant number of native species, including many highly threatened species. The results could help to prioritize species for response, as required by international conventions and obligations. PMID:22938522

Genovesi, Piero; Carnevali, Lucilla; Alonzi, Anna; Scalera, Riccardo

2012-09-01

51

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier

G. Kostoski; C. Albrecht; S. Trajanovski; T. Wilke

2010-01-01

52

A technology framework to analyse the Climate Change impact on biodiversity species distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several biodiversity application scenarios require modeling the impact of climate change on species distribution. For this purpose, heterogeneous data resources and modeling services are required to interoperate. An information technology and service framework to study the Climate Change impact on biodiversity species distribution is presented. This framework allows the development of relevant biodiversity application scenarios. These draw on data and information exchange from a series of systems interconnected through SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) applying established international standards as well as Community interoperability arrangements. The overall system architecture consists of six main logical components: - Biodiversity Data Provider: a component which is able to provide biodiversity data. - Climatological Data Provider: a component which is able to provide climatological data. - Catalog: a component which is able to perform queries on the available biodiversity and climatological datasets. - Model Provider: a component which is able to run ENM (Ecological Niche Models) on the selected biodiversity and climatological datasets. - Use Scenario Controller: a component which acts as a workflow controller implementing the business process of a typical biodiversity scenario. It is controlled by the user through the GUI. - Graphical User Interface (GUI): The component for user interaction. It controls the workflow manager to perform the required operations for implementing the biodiversity basic scenario. These components play the three typical roles of a SOA where Consumers discover Providers through a Registry. In our framework Data and Model providers are the Service Providers; the GUI-Controller pair acts as a Consumer and the Catalog plays the role of the Registry. Where necessary it also acts as a Broker between Consumer and Providers. This fourth component is necessary for heterogeneous and federated systems. The framework was conceived and successfully experimented in the GEOSS Interoperability Process Pilot Project (IP3) and demonstrated at the IV Ministerial summit in Cape Town -November 2007. Presently, the framework is used for the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot project -phase 2. The usage case of the impact of climate change on the distribution of Pikas in North America is presented and discussed. This usage case is based on research being done at the University of Colorado. The used presence datasets were collected by the Scientist and from the GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) Data Portal. Climate datasets were discovered and collected by the WMO publications and distribution system.

Nativi, S.; Khalsa, S. J.; Geller, G. N.; O'Tuama, E.; Thomas, D.; Mazzetti, P.; Santoro, M.

2009-04-01

53

Phylogenetic and Functional Metagenomic Profiling for Assessing Microbial Biodiversity in Environmental Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Decisions guiding environmental management need to be based on a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity and functional capability within ecosystems. Microbes are of particular importance since they drive biogeochemical cycles, being both producers and decomposers. Their quick and direct responses to changes in environmental conditions modulate the ecosystem accordingly, thus providing a sensitive readout. Here we have used direct sequencing of total DNA from water samples to compare the microbial communities of two distinct coastal regions exposed to different anthropogenic pressures: the highly polluted Port of Genoa and the protected area of Montecristo Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of the metagenomes revealed significant differences in both microbial diversity and abundance between the two areas, reflecting their distinct ecological habitats and anthropogenic stress conditions. Our results indicate that the combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatics tools presents a new approach to monitor the diversity and the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Integration of metagenomics into environmental monitoring campaigns should enable the impact of the anthropogenic pressure on microbial biodiversity in various ecosystems to be better assessed and also predicted.

Kisand, Veljo; Valente, Angelica; Lahm, Armin; Tanet, Gerard; Lettieri, Teresa

2012-01-01

54

Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.  

PubMed

The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use. PMID:21537607

Alho, C J R

2011-04-01

55

Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.  

PubMed

Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008) and after the impact (2009-2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

2013-01-10

56

Preliminary global assessment of terrestrial biodiversity consequences of sea-level rise mediated by climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable attention has focused on the climatic effects of global climate change on biodiversity, but few analyses and\\u000a no broad assessments have evaluated effects of sea-level rise on biodiversity. Taking advantage of new maps of marine intrusion\\u000a under scenarios of 1 and 6 m sea-level rise, we calculated areal losses for all terrestrial ecoregions globally, with areal\\u000a losses for particular ecoregions

Shaily Menon; Jorge Soberón; Xingong Li; A. Townsend Peterson

2010-01-01

57

Evaluation of Museum Collection Data for Use in Biodiversity Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural-history collections in museums contain data critical to decisions in biodiversity conserva- tion. Collectively, these specimen-based data describe the distributions of known taxa in time and space. As the most comprehensive, reliable source of knowledge for most described species, these records are potentially available to answer a wide range of conservation and research questions. Nevertheless, these data have short- comings,

W. F. PONDER; G. A. CARTER; P. FLEMONS; R. R. CHAPMAN

2010-01-01

58

Use and misuse of the IUCN Red List Criteria in projecting climate change impacts on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attempts at projecting climate change impacts on biodiversity have used the IUCN Red List Criteria to obtain estimates of extinction rates based on projected range shifts. In these studies, the Criteria are often misapplied, potentially introducing substantial bias and uncertainty. These misapplications include arbitrary changes to temporal and spatial scales; confusion of the spatial variables; and assume a linear

H. RESIT AKÇAKAYA; STUART H. M. BUTCHART; GEORGINA M. MACE; SIMON N. STUART; CRAIG HILTON-TAYLOR

2006-01-01

59

Economic Impacts on the Forest Sector of Increasing Forest Biodiversity Conservation in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next coming years, political decisions will be made upon future actions to safeguard forest biodiversity in Southern Finland. We address the economic consequences on the Finnish forest sector of conserving additional 0.5% to 5% of the old growth forest land in Southern Finland. The impacts on supply, demand and prices of wood and forest industry production are analysed

Riitta Hänninen; A. Maarit; I. Kallio

60

Quantifying the impacts on biodiversity of policies for carbon sequestration in forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest) to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. To date, economic analyses have focused on the costs of forest carbon sequestration policies related to foregone profits from agricultural production. No studies have examined additional costs or benefits associated with impacts on biodiversity.

Stephen Matthews; Raymond O'Connor; Andrew J. Plantinga

2002-01-01

61

SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7), USA. Our assessment provides a method for identi...

62

SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

63

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

Seto, Karen C.; Guneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

64

Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: advances and challenges in DNA-based approaches.  

PubMed

Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. PMID:20919633

Pfrender, Michael E; Hawkins, Charles P; Bagley, Mark; Courtney, Gregory W; Creutzburg, Brian R; Epler, John H; Fend, Steve; Schindel, David; Ferrington, Leonard C; Hartzell, Paula L; Jackson, Suzanne; Larsen, David P; Lévesque, André; Morse, John C; Petersen, Matthew J; Ruiter, Dave; Whiting, Michael

2010-09-01

65

Biodiversity and life support impacts of land use in LCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An operational method to include land use impacts in LCA has been developed. The aim was to base the approach on a scientific framework and to use scientific data to arrive at indicator scores. This has led to a first set of rough impact score data per type of land use on a global level, for two indicators. Remaining subjective

Erwin Lindeijer

2000-01-01

66

Hydropower and Developmental Projects on Himalayan Region: Impact on Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydel potential of the Beas basin is estimated to be 4,050 mw with significant contribution of Parbati, one of the major tributaries of river Beas in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. The potential of river Parbati has been harnessed in three stages comprising Stage-I (750 MW), Stage-II (800 MW) and Stage-III (501 MW). These projects are being planned to be implemented by the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC). NHPC has planned development of the basin with construction of Stage-II initially, and completion of balance investigations of Stage-I and Stage-III before taking up these for construction. The Parbati stage-II is a run-of-the-river scheme to harness hydro potential of the lower reaches of the river Parbati. The project is "Inter basin transfer" type. The river is being diverted at village Pulga in Parbati valley by a diversion tunnel and the powerhouse is being constructed in Sainj valley, adjacent to the Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP). A gross head of 859 m between Pulga and Suind will be utilized for generating 800 MW power. The project proposes a total network of 80.75 km roads to be constructed in dam complex, Sheelagarh complex, power house complex. Considerable loss of wildlife and biodiversity in three valleys is expected to occur. The construction of proposed diversion dam near Pulga in Parbati valley will result in significant loss of upper temperate forested habitats (2700-2900 m). This habitats is characterized by upper temperate coniferous forests and its associated understory vegetation that are home of many endangered floral and faunal species such as: Himalayan musk deer, serow, goral, black bear, common leopard, Western tragopan, cheer pheasant, koklass and monal pheasant. These habitats are now being lost on a permanent basis due to construction of dam and human pressure.

Uniyal, Vp

2010-05-01

67

Modelling the impacts of payments for biodiversity conservation on regional land-use patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a land-use allocation model that evaluates the impact of payments for ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation on land-use patterns. In a non-linear optimisation procedure, land use is allocated at farm level, taking into account risk behaviour, and spatial as well as temporal variability of net revenues of land-use alternatives, using a spatial resolution of 29m×29m. The model

G. H. J. de Koning; P. C. Benítez; F. Muñoz; R. Olschewski

2007-01-01

68

A Framework for Assessing Impacts of Marine Protected Areas in Moorea (French Polynesia) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been promoted as effective management tools to protect biodiversity at local and global scales, but there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about effects of MPAs on species abundances and biodiversity. Commonly used assessment designs typically fail to provide irrefutable evidence of positive effects. In contrast, Before-After- Control-Impact (BACI) designs potentially remedy many of these problems by

Thierry Lison de Loma; Craig W. Osenberg; Jeffrey S. Shima; Yannick Chancerelle; Neil Davies; Andrew J. Brooks; René Galzin

2008-01-01

69

Biodiversity conservation and NEPA  

SciTech Connect

The Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have recently developed new guidelines to facilitate the consideration of biodiversity in the preparation and review of environmental impact assessments. The purpose of these efforts is to facilitate the incorporation of biodiversity considerations into the ecological analyses of all federal agencies. Because federal decisions requiring environmental impact assessments under NEPA affect hundreds of millions of federal and non-federal lands and waters, improved consideration of the impacts of federal activities is essential to stemming the loss of biological diversity in the United States. The designation of ecosystems or habitats'' of concern is a useful first step identifying risks to biodiversity. After reviewing the status and trends of habitats within eight major regions of the US, the EPA guidelines identify habitats contributing to regional and global biodiversity such as remnant prairies, riparian habitats, and old-growth forests. This document also discusses how the impacts on habitats vary with the different activities of land conversion, timber harvesting, grazing, mining, and water management.

Southerland, M.T. (Dynamac Corp., Rockville, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

70

Biodiversity Assessment Using Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering and Spectral Unmixing over Hyperspectral Images.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral images represent an important source of information to assess ecosystem biodiversity. In particular, plant species richness is a primary indicator of biodiversity. This paper uses spectral variance to predict vegetation richness, known as Spectral Variation Hypothesis. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering is our primary tool to retrieve clusters whose Shannon entropy should reflect species richness on a given zone. However, in a high spectral mixing scenario, an additional unmixing step, just before entropy computation, is required; cluster centroids are enough for the unmixing process. Entropies computed using the proposed method correlate well with the ones calculated directly from synthetic and field data. PMID:24132230

Medina, Ollantay; Manian, Vidya; Chinea, J Danilo

2013-10-15

71

Use of indigenous knowledge for rapidly assessing trends in biodiversity: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the usefulness of rapid surveys of indigenous knowledge for assessing trends in biodiversity, a case study was undertaken in two rural communities, Juznajab and Muquenal, in Chiapas, Mexico. This involved the use of a variety of rapid rural appraisal (RRA) and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques, including semi-structured interviews, transect walks and participatory mapping. These approaches

Augustine Hellier; Adrian C. Newton; Susana Ochoa Gaona

1999-01-01

72

Biodiversity of 52 chicken populations assessed by microsatellite typing of DNA pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a project on the biodiversity of chickens funded by the European Commission (EC), eight laboratories collaborated to assess the genetic variation within and between 52 populations from a wide range of chicken types. Twenty-two di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were used to genotype DNA pools of 50 birds from each population. The polymorphism measures for the average, the least polymorphic population

Jossi Hillel; Martien AM Groenen; Michèle Tixier-Boichard; Abraham B Korol; Lior David; Valery M Kirzhner; Terry Burke; Asili Barre-Dirie; Richard PMA Crooijmans; Kari Elo; Marcus W Feldman; Paul J Freidlin; Asko Mäki-Tanila; Marian Oortwijn; Pippa Thomson; Alain Vignal; Klaus Wimmers; Steffen Weigend

2003-01-01

73

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a

M. Alex Smith; Brian L. Fisher; Paul D. N. Hebert

2005-01-01

74

Biodiversity Assessment at Multiple Scales: Linking Remotely Sensed Data with Field Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the efficacy of a scheme of multiscale assessment of biodiversity linking remote sensing on larger spatial scales with localized field sampling. A classification of ecological entities from biosphere to individual organisms in the form of a nested hierarchy is employed, such that entities at any level are differentiated in terms of their composition\\/configuration involving entities at the next

Harini Nagendra; Madhav Gadgil

1999-01-01

75

Biodiversity Assessment in Incomplete Inventories: Leaf Litter Ant Communities in Several Types of Bornean Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity assessment of tropical taxa is hampered by their tremendous richness, which leads to large numbers of singletons and incomplete inventories in survey studies. Species estimators can be used for assessment of alpha diversity, but calculation of beta diversity is hampered by pseudo-turnover of species in undersampled plots. To assess the impact of unseen species, we investigated different methods, including an unbiased estimator of Shannon beta diversity that was compared to biased calculations. We studied alpha and beta diversity of a diverse ground ant assemblage from the Southeast Asian island of Borneo in different types of tropical forest: diperocarp forest, alluvial forest, limestone forest and heath forests. Forests varied in plant composition, geology, flooding regimes and other environmental parameters. We tested whether forest types differed in species composition and if species turnover was a function of the distance between plots at different spatial scales. As pseudo-turnover may bias beta diversity we hypothesized a large effect of unseen species reducing beta diversity. We sampled 206 ant species (25% singletons) from ten subfamilies and 55 genera. Diversity partitioning among the four forest types revealed that whereas alpha species richness and alpha Shannon diversity were significantly smaller than expected, beta-diversity for both measurements was significantly higher than expected by chance. This result was confirmed when we used the unbiased estimation of Shannon diversity: while alpha diversity was much higher, beta diversity differed only slightly from biased calculations. Beta diversity as measured with the Chao-Sørensen or Morisita-Horn Index correlated with distance between transects and between sample points, indicating a distance decay of similarity between communities. We conclude that habitat heterogeneity has a high influence on ant diversity and species turnover in tropical sites and that unseen species may have only little impact on calculation of Shannon beta diversity when sampling effort has been high.

Pfeiffer, Martin; Mezger, Dirk

2012-01-01

76

Impacts of recreation and tourism on plant biodiversity and vegetation in protected areas in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent research into the impact of recreation and tourism in protected areas on plant biodiversity and vegetation communities in Australia. Despite the international significance of the Australian flora and increasing visitation to protected areas there has been limited research on recreational and tourism impacts in Australia. As overseas, there are obvious direct impacts of recreation and tourism such as clearing of vegetation for infrastructure or damage from trampling, horse riding, mountain biking and off road vehicles. As well, there are less obvious but potentially more severe indirect impacts. This includes self-propagating impacts associated with the spread of some weeds from trails and roads. It also includes the severe impact on native vegetation, including many rare and threatened plants, from spread of the root rot fungus Phytopthora cinnamomi. This review highlights the need for more recreational ecology research in Australia. PMID:17234325

Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy

2007-01-17

77

LCA impact assessment categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical framework is presented to evaluate the strengths and the limitations of LCA impact assessment categories to yield\\u000a accurate, useful results. The framework integrates the inherent characteristics of life-cycle inventory (LCI) data sets, characteristics\\u000a of individual impact categories, how impact categories are defined, and the models used to characterize different categories.\\u000a The sources for uncertainty in impact assessment are

J. William Owens

1996-01-01

78

Towards next-generation biodiversity assessment using DNA metabarcoding.  

PubMed

Virtually all empirical ecological studies require species identification during data collection. DNA metabarcoding refers to the automated identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample containing entire organisms or from a single environmental sample containing degraded DNA (soil, water, faeces, etc.). It can be implemented for both modern and ancient environmental samples. The availability of next-generation sequencing platforms and the ecologists' need for high-throughput taxon identification have facilitated the emergence of DNA metabarcoding. The potential power of DNA metabarcoding as it is implemented today is limited mainly by its dependency on PCR and by the considerable investment needed to build comprehensive taxonomic reference libraries. Further developments associated with the impressive progress in DNA sequencing will eliminate the currently required DNA amplification step, and comprehensive taxonomic reference libraries composed of whole organellar genomes and repetitive ribosomal nuclear DNA can be built based on the well-curated DNA extract collections maintained by standardized barcoding initiatives. The near-term future of DNA metabarcoding has an enormous potential to boost data acquisition in biodiversity research. PMID:22486824

Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pompanon, François; Brochmann, Christian; Willerslev, Eske

2012-04-01

79

Morphometrical, biochemical and molecular tools for assessing biodiversity. An example in Plebeia remota (Holmberg, 1903) (Apidae, Meliponini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We see today many efforts to quantify biodiversity in different biomes. It is very important then to develop and to apply other methodologies that allow us to assess biodiversity. Here we present an example of application of three tools with this goal. We analyzed two populations of Plebeia remota from two distinct biomes that already showed several differences in morphology

F. O. Francisco; P. Nunes-Silva; T. M. Francoy; D. Wittmann; V. L. Imperatriz-Fonseca; M. C. Arias; E. D. Morgan

2008-01-01

80

Hydrologic drivers of tree biodiversity: The impact of climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity of forests is of major importance for society. The possible impact of climate change on the characteristics of tree diversity is a topic of crucial importance with relevant implications for conservation campaigns and resource management. Here we present the main results of the expected biodiversity changes in the Mississippi-Missouri River Basin (MMRS) and two of its subregions under different scenarios of possible climate change. A mechanistic neutral metapopulation model is developed to study the main drivers of large scale biodiversity signatures in the MMRS system. The region is divided into 824 Direct Tributary Areas (DTAs), each one characterized by its own habitat capacity. Data for the spatial occurrence of the 231 species present in the system is taken from the US Forest Service Inventory and Analysis Database. The model has permeable boundaries to account for immigration from the regions surrounding the MMRS. The model accounts for key aspects of ecological dynamics (e.g., birth, death, speciation, and migration) and is fundamentally driven by the mean annual precipitation characteristic of each of the DTAs in the system. It is found that such a simple model, with only four parameters, yields an excellent representation of the observed local species richness (LSR), between-community (?) diversity, and species rank-occupancy function. The mean annual rainfall of each DTA is then changed according to the climate scenarios and new habitat capacities are thus obtained throughout the MMRS and its subregions. The resulting large-scale biodiversity signatures are computed and compared with those of the present scenario, showing that there are very important changes arising from the climate change conditions. For the dry scenarios, it is shown that there is a considerable decrease of species richness, both at local and regional scales, and a contraction of species' geographic ranges. These findings link the hydrologic and ecological dynamics of the MMRS under climate change conditions and are important for a comprehensive evaluation of the climate change impacts over the United States.

Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Konar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Azaele, S.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

2009-12-01

81

Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory  

PubMed Central

Although the impacts of the loss of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning are well established, the importance of the loss of biodiversity relative to other human-caused drivers of environmental change remains uncertain. Results of 11 experiments show that ecologically relevant decreases in grassland plant diversity influenced productivity at least as much as ecologically relevant changes in nitrogen, water, CO2, herbivores, drought, or fire. Moreover, biodiversity became an increasingly dominant driver of ecosystem productivity through time, whereas effects of other factors either declined (nitrogen addition) or remained unchanged (all others). In particular, a change in plant diversity from four to 16 species caused as large an increase in productivity as addition of 54 kg?ha?1?y?1 of fertilizer N, and was as influential as removing a dominant herbivore, a major natural drought, water addition, and fire suppression. A change in diversity from one to 16 species caused a greater biomass increase than 95 kg?ha?1?y?1 of N or any other treatment. Our conclusions are based on >7,000 productivity measurements from 11 long-term experiments (mean length, ? 13 y) conducted at a single site with species from a single regional species pool, thus controlling for many potentially confounding factors. Our results suggest that the loss of biodiversity may have at least as great an impact on ecosystem functioning as other anthropogenic drivers of environmental change, and that use of diverse mixtures of species may be as effective in increasing productivity of some biomass crops as fertilization and may better provide ecosystem services.

Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B.; Isbell, Forest

2012-01-01

82

Scale matters: the impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales.  

PubMed

There is increasing recognition that ecosystems and their services need to be managed in the face of environmental change. However, there is little consensus as to the optimum scale for management. This is particularly acute in the agricultural environment given the level of public investment in agri-environment schemes (AES). Using a novel multiscale hierarchical sampling design, we assess the effect of land use at multiple spatial scales (from location-within-field to regions) on farmland biodiversity. We show that on-farm biodiversity components depend on farming practices (organic vs. conventional) at farm and landscape scales, but this strongly interacts with fine- and coarse-scale variables. Different taxa respond to agricultural practice at different spatial scales and often at multiple spatial scales. Hence, AES need to target multiple spatial scales to maximize effectiveness. Novel policy levers may be needed to encourage multiple land managers within a landscape to adopt schemes that create landscape-level benefits. PMID:20482572

Gabriel, Doreen; Sait, Steven M; Hodgson, Jenny A; Schmutz, Ulrich; Kunin, William E; Benton, Tim G

2010-05-05

83

Bottle Traps and Dipnetting: Evaluation of two Sampling Techniques for Assessing Macroinvertebrate Biodiversity in Depressional Wetlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipnet (DN) sampling is routinely employed for macroinvertebrate bioassessments, however it has been shown that some taxa are more effectively sampled with activity traps, commonly called Bottle Traps (BT). In 2001, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency used both DN and BT sampling in nine depressional wetlands in the North Central Hardwood Forest Ecoregion to evaluate macroinvertebrate biodiversity for the purpose of assessing water quality and developing biological criteria. Both methods, consisting of five bottle trap samples and two dip net samples per wetland, were collected from each of two sites in each wetland. To determine the performance of each method in documenting biodiversity, we compared taxa and their abundances by wetland, for each type of sample. DN sampling was more effective, with 44 of 140 macroinvertebrate taxa only identified from DN, compared to 14 only from BT. By contrast, BT more effectively collected leeches and beetles, especially active swimmers such as Tropisternus and several genera of Dytiscidae. However, taxa richness patterns for BT and DN were not strongly correlated. Consequently, we conclude these two sampling methods complement each other, providing a better overall picture of macroinvertebrate biodiversity, and should be used jointly when investigating macroinvertebrate biodiversity in depressional wetlands.

Serieyssol, C. A.; Bouchard, R. W.; Sealock, A. W.; Rufer, M. M.; Chirhart, J.; Genet, J.; Ferrington, L. C.

2005-05-01

84

Risk assessment for biodiversity conservation planning in Pacific Northwest forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment can provide a robust strategy for landscape-scale planning challenges associated with species conservation and habitat protection in Pacific Northwest forests. We provide an overview of quantitative and probabilistic ecological risk assessment with focus on the application of approaches and influences from the actuarial, financial, and technical engineering fields. Within this context, risk refers to exposure to the chance

Becky K. Kerns; Alan Ager

2007-01-01

85

Assessing climate impacts  

PubMed Central

Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fundamental driving-response interactions associated with climate variability, increasingly powerful measurement and modeling techniques make assessing climate impacts a rapidly developing frontier of science.

Wohl, Ellen E.; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Zhang, Jian Yun

2000-01-01

86

Application of SNPs for assessing biodiversity and phylogeny among yeast strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the efficacy of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the assessment of the phylogeny and biodiversity of Saccharomyces strains. Each of 32 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was genotyped at 30 SNP loci discovered by sequence alignment of the S. cerevisiae laboratory strain SK1 to the database sequence of strain S288c. In total, 10 SNPs were selected from each of the

G Ben-Ari; D Zenvirth; A Sherman; G Simchen; U Lavi; J Hillel

2005-01-01

87

The assessment of biodiversity loss over time: wild legumes in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation community has been set a considerable challenge by way of the CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) 2010\\u000a targets. This may not be achievable by 2010 as demanded by the CBD, but at least methodologies can be assessed with a view\\u000a to their implementation, so that loss of biodiversity and its inherent genetic diversity can be reduced post 2010.

Anete Keiša; Nigel Maxted; Brian Ford-Lloyd

2008-01-01

88

Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)  

SciTech Connect

Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

Garcia-Montero, Luis G., E-mail: luisgonzaga.garcia@upm.e [Dept. Forest Engineering, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Lopez, Elena, E-mail: elopez@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monzon, Andres, E-mail: amonzon@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Otero Pastor, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.otero@upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

2010-04-15

89

Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield  

PubMed Central

Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontransgenic, Bt and BtHr cotton had similar yields overall, largely because higher insecticide use with nontransgenic cotton improved control of key pests. Unlike Bt and BtHr cotton, insecticides reduced the diversity of nontarget insects. Several other agronomic and ecological factors also affected biodiversity. Nevertheless, pairwise comparisons of diversity of nontarget insects in cotton fields with diversity in adjacent noncultivated sites revealed similar effects of cultivation of transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on biodiversity. The results indicate that impacts of agricultural intensification can be reduced when replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides by narrow-spectrum Bt crops does not reduce control of pests not affected by Bt crops.

Cattaneo, Manda G.; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carriere, Yves

2006-01-01

90

Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

2012-10-01

91

Assessing land-use effects on water quality, in-stream habitat, riparian ecosystems and biodiversity in Patagonian northwest streams.  

PubMed

Changes in land-use practices have affected the integrity and quality of water resources worldwide. In Patagonia there is a strong concern about the ecological status of surface waters because these changes are rapidly occurring in the region. To test the hypothesis that greater intensity of land-use will have negative effects on water quality, stream habitat and biodiversity we assessed benthic macroinvertebrates, riparian/littoral invertebrates, fish and birds from the riparian corridor and environmental variables of 15 rivers (Patagonia) subjected to a gradient of land-use practices (non-managed native forest, managed native forest, pine plantations, pasture, urbanization). A total of 158 macroinvertebrate taxa, 105 riparian/littoral invertebrate taxa, 5 fish species, 34 bird species, and 15 aquatic plant species, were recorded considering all sites. Urban land-use produced the most significant changes in streams including physical features, conductivity, nutrients, habitat condition, riparian quality and invertebrate metrics. Pasture and managed native forest sites appeared in an intermediate situation. The highest values of fish and bird abundance and diversity were observed at disturbed sites; this might be explained by the opportunistic behavior displayed by these communities which let them take advantage of increased trophic resources in these environments. As expected, non-managed native forest sites showed the highest integrity of ecological conditions and also great biodiversity of benthic communities. Macroinvertebrate metrics that reflected good water quality were positively related to forest land cover and negatively related to urban and pasture land cover. However, by offering stream edge areas, pasture sites still supported rich communities of riparian/littoral invertebrates, increasing overall biodiversity. Macroinvertebrates were good indicators of land-use impact and water quality conditions and resulted useful tools to early alert of disturbances in streams. Fish and birds having a greater ability of dispersion and capacity to move quickly from disturbances would reflect changes at a higher scale. PMID:21094515

Miserendino, María Laura; Casaux, Ricardo; Archangelsky, Miguel; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Yanina; Brand, Cecilia; Kutschker, Adriana Mabel

2010-11-20

92

Biodiversity Performs!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document features a lesson plan in which students work in teams to act out different ecosystem services, describe several free services that biodiversity provides to human, and explain how these services make life on earth possible. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)|

World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

93

A generic approach to integrate biodiversity considerations in screening and scoping for EIA  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requires parties to apply environmental impact assessment (EIA) to projects that potentially negatively impact on biodiversity. As members of the International Association of Impact Assessment, the authors have developed a conceptual framework to integrate biodiversity considerations in EIA. By defining biodiversity in terms of composition, structure, and key processes, and by describing the way in which human activities affect these so-called components of biodiversity, it is possible to assess the potential impacts of human activities on biodiversity. Furthermore, the authors have translated this conceptual framework in generic guidelines for screening and scoping in impact assessment. Countries can use these generic guidelines to further operationalise the framework within the existing national procedures for impact assessment. This paper is fully coherent and partly overlapping with the guidelines recently adopted by the CBD, but differs in the sense that it provides more scientific background and is less policy-oriented.

Slootweg, Roel; Kolhoff, Arend

2003-10-01

94

Environmental Impact Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)|

Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

1975-01-01

95

Assessing biodiversity on the farm scale as basis for ecosystem service payments.  

PubMed

Ecosystem services payments must be based on a standardised transparent assessment of the goods and services provided. This is especially relevant in the context of EU agri-environmental programs, but also for organic-food companies that foster environmental services on their contractor farms. Addressing the farm scale is important because land users/owners are major recipients of payments and they could be more involved in data generation and conservation management. A standardised system for measuring on-farm biodiversity does not yet exist that concentrates on performance indicators and includes farmers in generating information. A method is required that produces ordinal or metric scaled assessment results as well as management measures. Another requirement is the ease of application, which includes the ease of gathering input data and understandability. In order to respond to this need, we developed a method which is designed for automated application in an open source farm assessment system named MANUELA. The method produces an ordinal scale assessment of biodiversity that includes biotopes, species, biotope connectivity and the influence of land use. In addition, specific measures for biotope types are proposed. The open source geographical information system OpenJump is used for the implementation of MANUELA. The results of the trial applications and robustness tests show that the assessment can be implemented, for the most part, using existing information as well as data available from farmers or advisors. The results are more sensitive for showing on-farm achievements and changes than existing biotope-type classifications. Such a differentiated classification is needed as a basis for ecosystem service payments and for designing effective measures. The robustness of the results with respect to biotope connectivity is comparable to that of complex models, but it should be further improved. Interviews with the test farmers substantiate that the assessment methods can be implemented on farms and they are understood by farmers. PMID:22996001

von Haaren, Christina; Kempa, Daniela; Vogel, Katrin; Rüter, Stefan

2012-09-17

96

Effectiveness of marine reserve networks in representing biodiversity and minimizing impact to fishermen: a comparison of two approaches used in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effectiveness of marine reserve networks designed using a numerical optimization tool with networks designed by stakeholders during the course of California's Marine Life Protection Act Initiative at represent- ing biodiversity and minimizing estimated negative impacts to fishermen. We used the same spatial data representing biodiversity and recreational fishing effort that were used by the stakeholders to design

Carissa Joy Klein; Charles Steinback; Astrid J. Scholz; Hugh P. Possingham

2008-01-01

97

Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

2009-03-01

98

Amelioration of biodiversity impacts of genetically modified crops: predicting transient versus long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops may benefit biodiversity because spraying of crops may be delayed until later in the growing season, allowing weeds to grow during the early part of the year. This provides an enhanced resource for arthropods, and potentially benefits birds that feed on these. Thus, this technology could enhance biodiversity. Using a review

R. P. Freckleton; P. A. Stephens; W. J. Sutherland; A. R. Watkinson

2004-01-01

99

What Is Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit on biodiversity includes three separate lesson plans and may be used for students in grades 6 through 10. The concepts touched upon in these activities include the diversity of life on earth, species, the interconnectedness of living things, humanity's impact on biodiversity, and biodiversity loss. Via these lesson plans, which include plans for a field trip, students will have a chance to observe and record their impressions in an outdoor site and later report their experiences to the class.

2012-06-11

100

Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and\\u000a its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed\\u000a was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass,

Anastasija Zaiko; Darius Daunys; Sergej Olenin

2009-01-01

101

WATER RESOURCES AND AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: A ROLE FOR ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF RIVERS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological assessment entails the application of ecological knowledge to environmental problem-solving. Resting on a systems approach, it considers problems from a multi-disciplinary perspective including environmental conditions and ecological systems, and by including humans as an integral part of ecosystems, logically includes socioeconomic systems. Water resources and aquatic biodiversity are intimately interrela ted and interdependent. Both provide a wide range of

Mary Alkins-Koo; Floyd Lucas; Lorraine Maharaj; Shobha Maharaj; Dawn Phillip; Wayne Rostant; Sharda Surujdeo-Maharaj

102

Stakeholders' expectations on ecosystem services affect the assessment of ecosystem services hotspots and their congruence with biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The congruence of ecosystem services (ESs) and the congruence of ES ‘hotspots’ and ‘hotspots’ of biodiversity are receiving growing interest. The thresholds used in such analyses to assess the ES presence vary widely but their effects have not been questioned. We provide an analysis of the effect of the choice of these thresholds on the overlap among ESs and the

Pierre Gos; Sandra Lavorel

2012-01-01

103

Assessing soil biodiversity across Great Britain: national trends in the occurrence of heterotrophic bacteria and invertebrates in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the biodiversity of soils was a component of the Countryside Survey 2000 (CS2000). This was the first integrated survey of soil biota and chemical properties at a national scale. A total of 1052 soil samples were collected across Great Britain during CS2000 and analysed for a range of soil microbial and invertebrate characteristics resulting in the production

H. I. J Black; N. R Parekh; J. S Chaplow; F Monson; J Watkins; R Creamer; E. D Potter; J. M Poskitt; P Rowland; G Ainsworth; M Hornung

2003-01-01

104

Linking community and disease ecology: the impact of biodiversity on pathogen transmission.  

PubMed

The increasing number of zoonotic diseases spilling over from a range of wild animal species represents a particular concern for public health, especially in light of the current dramatic trend of biodiversity loss. To understand the ecology of these multi-host pathogens and their response to environmental degradation and species extinctions, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic community assemblages. Here, we present a multi-host species epidemiological model that includes empirically determined patterns of diversity and composition derived from community ecology studies. We use this framework to study the interaction between wildlife diversity and directly transmitted pathogen dynamics. First, we demonstrate that variability in community composition does not affect significantly the intensity of pathogen transmission. We also show that the consequences of community diversity can differentially impact the prevalence of pathogens and the number of infectious individuals. Finally, we show that ecological interactions among host species have a weaker influence on pathogen circulation than inter-species transmission rates. We conclude that integration of a community perspective to study wildlife pathogens is crucial, especially in the context of understanding and predicting infectious disease emergence events. PMID:22966136

Roche, Benjamin; Dobson, Andrew P; Guégan, Jean-François; Rohani, Pejman

2012-10-19

105

Linking community and disease ecology: the impact of biodiversity on pathogen transmission  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of zoonotic diseases spilling over from a range of wild animal species represents a particular concern for public health, especially in light of the current dramatic trend of biodiversity loss. To understand the ecology of these multi-host pathogens and their response to environmental degradation and species extinctions, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic community assemblages. Here, we present a multi-host species epidemiological model that includes empirically determined patterns of diversity and composition derived from community ecology studies. We use this framework to study the interaction between wildlife diversity and directly transmitted pathogen dynamics. First, we demonstrate that variability in community composition does not affect significantly the intensity of pathogen transmission. We also show that the consequences of community diversity can differentially impact the prevalence of pathogens and the number of infectious individuals. Finally, we show that ecological interactions among host species have a weaker influence on pathogen circulation than inter-species transmission rates. We conclude that integration of a community perspective to study wildlife pathogens is crucial, especially in the context of understanding and predicting infectious disease emergence events.

Roche, Benjamin; Dobson, Andrew P.; Guegan, Jean-Francois; Rohani, Pejman

2012-01-01

106

Ecological mitigation measures in English Environmental Impact Assessment.  

PubMed

Built development is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss in the UK. Major built developments usually require an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be conducted, which frequently includes an Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) chapter. By identifying the flaws in EcIA mitigation measure proposals and their implementation in completed developments, it may be possible to develop measures to reduce biodiversity loss and help meet the UK's EU obligation to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. A review of 112 English EcIAs from 2000 onwards was conducted to provide a broad-scale overview of the information provision and detail of ecological mitigation measures. Audits of seven EIA development case study sites provided finer-scale detail of mitigation measure implementation, and the effectiveness of their grassland and marginal habitat creation and management measures was assessed using standard NVC methodology. Despite higher than expected levels of mitigation measure implementation in completed developments, EcIA mitigation proposal information and detail has seen little improvement since a 1997 review, and the effectiveness of the habitat mitigation measures studied was poor. This suggests that measures to improve ecological mitigation measures are best targeted at ecological consultants. A recommendation for EcIA-specific training of Competent Authorities is also made. PMID:23474334

Drayson, Katherine; Thompson, Stewart

2013-03-05

107

Assessing Conservation Values: Biodiversity and Endemicity in Tropical Land Use Systems  

PubMed Central

Despite an increasing amount of data on the effects of tropical land use on continental forest fauna and flora, it is debatable whether the choice of the indicator variables allows for a proper evaluation of the role of modified habitats in mitigating the global biodiversity crisis. While many single-taxon studies have highlighted that species with narrow geographic ranges especially suffer from habitat modification, there is no multi-taxa study available which consistently focuses on geographic range composition of the studied indicator groups. We compiled geographic range data for 180 bird, 119 butterfly, 204 tree and 219 understorey plant species sampled along a gradient of habitat modification ranging from near-primary forest through young secondary forest and agroforestry systems to annual crops in the southwestern lowlands of Cameroon. We found very similar patterns of declining species richness with increasing habitat modification between taxon-specific groups of similar geographic range categories. At the 8 km2 spatial level, estimated richness of endemic species declined in all groups by 21% (birds) to 91% (trees) from forests to annual crops, while estimated richness of widespread species increased by +101% (trees) to +275% (understorey plants), or remained stable (- 2%, butterflies). Even traditional agroforestry systems lost estimated endemic species richness by - 18% (birds) to - 90% (understorey plants). Endemic species richness of one taxon explained between 37% and 57% of others (positive correlations) and taxon-specific richness in widespread species explained up to 76% of variation in richness of endemic species (negative correlations). The key implication of this study is that the range size aspect is fundamental in assessments of conservation value via species inventory data from modified habitats. The study also suggests that even ecologically friendly agricultural matrices may be of much lower value for tropical conservation than indicated by mere biodiversity value.

Waltert, Matthias; Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Kaupa, Stefanie; Montoya, Marcela Leija; Nsanyi, Moses Sainge; Fermon, Heleen

2011-01-01

108

Land-use and climate change within assessments of biodiversity change: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected changes in biodiversity are likely inadequately estimated when climate and land-use change effects are examined in isolation. A review of studies of the effects of these drivers singly and in combination highlights little discussed complexities in revising these estimates. In addition to considering interactions, different characterisations of climate change, land-use change and biodiversity greatly influence estimates. Habitat loss leading

Jacqueline de Chazal; Mark D. A. Rounsevell

2009-01-01

109

BIODIVERSITY CONSIDERATIONS IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE NEPAL WATER PLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity conservation has been promoted in Nepal (within and outside protected areas) over the last three decades through relevant policies and legislations. The government has encouraged the participation of people through community user groups in managing the biodiversity and sharing the benefits. About 50 percent of the total revenue generated in protected areas is provided annually to such groups for

BATU KRISHNA UPRETY

2005-01-01

110

Citation Patterns of a Controversial and High-Impact Paper: Worm et al. (2006) "Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services"  

PubMed Central

Citation patterns were examined for Worm et al. 2006 (Science 314?787–790), a high-impact paper that focused on relationships between marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper sparked much controversy through its projection, highlighted in the press release, that all marine fisheries would be collapsed by 2048. Analysis of 664 citing papers revealed that only a small percentage (11%) referred to the 2048 projection, while 39% referred to fisheries collapse in general, and 40% to biodiversity and ecosystem services. The 2048 projection was mentioned more often in papers published soon after the original paper, in low-impact journals, and in journals outside of fields that would be expected to focus on biodiversity. Citing papers also mentioned the 2048 projection more often if they had few authors (28% of single-author papers vs. 2% of papers with 10 or more authors). These factors suggest that the more knowledgeable the authors of citing papers were about the controversy over the 2048 projection, the less likely they were to refer to it. A noteworthy finding was that if the original authors were also involved in the citing papers, they rarely (1 of 55 papers, 2%) mentioned the 2048 projection. Thus the original authors have emphasized the broader concerns about biodiversity loss, rather than the 2048 projection, as the key result of their study.

Branch, Trevor A.

2013-01-01

111

Interpreting soil ciliate biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of soil ciliate frequency studies of 47 field studies, from 12 ecosystem types, were combined with recent concepts and observations to assess the importance of soil ciliate biodiversity in ecosystem functioning. A few species typically furnish most of the individuals; increases in biodiversity, produced by less common species, alters soil ciliate communities. Soil ciliates were grouped according to

Stuart S. Bamforth

1995-01-01

112

First prokaryotic biodiversity assessment using molecular techniques of an acidic river in Neuquén, Argentina.  

PubMed

Two acidic hot springs close to the crater of Copahue Volcano (Neuquén, Argentina) are the source of the Río Agrio. The river runs several kilometres before flowing into Caviahue Lake. Along the river, temperature, iron, other metal and proton concentrations decrease gradually with distance downstream. From the source to the lake and depending on the season, pH can rise from 1.0 (or even less) to about 4.0, while temperature values decrease from 70°C to 15°C. Water samples were taken from different stations on the river selected according to their physicochemical parameters. In order to assess prokaryotic biodiversity throughout the water column, different and complementary molecular biology techniques were used, mainly in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. All microorganisms found are typical of acidic environments. Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria like Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus albertensis were detected in every station. Moderately thermophile iron- and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria like members of Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus genera were also ubiquitous. Strict iron-oxidizing bacteria like Leptospirillum and Ferrimicrobium were present at the source of the river, but disappeared downstream where iron concentrations were much lower. Iron-oxidizing, mesophilic Ferroplasma spp. were the main archaea found. The data presented in this work represent the first molecular assessment of this rare natural acidic environment. PMID:22214994

Urbieta, M Sofía; González Toril, E; Aguilera, A; Giaveno, M Alejandra; Donati, E

2012-01-04

113

32 CFR Appendix - Privacy Impact Assessment  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment] 32 NATIONAL DEFENSE ...Appendix E to Part 806b--Privacy Impact Assessment Section A--Introduction and...under development is the Privacy Impact Assessment. The Privacy Impact...

2009-07-01

114

Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

Stover, Lloyd V.

115

Scoping for Social Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

2000-12-01

116

Assessing impacts of climate change on forests: The state of biological modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one

V. H. Dale; H. M. Rauscher

1993-01-01

117

Assessing impacts of climate change on forests: The state of biological modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models that address the impacts of climate change on forests are reviewed at four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared for their ability to assess changes in fluxes of biogenic greenhouse gases, land use, patterns of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No

Virginia H. Dale; H. Michael Rauscher

1994-01-01

118

Monitoring conservation effectiveness in a global biodiversity hotspot: the contribution of land cover change assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forests, which play critical roles in global biogeochemical cycles, radiation budgets and biodiversity, have undergone\\u000a rapid changes in land cover in the last few decades. This study examines the complex process of land cover change in the biodiversity\\u000a hotspot of Western Ghats, India, specifically investigating the effects of conservation measures within the Indira Gandhi\\u000a Wildlife Sanctuary. Current vegetation patterns

Shijo Joseph; George Alan Blackburn; Biswadip Gharai; S. Sudhakar; A. P. Thomas; M. S. R. Murthy

2009-01-01

119

DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a comparison of inventories at four localities in northern Madagascar, patterns of richness were not significantly different when richness was determined using morphological taxonomy (morphospecies) or sequence divergence thresholds (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit(s); MOTU). However, sequence-based methods tended to yield greater richness and significantly lower indices of similarity than morphological taxonomy. MOTU determined using our molecular technique were a remarkably local phenomenon—indicative of highly restricted dispersal and/or long-term isolation. In cases where molecular and morphological methods differed in their assignment of individuals to categories, the morphological estimate was always more conservative than the molecular estimate. In those cases where morphospecies descriptions collapsed distinct molecular groups, sequence divergences of 16% (on average) were contained within the same morphospecies. Such high divergences highlight taxa for further detailed genetic, morphological, life history, and behavioral studies.

Smith, M. Alex; Fisher, Brian L; Hebert, Paul D.N

2005-01-01

120

Impact of rural community harvesting practices on plant biodiversity in Kudremukh National Park, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kudremukh National Park in the central Western Ghats (India) is a mega-biodiversity hotspot. However, the dependence on forests of tribal and non-tribal settlements in the core area of the park has resulted in forest fragmentation, posing a threat to the endemic flora. The study focuses on the disturbed forest ecosystem in the park. Using the belt transect method, we

B. C. Nagaraja; M. Bunty Raj; A. Kavitha; R. K. Somashekar

2011-01-01

121

The impact of logging on biodiversity and carbon sequestration in tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation is one of the most relevant environmental issues at planetary scale. Forest clearcutting has dramatic effect on local biodiversity, on the terrestrial carbon sink and atmospheric GHGs balance. In terms of protection of tropical forests selective logging is, instead, often regarded as a minor or even positive management practice for the ecosystem and it is supported by international certifications. However, few studies are available on changes in the structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services due to the selective logging of African forests. This paper presents the results of a survey on tropical forests of West and Central Africa, with a comparison of long-term dynamics, structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services (such as the carbon sequestration) of different types of forests, from virgin primary to selectively logged and secondary forest. Our study suggests that there is a persistent effect of selective logging on biodiversity and carbon stock losses in the long term (up to 30 years since logging) and after repeated logging. These effects, in terms of species richness and biomass, are greater than the expected losses from commercial harvesting, implying that selective logging in West and Central Africa is impairing long term (at least until 30 years) ecosystem structure and services. A longer selective logging cycle (>30 years) should be considered by logging companies although there is not yet enough information to consider this practice sustainable.

Cazzolla Gatti, R.

2012-04-01

122

DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa. PMID:23496857

Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

2013-03-16

123

Spatial variability of recent sedimentation in Lake Ohrid (Albania/Macedonia) - a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic factors and their possible impact on biodiversity patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid is likely of Pliocene age and thus commonly referred to as the oldest existing lake in Europe. In this study spatial variability of recent sediment composition is assessed using >50 basin wide distributed surface sediment samples. Analysis of biogeochemical bulk parameters, selected metals, pigment concentrations as well as grain size distributions revealed a significant spatial heterogeneity in surface sediment composition. It implies that sedimentation in Lake Ohrid is controlled by an interaction of multiple natural and anthropogenic factors and processes. Major factors controlling surface sediment composition are related to differences in geological catchment characteristics, anthropogenic land use, and a counter-clockwise rotating surface water current. In some instances processes controlling sediment composition also seem to impact distribution patterns of biodiversity, which suggests a common interaction of processes responsible for both patterns.

Vogel, H.; Wessels, M.; Albrecht, C.; Stich, H.-B.; Wagner, B.

2010-05-01

124

A biome-scale assessment of the impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an assessment of the current and potential impacts of invasive alien plants on selected ecosystem services in South Africa. We used data on the current and potential future distribution of 56 invasive alien plant species to estimate their impact on four services (surface water runoff, groundwater recharge, livestock production and biodiversity) in five terrestrial biomes. The estimated

B. W. van Wilgen; B. Reyers; D. C. Le Maitre; D. M. Richardson; L. Schonegevel

2008-01-01

125

Investigate Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great way to learn about biodiversity is by visiting Conservation International's Investigate Biodiversity Web site. Visitors can read about biodiversity hot spots and major threats to the world's species. Of particular interest is the Expeditions Online section, detailing scientific field expeditions. Through this section, you can read daily updates and see photos of teams of scientists conducting biological surveys in remote parts of the world. After learning about Conservation International's research projects, students can follow the online guide to developing their own biodiversity field study. This well designed Web sitehas plenty to offer to anyone interested in biodiversity.

2005-12-08

126

ASSESSING CUMULATIVE IMPACTS TO WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessing wetland functions, the degree of impairment caused by human activity, and opportunities to restore ecological integrity are central to managing water resources, including surface waters, wetlands, and open waters. Evaluating cumulative impacts on these water resources ...

127

DNA barcoding simplifies environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in biodiverse regions.  

PubMed

Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored. PMID:22567120

Nzeduru, Chinyere V; Ronca, Sandra; Wilkinson, Mike J

2012-05-02

128

DNA Barcoding Simplifies Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Biodiverse Regions  

PubMed Central

Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored.

Nzeduru, Chinyere V.; Ronca, Sandra; Wilkinson, Mike J.

2012-01-01

129

Climate Impacts Vulnerability Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has written this report in fulfillment of a grant from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to test its conceptual climate risk assessment model developed for transportation infrastructure. WS...

2011-01-01

130

Biodiversity Conservation Through Farming: A Landscape Assessment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of agriculture and biodiversity has become an acknowledged solution to concurrently address the development of sustainable food production systems and the preservation of natural resources. However, there are few alternative farming systems combining agricultural commodities with ecosystem services. We examined the farm and landscape dynamics of an area in South Africa which has been isolated from mainstream agriculture

Emmanuel Torquebiau; Mireille Dosso; Flavia Nakaggwa; Olivier Philippon

2012-01-01

131

[Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].  

PubMed

The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance. PMID:18290539

Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

2007-11-01

132

Long-term impacts of forest ditching on non-aquatic biodiversity: conservation perspectives for a novel ecosystem.  

PubMed

Artificial drainage (ditching) is widely used to increase timber yield in northern forests. When the drainage systems are maintained, their environmental impacts are likely to accumulate over time and along accompanying management, notably after logging when new forest develops on decayed peat. Our study provides the first comprehensive documentation of long-term ditching impacts on terrestrial and arboreal biodiversity by comparing natural alder swamps and second-generation drained forests that have evolved from such swamps in Estonia. We explored species composition of four potentially drainage-sensitive taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and snails), abundance of species of conservation concern, and their relationships with stand structure in two-ha plots representing four management types (ranging from old growth to clearcut). We found that drainage affected plot-scale species richness only weakly but it profoundly changed assemblage composition. Bryophytes and lichens were the taxonomic groups that were most sensitive both to drainage and timber-harvesting; in closed stands they responded to changed microhabitat structure, notably impoverished tree diversity and dead-wood supply. As a result, natural old-growth plots were the most species-rich and hosted several specific species of conservation concern. Because the most influential structural changes are slow, drainage impacts may be long hidden. The results also indicated that even very old drained stands do not provide quality habitats for old-growth species of drier forest types. However, drained forests hosted many threatened species that were less site type specific, including early-successional vascular plants and snails on clearcuts and retention cuts, and bryophytes and lichens of successional and old forests. We conclude that three types of specific science-based management tools are needed to mitigate ditching effects on forest biodiversity: (i) silvicultural techniques to maintain stand structural complexity; (ii) context-dependent spatial analysis and planning of drained landscapes; and (iii) lists of focal species to monitor and guide ditching practices. PMID:23646179

Remm, Liina; Lõhmus, Piret; Leis, Mare; Lõhmus, Asko

2013-04-30

133

Modeling the local biodiversity impacts of agricultural water use: case study of a wetland in the coastal arid area of Peru.  

PubMed

Global water use is dominated by agriculture and has considerable influence on people's livelihood and ecosystems, especially in semiarid and arid regions. Methods to address the impacts of water withdrawal and consumption on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems within life cycle assessment are still sparse and very generic. Regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for a groundwater-fed wetland at the arid coast of Peru are developed for groundwater and surface water withdrawal and consumption in order to address the spatial dependency of water use related impacts. Several agricultural scenarios for 2020 were developed in a workshop with local stakeholders and used for calculating total biodiversity impacts. In contrast to assumptions used in top-down approaches (e.g., Pfister et al. Environ. Sci Technol. 2009, 43, 4098 ), irrigation with surface water leads in this specific region to benefits for the groundwater-fed wetland, due to additional groundwater recharge from surplus irrigation water. However, irrigation with groundwater leads to ecological damage to the wetland. The CFs derived from the different scenarios are similar and can thus be used as general CFs for this region, helping local decision-makers to plan future agricultural development, including irrigation technologies, crop choices, and protection of the wetland. PMID:22463711

Verones, Francesca; Bartl, Karin; Pfister, Stephan; Jiménez Vílchez, Ricardo; Hellweg, Stefanie

2012-04-11

134

Biodiversity Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has a dozen kid-friendly books on a wide range of biodiversity topics. For each title, the author, publisher, and publication date are included along with a brief description of the book. The list includes field guides and other reference books to help students begin exploring plants, insects, birds, and other living things, easy-to-complete activities to bring the importance of biodiversity home, and engaging stories that introduce students to cultural tales that celebrate biodiversity.

135

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

136

International Association for Impact Assessment Assessing the Impact of Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the majority of EIA laws in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) requires assessment of effects of proposed development activities on human health, most countries find it difficult to implement this requirement in practice. This is mostly due to institutional, procedural and methodological differences between EIA and health impact assessment (HIA). Within a framework of a WHO project on National

Aleg Cherp

137

NCEP Exercise- Why is Biodiversity Important: Using the IUCN Red List to Assess Importance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise has students use the IUCN species ÃÂRed ListÃÂ to become familiar with the current status of particular species around the world and to explore the likely consequences to humanity and the biota if the extinction of these species occurs. Additional teaching materials on topics relating to biodiversity conservation and ecology can be obtained free of charge by registering at the Network for Conservation Educators and PractitionersÃÂ website (http://ncep.amnh.org).

Gibbs, J. P.

2010-02-16

138

Impact of biodiversity-climate futures on primary production and metabolism in a model benthic estuarine system  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the effects of anthropogenically-driven changes in global temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and biodiversity on the functionality of marine ecosystems is crucial for predicting and managing the associated impacts. Coastal ecosystems are important sources of carbon (primary production) to shelf waters and play a vital role in global nutrient cycling. These systems are especially vulnerable to the effects of human activities and will be the first areas impacted by rising sea levels. Within these coastal ecosystems, microalgal assemblages (microphytobenthos: MPB) are vital for autochthonous carbon fixation. The level of in situ production by MPB mediates the net carbon cycling of transitional ecosystems between net heterotrophic or autotrophic metabolism. In this study, we examine the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (370, 600, and 1000 ppmv), temperature (6°C, 12°C, and 18°C) and invertebrate biodiversity on MPB biomass in experimental systems. We assembled communities of three common grazing invertebrates (Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor) in monoculture and in all possible multispecies combinations. This experimental design specifically addresses interactions between the selected climate change variables and any ecological consequences caused by changes in species composition or richness. Results The effects of elevated CO2 concentration, temperature and invertebrate diversity were not additive, rather they interacted to determine MPB biomass, and overall this effect was negative. Diversity effects were underpinned by strong species composition effects, illustrating the importance of individual species identity. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that in natural systems, the complex interactions between changing environmental conditions and any associated changes in invertebrate assemblage structure are likely to reduce MPB biomass. Furthermore, these effects would be sufficient to affect the net metabolic balance of the coastal ecosystem, with important implications for system ecology and sustainable exploitation.

2011-01-01

139

Agricultural Biodiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

Postance, Jim

1998-01-01

140

Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

141

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

142

Biodiversity Law of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly online document details the legal technicalities of Costa Rica's Biodiversity Law, made public in July 1999. The document (.pdf format) contains the following sections, among others: Natural System of Conservation Areas; Guarantees of Environmental Safety; Conservation and Sustainable Use of Ecosystems and Species; Access to Genetic Components and Biochemicals and Protection of Associated Knowledge; Education and Public Awareness; Environmental Impact Assessments; Incentives; and Procedures, Processes, and Agreements. For those interested in conservation law or the intricacies of biological diversity protection in developing countries, this document will be of great interest.

143

Australia's Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Australian Museum Online comes this informative presentation on biodiversity. This searchable site allows visitors to learn fun biodiversity facts (such as the evolutionary history of the platypus and the secret life of kelp forests), how to conserve biodiversity through sustainable living practices, and what's happening at the Australian Museum in Sydney. Many of the pages can also be downloaded in .pdf format. Features of the site include RealMedia films on such topics as the Lizard Island Research Station and Sydney's Coastal Reefs; a page about the interpretive strategies of the museum's exhibition, Biodiversity: life supporting life; and biodiversity and forestry case studies in Australia. Well organized and readable, this site will be enjoyable for both Aussies and non-Aussies interested in the science and wonder of life's diversity.

2008-04-01

144

Assessing Undergraduate University Students' Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Biodiversity: A case study in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is a key resource as it provides both goods and services to society. However, humans value these resources differently, especially when biodiversity is exploited for its economic potential; a destruction on a scale rarely seen before. In order to decrease the threats that biodiversity is facing due to human activity, globally (climate change) and locally (economic development), individuals must

Olympia Nisiforou; Alexandros George Charalambides

2012-01-01

145

Assessing Undergraduate University Students' Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour towards Biodiversity: A Case Study in Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biodiversity is a key resource as it provides both goods and services to society. However, humans value these resources differently, especially when biodiversity is exploited for its economic potential; a destruction on a scale rarely seen before. In order to decrease the threats that biodiversity is facing due to human activity, globally…

Nisiforou, Olympia; Charalambides, Alexandros George

2012-01-01

146

Global Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing biological diversity of our planet. The hip Explore website shares beautiful images, videos, and information from expeditions to Hawaii, Mexico, and Alaska (2). The third site, from the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage, discusses biodiversity in Australia. The site contains sections regarding Migratory Species; Conservation and Regional Planning; Invasive Species; and Biodiversity Hotspots--to name a few (3). The fourth website presents the Belgian Biodiversity Platform (4), which is "an integrated network of people and institutions funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy to facilitate dialogue and collaboration between scientists in Belgium and abroad, in the field of biological diversity." From the Nepalese Government's Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, the fifth site presents information about biodiversity programs in Nepal. The site contains sections about Forests, National Parks, Plant Resources, and the Ministry's National Biodiversity Unit (5). The final website presents the Centre for Marine Biodiversity (CMB), a Canada-based organization that was established in 2000 to promote scientific support of marine biodiversity. The CMB website contains research reports, links to several databases, links to various identification guides, and a photo gallery with some nice underwater images (6).

147

Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.  

PubMed

Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

2008-01-01

148

Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity.  

PubMed

Human-driven land-use changes increasingly threaten biodiversity, particularly in tropical forests where both species diversity and human pressures on natural environments are high. The rapid conversion of tropical forests for agriculture, timber production and other uses has generated vast, human-dominated landscapes with potentially dire consequences for tropical biodiversity. Today, few truly undisturbed tropical forests exist, whereas those degraded by repeated logging and fires, as well as secondary and plantation forests, are rapidly expanding. Here we provide a global assessment of the impact of disturbance and land conversion on biodiversity in tropical forests using a meta-analysis of 138 studies. We analysed 2,220 pairwise comparisons of biodiversity values in primary forests (with little or no human disturbance) and disturbed forests. We found that biodiversity values were substantially lower in degraded forests, but that this varied considerably by geographic region, taxonomic group, ecological metric and disturbance type. Even after partly accounting for confounding colonization and succession effects due to the composition of surrounding habitats, isolation and time since disturbance, we find that most forms of forest degradation have an overwhelmingly detrimental effect on tropical biodiversity. Our results clearly indicate that when it comes to maintaining tropical biodiversity, there is no substitute for primary forests. PMID:21918513

Gibson, Luke; Lee, Tien Ming; Koh, Lian Pin; Brook, Barry W; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Laurance, William F; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Sodhi, Navjot S

2011-09-14

149

Big moving day for biodiversity? A macroecological assessment of the scope for assisted colonization as a conservation strategy under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change constitutes a major threat to Earth's biodiversity. If anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, 21st century climate change is likely to exceed the natural adaptive capacity of many natural ecosystems and a large proportion of species may risk extinction. A recurrent finding is that the degree of negative impact depends strongly on the dispersal potential of the

Jens-Christian Svenning; Camilla Fløjgaard; Naia Morueta-Holme; Jonathan Lenoir; Signe Normand; Flemming Skov

2009-01-01

150

A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated environmental and economic assessment of land use for food, energy and timber in the UK has been performed using environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic Life Cycle Costing (LCC), to explore complementary sustainability aspects of alternative land uses. The environmental assessment includes impacts on climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, all of which include soil carbon emissions.

Miguel Brandão; Roland Clift; Llorenç Milà i Canals; Lauren Basson

2010-01-01

151

THE ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY OF JI'NAN CITY, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on socio-economic development and population growth, rapid urbanisation is currently happening in China, leading to urban expansion and land use changes. This, in turn, affects biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem services. It is therefore important to identify and assess the impact of urban development policies (UDP) on ecosystems and their components at a policy level. Ji'nan City, the capital of

SHUJUN WANG; JENNIFER LI; DAQIAN WU; RENQING WANG; KAI ZHANG; JIAN LIU

2009-01-01

152

Impacts of inundation and drought on eukaryote biodiversity in semi-arid floodplain soils.  

PubMed

Floodplain ecosystems are characterized by alternating wet and dry phases and periodic inundation defines their ecological character. Climate change, river regulation and the construction of levees have substantially altered natural flooding and drying regimes worldwide with uncertain effects on key biotic groups. In southern Australia, we hypothesized that soil eukaryotic communities in climate change affected areas of a semi-arid floodplain would transition towards comprising mainly dry-soil specialist species with increasing drought severity. Here, we used 18S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to measure the eukaryote community composition in soils that had been depleted of water to varying degrees to confirm that reproducible transitional changes occur in eukaryotic biodiversity on this floodplain. Interflood community structures (3 years post-flood) were dominated by persistent rather than either aquatic or dry-specialist organisms. Only 2% of taxa were unique to dry locations by 8 years post-flood, and 10% were restricted to wet locations (inundated a year to 2 weeks post-flood). Almost half (48%) of the total soil biota were detected in both these environments. The discovery of a large suite of organisms able to survive nearly a decade of drought, and up to a year submerged supports the concept of inherent resilience of Australian semi-arid floodplain soil communities under increasing pressure from climatic induced changes in water availability. PMID:23379967

Baldwin, Darren S; Colloff, Matthew J; Rees, Gavin N; Chariton, Anthony A; Watson, Garth O; Court, Leon N; Hartley, Diana M; Morgan, Matthew J; King, Andrew J; Wilson, Jessica S; Hodda, Michael; Hardy, Christopher M

2013-02-04

153

Guidance for environmental impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) originated with the US National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) as one of several means specified for achieving NEPA's central purpose: the full incorporation of environmental considerations into the decision-making process of the federal government. Beyond EIA itself, which by its nature demands considerable use of science, NEPA requires agencies to use science in all planning and decision-making that may have an effect on the human environment. Indeed, scientific notions are pervasive in nearly every section of NEPA. In the 1970s, the use of science in EIA was addressed by scholars, court opinions, and unofficial guidelines, as the practice of EIA evolved and became a requirement of many state governments, numerous other nations, and several international agencies. Regulations issued in 1978 by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) clarified, elaborated, and standardized how impact assessment was to be done by agencies of the federal government.

Bartlett, R.V. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)); Malone, C.R. (Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office, Carson City, NV (United States))

1993-01-01

154

Impact of land use on the biodiversity integrity of the moist sub-biome of the grassland biome, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa's moist grassland harbours globally significant biodiversity, supplies essential ecosystem services, supports crop and livestock agriculture, forestry and settlement, yet is poorly conserved. Ongoing transformation and limited opportunity for expanding the protected area network require instead that biodiversity conservation is ‘mainstreamed’ within other land uses. This exercise sought to identify the relative compatibility of 10 land uses (conservation, livestock

T. G. O'Connor; P. Kuyler

2009-01-01

155

Mosaic-Level Inference of the Impact of Land Cover Changes in Agricultural Landscapes on Biodiversity: A Case-Study with a Threatened Grassland Bird  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use/land cover are a major driver of biodiversity change in the Mediterranean region. Understanding how animal populations respond to these landscape changes often requires using landscape mosaics as the unit of investigation, but few previous studies have measured both response and explanatory variables at the land mosaic level. Here, we used a “whole-landscape” approach to assess the influence of regional variation in the land cover composition of 81 farmland mosaics (mean area of 2900 ha) on the population density of a threatened bird, the little bustard (Tetrax tetrax), in southern Portugal. Results showed that ca. 50% of the regional variability in the density of little bustards could be explained by three variables summarising the land cover composition and diversity in the studied mosaics. Little bustard breeding males attained higher population density in land mosaics with a low land cover diversity, with less forests, and dominated by grasslands. Land mosaic composition gradients showed that agricultural intensification was not reflected in a loss of land cover diversity, as in many other regions of Europe. On the contrary, it led to the introduction of new land cover types in homogenous farmland, which increased land cover diversity but reduced overall landscape suitability for the species. Based on these results, the impact of recent land cover changes in Europe on the little bustard populations is evaluated.

Moreira, Francisco; Silva, Joao P.; Estanque, Beatriz; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Lecoq, Miguel; Pinto, Marcia; Leitao, Domingos; Alonso, Ivan; Pedroso, Rui; Santos, Eduardo; Catry, Teresa; Silva, Patricia; Henriques, Ines; Delgado, Ana

2012-01-01

156

Indicators for Monitoring Biodiversity: A Hierarchical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. It has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real-world regulatoy and managernentproblems. This problem can be corrected ifbio- diversity is recognized as an end in itsea and if measurable indicators can be selected to assess the status of biodiversity over time. Biodiversity, as

REED F. NOSS

1990-01-01

157

International Principles For Social Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “International Principles for Social Impact Assessment” is a statement of the core values of the SIA community together with a set of principles to guide SIA practice and the consideration of ‘the social’ in environmental impact assessment generally. It is a discussion document for the impact assessment community to be used as the basis for developing sector and national

Frank Vanclay

2003-01-01

158

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

159

Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments  

SciTech Connect

Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

Wolfe, A.K.

1990-03-01

160

Impacts of bottom and suspended cultures of mussels Mytilus spp. on the surrounding sedimentary environment and macrobenthic biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of bottom and suspended mussel cultures, cultured in different physical environments, on the sedimentary environmental conditions and thereby the biodiversity structure of the associated macrofaunal community. We compared two bottom cultures (Limfjorden: microtidal, wind-driven; Oosterschelde: macrotidal) and one suspended culture (Ria de Vigo in an upwelling coastal region). The sedimentary environmental conditions (mud fraction, POC, PON, phosphorus content, chl a breakdown products) were significantly elevated underneath and surrounding bottom and suspended cultures compared to culture-free sediments that were nearby and hydrodynamically similar. The relative change in environmental conditions was more pronounced in the Oosterschelde compared to Limfjorden, most likely due to differences in hydrodynamic forcing and characteristics of the mussel bed. The effect of the suspended cultures in Ria de Vigo on the surrounding sediments was influenced by local topographic and hydrodynamic conditions. The impact of mussels on the benthic community due to biodeposition was clearly seen in the community structure. The species composition changed from species which are typically present in sandy environments to more small opportunistic species, which are typically present in organically enriched sediments. The impact of bottom cultures on the benthic community due to changes in the habitat under the presence of mussels was positive, especially in the Oosterschelde where an increase in the number of epibenthic species was seen. The influence of bottom cultures on the sedimentary environment and on the macrobenthic community seems to be very local. Within the mussel site in Limfjorden, differences were detected between sites where none or almost no mussels were present with sites where mussels were very abundant.

Ysebaert, Tom; Hart, Miron; Herman, Peter M. J.

2009-03-01

161

Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

Laurance, William F.

162

Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Ocean Acidification: The Potential Impacts on Ocean Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the focus in recent years on the potential impacts of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere linked to\\u000a anthropogenic activities has been on the ramifications of atmospheric warming for ecosystems and human institutions. However,\\u000a there is growing evidence that the gravest peril for ocean species may be acidification of the world’s oceans as a consequence\\u000a of

William C. G. Burns

163

Changes in Nitrobacter serotypes biodiversity in a river: Impact of a wastewater treatment plant discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the impact of a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) effluent on a freshwater biofilm autochtonous bacterial microflora (Nitrobacter sp.). Physicochemical parameters showed drastic changes after wastewater discharge in the river: decrease of dissolved oxygen concentration, increase of N?NH+4 as well as dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon. Nevertheless the standard conditions of nitrification (pH, temperature, oxygen level)

B. Montuelle; B. Volat; M. M. Torio-Fernandez; E. Navarro

1996-01-01

164

Highly Diverse, Poorly Studied and Uniquely Threatened by Climate Change: An Assessment of Marine Biodiversity on South Georgia's Continental Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet.Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports,

Oliver T. Hogg; David K. A. Barnes; Huw J. Griffiths; Simon Thrush

2011-01-01

165

Novel strategies for assessing and managing the risks posed by invasive alien species to global crop production and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary International actions to combat the threat posed by invasive alien species (IAS) to crops and biodiversity have intensifi ed in recent years. The formulation of 15 guiding principles on IAS by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) stimulated the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) to review its role in protecting biodiversity. IPPC standards now demonstrate clearly that the risks

RICHARD BAKER; RAY CANNON; PAUL BARTLETT; IAN BARKER

2005-01-01

166

Biodiversity Datadiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is a data-intense science, drawing as it does on data from a large number of disciplines in order to build up a coherent picture of the extent and trajectory of life on earth. This paper argues that as sets of heterogeneous databases are made to converge, there is a layering of values into the emergent infrastructure. It is argued

Geoffrey C. Bowker

2000-01-01

167

Biodiversity hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hotspots of biodiversity—areas particularly rich in species, rare species, threatened species, or some combination of these attributes—are increasingly being delineated to help set priorities for conservation. Only recently have we begun to test key assumptions that determine how useful a hotspot approach can be for conservation planning. The evidence suggests that although at large geographic scales hotspots do provide useful

Walter V Reid

1998-01-01

168

GLOBIO3: A Framework to Investigate Options for Reducing Global Terrestrial Biodiversity Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLOBIO3 model has been developed to assess human-induced changes in biodiversity, in the past, present, and future at\\u000a regional and global scales. The model is built on simple cause–effect relationships between environmental drivers and biodiversity\\u000a impacts, based on state-of-the-art knowledge. The mean abundance of original species relative to their abundance in undisturbed\\u000a ecosystems (MSA) is used as the indicator

Rob Alkemade; Mark van Oorschot; Lera Miles; Christian Nellemann; Michel Bakkenes; Ben ten Brink

2009-01-01

169

Cultural impact assessments and environmental remediation decisionmaking.  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy must determine how risks are to be assessed, managed and communicated at its many sites with radiological and chemical contamination. One often overlooked component of risk and impact assessments is the impact of environmental remedial actions on cultural groups proximate to contaminated sites. Cultural impact assessments should be undertaken because of both the importance of one's culture to one's quality of life and the role they could play in augmenting sound human health risk assessments. This paper presents a basis for why cultural impact assessments should be considered and a model for how they might be undertaken.

Hocking, E. K.; Bendowitz, C. L.; Flynn, M.; Environmental Assessment; Univ. of Chicago

2000-01-01

170

Assessing the Impact of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University teaching can have a positive impact, a negative impact, or no impact. This article describes indicators of the impact of university teaching at the unit level. Teaching-impact indicators can be organized by the main beneficiary of the teaching: students; others, such as employers and clients, who interact with the students; the…

Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Rooke, Sally E.

2008-01-01

171

Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River (Peninsular Malaysia) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and 4 stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the river. For 4 consecutive months (March-June 1999), based on the Malaysian DOE (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia. Maskha Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, 86pp; Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2001, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment Malaysia) water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher Biological Monitoring Working Party scores and better water quality indices than those of the downstream. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly (P<0.05) higher at the upstream stations (54 taxa) than at the downstream stations (5 taxa). The upstream of the Langat River was dominated by Ephemeroptera and chironomid dipterans while other orders found in small quantities included Trichoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Odonata, Ephemeraptera, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda. On the other hand, the downstream of the river was mainly inhabited by the resistant Oligochaeta worms Limnodrilus spp. and Branchiodrilus sp. and Hirudinea in small numbers. The relationships between the physicochemical and the macrobenthic data were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. These statistical analyses showed that the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by the total suspended solids and the conductivity of the river water. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic land-based activities such as urban runoff on the distribution and species diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in the downstream of the Langat River. The data obtained in this study supported the use of the bioindicator concept for Malaysian rivers. Some sensitive (Trichopteran caddisflies and Ephemeraptera) and resistant species (Oligochaeta such as Limnodrilus spp.) are identified as potential bioindicators of clean and polluted river ecosystems, respectively, for Malaysian rivers. PMID:15964072

Azrina, M Z; Yap, C K; Rahim Ismail, A; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

2005-06-17

172

RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)  

EPA Science Inventory

Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

173

Geographic Information Systems for Cumulative Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a valuable tool for assessing cumulative environmental impact, the incremental impact of an action when added to other past, present, and reasonable foreseeable future actions. GIS can be used to quantify rates of ...

C. A. Johnson N. E. Deterbeck J. P. Bonde G. J. Niemi

1988-01-01

174

Biodiversity and stability in grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been debated1-7, however, with many theoretical explorations2-6,8-11 but few field studies12-15. Here we describe a long-term study of grasslands16,17 which shows that primary productivity in more diverse plant communities is more resistant to, and recovers

David Tilman; John A. Downing

1994-01-01

175

IMPACT OF ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURES ON BIODIVERSITY OF ESTUARIES: A CASE STUDY FROM COCHIN ESTUARY WITH EMPHASIS ON CLAM BEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interannual and seasonal variability of the hydrographic parameters and distribution of Villorita sp. in the Cochin estuary was studied to assess the impact due to the construction of Thannermukkom bund. Results showed that periodical closing and opening of the bund had significant effect on different hydrographic parameters. Water temperature showed an increase during January to March and July to September;

A. U. ARUN

2005-01-01

176

Biodiversity Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Museums Online: South Africa, Biodiversity Explorer "is devoted to showing and explaining the diversity, biology, and interactions of life on earth, particularly the life we have here in southern Africa." Biodiversity Explorer provides an astounding number of information-rich Web pages covering regional plants, scorpions and spiders, insects, vertebrates, and marine life. Visitors will find detailed information (with references) and lots of photos within these pages, each with numerous hypertext links for exploring related topics. Visitors may browse the Web site by category or use the taxon index to locate species of interest. Don't know where to start? The Spotlight feature offers a few interesting examples, such as water bears that can remain dormant for over 100 years and how the San hunters use poisonous beetles for the tips of their arrows.

2007-07-02

177

Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity.  

PubMed

Large-scale monitoring schemes are essential in assessing global mammalian biodiversity, and in this framework, leeches have recently been promoted as an indirect source of DNA from terrestrial mammal species. Carrion feeding flies are ubiquitous and can be expected to feed on many vertebrate carcasses. Hence, we tested whether fly-derived DNA analysis may also serve as a novel tool for mammalian diversity surveys. We screened DNA extracted from 201 carrion flies collected in tropical habitats of Côte d'Ivoire and Madagascar for mammal DNA using multiple PCR systems and retrieved DNA sequences from a diverse set of species (22 in Côte d'Ivoire, four in Madagascar) exploiting distinct forest strata and displaying a broad range of body sizes. Deep sequencing of amplicons generated from pools of flies performed equally well as individual sequencing approaches. We conclude that the analysis of fly-derived DNA can be implemented in a very rapid and cost-effective manner and will give a relatively unbiased picture of local mammal diversity. Carrion flies therefore represent an extraordinary and thus far unexploited resource of mammal DNA, which will probably prove useful for future inventories of wild mammal communities. PMID:23298293

Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Merkel, Kevin; Kutzner, Nadine; Kühl, Hjalmar; Boesch, Christophe; Kappeler, Peter M; Metzger, Sonja; Schubert, Grit; Leendertz, Fabian H

2013-01-08

178

Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the erosion of the sand beneath the bordering sandstone benches, resulting in overhangs. These structures are the most common in the western district of the Fontainebleau Massif. Ponds develop on the tightly silicified and impermeable sandstone pans that form the "platières". There are permanent ponds and temporary wet zones, formed of interconnected or isolated depressions. The origin of these ponds has to be questioned with regard to the landscape shaping. Their origin is directly bound to the hollowing of uncemented, sandy zones, within the sandstone pans forming the "platières". Erosion by runoff cannot be considered; the only way to hollow them out is by deflation processes. No direct dating of the Quaternary dune and loess deposits of the Fontainebleau Massif exists. Nevertheless, dating of paleopodzols interlayered between drift sands, pond deposits and bones within congelifracts allow relating these periglacial features with the end of the last glacial period. For now, there is no dating to assess what belongs to older glacial periods. Distribution of the aeolian patterns The Fontainebleau Massif displays noteworthy morphological diversities in the various districts of the forest. Some of these differentiations result from geological features, but most of them are related to erosion processes, and among them deflation processes leaved different imprints in the western and eastern districts of the Fontainebleau Massif. The topography played an important role controlling the aeolian processes. Deflation was important in the westerly upwind district. In the westerly front face, aeolian erosion was activated by turbulences around the topographic obstacles. The reliefs funneled the winds and gave rise to swirls that hollow the blowouts. This area displays the sharpest and more chiseled landforms of the massif. Moreover, the sandstone scarps at the edge of the "platières" are high and uncovered, with frequent overhangs. The collapsed sandstone blocks of the "chaos" are im

Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

2009-04-01

179

Biodiversity Survey - A Unit Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of the terrestrial biodiversity survey is to examine the impact of humans upon the environment. Through a series of investigations students develop their own hypothesis about human impact and then test this on a site not previously examined. Final analysis and discussion of the results allows the students to develop a theory about the impact of humans upon the biodiversity. Students also are introduced to experimental design, use of statistics to determine whether to accept or reject a hypothesis, and the significance of taxonomy. The activity is used to introduce students to biology in general and the significance of environmental studies.

Jeb Schenck (Hot Springs County High School REV)

1995-06-30

180

Towards complete biodiversity assessment: an evaluation of the subterranean bacterial communities in the Oklo region of the sole surviving natural nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater bacterial rRNA sequences extracted from the natural nuclear reactor region of Gabon are used to demonstrate the application of phylogenetic methods to biodiversity assessment. Clones were provisionally placed in `genera' using either the genus of the closest named EMBL entry, or by grouping clones at least 97.5% identical. The community is small, with 24 putative genera under the `closest-match'

R. H. Crozier; P.-M. Agapow; K. Pedersen

1999-01-01

181

Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: Combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and\\u000a mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds\\u000a of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical\\u000a measures

María Blasco; Celia Domeño; Cristina Nerín

2008-01-01

182

How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?  

PubMed

Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness. PMID:23495639

Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

2013-01-01

183

Rapid Acoustic Survey for Biodiversity Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity assessment remains one of the most difficult challenges encountered by ecologists and conservation biologists. This task is becoming even more urgent with the current increase of habitat loss. Many methods-from rapid biodiversity assessments (RBA) to all-taxa biodiversity inventories (ATBI)-have been developed for decades to estimate local species richness. However, these methods are costly and invasive. Several animals-birds, mammals, amphibians,

Jérôme Sueur; Sandrine Pavoine; Olivier Hamerlynck; Stéphanie Duvail; David Reby

2008-01-01

184

Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates in altitudinal lotic ecosystems of Serra do Cipó (MG, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five lotic systems of Serra do Cipó, south-east Brazil, were investigated in order to assess the existing diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates, habitats-microhabitats, and the available trophic resources. For each river it was analysed the communities of benthic macroinvertebrates and the com- position of some taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera Chirono- midae): the community with Bivalvia Sphaeriidae, Oligochaeta and

N. GALDEAN; M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. BARBOSA

2001-01-01

185

Sampling Broad Habitat change to assess biodiversity conservation action in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A habitat monitoring programme, the Northern Ireland Countryside Survey, carried out by the University of Ulster for the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland, is described. It was based on a random sample of quarter kilometer grid squares, stratified by multivariate land classification. Estimates of change in habitat area between 1987–1992 and 1998 are presented and used to assess

A. Cooper; T. McCann; M. J. Meharg

2003-01-01

186

Assessing significance for biodiversity conservation on private land in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of ecological significance is a key part of a territorial local authority's (TLA) responsibility to provide for the protection of areas of significant indigenous vegetation and significant habitats of indigenous fauna as required under Section 6(c) of the Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991. While a number of methods have been used to achieve this, these have been largely

David A. Norton; Judith Roper-Lindsay

2004-01-01

187

Contribution of Natural History Collection Data to Biodiversity Assessment in National Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodi- versity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens

ALLAN F. O'CONNELL; ANDREW T. GILBERT; JEFF S. HATFIELD

2004-01-01

188

Making analytical tools operational: task impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world of limited resources there is an increasing need for mine action operators to demonstrate the impact of interventions on affected populations. To date several tools have been developed for assessing impact within mine action. This article suggests that these tools largely focus on the negative impact that landmines and unexploded ordnance have on affected populations, rather than

Belinda Goslin

2003-01-01

189

Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources,

D. C. Parzyck; R. W. Brocksen; W. R. Emanuel

1976-01-01

190

The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index  

PubMed Central

Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized biodiversity data; (b) assisting countries potentially in need (for example mega-diverse) to mobilize resources and collect data that could be used in decision-making; and (c) allowing identification of which biodiversity informatics-resourced countries could afford to assist countries lacking in biodiversity informatics capacity, and which data-rich countries should benefit most from such help.

2011-01-01

191

Enhancing impact: visualization of an integrated impact assessment strategy.  

PubMed

The environmental impact assessment process is over 40 years old and has dramatically expanded. Topics, such as social, health and human rights impact are now included. The main body of an impact analysis is generally hundreds of pages long and supported by countless technical appendices. For large, oil/gas, mining and water resources projects both the volume and technical sophistication of the reports has far exceeded the processing ability of host communities. Instead of informing and empowering, the reports are abstruse and overwhelming. Reinvention is required. The development of a visual integrated impact assessment strategy that utilizes remote sensing and spatial analyses is described. PMID:22639133

Krieger, Gary R; Bouchard, Michel A; de Sa, Isabel Marques; Paris, Isabelle; Balge, Zachary; Williams, Dane; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

2012-05-01

192

10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

2010-01-01

193

The Value(s) of Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity today is mainly assessed by the economy. Yet, now both natural sciences and law play a growing part in that field. Our contribution proposes to outline the main biodiversity assessment methods to understand how they are received by law as well as to question their interest and efficiency against the environment protection imperative and to understand the answers offered

Mathilde Boutonnet

2012-01-01

194

Filling Gaps in Biodiversity Knowledge for Macrofungi: Contributions and Assessment of an Herbarium Collection DNA Barcode Sequencing Project  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1–2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa.

Osmundson, Todd W.; Robert, Vincent A.; Schoch, Conrad L.; Baker, Lydia J.; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M.

2013-01-01

195

Handbook for value-impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues.

Heaberlin, S.W.; Burnham, J.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Mullen, M.F.; Nesse, R.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Triplett, M.B.; Weakley, S.A.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

1983-12-01

196

Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines.  

PubMed

In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate change impacts) showed increases. Despite some local successes and increasing responses (including extent and biodiversity coverage of protected areas, sustainable forest management, policy responses to invasive alien species, and biodiversity-related aid), the rate of biodiversity loss does not appear to be slowing. PMID:20430971

Butchart, Stuart H M; Walpole, Matt; Collen, Ben; van Strien, Arco; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Almond, Rosamunde E A; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Bomhard, Bastian; Brown, Claire; Bruno, John; Carpenter, Kent E; Carr, Geneviève M; Chanson, Janice; Chenery, Anna M; Csirke, Jorge; Davidson, Nick C; Dentener, Frank; Foster, Matt; Galli, Alessandro; Galloway, James N; Genovesi, Piero; Gregory, Richard D; Hockings, Marc; Kapos, Valerie; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Leverington, Fiona; Loh, Jonathan; McGeoch, Melodie A; McRae, Louise; Minasyan, Anahit; Hernández Morcillo, Monica; Oldfield, Thomasina E E; Pauly, Daniel; Quader, Suhel; Revenga, Carmen; Sauer, John R; Skolnik, Benjamin; Spear, Dian; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Stuart, Simon N; Symes, Andy; Tierney, Megan; Tyrrell, Tristan D; Vié, Jean-Christophe; Watson, Reg

2010-04-29

197

Session 3. Policy options for China CONSERVING AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY THROUGH WATER MARKETS IN CHINA: LESSONS FROM THE MILLENNIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of eco-compensation measures is being de veloped in China as an important means of providing a more diverse flow of benefits to rural people. Compensating up-stream landowners for managing their land in ways that maintain downstream water quality is particularly important for China. While biodiversity itself is difficult to value, it can be linked to other markets, such

Jeffrey A. McNeely

198

Rapid assessment of invertebrate biodiversity on rocky shores: where there’s a whelk there’s a way  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of species inventory data for most marine habitats currently hampers the objective management of marine biodiversity. There is thus a clear need to find reliable indicator taxa that can be targeted in marine conservation studies, providing cost-effective data for planning and monitoring. Using the rocky shores of the Solitary Islands Marine Park, NSW, Australia, as a model, I

Stephen D. A. Smith

2005-01-01

199

Scientists on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, this book is a collection of essays by leading scientists and researchers in the field of biodiversity. Topics include the importance of biodiversity, extinctions, threats to biodiversity, and strategies and solutions. Introduction by Michael J. Novacek. Can be ordered free of charge in multiple copies.

200

Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on ecosystem predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in ecosystem properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, ecosystem respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also

Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin

1997-01-01

201

Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)|

Catalano, Ralph A.

1975-01-01

202

Making Robust Policy Decisions Using Global Biodiversity Indicators  

PubMed Central

In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

Nicholson, Emily; Collen, Ben; Barausse, Alberto; Blanchard, Julia L.; Costelloe, Brendan T.; Sullivan, Kathryn M. E.; Underwood, Fiona M.; Burn, Robert W.; Fritz, Steffen; Jones, Julia P. G.; McRae, Louise; Possingham, Hugh P.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

2012-01-01

203

34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section...Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant...assessment of the impact of the proposed...of the National Environmental Policy Act of...

2013-07-01

204

Education and biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the importance of developing educational programs about biological diversity in order to preserve it more effectively. The study is divided into two parts. Part I is a needs assessment consisting of the results of: (1) a survey and checklist of land management and education/interpretive practices in natural areas of the United States, (2) a study of ecology research reports, (3) interviews of scientists, land managers, and environmental educators in natural areas, and (4) an analysis of popular published environmental-education activity and curriculum guides. From this, a set of needs was identified for purposes of planning activities for teaching about biodiversity in natural areas. Part II consists of sample activities that represent ways to incorporate current knowledge of biodiversity into education/interpretive programming on nature preserves, parks, and wildlife refuges. The ideas focus mainly on developing an understanding of what biodiversity looks like, from the scale of the habitat to the landscape, and from the genetic level to the ecosystem level. The activities are grouped according to six major topics: open space, marine resources, energy, solid waste, surface waters, and freshwater wetlands, and groundwater.

Ahearn, S.K.

1988-01-01

205

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

206

What is Biodiversity? Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document contains a lesson plan on biodiversity for grades 6-12. Students will learn the definition of biodiversity, discuss facts and issues related to California biodiversity, and list reasons why biodiversity is important. The document is available in Microsoft Word format at: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/Lesson_biodiversity.doc

2012-02-16

207

Assessment of land use impacts on the natural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Land use is an economic activity that generates large benefits for human society. One side effect, however, is that it has\\u000a caused many environmental problems throughout history and still does today. Biodiversity, in particular, has been negatively\\u000a influenced by intensive agriculture, forestry and the increase in urban areas and infrastructure. Integrated assessment such\\u000a as Life Cycle Assessment

Thomas Koellner; Roland W. Scholz

2008-01-01

208

Agricultural intensification: Whither indigenous biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new wave of agricultural intensification in New Zealand is causing increasing pressure on natural resources. Moller et al. (2008) suggest that the agricultural intensification is inevitable, that negative environmental impacts have only been demonstrated for aquatic system s, and that a new paradigm based on integrating indigenous biodiversity and agriculture offers the best way forward. We question all these

William G. Lee; Colin D. Meurk; Bruce D. Clarkson

2008-01-01

209

Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se

2007-07-15

210

Cumulative impact assessment: A case study  

SciTech Connect

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) indirectly addressed cumulative impacts. Attempts to include cumulative impacts in environmental impact assessments, however, did not began until the early 1980's. One such effort began when The Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) received over 1200 applications for hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest. Federal and State Agencies, Indian tribes and environmental groups realized the potential cumulative effect such development could have on fish and wildfire resources. In response, the FERC developed the Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure (CIAP). The CIAP consisted of public scoping meetings; interactive workshops designed to identify projects with potential for cumulative effects, important resources, available data; and preparation of a NEPA document (EA or EIS). The procedure was modifies to assess the cumulative impacts of fifteen hydroelectric projects in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho. The methodology achieved its basic objective of evaluating the impact of hydroelectric development on fish and wildfire resources. In addition, the use of evaluative techniques to determine project interactions and degrees of impact hindered acceptance of the conclusions. Notwithstanding these problems, the studies provided a basis for decision-makers to incorporate the potential effects of cumulative impacts into the decision-making process. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Irving, J.S.; Bain, M.B.

1989-01-01

211

Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available techniques for quantitative economic impact assessment: partial budgeting, partial equilibrium analysis, input output analysis, and computable general equilibrium

T. A. A. Soliman; M. C. M. Mourits; W. van der Werf

2010-01-01

212

Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biodiversity Bulletin No 1, from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre is now online and is entitled "Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Tropics,"by Michael Green and others. The bulletin provides an assessment of "the extent to which habitats in the tropics are protected and guidance on prioritising conservation action from global and national perspectives."

Green, Michael J.; Murray, Martyn G.; Bunting, Gillian C.; Paine, James R.

1998-01-01

213

Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies. PMID:22532121

Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

2012-04-25

214

Governing the global commons: Linking carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation in tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity loss will be among the major impacts from climate change. Separate international political processes address climate change and biodiversity, yet the scientific evidence strongly links the two. For conservation groups, addressing climate change is increasingly necessary to protect biodiversity. Protecting tropical forests as biodiversity habitat is important as well to mitigating climate change, as deforestation and forest degradation represent

David O'Connor

2008-01-01

215

Biodiversity and industry ecosystem management  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity describes the array of interacting, genetically distinct populations and species in a region, the communities they are functioning parts. Ecosystem health is a process identifying biological indicators, end points, and values. The decline of populations or species, an accelerating trend worldwide, can lead to simplification of ecosystem processes, thus threatening the stability an sustainability of ecosystem services directly relevant to human welfare in the chain of economic and ecological relationships. The challenge of addressing issues of such enormous scope and complexity has highlighted the limitations of ecology-as-science. Additionally, biosphere-scale conflicts seem to lie beyond the scope of conventional economics, leading to differences of opinion about the commodity value of biodiversity and of the services that intact ecosystems provide. In the fact of these uncertainties, many scientists and economists have adopted principles that clearly assign burdens of proof to those who would promote the loss of biodiversity and that also establish {open_quotes}near-trump{close_quotes} (preeminent) status for ecological integrity. Electric utility facilities and operations impact biodiversity whenever construction, operation, or maintenance of generation, delivery, and support facilities alters landscapes and habitats and thereby impacts species. Although industry is accustomed to dealing with broad environmental concerns (such as global warming or acid rain), the biodiversity issue invokes hemisphere-side, regional, local, and site-specific concerns all at the same time. Industry can proactively address these issues of scope and scale in two main ways: first, by aligning strategically with the broad research agenda put forth by informed scientists and institutions; and second, by supporting focused management processes whose results will contribute incrementally to the broader agenda of rebuilding or maintaining biodiversity. 40 refs., 8 figs.

Coleman, W.G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

216

A process-driven sedimentary habitat modelling approach, explaining seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve good environmental status, by 2020, for European seas. This study analyses the applicability of a process-driven benthic sedimentary habitat model, to be used in the implementation of the MSFD in relation to biodiversity and seafloor integrity descriptors for sedimentary habitats. Our approach maps the major environmental factors influencing soft-bottom macrobenthic community structure and the life-history traits of species. Among the 16 environmental variables considered, a combination of water depth, mean grain size, a wave-induced sediment resuspension index and annual bottom maximum temperature, are the most significant factors explaining the variability in the structure of benthic communities in the study area. These variables are classified into those representing the 'Disturbance' and 'Scope for Growth' components of the environment. It was observed that the habitat classes defined in the process-driven model reflected different structural and functional characteristics of the benthos. Moreover, benthic community structure anomalies due to human pressures could also be detected within the model produced. Thus, the final process-driven habitat map can be considered as being highly useful for seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment, within the European MSFD as well as for conservation, environmental status assessment and managing human activities, especially within the marine spatial planning process.

Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Pascual, Marta; Muxika, Iñigo

2013-10-01

217

An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for adaptation, mitigation and post-hazard recovery and resettlement measures. Providing basic necessities such as water, food and power, maintaining public health, implementing protective measures in the coastal zones and modifications in the urban infrastructure, especially in the coastal megacities become expensive. Impact of extremes on rails, roads and building are also becoming a major issue in the coastal zones and urban centres. Industrial sector is facing a threat from the falling reliable supply of water and power. However, procedure for the implementation of the strategies to mitigate the climate change impact and of the policy for the adaptation to climate change is slow. There are several hurdles for this, including various ecological, socio-economic, technical and political issues, alterations of the physical environment, inability of certain habitats and species to adapt to a new environment, abject poverty, lack of awareness, and the inefficient administrative mechanism. A comprehensive assessment of the shifts in regional climate and the impact of climate change on different facets of life in India, and of the current strategies and polices to face such challenges is made in this study. Suggestions for the improvement of the climate policy and adaptation strategy have been provided.

Nair, K. S.

2009-09-01

218

A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts  

PubMed Central

The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening tool to help Cal/EPA programs prioritize their activities and target those communities with the greatest cumulative impacts.

Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

2012-01-01

219

Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity.  

PubMed

In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in urban versus nonurban landscapes? The answer should depend on the goals that drive our conservation actions, yet proponents of urban conservation often fail to specify the motivation for protecting urban biodiversity. This is an important shortcoming on several fronts, including a missed opportunity to make a stronger appeal to those who believe conservation biology should focus exclusively on more natural, wilder landscapes. We argue that urban areas do offer an important venue for conservation biology, but that we must become better at choosing and articulating our goals. We explored seven possible motivations for urban biodiversity conservation: preserving local biodiversity, creating stepping stones to nonurban habitat, understanding and facilitating responses to environmental change, conducting environmental education, providing ecosystem services, fulfilling ethical responsibilities, and improving human well-being. To attain all these goals, challenges must be faced that are common to the urban environment, such as localized pollution, disruption of ecosystem structure, and limited availability of land. There are, however, also challenges specific only to particular goals, meaning that different goals will require different approaches and actions. This highlights the importance of specifying the motivations behind urban biodiversity conservation. If the goals are unknown, progress cannot be assessed. PMID:19775276

Dearborn, Donald C; Kark, Salit

2009-09-22

220

Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf.  

PubMed

We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet. Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports, papers and databases, collectively representing over 125 years of polar exploration. Classification of each specimen was recorded to species level and fully geo-referenced by depth, latitude and longitude. This information was integrated with physical data layers (e.g. temperature, salinity and flow) providing a visualisation of South Georgia's biogeography across spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales, placing it in the wider context of the Southern Hemisphere. This study marks the first attempt to map the biogeography of an archipelago south of the Polar Front. Through it we identify the South Georgian shelf as the most speciose region of the Southern Ocean recorded to date. Marine biodiversity was recorded as rich across taxonomic levels with 17,732 records yielding 1,445 species from 436 families, 51 classes and 22 phyla. Most species recorded were rare, with 35% recorded only once and 86% recorded <10 times. Its marine fauna is marked by the cumulative dominance of endemic and range-edge species, potentially at their thermal tolerance limits. Consequently, our data suggests the ecological implications of environmental change to the South Georgian marine ecosystem could be severe. If sea temperatures continue to rise, we suggest that changes will include depth profile shifts of some fauna towards cooler Antarctic Winter Water (90-150 m), the loss of some range-edge species from regional waters, and the wholesale extinction at a global scale of some of South Georgia's endemic species. PMID:21647236

Hogg, Oliver T; Barnes, David K A; Griffiths, Huw J

2011-05-25

221

Assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Mexico based on their capacity to protect geophysical features and biodiversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mexico currently has 144 nature reserves covering approximately 9.1% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons - often unrelated to the protection of biodiversity. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important threatened biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed the establishment of 151 new reserves for Mexico covering 51,429,500 ha. We compiled a GIS analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the country. Using a conservation target of placing a minimum of 12% of the land area of each important biophysical feature in nature reserves, we found that the 144 existing nature reserves covering 18 million ha (9% of the country) only meet that target for elevation ranges >3000 m and areas with poor soils. These mountainous areas represent less than 1% of the country. The gaps in the existing nature reserves network occur mainly at lower and intermediate elevations (<3000 m) areas with xeric, tropical, and temperate ecosystems, and high productivity soils. The areas proposed by CONABIO increase the proportion of protected lands in the country to over 27% and most of the conservation targets for geophysical features, and land cover, categories are met. Whether this area would be sufficient to maintain viable populations and ecological integrity of species and ecosystems is unknown. Even with the new reserves, low elevation coastal lands would be below the conservation target in the nature reserves. To include a representative sample of these lands would be difficult as these are the same areas where the majority of people live. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cantu, C.; Wright, R. G.; Scott, J. M.; Strand, E.

2004-01-01

222

Highly Diverse, Poorly Studied and Uniquely Threatened by Climate Change: An Assessment of Marine Biodiversity on South Georgia's Continental Shelf  

PubMed Central

We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet. Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports, papers and databases, collectively representing over 125 years of polar exploration. Classification of each specimen was recorded to species level and fully geo-referenced by depth, latitude and longitude. This information was integrated with physical data layers (e.g. temperature, salinity and flow) providing a visualisation of South Georgia's biogeography across spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales, placing it in the wider context of the Southern Hemisphere. This study marks the first attempt to map the biogeography of an archipelago south of the Polar Front. Through it we identify the South Georgian shelf as the most speciose region of the Southern Ocean recorded to date. Marine biodiversity was recorded as rich across taxonomic levels with 17,732 records yielding 1,445 species from 436 families, 51 classes and 22 phyla. Most species recorded were rare, with 35% recorded only once and 86% recorded <10 times. Its marine fauna is marked by the cumulative dominance of endemic and range-edge species, potentially at their thermal tolerance limits. Consequently, our data suggests the ecological implications of environmental change to the South Georgian marine ecosystem could be severe. If sea temperatures continue to rise, we suggest that changes will include depth profile shifts of some fauna towards cooler Antarctic Winter Water (90–150 m), the loss of some range-edge species from regional waters, and the wholesale extinction at a global scale of some of South Georgia's endemic species.

Hogg, Oliver T.; Barnes, David K. A.; Griffiths, Huw J.

2011-01-01

223

Approaches to valuation in LCA impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems with the future development of lifecycle assessment is the difficulty in converting lifecycle inventory\\u000a results into environmental impacts, owing to problems associated with the interpretation and weighting of the data. The four\\u000a main valuation approaches: distance-to-target, environmental control costs, environmental damage costs and scoring approaches\\u000a are assessed and the individual methodologies evaluated. In conclusion it

Jane C. Powell; David W. Pearce; Amelia L. Craighill

1997-01-01

224

Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e.

L. Viikari

2002-01-01

225

Assessing the Assessments: Improving Methodologies for Impact Assessment in Transboundary Watercourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transboundary impact assessment (TIA) has become an important environmental management tool, particularly where a project may have transboundary impacts. With the growing practice of TIA, it becomes important to consider the accuracy of the transboundary impact assessments that are being conducted. If TIA is a planning tool designed to provide a basis for making an informed decision, does it actually

CARL BRUCH; MIKIYASU NAKAYAMA; JESSICA TROELL; LISA GOLDMAN; ELIZABETH MARUMA MREMA

2007-01-01

226

Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

227

Biodiversity and climate change in relation to the Natura 2000 network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project will provide the European Commission (EC) with an overview of the likely impacts of climate change on biodiversity in the European Union (EU), particularly within the Natura 2000 (N2K) network of protected areas, and indications of how the design and implementation of current policy might need to be adapted to ensure that the EU delivers its commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2010 and beyond. The study will identify those species and associated habitats that are likely to be most vulnerable to climate change and the steps required to protect the integrity of the network from negative effects. The study will also assess the impacts of large-scale renewable energy schemes (wind parks, hydroelectric schemes and tidal barrages) on biodiversity and produce guidelines on the sorts of measures that might be used to maintain and protect N2K sites.

Harley, M.; de Soye, Y.; Dickson, B.; Tucker, G.; Keder, G.

2009-04-01

228

40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227.19 Protection...Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment of the proposed dumping and...

2010-07-01

229

40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227.19 Protection...Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment of the proposed dumping and...

2009-07-01

230

Assessing the reliability impacts of wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical output of wind electric conversion systems (WECS) is stochastic and has characteristics significantly different from those of conventional (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro) generation units. However, their entry into global power grids is expanding rapidly due to a variety of considerations. Assessing the impacts of wind energy on the overall reliability of the power system continues to

R. Ramakumar; Albrecht Naeter

2011-01-01

231

Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a

Peter J. Irvine; Andy Ridgwell; Daniel J. Lunt

2010-01-01

232

Environmental impact assessment of cooling towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing numbers of large cooling towers make it essential to consider the environmental effects. The following methods of quantitatively assessing their impact are reviewed: drift loss deposition; determination of chromium and zinc concentrations in vegetation; droplet size distribution; and emission from stacks of airborne particulates. Mechanisms by which salt concentrations increase in the watershed of cooling towers are discussed.

J. R. Bartlit; M. D. Williams

1975-01-01

233

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

234

DOES REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT MAKE INSTITUTIONS THINK?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do systematic approaches to economic policy appraisal, specifically regulatory impact assessment (RIA), enable complex organizations to learn? This question invites a reconsideration of how we conceptualize learning in public policy. Consequently, this paper distinguishes between economic-Bayesian learning, social learning, and political learning. These three types of learning are examined alongside the null hypothesis of change brought about by factors different

Claudio M. Radaelli

235

Suggested Readings on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference list has more than 25 books on biodiversity. For each title, the book's author, publisher, and publication date are given. The diverse list includes broad introductions to biodiversity, insightful looks at evolution and extinction, examinations of the partnership between insects and flowers, portraits of vanishing species and explorations of the factors contributing to a global biodiversity crisis.

236

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

237

Biodiversity of rangelands  

SciTech Connect

Biodiversity is a multifaceted phenomenon involving the variety of organisms present, the genetic differences among them, and the communities, ecosystems, and landscape patterns in which they occur. Society will increasingly value biodiversity and influence the passage of laws and writing of regulations involving biodiversity which rangeland managers will have to abide by over the coming decades. Even private and developing world rangelands will be affected. While taxonomic knowledge of vertebrates and vascular plants and their abundance, rarity, and distribution, in the developed nations is generally adequate, the same cannot be said of the developing world. Furthermore, adequate knowledge of invertebrates, nonvascular plants, and microbes is deficient everywhere. Although the basis of variation at all higher levels, genetic variation within rangeland species, even the major ones, has barely been assessed. Obtaining statistically adequate data on populations of rare species that are small and secretive is well nigh impossible. There are many means of measuring community diversity, but all of them are value laden. That is, choice of variables to measure and how they are indexed betrays what one considers are important. One should be more forthright in stating to the users the biases of these methods. There are many other, more useful ways to describe community-level diversity besides the traditional focus on species. Ungulate grazing is an important process in many ecosystems. Thus, removal of grazing destabilizes some systems. Livestock grazing will actually increase the chances of survival of some species. Sustainable development will depend on finding balance between use and protection, from range sites to landscapes, and even on a global basis. 120 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

West, N.E. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States))

1993-01-01

238

Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

1989-03-01

239

Children prioritize virtual exotic biodiversity over local biodiversity.  

PubMed

Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1) a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2) an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords) was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect "virtual" (unseen, exotic) rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity. PMID:21829710

Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Xavier

2011-08-04

240

Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways. An obvious problem for any impact assessment are the de

Viikari, L.

241

Biodiversity: Everything Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of biodiversity allows students to explore a tree of life cladogram, learn facts about different species, and explore biodiversity and efforts to save species in the Bahamas, Australia, and Madagascar. There are sections to explore the benefits of biodiversity, such as: providing our daily products and the ingredients in things we eat, stories about the Dzanga Sangha rain forest, explanations of extinction and its causes, and facts about species that thrive in the city. There are also biodiversity activities to do offline, such as drawing a monarch butterfly and feeding birds, and a biodiversity quiz.

242

Worldsid assessment of far side impact countermeasures.  

PubMed

Far side impact trauma has been demonstrated as a significant portion of the total trauma in side impacts. The objective of the study was to assess the potential usefulness of countermeasures and assess the trade-offs associated with generic countermeasure design. Because the WorldSID dummy has demonstrated promise as a potential far side impact dummy, it was chosen to assess countermeasures in this mode. A unique far side impact buck was designed for a sled test system that included, as a standard configuration, a center console and outboard three-point belt system. This configuration assumed a left side driver with a right side impact. The buck allowed for additional options of generic restraints including shoulder or thorax plates or an inboard shoulder belt. The entire buck could be mounted on the sled in either a 90-degree (3-o'clock PDOF) or a 60-degree (2-o'clock PDOF) orientation. A total of 19 WorldSID tests were completed. The inboard shoulder belt configuration produced high shear forces in the lower neck (2430 N) when the belt position was placed over the mid portion of the neck. Shear forces were reduced and of opposite sign when the inboard belt position was horizontal and over the shoulder; forces were similar to the standard outboard belt configuration (830 - 1100 N). A shoulder or thorax restraint was effective in limiting the head excursion, but each caused significant displacement at the corresponding region on the dummy. A shoulder restraint resulted in shoulder displacements of 30 - 43 mm. A thorax restraint caused thorax deflections of 39 - 64 mm. Inboard restraints for far side impacts can be effective in reducing head excursion but the specific design and placement of these restraints determine their overall injury mitigating characteristics. PMID:16968638

Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Bostrom, Ola; Rouhana, Stephen W; Smith, Stuart; Sparke, Laurie; Fildes, Brian N; Digges, Kennerly H

2006-01-01

243

Worldsid Assessment of Far Side Impact Countermeasures  

PubMed Central

Far side impact trauma has been demonstrated as a significant portion of the total trauma in side impacts. The objective of the study was to assess the potential usefulness of countermeasures and assess the trade-offs associated with generic countermeasure design. Because the WorldSID dummy has demonstrated promise as a potential far side impact dummy, it was chosen to assess countermeasures in this mode. A unique far side impact buck was designed for a sled test system that included, as a standard configuration, a center console and outboard three-point belt system. This configuration assumed a left side driver with a right side impact. The buck allowed for additional options of generic restraints including shoulder or thorax plates or an inboard shoulder belt. The entire buck could be mounted on the sled in either a 90-degree (3-o’clock PDOF) or a 60-degree (2-o’clock PDOF) orientation. A total of 19 WorldSID tests were completed. The inboard shoulder belt configuration produced high shear forces in the lower neck (2430 N) when the belt position was placed over the mid portion of the neck. Shear forces were reduced and of opposite sign when the inboard belt position was horizontal and over the shoulder; forces were similar to the standard outboard belt configuration (830 – 1100 N). A shoulder or thorax restraint was effective in limiting the head excursion, but each caused significant displacement at the corresponding region on the dummy. A shoulder restraint resulted in shoulder displacements of 30 – 43 mm. A thorax restraint caused thorax deflections of 39 – 64 mm. Inboard restraints for far side impacts can be effective in reducing head excursion but the specific design and placement of these restraints determine their overall injury mitigating characteristics.

Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D.; Bostrom, Ola; Rouhana, Stephen W.; Smith, Stuart; Sparke, Laurie; Fildes, Brian N.; Digges, Kennerly H.

2006-01-01

244

Impact Hazard Assessment for 2011 AG5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2011 AG5 is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid roughly 140 m in diameter. The current orbit determination, based on 213 optical measurements from 2010-Nov-08.6 to 2011-Sep-21.4, allows for the possibility of an Earth impact on 2040-Feb-05.2 with probability 0.2%. The 2040 potential impact is a 17:10 resonant return from a 2023 Earth encounter, where if the asteroid passes through a 365 km keyhole, it will go on to impact in 2040. We discuss the critical points on the decision tree for averting this potential impact. The decision to proceed with a deflection mission should not be made prematurely, when there is still a chance for eliminating the impact hazard through observations rather than intervention, and yet the decision must not be delayed past the point where it is no longer feasible to achieve a deflection. Thus the decision tree is informed by the evolution of the asteroid’s orbital uncertainty and by the available mission scenarios. We approach the orbital prediction problem by assessing the expected future evolution of the orbital uncertainty at the 2040 encounter based on various observational scenarios. We find that observations made at the next favorable apparition in 2013 are 95% likely to eliminate the possibility of a 2040 impact altogether. With the addition of 2015-16 observations, this likelihood increases to about 99%. Conversely, if the asteroid turns out to really be on an Earth impacting trajectory, the 2013 observations could raise the chance of impact to 10-15%, and observations in 2015-2016 could raise the chance of impact to 70%. On the deflection side, we describe a range of viable kinetic deflection mission scenarios. Mission timelines allow detailed planning to be delayed until after the 2013 observations and spacecraft fabrication to be delayed until after the 2015-16 observations. The full report is available at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news175.html.

Chesley, Steven R.; Bhaskaran, S.; Chodas, P. W.; Grebow, D.; Landau, D.; Petropoulos, A. E.; Sims, J. A.; Yeomans, D. K.

2012-10-01

245

Assessing the risk of impact of farming intensification on calcareous grasslands in Europe: a quantitative implementation of the MIRABEL framework.  

PubMed

Intensification of farming practices is still a major driver of biodiversity loss in Europe, despite the implementation of policies that aim to reverse this trend. A conceptual framework called MIRABEL was previously developed that enabled a qualitative and expert-based assessment of the impact of agricultural intensification on ecologically valuable habitats. We present a quantitative update of the previous assessment that uses newly available pan-European spatially explicit data on pressures and habitats at risk. This quantitative assessment shows that the number of calcareous grasslands potentially at risk of eutrophication and overgrazing is rapidly increasing in Europe. Decreases in nitrogen surpluses and stocking densities that occurred between 1990 and 2000 have rarely led to values that were below the ecological thresholds. At the same time, a substantial proportion of calcareous grassland that has so far experienced low values for indicators of farming intensification has faced increases between 1990 and 2000 and could well become at high risk from farming intensification in the near future. As such, this assessment is an early warning signal, especially for habitats located in areas that have traditionally been farmed extensively. When comparing the outcome of this assessment with the previous qualitative MIRABEL assessment, it appears that if pan-European data are useful to assess the intensity of the pressures, more work is needed to identify regional variations in the response of biodiversity to such pressures. This is where a qualitative approach based on regional expertise should be used to complement data-driven assessments. PMID:17240762

Petit, Sandrine; Elbersen, Berien

2006-09-01

246

A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline.  

PubMed

Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability. PMID:12108590

Young, John A; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D; Lemarie, David P

2002-06-01

247

10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section 50...Regulatory Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment requirements...assessment of the effects on the facility of the impact of a large, commercial...

2013-01-01

248

Plant biodiversity and vegetation structure in traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon under different management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic surveys were performed in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens under different management regimes in the humid forest\\u000a area of southern Cameroon, to assess the impact of intensification on plant biodiversity. This impact was evaluated by analyzing\\u000a species richness, vegetation structure, carbon sequestration and above ground biomass. We hypothesize that: (a) plant (tree\\u000a and herbs) species richness is negatively correlated

Stefan Vidal

2008-01-01

249

BIODIVERSITY FUTURES UNDER ALTERNATIVE FOREST INDUSTRY SCENARIOS IN NORTH QUEENSLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Queensland is a major repository of biodiversity in Australia. From the perspective of industry proponents, the impacts of plantation developments on biodiversity deserve consideration because these impacts are likely to influence public acceptance of proposals and whether proposals can attract environmentally-linked funding and marketing opportunities. At the same time, plantations offer a unique opportunity for broadscale reforestation, and if

J. Kanowski; C. P. Catterall; G. W. Wardell-Johnson

250

Impact assessment for LCAs involving agricultural production  

Microsoft Academic Search

LCA has been developed primarily for industrial production systems. Application to agricultural systems requires systematic\\u000a application of existing methodology and new methodological developments. Conventional approaches can obscure potential options\\u000a for improving the environmental performance of systems involving agricultural production due to use of restricted system boundaries,\\u000a incomplete assessment of impacts, and exclusion of ancillaries from the analysis. For use of

Sarah J. Cowell; Roland Clift

1997-01-01

251

Global Biodiversity Information Facility: Biodiversity Data Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Data Portal website is hosted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (reported on in the Scout Report for Science & Engineering, March 14, 2001), an international organization committed to providing "free and universal access to data regarding the world's diversity." As its name indicates, the Data Portal provides access to biodiversity information from around the world and allows site visitors to browse for taxonomic data organized by Kingdom of Life, country, or data providers. Visitors can search for specimen or field observation data by data providers as well. The site also contains a search engine with search options that include many different countries, scientific name, common name in any language, English name, and more. This website is available in French, English, and Danish. Note: Prior to viewing data, site visitors must first agree to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Interim Data Use Agreement.

252

Why is social impact assessment the orphan of the assessment process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social impact assessment (SIA) has not been widely adopted as a component of the assessment process for project or policy appraisal. This paper focuses on four issues: how we are labeling research on social impacts; what historical events led to the separation of SIA from the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process; whether the Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment

Rabel J. Burdge

2002-01-01

253

Impacts of a Warming Arctic - Arctic Climate Impact Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe climate change on earth. Over the next 100 years, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun. Changes in arctic climate will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising sea levels. Impacts of a Warming Arctic is a plain language synthesis of the key findings of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), designed to be accessible to policymakers and the broader public. The ACIA is a comprehensively researched, fully referenced, and independently reviewed evaluation of arctic climate change. It has involved an international effort by hundreds of scientists. This report provides vital information to society as it contemplates its responses to one of the greatest challenges of our time. It is illustrated in full color throughout.

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

2004-12-01

254

State-Mandated Impact Evaluation: A Preliminary Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the costs to housing of state required environmental impact assessments. It examines indepth the environmental impact assessment processes and their costs in California and Florida. There is also a quick overview of the Wisconsin and M...

T. Muller K. Christensen

1976-01-01

255

Measuring the Effectiveness of Community Impact Assessment: Recommended Core Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Florida Department of Transportation's report examines performance measures or measures of effectiveness for community impact assessment. The report also assesses actual impacts after a transportation action and identifies methods for collecting feedb...

B. G. Ward

2005-01-01

256

Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.

257

The substantial first impact of bottom fishing on rare biodiversity hotspots: a dilemma for evidence-based conservation.  

PubMed

This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.). One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90%) or scallop dredge (59%), as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids) were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a 'priority habitat' the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive) as well as indicators of 'Good Environmental Status' under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management. PMID:23967063

Cook, Robert; Fariñas-Franco, Jose M; Gell, Fiona R; Holt, Rohan H F; Holt, Terry; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S; Seed, Ray; Skates, Lucie R; Stringell, Thomas B; Sanderson, William G

2013-08-14

258

Assessing impacts of climate change on forests: The state of biological modeling  

SciTech Connect

Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rauscher, H.M. [Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

1993-04-06

259

Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas  

PubMed Central

China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by high productivity and represent spawning and nursery areas for several economically important species. In the long term, climate change is also a major threat. Finally, challenges in marine biodiversity studies are briefly discussed along with suggestions to strengthen the field. Since 2004, China has participated in the Census of Marine Life, through which advances in the study of zooplankton and zoobenthos biodiversity were finally summarized.

2013-01-01

260

Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.  

PubMed

China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1) a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2) the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3) coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4) mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5) a threatened seagrass field, and (6) an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007), the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction), particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are characterized by high productivity and represent spawning and nursery areas for several economically important species. In the long term, climate change is also a major threat. Finally, challenges in marine biodiversity studies are briefly discussed along with suggestions to strengthen the field. Since 2004, China has participated in the Census of Marine Life, through which advances in the study of zooplankton and zoobenthos biodiversity were finally summarized. PMID:23320065

Liu, J Y

2013-01-08

261

40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.22 Section 227.22 Protection...on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other uses of the ocean will...

2010-07-01

262

40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.22 Section 227.22 Protection...on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other uses of the ocean will...

2009-07-01

263

Prioritizing impacts: the second stage of life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage of life cycle assessment, inventory analysis, may be complex in practice but is conceptually straightforward. The second stage, impact assessment, is much more conceptually difficult, because it ultimately involves making choices among different impacts on the environment. Several techniques for impact assessment of specific products have been proposed; none has yet seen general use. This paper presents

T. E. Graedel

1994-01-01

264

40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.19 Section 227.19 Protection...APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic...Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment of the...

2013-07-01

265

Projecting land-use change and its consequences for biodiversity in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Rapid deforestation has occurred in northern Thailand over the last few decades and it is expected to continue. The government has implemented conservation policies aimed at maintaining forest cover of 50% or more and promoting agribusiness, forestry, and tourism development in the region. The goal of this paper was to analyze the likely effects of various directions of development on the region. Specific objectives were (1) to forecast land-use change and land-use patterns across the region based on three scenarios, (2) to analyze the consequences for biodiversity, and (3) to identify areas most susceptible to future deforestation and high biodiversity loss. The study combined a dynamic land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a model for biodiversity assessment (GLOBIO3). The Dyna-CLUE model was used to determine the spatial patterns of land-use change for the three scenarios. The methodology developed for the Global Biodiversity Assessment Model framework (GLOBIO 3) was used to estimate biodiversity intactness expressed as the remaining relative mean species abundance (MSA) of the original species relative to their abundance in the primary vegetation. The results revealed that forest cover in 2050 would mainly persist in the west and upper north of the region, which is rugged and not easily accessible. In contrast, the highest deforestation was expected to occur in the lower north. MSA values decreased from 0.52 in 2002 to 0.45, 0.46, and 0.48, respectively, for the three scenarios in 2050. In addition, the estimated area with a high threat to biodiversity (an MSA decrease >0.5) derived from the simulated land-use maps in 2050 was approximately 2.8% of the region for the trend scenario. In contrast, the high-threat areas covered 1.6 and 0.3% of the region for the integrated-management and conservation-oriented scenarios, respectively. Based on the model outcomes, conservation measures were recommended to minimize the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity. The model results indicated that only establishing a fixed percentage of forest was not efficient in conserving biodiversity. Measures aimed at the conservation of locations with high biodiversity values, limited fragmentation, and careful consideration of road expansion in pristine forest areas may be more efficient to achieve biodiversity conservation. PMID:20131051

Trisurat, Yongyut; Alkemade, Rob; Verburg, Peter H

2010-02-04

266

Changes in human population structure: Implications for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human population size and growth have been recognized as important factors affecting biodiversity, but the impacts of population\\u000a structural changes on biodiversity are not clear. In this paper, we made the first attempt to link human population structural\\u000a changes with implications for biodiversity, using Wolong Nature Reserve (south-western China) for the endangered giant panda\\u000a as a case study. From 1982

Jianguo Liu; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yingchun Tan; Jian Yang; Heming Zhang

1999-01-01

267

The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: A multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments have highlighted the importance of forest amount at large spatial scales and of matrix quality for ecological processes in remnants. These developments, in turn, suggest the potential for reducing biodiversity loss through the maintenance of a high percentage of forest combined with sensitive management of anthropogenic areas. We conducted a multi-taxa survey to evaluate the potential for biodiversity

Renata Pardini; Deborah Faria; Gustavo M. Accacio; Rudi R. Laps; Eduardo Mariano-Neto; Mateus L. B. Paciencia; Marianna Dixo; Julio Baumgarten

2009-01-01

268

Global Conservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines conservation strategies to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services.Habitat destruction has driven much of the current biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or ecosystem services, that humans derive from functioning ecosystems. Securing both species and ecosystem services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial ecosystem service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.

Will Turner (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Katrina Brandon (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Thomas Brooks (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Robert Constanza (University of Vermont;Gund Institute for Ecological Economics); Gustavo da Fonseca (Federal University of Minas Gerais;); Rosimeiry Portela (;)

2007-11-01

269

Impacts of socio-economic and climate change scenarios on wetlands: linking water resource and biodiversity meta-models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-modelling approach has been adopted to link simulations of low and high water flows with simulations of suitable climate\\u000a space for a selection of fen and bog species with differing drought and flood tolerance. The linked meta-models were used\\u000a to examine the impacts of socio-economic and climate change scenarios on wetlands in two contrasting regions of the UK. The

P. A. Harrison; P. M. Berry; C. Henriques; I. P. Holman

2008-01-01

270

Comparison of environmental impact and external cost assessment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Impact assessment can be completed with the help of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) as a part of Life Cycle Assessment\\u000a (LCA) and External Cost Assessment methods. These methods help, for project and product classifications, to protect human\\u000a health and the environment. Comparison of different impact assessment methods along parallel evaluations of real air pollution\\u000a case studies

Peter Mizsey; Luis Delgado; Tamas Benko

2009-01-01

271

Prospects for Health Impact Assessment in the United States: New and Improved Environmental Impact Assessment or Something Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health impact assessment (HIA) has been advanced as a means of bring- ing potential health impacts to the attention of policy makers, particularly in sectors where health impacts may not otherwise be considered. This article examines lessons for HIA in the United States from the related and relatively well-developed field of environmental impact assessment (EIA). We reviewed the EIA literature

Brian L. Cole; Michelle Wilhelm; Peter V. Long; Jonathan E. Fielding; Gerald Kominski; Hal Morgenstern

2004-01-01

272

10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for...Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of...prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

2009-01-01

273

10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility for...Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of...prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

2010-01-01

274

31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section...26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA...

2013-07-01

275

Interbasin Water Transfer, Riverine Connectivity, and Spatial Controls on Fish Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities. Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in assessing impacts of IBWT projects and balancing ecosystem and societal demands for freshwater, even in cases where biodiversity data are limited.

Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

2012-01-01

276

Building a Biodiversity GRID  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the BiodiversityWorld project we are building a GRID to support scientific biodiversity-related research. The requirements as- sociated with such a GRID are somewhat different from other GRIDs, and this has influenced the architecture that we have developed. In this paper we outline these requirements, most notably the need to inter- operate over a diverse set of legacy databases and

Andrew C. Jones; Richard J. White; W. Alex Gray; Frank A. Bisby; Neil Caithness; Nick Pittas; Xuebiao Xu; Tim Sutton; Nick J. Fiddian; Alastair Culham; Malcolm Scoble; Paul Williams; Oliver Bromley; Peter Brewer; Chris Yesson; Shonil Bhagwat

2004-01-01

277

STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR IMPACT ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to create a strategy for the development of climate scenarios for use in impact assessment, potential techniques of development were reviewed and the information needs of potential users assessed. vailable techniques were assessed through literature reviews and consultat...

278

Management implications of the biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of shrimp trawler by-catch in Bahía de Kino, Sonora, México.  

PubMed

The shrimp fishery is the most economically important fishery in Mexico. The trawler-based portion of this fishery results in high rates of by-catch. This study quantifies and describes the biodiversity of by-catch associated with trawling in the Bahía de Kino region of Sonora, Mexico. Data were collected from 55 trawls, on six boats, over 14 nights, during November of 2003, 2004, 2006-2009. By-catch rates within trawl samples averaged 85.9% measured by weight. A total of 183 by-catch species were identified during the course of this study, including 97 species of bony fish from 43 families, 19 species of elasmobranchs from 12 families, 66 species of invertebrates from eight phyla, and one species of marine turtle; seven of the documented by-catch species are listed on the IUCN Red List, CITES, or the Mexican NOM-059-ECOL-2010; 35 species documented in the by-catch are also targeted by local artisanal fishers. Some of the species frequently captured as juveniles in the by-catch are economically important to small-scale fishers in the region, and are particularly sensitive to overexploitation due to their life histories. This study highlights the need for further research quantifying the impacts of high levels of by-catch upon small-scale fishing economies in the region and presents strong ecological and economic rationale for by-catch management within the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of California. Site-specific by-catch management plans should be piloted in the Bahía de Kino region to address the growing momentum in national and international fisheries policy regimes toward the reduction of by-catch in shrimp fisheries. PMID:22719827

Meltzer, Lorayne; Blinick, Naomi S; Fleishman, Abram B

2012-06-18

279

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased use of traditional medicines, possibilities that would ensure its successful integration into a public health framework should be explored. This paper discusses some of the links between biodiversity and traditional medicine, and addresses their implications to public health. We explore the importance of biodiversity and ecosystem services to global and human health, the risks which human impacts

Rômulo RN Alves; Ierecê ML Rosa

2007-01-01

280

The Satoyama Index: A biodiversity indicator for agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development to meet rapidly growing demands for food and biofuel and the abandonment of traditional land use have had major impacts on biodiversity. Habitat diversity is one of the most important factors influencing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. In this study we propose an ecological index of ecosystem or habitat diversity in agricultural landscapes – the Satoyama Index (SI) –

Taku Kadoya; Izumi Washitani

2011-01-01

281

Biodiversity Effects on Soil Processes Explained by Interspecific Functional Dissimilarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of biodiversity can have significant impacts on ecosystem functioning, but the mechanisms involved lack empirical confirmation. Using soil microcosms, we show experimentally that functional dissimilarity among detritivorous species, not species number, drives community compositional effects on leaf litter mass loss and soil respiration, two key soil ecosystem processes. These experiments confirm theoretical predictions that biodiversity effects on ecosystem

D. A. Heemsbergen; M. P. Berg; M. Loreau; J. R. van Hal; J. H. Faber; H. A. Verhoef

2004-01-01

282

Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of biodiversity can have significant impacts on ecosystem functioning, but the mechanisms involved lack empirical confirmation. Using soil microcosms, we show experimentally that functional dissimilarity among detritivorous species, not species number, drives community compositional effects on leaf litter mass loss and soil respiration, two key soil ecosystem processes. These experiments confirm theoretical predictions that biodiversity effects on ecosystem

D. A. Heemsbergen; M. P. Berg; M. Loreau; Hal van J. R; J. H. Faber; H. A. Verhoef

2004-01-01

283

Biodiversity Conservation on Private Lands: Information Problems and Regulatory Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey paper examines various information insufficiencies in biodiversity conservation and their impact of regulatory choices. We surveyed the literature in the field and identified four major types of informational insufficiencies in making efficient biodiversity conservation decisions: 1) biological uncertainty 2) natural uncertainty 3) individual information, and 4) monitoring problem. The consequences of these four types of information insufficiencies on

Tun Lin; Timo Goeschl

2004-01-01

284

The power of bioenergy-related standards to protect biodiversity.  

PubMed

The sustainable production of bioenergy is vital to avoiding negative impacts on environmental goods such as climate, soil, water, and especially biodiversity. We propose three key issues that should be addressed in any biodiversity risk-mitigation strategy: conservation of areas of significant biodiversity value; mitigation of negative effects related to indirect land-use change; and promotion of agricultural practices with few negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on biodiversity concerns, we compared principles and criteria set to address biodiversity and other environmental and social issues in seven standards (defined here as commodity-based standards or roundtables, or relevant European legislation): five voluntary initiatives related to bioenergy feedstocks, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (United Kingdom), and the European Renewable Energy Source Directive. Conservation of areas of significant biodiversity value was fairly well covered by these standards. Nevertheless, mitigation of negative impacts related to indirect land-use change was underrepresented. Although the EU directive, with its bonus system for the use of degraded land and a subquota system for noncrop biofuels, offered the most robust standards to mitigate potential negative effects, all of the standards fell short in promoting agricultural practices with low negative impacts on biodiversity. We strongly recommend that each standard be benchmarked against related standards, as we have done here, and that efforts should be made to strengthen the elements that are weak or missing. This would be a significant step toward achieving a bioenergy industry that safeguards Earth's living heritage. PMID:20028415

Hennenberg, K J; Dragisic, C; Haye, S; Hewson, J; Semroc, B; Savy, C; Wiegmann, K; Fehrenbach, H; Fritsche, U R

2009-12-16

285

Impact Assessment Methodologies for Microfinance: Theory, Experience and Better Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfinance programs and institutions are increasingly important in development strategies but knowledge about their impacts is partial and contested. This paper reviews the methodological options for the impact assessment (IA) of microfinance. Following a discussion of the varying objectives of IA it examines the choice of conceptual frameworks and presents three paradigms of impact assessment: the scientific method, the humanities

David Hulme

2000-01-01

286

Terrestrial vertebrate fauna surveys for the preparation of environmental impact assessments; how can we do it better? A Western Australian example  

SciTech Connect

The Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) in 2002 released Position Statement, No. 3, Terrestrial Biological Surveys as an Element of Biodiversity Protection outlining how terrestrial fauna survey data are to be used and interpreted in the preparation of environmental impact assessments (EIA). In 2004, the EPA released its Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors, Terrestrial Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, No. 56. This paper briefly assesses the adequacy of recent terrestrial fauna surveys undertaken to support publicly released EIAs and indicates that the EPA is not always adhering to its own position and guidance statements. This paper argues that the current fauna survey guidelines are in need of improvement. The approach and requirements of some other Australian states are briefly assessed to identify similarities and where improvements can be made to the Western Australian (WA) guidelines. This paper concludes with suggestions on how the process and the guidelines in WA can be revised to more adequately assess the impact of developments on terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity and ecosystem function. These suggestions may have relevance for other areas where fauna surveys are undertaken to support EIAs.

Thompson, Graham G. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup Dr., Joondalup, Western Australia 6010 (Australia)]. E-mail: g.thompson@ecu.edu.au

2007-01-15

287

An Assessment of Impact Damage to Fresh Tomato Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impact damage assessment of fresh tomato fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of drop height, impact surfaces, maturity and size of fruits on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely, cardboard (A), wood (B), metal (C), Plastic (D) and Foam (E) were used on the platform of the equipment. Tomato fruits of two maturity

P. A. Idah; E. S. A. Ajisegiri; M. G. Yisa

288

Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence.  

PubMed

Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often incomplete. In this paper we demonstrate with a case study how impact assessment can be carried out for situations where data are scarce but some expert knowledge is available. The case study involves two amphibian species, the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in the nature reserve the Meinweg in the Netherlands, for which plans are being developed to reopen an old railway track called the Iron Rhine. We assess the effects of this railway track and its proposed alternatives (scenarios) on the metapopulation extinction time and the occupancy times of the patches for both species using a discrete-time stochastic metapopulation model. We quantify the model parameters using expert knowledge and extrapolated data. Because of our uncertainty about these parameter values, we perform a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. This yields an estimate of the probability distribution of the model predictions and insight into the contribution of each distinguished source of uncertainty to this probability distribution. We show that with a simple metapopulation model and an extensive uncertainty analysis it is possible to detect the least harmful scenario. The ranking of the different scenarios is consistent. Thus, uncertainty analysis can enhance the role of ecological impact assessment in decision making by making explicit to what extent incomplete knowledge affects predictions. PMID:15160900

Etienne, Rampal S; Vos, Claire C; Jansen, Michiel J W

2003-12-01

289

Salvage logging in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and its potential impacts on biodiversity.  

PubMed

The two major forms of disturbance in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria (southeastern Australia) are clearfell logging and unplanned wildfires. Since the 1930s wildfire has been followed by intensive and extensive salvage-logging operations, which may proceed for many years after a wildfire has occurred. Although applied widely, the potential effects of salvage logging on native flora and fauna have been poorly studied. Our data indicate that the abundance of large trees with hollows is significantly reduced in forests subject to salvage harvesting. This has implications for thepersistence of an array of such cavity-using vertebrates as the endangered arboreal marsupial, Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelidues leadbeateri). Salvage logging also reduces the prevalence of multiaged montane ash forests--places that typically support the highest diversity of arboreal marsupials and forest birds. Limited research has been conducted on the effects of salvage logging on plants; thus, we constructed hypotheses about potential impacts for further testing based on known responses to clearfell logging and key life history attributes. We predict many species, such as vegetatively resprouting tree ferns, will decline, as they do after clearfelling. We also suggest that seed regenerators, which typically regenerate well after fire or conventional clearfelling, will decline after salvage logging because the stimulation for germination (fire) takes place prior to mechanical disturbance (logging). Understoryplant communities in salvage-logged areas will be dominated by a smaller suite of species, and those that are wind dispersed, have viable soil-stored seed remaining after salvage logging, or have deep rhizomes are likely to be advantaged. We recommend the following improvements to salvage-logging policies that may better incorporate conservation needs in Victorian montane ash forests: (1) exemption of salvage logging from some areas (e.g., old-growth stands and places subject to only partial stand damage); (2) increased retention of biological legacies on burned areas through variations in the intensity of salvage logging; and (3) reduction in the levels of physical disturbance on salvage-logged areas, especially through limited seedbed preparation and mechanical disturbance. PMID:16922217

Lindenmayer, D B; Ought, K

2006-08-01

290

Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect  

SciTech Connect

The widespread experience of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as an anticipatory environmental management tool has generated a considerable debate over the extent to which it is achieving its purposes. This has been measured in terms of EIA 'effectiveness', especially as discussion has moved away from issues of procedural implementation, to the more substantive goals of EIA and its place within broader decision-making contexts. Empirical studies have revealed the relatively weak degree of influence on planning decisions that is being exerted by EIA, which is increasingly being attributed to its rationalist beginnings. This article seeks to direct this debate towards the founding political purposes of EIA which, it is argued, provide a neglected, yet strong, basis for EIA reform. A number of illustrative suggestions are made as a result of this redirection, to enable EIA to adopt a more determinative role in decision making and to contribute to more sustainable patterns of development planning.

Jay, Stephen [Faculty of Development and Society, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.a.jay@shu.ac.uk; Jones, Carys [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: carys.jones@manchester.ac.uk; Slinn, Paul [Sefton Borough Council, Southport, Merseyside (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: paul.slinn@eas.sefton.gov.uk; Wood, Christopher [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chris.wood@manchester.ac.uk

2007-05-15

291

Biodiversity of an unknown Antarctic Sea: assessing isopod richness and abundance in the first benthic survey of the Amundsen continental shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerted efforts are being made to understand the current and past processes that have shaped Antarctic biodiversity. However,\\u000a high rates of new species discoveries, sampling patchiness and bias make estimation of biodiversity there difficult. Antarctic\\u000a continental shelf benthos is better studied in the Ross, Weddell and Scotia seas, whilst the Amundsen Sea has remained biologically\\u000a unexplored largely because of severe

Stefanie Kaiser; David K. A. Barnes; Chester J. Sands; Angelika Brandt

2009-01-01

292

Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.  

PubMed

The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

2003-07-25

293

An Empirical Analysis of the Biodiversity and Economic Returns to Cocoa Agroforests in Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguing that agroforestry associations are important for biodiversity conservation, certification schemes are seeking to differentiate commodities on the basis of the biodiversity included in the cropping system, in order to financially encourage more “wildlife friendly” production systems through market mechanisms. However, biologists and economists have begun to question the overall impact on biodiversity and poverty when relatively extensive “wildlife friendly”

James Gockowski; Mathurin Tchatat; Jean-Paul Dondjang; Gisele Hietet; Terese Fouda

2010-01-01

294

40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact....

2011-07-01

295

Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled 'Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial'; 'Framework for Integrated A...

K. D. Frederick N. J. Rosenberg

1994-01-01

296

40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact....

2013-07-01

297

Global Environmental Change: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book uses Costa Rica as a case study because the country's tropical forests contain four percent of Earth's total biological species diversity. Biodiversity's activities and readings help students explore efforts to balance economic expansion with resource conservation. This resource has activities to explore local biodiversity and true-to-life role-playing scenarios, so students can apply what they have learned. Biodiversity is one of four books in NSTA Press's Global Environmental Change series, a joint project of NSTA Press and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The other books in the series are Deforestation, Carrying Capacity, and Introduced Species.

Agency, Environmental P.; Press, Nsta

1997-01-01

298

Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

1994-11-30

299

Biodiversity in the dark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multitude of organisms makes soils the fertile factories of food and fibre production, decomposition and nutrient cycling that they are. But tying changes in soil biodiversity to shifts in ecosystem function is a daunting task.

Wall, Diana H.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Kelly, Eugene

2010-05-01

300

Evaluation of Biodiversity Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based in part on recommendations generated at a workshop attended by 14 experts in conservation biology, ecology, systematics, and economic development, the report presents guidelines for evaluating proposed, current, and completed biodiversity projects. ...

1989-01-01

301

Can NEPA Protect Biodiversity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biodiversity has emerged as a prominent issue in the scientific and conservation communities, and is of increasing concern to the general public. As with other 'new' environmental problems (e.g., global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion), biod...

S. Henderson R. F. Noss P. Ross

1989-01-01

302

Landscape Ecology for Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological diversity has been emerged as a core concept in management and conservation of diverse ecological systems. Scaling\\u000a up for biodiversity conservation in landscape system is also emerging issue in ecologists. In order to conserve biodiversity\\u000a from the genetic level to ecosystem and landscape levels, multi-scale strategies and efforts are being adopted and executed\\u000a in many countries. In this paper,

T. H. Ro; S.-K. Hong

303

Biodiversity of Feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into biodiversity. Groups of learners will go to the zoo to look at animal feet, making a list of ten different animals at the zoo and writing down a description of their feet. This collected data is then analyzed to envision how each animalâs use of its feet helps it live in its environment. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Biodiversity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

304

Biofilms and Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive lesson introduces students to issues of biodiversity in Chesapeake Bay. It features background information, as well as directions on how to conduct biofilm experiments using plexiglass discs or CDs to culture communities in your local body of water. The experiments demonstrate how water quality, depth, and biodiversity are linked. For students whose school is not near the original site, data and images from the original experiments are available for analysis.

305

Climate Change and Biodiversity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already affecting European biodiversity, as de m- onstrated by changes in species' ranges and ecosystem boundaries, shifts in reproductive cycles and growing seasons, and cha nges to the complex ways in which species interact (predation, pollination, competition and disease). These effects vary between regions and ecosystems. Strategies adopted to mitigate or adapt to climate change also impact

Hannah Reid

306

Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of biodiversity loss on the functioning of ecosystems and their ability to provide ecological services has become a central issue in ecology. Several experiments have provided evidence that reduced species diversity may impair ecosystem processes such as plant biomass production. The interpretation of these experiments, however, has been controversial because two types of mechanism may operate in combination.

Michel Loreau; Andy Hector

2001-01-01

307

Niche construction, co-evolution and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organisms modulate the availability of resources to other species, in the process changing the selection to which they and other organisms are exposed (niche construction). Niche construction drives co-evolutionary episodes, and builds connectance between the biotic components of ecosystems. Organisms have significant non-trophic impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity. Based on a review of the most recent literature,

Kevin N. Lalanda; Neeltje J. Boogert

2010-01-01

308

Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

Ijaes, Asko, E-mail: asko.ijas@gmail.co [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitunen, Markku T., E-mail: mkuitune@bytl.jyu.f [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Jalava, Kimmo, E-mail: kjjalava@jyu.f [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2010-02-15

309

Visual impact assessment: A neglected component of environmental impact statements in Ireland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the results of an analysis of Visual Impact Assessments (VIA) within a sample of Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) in Ireland. The standard of VIA conducted within the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process for three categories of development; piggeries, quarries and urban developments between 1997 and 1999 are evaluated. The extent to which VIA have complied with the

Paddy Prendergast; Krysia Rybaczuk

2004-01-01

310

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issue by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey.

Breece, Gary Allen; Ward, Bobby J.

1996-11-01

311

Utility terrestrial biodiversity issues  

SciTech Connect

Results from a survey of power utility biologists indicate that terrestrial biodiversity is considered a major issued by only a few utilities; however, a majority believe it may be a future issue. Over half of the respondents indicated that their company is involved in some management for biodiversity, and nearly all feel that it should be a goal for resource management. Only a few utilities are funding biodiversity research, but a majority felt more research was needed. Generally, larger utilities with extensive land holdings had greater opportunities and resources for biodiversity management. Biodiversity will most likely be a concern with transmission rights-of-way construction and maintenance, endangered species issues and general land resource management, including mining reclamation and hydro relicensing commitments. Over half of the companies surveyed have established voluntary partnerships with management groups, and biodiversity is a goal in nearly all the joint projects. Endangered species management and protection, prevention of forest fragmentation, wetland protection, and habitat creation and protection are the most common partnerships involving utility companies. Common management practices and unique approaches are presented, along with details of the survey. 4 refs.

Breece, G.A. [Southern Company, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, B.J. [Carolina Power and Light Company, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

312

Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.  

PubMed

Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in areas of high fish endemism (e.g., Southeast), additional management and policy actions will be needed to minimize further species imperilment. PMID:23185581

McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

2012-11-21

313

Commencement Bay Studies Phase II, Environmental Impacts Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dames and Moore assessed the environmental impacts associated with development of 37 projects planned or conceived for Commencement Bay study area. Elements of the natural and human environments assessed for each project included fish, invertebrates, bird...

J. S. Isakson J. P. Houghton S. A. Johnston

1983-01-01

314

Biodiversity components and conservation of mediterranean healthlands in Southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is a complex issue which has frequently been extremely simplified both by equating it with species richness, and by addressing it at the level of regional floras or faunas. In this paper we carry out a detailed assessment of biodiversity for conservation of Mediterranean heathlands and related woodland understoreys on acidic ‘islands’ in the Gibraltar Strait region which are

F. Ojeda; J. Arroyo; T. Marañón

1995-01-01

315

Old-growth boreal forests: Worth protecting for biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes socially optimal forest management in terms of the rotation period and strict protection of stands when society values biodiversity benefits and harvest revenue. By using species presence and decaying wood functions, the Hartman model is extended to tackle biodiversity. A parametric version is developed to assess optimal management by using Finnish data on 32 old-growth stands. The

Artti Juutinen

2008-01-01

316

The architecture of mutualistic networks minimizes competition and increases biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main theories of biodiversity either neglect species interactions or assume that species interact randomly with each other. However, recent empirical work has revealed that ecological networks are highly structured, and the lack of a theory that takes into account the structure of interactions precludes further assessment of the implications of such network patterns for biodiversity. Here we use a

Ugo Bastolla; Miguel A. Fortuna; Alberto Pascual-García; Antonio Ferrera; Bartolo Luque; Jordi Bascompte

2009-01-01

317

The Value of Biodiversity in India’s Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to value the biodiversity functions of India’s natural ecosystems and suggest a method to adjust national (GDP) and state income (GSDP) accounts. The main objectives of this study are: (1) Identify appropriate indicators to assess the state of biodiversity in different states in India based on the available data from secondary sources. (2) Estimate the value of

Sanjeev Sanyal; Haripriya Gundimeda; Rajiv Sinha; Pawan Sukhdev

2007-01-01

318

Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

NONE

1997-04-01

319

10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment...Determinations to Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures §...

2013-01-01

320

Some common shortcomings in the treatment of impacts of linear infrastructures on natural habitat  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at presenting and discussing some of the main shortcomings that affect the assessment of impacts on biodiversity in current Environmental Impact Assessment practice. In particular, the analysis focuses on one specific type of projects, linear infrastructures, and on one specific aspect of biodiversity, natural habitats. The review highlighted a number of limitations, affecting the baseline study, as well as the impact prediction and the impact assessment stages. Among the most critical shortcomings are the delimitation of the study area on a non-ecological basis, the lack of measurable indicators and quantitative predictions, and the fact that the assessment of the impact relevance, if carried out at all, is unclear and poorly structured. The results of this piece of research reaffirm the need for further research in the field of biodiversity and ecological impact assessment.

Geneletti, Davide [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA), University of Trento, Via Mesiano, 77, 38100 Trento (Italy)]. E-mail: davide.geneletti@ing.unitn.it

2006-04-15

321

Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

2012-01-15

322

The ICLIPS Impacts Tool: Presenting climate impact response functions for integrated assessments of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ICLIPS model is an integrated assessment model of climate change that links global climate change with regional impacts and mitigation efforts by integrating components from different disciplines and various spatial scales. Its reduced-form impact module consists of climate impact response functions (CIRFs) that depict the regional sensitivity of selected climate-sensitive impact sectors to changes in important climatic and atmospheric

Hans-Martin Fussel

323

Assessing the impact of urban land development on net primary productivity in the southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southeastern United States (SE-US) has undergone one of the highest rates of landscape changes in the country due to changing demographics and land use practices over the last few decades. Increasing evidence indicates that these changes have impacted mesoscale weather patterns, biodiversity and water resources. Since the Southeast has one of the highest rates of land productivity in the

Cristina Milesi; Christopher D. Elvidge; Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Steven W. Running

2003-01-01

324

Effect of restriction endonucleases on assessment of biodiversity of cultivable polar marine planktonic bacteria by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis.  

PubMed

To choose a suitable restriction endonuclease for quick assessment of bacterial diversity in polar environments by ARDRA, we investigated the effect of restriction enzymes on ARDRA patterns of cultivable marine planktonic bacteria isolated from polar region. Thirty-three isolates were analyzed by ARDRA using five enzymes (HinfI, HaeIII, AluI, and the mix AfaI/MspI), respectively, resulting in different groups, each group corresponding to a particular genotype. A comparison of the ARDRA patterns was carried out, and phylogenetic position of all thirty-three bacteria was obtained by 16S rDNA sequencing. Consistent with phylogenetic analysis, ARDRA pattern comparison revealed that AluI, being sensitive and reliable enough to generate species-specific patterns, was a suitable restriction enzyme used for evaluating bacterial diversity, suggesting a combination of ARDRA with AluI and 16S rDNA sequencing can provide a simple, fast and reliable means for bacterial identification and diversity assessment in polar environments. PMID:17502990

Zeng, Yinxin; Liu, Wenqi; Li, Huirong; Yu, Yong; Chen, Bo

2007-05-15

325

A new composite structure impact performance assessment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

While previous researchers have conducted their study on the relative impact performance of composite structures from a force or an energy standpoint only, this proposed Composite Structure Impact Performance Assessment Program (CSIPAP) suggests a multi-parameter methodology to gain further insight in the impact behavior of composite structures. These are peak and critical force; critical and dissipated energy; contact duration and

Paolo Feraboli; Keith T. Kedward

2006-01-01

326

Assessing Environmental Impact: A Secondary School Learning Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet contains information on teaching about environmental impact. Background information is included on the role of environmental impact on our society and environmental risk is also discussed. Environmental impacts are studied using Stages of Assessment. Learning activities and seven lesson plans include: (1) "The Community Initiative";…

Nous, Albert P.

327

Molecular phylogenetic biodiversity assessment of arctic and boreal ectomycorrhizal Lactarius Pers. (Russulales; Basidiomycota) in Alaska, based on soil and sporocarp DNA.  

PubMed

Despite the critical roles fungi play in the functioning of ecosystems, especially as symbionts of plants and recyclers of organic matter, their biodiversity is poorly known in high-latitude regions. In this paper, we discuss the molecular diversity of one of the most diverse and abundant groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi: the genus Lactarius Pers. We analysed internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences from both curated sporocarp collections and soil polymerase chain reaction clone libraries sampled in the arctic tundra and boreal forests of Alaska. Our genetic diversity assessment, based on various phylogenetic methods and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) delimitations, suggests that the genus Lactarius is diverse in Alaska, with at least 43 putative phylogroups, and 24 and 38 distinct OTUs based on 95% and 97% internal transcribed spacer sequence similarity, respectively. Some OTUs were identified to known species, while others were novel, previously unsequenced groups. Non-asymptotic species accumulation curves, the disparity between observed and estimated richness, and the high number of singleton OTUs indicated that many Lactarius species remain to be found and identified in Alaska. Many Lactarius taxa show strong habitat preference to one of the three major vegetation types in the sampled regions (arctic tundra, black spruce forests, and mixed birch-aspen-white spruce forests), as supported by statistical tests of UniFrac distances and principal coordinates analyses (PCoA). Together, our data robustly demonstrate great diversity and nonrandom ecological partitioning in an important boreal ectomycorrhizal genus within a relatively small geographical region. The observed diversity of Lactarius was much higher in either type of boreal forest than in the arctic tundra, supporting the widely recognized pattern of decreasing species richness with increasing latitude. PMID:19389163

Geml, József; Laursen, Gary A; Timling, Ina; McFarland, Jack M; Booth, Michael G; Lennon, Niall; Nusbaum, Chad; Taylor, D Lee

2009-04-23

328

Health impact assessment: the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health impact assessment (HIA) has matured as a form of impact assessment over the past two decades. The use of HIA methods and approaches has expanded rapidly, and it now has applications in both the public and private sectors and in an increasing number of countries around the world. This paper presents an overview of the historical and recent international

Ben Harris-Roxas; Francesca Viliani; Patrick Harris; Alan Bond; Ben Cave; Mark Divall; Peter Furu; Matthew Soeberg; Aaron Wernham; Mirko Winkler

2012-01-01

329

Impact Assessment of Waste Management Options in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery

Reginald B. H. Tan; Hsien H. Khoo

2006-01-01

330

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SABALAN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT, NW IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Sabalan geothermal power plant project in the northwestern part of Iran using Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIMA) method is presented. The Sabalan geothermal power plant is planned to produce 50 MW electricity in 2011 in cooperation of the Ministry of Energy (MOE) and Renewable Energy Organization of Iran (SUNA). In this study, an attempt was

Hossein Yousefi; Sachio Ehara; Amin Yousefi; Fariba Seiedi

331

Environmental impact assessment—a tool for sustainable development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properly performed, environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a useful tool for promoting sustainable development because it includes many components that can help facilitate intragenerational and intergenerational equity. In a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for Swedish biofuelled energy plants are analysed to see whether they include components vital to meet intra- and intergenerational equity, such as assessing local and

Sara Bruhn-Tysk; Mats Eklund

2002-01-01

332

The 6\\/94 gap in health impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20–30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental

Tobias E. Erlanger; Gary R. Krieger; Burton H. Singer; Juerg Utzinger

2008-01-01

333

76 FR 19110 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of...and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between May 3, 2010 and January 7...Impact Assessments are available on the DHS Web site until June 6, 2011, after which...

2011-04-06

334

Incorporating biodiversity assets in spatial planning: Methodological proposal and development of a planning support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information on biodiversity issues that planners have at disposal often offers a very limited support, due to the lack of informative data and suitable planning support systems (PSS). This paper aims at improving the treatment of biodiversity assets in spatial planning by proposing an approach to map and assess biodiversity assets, and by implementing it into a PSS, characterised

Davide Geneletti

2008-01-01

335

An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D  

SciTech Connect

A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation.

Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

2003-03-01

336

Environmental assessment methodology: Solar power plant applications. Volume 3. Environmental impact assessment application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact assessment methodology described in another volume is applied to a problem of site selection for solar thermal power plants. Environmental impact assessment of selected solar-thermal sites are compared. Certain potential impacts of solar-thermal and wind energy central systems are examined. In appendix A a data base system that was used to organize the literature on selected data

K. Nair; A. Sicherman

1979-01-01

337

Pacific Northwest Research Station's Biodiversity Initiative: Collaborating for Biodiversity Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pacific Northwest Research Station launched a Biodiversity Initiative to assist natural resource professionals in integrating complex biodiversity concepts into natural resource management processes. We canvassed clients from various affiliations to d...

P. Nelson R. White R. Molina

2006-01-01

338

Carbon management and biodiversity.  

PubMed

International efforts to mitigate human-caused changes in the Earth's climate are considering a system of incentives (debits and credits) that would encourage specific changes in land use that can help to reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The two primary land-based activities that would help to minimize atmospheric carbon dioxide are carbon storage in the terrestrial biosphere and the efficient substitution of biomass fuels and bio-based products for fossil fuels and energy-intensive products. These two activities have very different land requirements and different implications for the preservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of other ecosystem services. Carbon sequestration in living forests can be pursued on lands with low productivity, i.e. on lands that are least suitable for agriculture or intensive forestry, and are compatible with the preservation of biodiversity over large areas. In contrast, intensive harvest-and-use systems for biomass fuels and products generally need more productive land to be economically viable. Intensive harvest-and-use systems may compete with agriculture or they may shift intensive land uses onto the less productive lands that currently harbor most of the Earth's biodiversity. Win-win solutions for carbon dioxide control and biodiversity are possible, but careful evaluation and planning are needed to avoid practices that reduce biodiversity with little net decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Planning is more complex on a politically subdivided Earth where issues of local interest, national sovereignty, and equity come into play. PMID:12659806

Huston, Michael A; Marland, Gregg

2003-01-01

339

Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability—for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs—whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity.

Smythe, Katie D.; Bernabo, J. Christopher; Carter, Thomas B.; Jutro, Peter R.

1996-11-01

340

Fuzzy-Sets Approach to Noise Impact Assessment (7 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aims and Scope   Noise impacts are rarely assessed in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), probably due to lack of data, to the difficulty of setting\\u000a up an appropriate assessment method including relevant uncertainties and vagueness and to their site-dependent nature. The\\u000a evaluation, as well as for odour, cultural and aesthetic impacts, seems to be closely related to human judgements and

Enrico Benetto; Christiane Dujet; Patrick Rousseaux

2006-01-01

341

Regional assessment of climate change impacts on coastal and fluvial ecosystems and the scope for adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem changes in floodplains could be a major issue during the twenty-first century as designated habitat areas are affected\\u000a by climate change and floodplain management options. As part of the RegIS project, a Regional Impact Simulator has been developed\\u000a to investigate these potential changes. This paper presents the methodologies and results of biodiversity metamodels used\\u000a within the Regional Impact Simulator

J. A. Richards; M. Mokrech; P. M. Berry; R. J. Nicholls

2008-01-01

342

Screening risk assessment tools for assessing the environmental impact in an abandoned pyritic mine in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new methodology for assessing site-specific environmental impact of contaminants. The proposed method integrates traditional risk assessment approaches with real and variable environmental characteristics at a local scale. Environmental impact on selected receptors was classified for each environmental compartment into 5 categories derived from the whole (chronic and acute) risk assessment using 8 risk levels. Risk levels

Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez; Concepción García-Gómez; Ana Lourdes Oropesa; Elvira Esteban; Amparo Haro; Ramón Carpena-Ruiz; Jose Vicente Tarazona; Jesus Manuel Peñalosa; María Dolores Fernández

2011-01-01

343

AAAS Remote: Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 48 minute radio broadcast discusses different approaches to protecting biodiversity on Earth and an ambitious project that aims to take an inventory of all the species on the planet. While many scientists recognize the importance of efforts to protect biodiversity, there are many different possible approaches - so the best route is not always clear. Hampering efforts, too, is the fact that scientists are sometimes working in the dark, without an accurate picture of how many species might exist on the planet. There is discussion about overharvesting, invasive species, global warming, climate change, and pollution; the role of the World Bank in protecting biodiversity; and the importance of even rare species to an ecosystem.

344

Assessing the compatibility of farmland biodiversity and habitats to the specifications of agri-environmental schemes using a multinomial logit approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers participating in agri-environmental schemes (AESs) that are aimed at protecting biodiversity should ideally make decisions relating to the ecological management of their farms based on the habitat types found on their farms. In reality, a variety of economic, demographic, farm and farmer characteristics influence all the management decisions made by farmers, including those relating to AESs. In Ireland, the

Geraldine Murphy; Stephen Hynes; Eithne Murphy; Cathal O'Donoghue; Stuart Green

2011-01-01

345

Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earths surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earths oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. T...

E. Pierazzo

2005-01-01

346

AMBIENT TOXICITY TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

The frequent occurrence of xenobiotic chemicals in surface water is of concern to regulatory agencies and the public. The impact of these must be distinguished from impacts due to other factors such as low oxygen, habitat or dredging before an understanding of expected improvemen...

347

Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

Bay Area Economics

1996-12-01

348

Biodiversity matters in a changing world  

PubMed Central

It is now widely accepted that the climate of our planet is changing, but it is still hard to predict the consequences of these changes on ecosystems. The impact is worst at the poles, with scientists concerned that impacts at lower latitudes will follow suit. Canada has a great responsibility and potential for studying the effects of climate changes on the ecological dynamics, given its geographical location and its scientific leadership in this field. The 5th annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution was held in the International Year of Biodiversity, to share recent advances in a wide variety of disciplines ranging from molecular biology to behavioural ecology, and to integrate them into a general view that will help us preserve biodiversity and limit the impact of climate change on ecosystems.

Di Poi, Carole; Diss, Guillaume; Freschi, Luca

2011-01-01

349

Assessing impacts of roads: Application of a standard assessment protocol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts of network impacts on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...

350

Life cycle assessment Part 2: Current impact assessment practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle—from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant

D. W. Pennington; J. Potting; G. Finnveden; E. Lindeijer; O. Jolliet; T. Rydberg; G. Rebitzer

2004-01-01

351

Biodiversity conservation in a changing climate: a review of threats and implications for conservation planning in myanmar.  

PubMed

High levels of species richness and endemism make Myanmar a regional priority for conservation. However, decades of economic and political sanctions have resulted in low conservation investment to effectively tackle threats to biodiversity. Recent sweeping political reforms have placed Myanmar on the fast track to economic development-the expectation is increased economic investments focused on the exploitation of the country's rich, and relatively intact, natural resources. Within a context of weak regulatory capacity and inadequate environmental safeguards, rapid economic development is likely to have far-reaching negative implications for already threatened biodiversity and natural-resource-dependent human communities. Climate change will further exacerbate prevailing threats given Myanmar's high exposure and vulnerability. The aim of this review is to examine the implications of increased economic growth and a changing climate within the larger context of biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. We summarize conservation challenges, assess direct climatological impacts on biodiversity and conclude with recommendations for long-term adaptation approaches for biodiversity conservation. PMID:23868440

Rao, Madhu; Saw Htun; Platt, Steven G; Tizard, Robert; Poole, Colin; Than Myint; Watson, James E M

2013-07-19

352

The Impact of Innovative Assessment on Student Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment methods such as non?conventional exams, oral presentations, group projects and peer assessment are increasingly being used in HE in an attempt to introduce more realistic and meaningful tasks and provide broader and more reliable indicators of students’ achievements. The impact of such assessment on student learning is being investigated via a series of case studies at the University of

Liz McDowell

1995-01-01

353

The Impact of Quality Assessment in Universities: Portuguese Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite being one of the major reasons for the development of quality assessment, students seem relatively unaware of its potential impact. Since one of the main purposes of assessment is to provide students with information on the quality of universities, this lack of awareness brings in to question the effectiveness of assessment as a device…

Cardoso, Sonia; Santiago, Rui; Sarrico, Claudia S.

2012-01-01

354

Bio-safe: Assessing the impact of physical reconstruction on protected and endangered species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing actual and potential biodiversity of river-floodplain ecosystems on the basis of policy and legislation concerning endangered and protected species is necessary for consistency between different policy goals. It is thus a prerequisite to sustainable and integrated river management. This paper presents BIO-SAFE, a transnational model that quantifies the relevance of species and ecotopes, characteristic of the main channels and

R. J. W. de Nooij; H. J. R. Lenders; R. S. E. W. Leuven; G. de Blust; N. Geilen; B. Goldschmidt; S. Muller; I. Poudevigne; P. H. Nienhuis

2004-01-01

355

Assessing the impact of environmental impact statements on citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is no secret that environmental impact statements (EISs) are often difficult for citizens to read and comprehend, on research has examined the actual understanding citizens gain from reading an EIS. We presented the project description portion of an EIS for flood control measures on the Hickory Creek in Joliet, Illinois to 113 Joliet citizens who read the materials

William C. Sullivan; Frances E. Kuo; Mona Prabhu

1996-01-01

356

Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley

1995-01-01

357

Investigating Biodiversity in your schoolyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field lab students will investigate the biodiversity around their school. Students will perform a biodiversity count using transect line. The students will develop multiple hypotheses relating to biodiversity and propose additional procedures for studying, collecting and testing these questions.

358

Getting the measure of biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘biodiversity’ is a simple contraction of ‘biological diversity’, and at first sight the concept is simple too: biodiversity is the sum total of all biotic variation from the level of genes to ecosystems. The challenge comes in measuring such a broad concept in ways that are useful. We show that, although biodiversity can never be fully captured by

Andy Purvis; Andy Hector

2000-01-01

359

Land use and biodiversity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between land use and biodiversity are fundamental to understanding the links between people and their environment. Biodiversity can be measured in many ways. The concept covers not only the overall richness of species present in a particular area but also the diversity of genotypes, functional groups, communities, habitats and ecosystems there. As a result, the relationships between biodiversity

Roy Haines-Young

2009-01-01

360

River networks as biodiversity hotlines.  

PubMed

For several years, measures to insure healthy river functions and to protect biodiversity have focused on management at the scale of drainage basins. Indeed, rivers bear witness to the health of their drainage basins, which justifies integrated basin management. However, this vision should not mask two other aspects of the protection of aquatic and riparian biodiversity as well as services provided by rivers. First, although largely depending on the ecological properties of the surrounding terrestrial environment, rivers are ecological systems by themselves, characterized by their linearity: they are organized in connected networks, complex and ever changing, open to the sea. Second, the structure and functions of river networks respond to manipulations of their hydrology, and are particularly vulnerable to climatic variations. Whatever the scale considered, river networks represent "hotlines" for sharing water between ecological and societal systems, as well as for preserving both systems in the face of global change. River hotlines are characterized by spatial as well as temporal legacies: every human impact to a river network may be transmitted far downstream from its point of origin, and may produce effects only after a more or less prolonged latency period. Here, I review some of the current issues of river ecology in light of the linear character of river networks. PMID:21640951

Décamps, Henri

2011-04-05

361

Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered?  

SciTech Connect

The usual reason for preparing an environmental assessment (EA) is to ``provide sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare a finding of no significant impact or an environmental impact statement`` (40 CFR 1508.9). Significant impacts may result from direct, indirect, or cumulative impacts. Thus, in addition to assessing direct and indirect impacts, EAs should give enough evidence and analysis to determine whether or not the action contributes to a cumulatively significant impact. Consideration of cumulative impacts in NEPA documents in general, and EAs in particular, is less fully developed than consideration of impacts resulting solely from the proposed action. The authors analyzed 89 EAs to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1508. Only 35 EAs (39 %) mentioned cumulative impacts. Of these, 8 stated that there were no cumulative impacts without supporting evidence; 5 identified a potential for cumulative impacts and concluded they were insignificant but presented no evidence or analysis to support the conclusion; 19 addressed cumulative impacts of some resources but not others; and 18 EAs identified past, present, and future actions that could, with the proposed action, contribute to cumulative impacts, but only actions of a similar type were identified, usually those in the agency`s area of responsibility. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) Past, present, and reasonably foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and listed with, the proposed action. (2) For each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) Conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) Agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

McCold, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Division; Holman, J. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Inst. of Environmental Studies

1995-03-01

362

In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and

Sarah Zielinski

2007-01-01

363

Phylogenetic diversity (PD) and biodiversity conservation: some bioinformatics challenges  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity conservation addresses information challenges through estimations encapsulated in measures of diversity. A quantitative measure of phylogenetic diversity, “PD”, has been defined as the minimum total length of all the phylogenetic branches required to span a given set of taxa on the phylogenetic tree (Faith 1992a). While a recent paper incorrectly characterizes PD as not including information about deeper phylogenetic branches, PD applications over the past decade document the proper incorporation of shared deep branches when assessing the total PD of a set of taxa. Current PD applications to macroinvertebrate taxa in streams of New South Wales, Australia illustrate the practical importance of this definition. Phylogenetic lineages, often corresponding to new, “cryptic”, taxa, are restricted to a small number of stream localities. A recent case of human impact causing loss of taxa in one locality implies a higher PD value for another locality, because it now uniquely represents a deeper branch. This molecular-based phylogenetic pattern supports the use of DNA barcoding programs for biodiversity conservation planning. Here, PD assessments side-step the contentious use of barcoding-based “species” designations. Bio-informatics challenges include combining different phylogenetic evidence, optimization problems for conservation planning, and effective integration of phylogenetic information with environmental and socio-economic data.

Faith, Daniel P.; Baker, Andrew M.

2007-01-01

364

Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

2007-01-01

365

Economics of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) manages this clearinghouse on the economics of biodiversity in support of equitable and sustainable natural resource use. IUCN arranges their discussion papers in full-text by theme, and a mixture of relevant economic, legal, and policy information is highlighted throughout the site.

366

Biodiversity and Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will allow students to examine how biodiversity affects an environment's temperature and determine how animal diversity changes in different environments. A student worksheet and discussion questions are included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-02-16

367

Global patterns in biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a first approximation, the distribution of biodiversity across the Earth can be described in terms of a relatively small number of broad-scale spatial patterns. Although these patterns are increasingly well documented, understanding why they exist constitutes one of the most significant intellectual challenges to ecologists and biogeographers. Theory is, however, developing rapidly, improving in its internal consistency, and more

Kevin J. Gaston

2000-01-01

368

Dissecting Amazonian Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical and biodiversity studies in lowland Amazonian rain forests typically refer to observed or postulated distribution barriers such as past unfavorable climates, mountains, rivers, and river floodplains that divide the uniform tierra firme (noninundated) forest. Present-day ecological heterogeneity within tierra firme has hardly been discussed in this context, although edaphic differences are known to affect species distribution patterns in both

Hanna Tuomisto; Kalle Ruokolainen; Risto Kalliola; Ari Linna; Walter Danjoy; Zoila Rodriguez

1995-01-01

369

Consequences of changing biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems. The large ecological and societal

Erika S. Zavaleta; Valerie T. Eviner; Rosamond L. Naylor; Peter M. Vitousek; Heather L. Reynolds; David U. Hooper; Sandra Lavorel; Osvaldo E. Sala; Sarah E. Hobbie; Michelle C. Mack; Sandra Díaz; F. Stuart Chapin III

2000-01-01

370

Aquatic Biodiversity Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Water Cycle:  The process, also known as the hydrologic cycle, in which water travels in a sequence from the air through condensation to the earth as precipitation and back to the atmosphere by evaporation.   From Aquatic Biodiversity Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing water cycle

2013-03-15

371

Insect biodiversity in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian region is recognized as one of the major centres of biodiversity in the world. That the diversity is equally rich at the ecosystem level and at the species level has been well documented by field work carried out by naturalists and professional field biologists during the past 200 years. The habitat diversity offered by alpine ecosystem to mangrove

A. K. Ghosh

1996-01-01

372

First data on an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages for the assessment of the impact of deforestation in a tropical West African river system  

Microsoft Academic Search

African tropical rainforests, and especially their freshwater biodiversity, are seriously threatened by ongoing industrial deforestation. Sound ecological management is needed to ensure the sustainability of these resources. For this purpose, an index of biotic integrity (IBI), based on fish assemblage characteristics, is developed in this paper. It is used to quantify the impact of industrial deforestation on freshwater biodiversity. Data

André Kamdem Toham; Guy G. Teugels

1999-01-01

373

Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs  

EPA Science Inventory

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

374

International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

375

Sierra Cooperative Ozone Impact Assessment Study: Year 4. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Sierra Cooperative Ozone Impact Assessment Study (SCOIAS) was to characterize ozone concentrations and meteorological conditions in mixed conifer forests on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. The report summarizes the data collecte...

J. J. Carroll A. J. Dixon

1995-01-01

376

Health Enrollment Assessment Review (Hear): Its Impact on Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the Health Enrollment Assessment Review (HEAR) program to determine its impact on utilization. Additionally, the HEAR program is lacking useful metrics to track the success of the system. By conducting comparisons ...

W. D. Judd

2000-01-01

377

Package for environmental impact assessment of nuclear installations (NGLAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main contents, designing strategies and properties of the microcomputer-based software package NGLAR are described for environmental impact assessment of nuclear installations. The package consists of the following components: NGAS and NACC, the codes...

Yang Yin Chen Xiaoqiu Ding Jinhou Zhao Hui Xi Xiaojun

1996-01-01

378

Value-Impact Assessment of Alternate Containment Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A value-impact assessment is made of alternate containment concepts for commercial light water reactor power plants. Several alternate containment concepts are evaluated and compared considering their potential for reducing public risk and their construct...

D. D. Carlson J. W. Hickman

1978-01-01

379

Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of \\

Michael Pennock; Karma Ura

2011-01-01

380

IMPROVING ALTERNATIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental impact assessment (EIA), in the US, requires an objective and rigorous analysis of alternatives. Yet the choice of alternatives for that analysis can be subjective and arbitrary. Alternatives often reflect narrow project objectives, agency agendas, and predilecti...

381

Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils  

SciTech Connect

The development of the title assessment will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impacts of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters, and ground waters likely to be disturbed by coal mining. This paper first describes sources of selenium in nature; selenium from coal mine spoils; and environmental impact assessment procedures. The main body of the paper describes the development of an impact assessment model for Se: obtain regional maps; define impact assessment boundaries; specify subregions; collect data; transport analysis; surface water transport analysis; and ground water transport analysis. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (CK)

Atalay, A.

1990-07-10

382

Environmental impact assessment application in infrastructural projects in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in the number of development projects in Malawi is leading to loss of natural resources and the general\\u000a degradation of the environment. Both the Malawi Environmental Management Act of 1996 and the Guidelines for Environmental\\u000a Impact Assessment of 1997, prescribe a list of infrastructural projects that must undergo environmental impact assessment\\u000a (EIA) before their implementation. This study

Ishmael Bobby Mphangwe Kosamu

2011-01-01

383

Organism impact assessment: risk analysis for post-incursion management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campbell, M. L. 2008. Organism impact assessment: risk analysis for post-incursion management. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 795-804. Risk analysis is a management tool that is becoming increasingly common in biosecurity because it aids decision-making in the face of uncertainty. A risk analysis model (referred to as an organism impact assessment (OIA)) is described, one that was developed

Marnie L. Campbell

2008-01-01

384

Impact assessment of abiotic resource consumption conceptual considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact assessment of the consumption of abiotic resources, such as fossil fuels or minerals, is usually part of the Life\\u000a Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) in LCA studies. The problem with the consumption of such resources is their decreasing availability\\u000a for future generations. In currently available LCA methods (e.g. Eco-indicator’ 99\\/Goedkoop and Spriensma 1999, CML\\/Guinée\\u000a 2001), the consumption of various

Frank Brentrup; Jürgen Küsters; Joachim Lammel; Hermann Kuhlmann

2002-01-01

385

Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment

Ana Villarroya; Jordi Puig

2010-01-01

386

Assessing the Impact of Disease Vectors on Animal Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have attempted to assess the relative effects of different vectors of a disease on animal populations. To this end, three measures have been proposed: Vectorial efficiency, Vectorial capacity and recently Vectorial effectiveness (or Vectorial impact). In this study we relate these measures to derive some of their properties emphasising in the vectorial impact for its importance in both,

Mauricio Canals; Ramiro O. Bustamante; Mildred H. Ehrenfeld; Pedro E. Cattan

1998-01-01

387

Environmental impact assessment and the fallacy of unfinished business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all current attempts at environmental impact analysis and technology assessment fall victim to an ethical and methodological assumption that Keniston termed ''the fallacy of unfinished business.'' Related to one version of the naturalistic fallacy, this assumption is that technological and environmental problems have only technical, but not social, ethical, or political solutions. After using several impact analyses to illustrate

2009-01-01

388

Assessing the environmental impacts of mega sporting events: Two options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when public and private agencies recognise the importance of sustainable development, the environmental impacts of mega sporting events are commanding increasing attention. However, despite event sponsors often flagging the importance of environmental as well as socio-economic legacy components, the environmental impacts of events are difficult to assess quantitatively, being complex and often occurring over extended periods. The

Andrea Collins; Calvin Jones; Max Munday

2009-01-01

389

Agricultural Impact Assessment, Vulnerability, and the Scope for Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change assessments which have considered climate impacts of a 2xCO2 climate, using models of the global agricultural system, have found small impacts on overall production, but larger regional changes. Production shifts among regions can be considered one mechanism for adaptation. Adaptation at the farm level, through changes in crops, cultivars, and production practices, is another adaptation mechanism. Existing studies

J. M. Reilly; D. Schimmelpfennig

1999-01-01

390

An assessment of factors impacting Canada's electricity sector's GHG emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we develop and then implement a decomposition model of Canada's electricity sector in order to assess multiple factors impacting on trends in greenhouse gas emissions from the sector, with a focus on the impact of climate and energy policy on emissions for the time period spanning from 1990 to 2008. The analysis shows that during these years,

Paul A. Steenhof; Chris J. Weber

2011-01-01

391

Method for Assessing the Interference Impact on GNSS Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of new families of curves named interference error envelope (IEE) and interference running average (IRA) is presented. Such tools are able to assess the impact of RF interference on different GNSS receivers, taking into account the features of the in-band interference source. In fact the actual impact on the final performance is strictly related to the specific receiver

Beatrice Motella; Simone Savasta; Davide Margaria; Fabio Dovis

2011-01-01

392

40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall...will be made based on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in this subpart D,...

2011-07-01

393

An Initial Assessment of Hanford Impact Performed with the System Assessment Capability  

SciTech Connect

The System Assessment Capability is an integrated system of computer models and databases to assess the impact of waste remaining at Hanford. This tool will help decision makers and the public evaluate the cumulative effects of contamination from Hanford. This report describes the results of an initial assessment performed with the System Assessment Capability tools.

Bryce, Robert W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Morasch, Launa F.

2002-09-27

394

National Community Impact Assessment (CIA) Research Design Team Recommendations for Development of the Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; Chronology of Key Community Impact Assessment (CIA) and related activities; Community Impact Assessment Research Design Team Goals; National Community Impact Assessment Recommendations and Appendix A: CIA Research Design T...

1999-01-01

395

40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection...PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES...Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall...

2013-07-01

396

LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)  

EPA Science Inventory

LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

397

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

398

Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

399

Community Level Impact Assessment--Extension Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an impact model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…

Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.

400

In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

Zielinski, Sarah

2007-05-01

401

Assessing the Empirical Impact of Environmental Federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theoretical models analyze the effects of decentralized environmental policymaking. The predictions range from a race to the top, a race to the bottom, or no effect. However, little empirical evidence exists to resolve this ambiguity. This paper fills the void by examining the impact of decentralized environmental policymaking in the U.S. under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

Daniel L. Millimet

2003-01-01

402

Assessing the Performance Impact of Service Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service monitoring is an essential part of service-oriented software systems and is required for meeting regulatory requirements, verifying compliance to service-level agreements, optimising system performance, and minimising the cost of hosting Web services. However, service monitoring comes with a cost, including a performance impact on the monitored services and systems. Therefore, it is important to deploy the right level of

Garth Heward; Ingo Müller; Jun Han; Jean-Guy Schneider; Steven Versteeg

2010-01-01

403

Developments in Impact Assessment in North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

404

Assessment of an instrumented Charpy impact machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic responses of the standard Charpy impact machine were studied experimentally using strain gauges and accelerometer attached to the striker and the rotary position sensor fixed at the rotating axis and numerically with the finite element analysis. The fracture propagation was simulated with the cellular automata finite element approach developed earlier. A series of low velocity as well as

Anton Shterenlikht; Sayyed H. Hashemi; John R. Yates; Ian C. Howard; Robert M. Andrews

2005-01-01

405

Remote Impact on Tropical Atlantic Climate Variability: Statistical Assessment and Dynamic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remote impact of tropical Pacific and North Atlantic climate forcing on the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability is assessed using both a traditional statistical correlation method and a model-aided dynamic method. Consistently, both assessment methods suggest that the remote impact contributes to nearly half of the variance of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability at interannual and

Z. Liu; Q. Zhang; L. Wu

2004-01-01

406

An Environmental Risk Assessment\\/Management Framework for Climate Change Impact Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an environmental risk assessment\\/risk management framework to assess the impacts of climate change on individual exposure units identified as potentially vulnerable to climate change. This framework is designed specifically to manage the systematic uncertainties that accompany the propagation of climate change scenarios through a sequence of biophysical and socio-economic climate impacts. Risk analysis methods consistent with the

Roger N. Jones

2001-01-01

407

Analysing biodiversity: the necessity of interdisciplinary trends in the development of ecological theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advancement has an ambivalent character concerning the impact on biodiversity. It accounts for major detrimental environmental impacts and aggravates threads to biodiversity. On the other hand, from an application perspective of environmental science, there are technical advancements, which increase the potential of analysis, detection and monitoring of environmental changes and open a wider spectrum of sustainable use strategies.The concept

Broder Breckling; Hauke Reuter

2004-01-01

408

Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique  

SciTech Connect

The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.

Kurian, P.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)]|[Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Political Science

1995-06-01

409

Environmental assessment methodology: solar power plant applications. Volume 3. Environmental impact assessment application. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Volume II of the four-volume series the environmental impact assessment methodology described in Volume I is applied to a problem of site selection for solar-thermal power plants. Environmental impact assessments of selected solar-thermal sites are compared. Certain potential impacts of solar-thermal and wind energy central systems are examined. In appendix A a data base system that was used to

K. Nair; A. Sicherman

1979-01-01

410

40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA...9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator...

2010-07-01

411

40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA...9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator...

2009-07-01

412

47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact. 1.1308...the National Environmental Policy Act of...Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings...significant impact....

2010-10-01

413

Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission  

SciTech Connect

Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

Ruddy, Thomas F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St.Gallen (Switzerland)], E-mail: thomas.ruddy@empa.ch; Hilty, Lorenz M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Technology and Society Laboratory, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, CH-9014 St.Gallen (Switzerland)

2008-02-15

414

VTAC: virtual terrain assisted impact assessment for cyber attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).

Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

2008-03-01

415

Uncertainty in environmental health impact assessment: quantitative methods and perspectives.  

PubMed

Environmental health impact assessment models are subjected to great uncertainty due to the complex associations between environmental exposures and health. Quantifying the impact of uncertainty is important if the models are used to support health policy decisions. We conducted a systematic review to identify and appraise current methods used to quantify the uncertainty in environmental health impact assessment. In the 19 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, several methods were identified. These were grouped into random sampling methods, second-order probability methods, Bayesian methods, fuzzy sets, and deterministic sensitivity analysis methods. All 19 studies addressed the uncertainty in the parameter values but only 5 of the studies also addressed the uncertainty in the structure of the models. None of the articles reviewed considered conceptual sources of uncertainty associated with the framing assumptions or the conceptualisation of the model. Future research should attempt to broaden the way uncertainty is taken into account in environmental health impact assessments. PMID:22515647

Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Vanni, Tazio; Foss, Anna M

2012-04-19

416

Chapter Nine Formal Scenario Development for Environmental Impact Assessment Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario analysis is a process of evaluating possible future events through the consideration of alternative plausible, though not equally likely, states (scenarios). The analysis is designed to enable improved decision making and assessment through a more rigorous evaluation of possible outcomes and their implications. For environmental impact and integrated assessment studies, the process of scenario development typically involves making explicit

Y. Liu; M. Mahmoud; H. Hartmann; S. Stewart; T. Wagener; D. Semmens; R. Stewart; H. Gupta; D. Dominguez; D. Hulse; R. Letcher; B. Rashleigh; C. Smith; J. Ticehurst; M. Twery; H. van Delden; D. White

2008-01-01

417

Formal Scenario Development For Environmental Impact Assessment Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenario analysis is a process of evaluating possible future events through the consideration of alternative plausible (though not equally likely) outcomes (scenarios). The analysis is designed to enable improved decision-making and assessment through a more rigorous evaluation of possible outcomes and their implications. For environmental impact assessment studies, the process of scenario development typically involves making explicit and\\/or implicit assumptions

Yuqiong Liu; Mohammed Mahmoud; Holly Hartmann; Steven Stewart; Thorsten Wagener; Darius Semmens; Robert Stewart; Hoshin Gupta; Damian Dominguez; David Hulse; Rebecca Letcher; Brenda Rashleigh; Court Smith; Jenifer Ticehurst; Mark Twery; Hedwig van Delden; Ruth Waldick; Denis White; Larry Winter

418

Assessing the environmental impacts of contrasting farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper examines how opportunity costs of land use can be taken into account when life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to compare environmental impacts of contrasting farming systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of organic, conventional and integrated farm models are assessed. It is assumed that the farm size and food product output are equivalent in all

H L TUOMISTO; I D HODGE; P RIORDAN; D W MACDONALD

2009-01-01

419

75 FR 51468 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION...and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between October 1, 2009 and May 31...Assessments will be available on the DHS Web site until October 19, 2010, after...

2010-08-20

420

What Is Biodiversity? (Abridged)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After conducting fieldwork and reviewing biodiversity research, students will gain a better understanding of biodiversity. The entire unit is designed to be completed in three class sessions. The comprehensive curriculum materials contain information for teachers, including tip sheets and a detailed look at the five key concepts that provide the context for the unit underlie all the activities, in-class activities to complete before the fieldwork to help ensure a safe and productive trip, in-the-field activities that are designed to make students better observers and recorders of outdoor sites, and follow-up activities that help students make sense of what they've seen, distinguish between evidence and impressions, and understand the criteria necessary for making good scientific observations.

421

[Aspects of yeast biodiversity].  

PubMed

Yeast biodiversity represents a dynamic scientific domain characterized by permanent emerging theories and accumulation of new data. Identification of genome structure for a number of yeast species and elucidation of regulatory pathways for species-specific metabolic networks, lead to development of numerous applications of yeasts in industry, biotechnology, therapeutics and bioremediation. The studies of the scientific community were long time focused on Saccharomyces cerevisae due mainly to its use in food production. Therefore, the species belonging to Saccharomyces genus became reference points for genomics and biodiversity studies. During last decades there is a growing interest for yeast species able to produce biomass by assimilating or degrading various compounds such as methanol, hydrocarbons, wood hydrolisates and other residues or by-products from different industries. PMID:23745219

Csutak, Ortansa; Vassu, Tatiana

422

Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.  

PubMed

Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level. PMID:21829636

Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

2011-08-04

423

Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use  

EPA Science Inventory

According to the Millennium Assessment: â??Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

424

[Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].  

PubMed

For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long-term consideration. Assessing the direct impact of projects on human beings should be rank first in the list of priorities. The Hygiene Institute supports the efforts of the Public Health departments by providing professional consultant services to ensure consistency in the application of procedures. PMID:12632322

Thriene, B

2003-02-01

425

Satellite remote sensing assessment of climate impact on forest vegetation dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest vegetation phenology constitutes an efficient bio-indicator of impacts of climate and anthropogenic changes and a key parameter for understanding and modelling vegetation-climate interactions. Climate variability represents the ensemble of net radiation, precipitation, wind and temperature characteristic for a region in a certain time scale (e.g.monthly, seasonal annual). The temporal and/or spatial sensitivity of forest vegetation dynamics to climate variability is used to characterize the quantitative relationship between these two quantities in temporal and/or spatial scales. So, climate variability has a great impact on the forest vegetation dynamics. Satellite remote sensing is a very useful tool to assess the main phenological events based on tracking significant changes on temporal trajectories of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIs), which requires NDVI time-series with good time resolution, over homogeneous area, cloud-free and not affected by atmospheric and geometric effects and variations in sensor characteristics (calibration, spectral responses). Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics have been quantified as the total amount of vegetation (mean NDVI) and the seasonal difference (annual NDVI amplitude) by a time series analysis of NDVI satellite images with the Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series algorithm. A climate indicator (CI) was created from meteorological data (precipitation over net radiation). The relationships between the vegetation dynamics and the CI have been determined spatially and temporally. The driest test regions prove to be the most sensitive to climate impact. The spatial and temporal patterns of the mean NDVI are the same, while they are partially different for the seasonal difference. The aim of this paper was to quantify this impact over a forest ecosystem placed in the North-Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) parameter extracted from IKONOS and LANDSAT TM and ETM satellite images and meteorological data over l995-2007 period. For investigated test area, considerable NDVI decline was observed between 1995 and 2007 due to the drought events during 2003 and 2007 years. Under stress conditions, it is evident that environmental factors such as soil type, parent material, and topography are not correlated with NDVI dynamics. Specific aim of this paper was to assess, forecast, and mitigate the risks of climatic changes on forest systems and its biodiversity as well as on adjacent environment areas and to provide early warning strategies on the basis of spectral information derived from satellite data regarding atmospheric effects of forest biome degradation . The paper aims to describe observed trends and potential impacts based on scenarios from simulations with regional climate models and other downscaling procedures.

Zoran, M.

2009-04-01

426

Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

2001-01-01

427

Some computational approaches for situation assessment and impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will provide an overview of several research efforts in the area of Information Fusion being conducted at the Fusion Technology Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory. It will describe a series of innovative approaches of traditional fusion algorithms and heuristic reasoning techniques to improve situational assessment and threat prediction. Approaches discussed include Bayesian techniques, knowledge based approaches, artificial neural

Michael L. Hinman

2002-01-01

428

Impact assessment in the UK nuclear power industry: An overview of the R3 impact assessment procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The R3 Impact Assessment Procedure was developed by Magnox Electric Ltd and its predecessors with the prime intent of providing a compendium of methodologies for assessing the effect of dropping nuclear fuel flasks on steel and concrete surfaces. However, since then the intent of the procedure has broadened and as eventually released encompasses three volumes, namely:Volume 1 – missile production

A. R. R. Telford

2010-01-01

429

Laboratory assessment of environmental impact of phthalazine  

SciTech Connect

Several approaches to the environmental safety assessment of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of a specialized paper product. The major route for environmental entry of phthalazine is through land disposal of waste paper. Information available on phthalazine chemistry is consistent with behavior of heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several laboratory test methods and QSAR estimation procedures were used to measure key environmental properties of phthalazine. This assessment examines the environmental release of phthalazine, and its partitioning and distribution in the environment. It predicts the probable fate and possible biological effects of phthalazine.

Lande, S.S.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Reiner, E.A.; Welter, A.N.; Robideau, R.R.

1987-02-01

430

Laboratory assessment of environmental impact of phthalazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the environmental safety assessment of chemicals have been reported. The basic principles involved in predicting environmental behavior combine degradation kinetics and the partitioning\\/distribution of chemicals in the environment. The transport mechanisms within the environment can be modeled as partitioning\\/distribution which are essentially functions of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Phthalazine (2,3-Benzodiazine, C8H6N2) is a component of

S. S. Lande; M. T. Elnabarawy; E. A. Reiner; A. N. Welter; R. R. Robideau

1987-01-01

431

Biological Review of Draft Environmental Impact Statement Akyem Project, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This document is a review of the biological aspects of the April 2008 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) of the proposed Akyem gold mine in Eastern Ghana. The DEIS is an inadequate assessment of existing biodiversity in the Akyem project area and is not an acceptable documentation of probable environmental impacts of the proposed mine. Information in the DEIS

Scott G. Cardiff

2008-01-01

432

Forest Policy Project Module IV A: Socioeconomic Impact Assessment and Module IV B: Environmental Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report analyzes potential economic and environmental impacts of activities on forest land in the Pacific Northwest. Employment and income are projected under an assumption of present policies and techniques are described for estimating the impacts on...

1981-01-01

433

Impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan considering uncertainty in an impact model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, extreme hot weather hit Japan, and damaged many types of vegetables. In the future, global warming may often cause hot weather and damage vegetable production. In order to make adaptive policies to reduce the future impacts, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the impact of future climate change on vegetables. However, there have been few studies on quantitative impact assessment of climate change on vegetables in Japan because few impact assessment models for vegetables have been developed. In this study, I develop impact assessment models for 14 vegetables, which are designated by the government of Japan, and I assess the impact of climate change on the 14 vegetables considering uncertainty in the developed models. Impact assessment models which I developed are multi-regression models. Dependent variables of the models are shipments in markets in summer, i.e., July, August, and September. Independent variables are monthly temperature and precipitation. In order to consider uncertainty of the models in impact assessments, 1000 regression parameters are derived by the bootstrap method. Data used for developing the regression models are statistics on the shipments of vegetables from 1999 to 2010 and meteorological data of the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Model validations showed that the developed models can reproduce the historical records on the shipments well. Next, I assessed the shipments of the 14 vegetables in 2031-2040 using the developed models and the future climate projections of Miroc-3.2-Hires. The simulations showed that the shipments of almost all vegetables will decrease in 2031-2040.

Masutomi, Y.

2011-12-01

434

The quality of environmental impact statements and environmental impact assessment practice in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the quality of environmental impact statements (EISs) and gives us an understanding about the performance of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice in Bangladesh. EIA has been formally practised in Bangladesh since 1995.However, no study has yet been conducted on the quality of EISs. This study fills this gap. This empirical study shows that the quality of EISs

S. M. Zobaidul Kabir; Salim Momtaz

2012-01-01

435

Why the Taralga Windfarm Environmental Impact Statement - Noise Impact Assessment is critically flawed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document aims to illustrate why the Noise Impact Assessment (NIA) provided in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Taralga Windfarm is flawed to the point that it has no real value. It will focus on the fact that the NIA has made an assumption which is only applicable a certain amount of the time. That assumption is that

Andrew Miskelly

436

A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton`s Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations.

Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kay, D. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

437

Food-web constraints on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships  

PubMed Central

The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services have aroused considerable interest during the past decade. Recent work has focused mainly on the impact of species diversity within single trophic levels, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have usually showed increased plant biomass and productivity with increasing plant diversity. Changes in biodiversity, however, may affect ecosystem processes through trophic interactions among species as well. An important current challenge is to understand how these trophic interactions affect the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we present a mechanistic model of an ecosystem with multiple trophic levels in which plants compete for a limiting soil nutrient. In contrast to previous studies that focused on single trophic levels, we show that plant biomass does not always increase with plant diversity and that changes in biodiversity can lead to complex if predictable changes in ecosystem processes. Our analysis demonstrates that food-web structure can profoundly influence ecosystem properties.

Thebault, Elisa; Loreau, Michel

2003-01-01

438

Visitor Questionnaire for a Classroom Exhibit on Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This ready-to-print visitor questionnaire is a great self-assessment tool for students. The one-page PDF questionnaire is designed to help students analyze how effectively their biodiversity exhibit communicated to visitors. It includes questions such as:On a scale of 1 to 5, how interesting, informative, and attractive was the exhibit? What could we improve? What is the main idea of the exhibit? What did you learn about biodiversity that you never knew before?

439

Experimental validation of impact energy model for the rub-impact assessment in a rotor system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental setup which can simulate the rotor-to-stator rub in a rotor system is installed. A rub screw is used to simulate the condition of local rub-impact fault. Based on the theory of elastic collision and energy conservation, an Impact Energy Model (IEM) is proposed to evaluate the probability or severity of rub-impact fault. To prove this model, the paper conducts the experiment in two steps i.e. hammer test and rub-impact fault validation. The wave signal, spectrum and axis orbit are used to analyze the severity of the rub-impact fault when it occurs. The analysis result shows that the proposed Impact Energy Model (IEM) is effective in the assessment of rub-impact fault. Furthermore, the proposed IEM can also provide a reference for the design and operation of a rotor system.

Cong, Feiyun; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming; Huang, Kun

2011-10-01

440

Assessing and predicting the relative ecological impacts of disturbance on habitats with different sensitivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Methods for assessing habitat sensitivity to human impacts are needed to gauge the sustainability of existing impacts, develop spatial management plans and support meaningful environmental impact assessments. These methods should be quantitative, validated, repeatable and applicable at the scales of impact and management. 2. Existing methods for assessing the sensitivity of marine habitats to human impacts have tended

J. G. HIDDINK; S. JENNINGS; M. J. KAISER

441

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

Matejovic, Igor [DECOM A.S., Jana Bottu, 2. SK-91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Polak, Vincent [STM POWER, a.s., Jana Bottu 2, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

442

Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils  

SciTech Connect

The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

Atalay, A.

1990-10-01

443

Assessing the greenhouse impact of natural gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global warming impact of substituting natural gas for coal and oil is currently in debate. We address this question here by comparing the reduction of greenhouse warming that would result from substituting gas for coal and some oil to the reduction which could be achieved by instead substituting zero carbon energy sources. We show that substitution of natural gas reduces global warming by 40% of that which could be attained by the substitution of zero carbon energy sources. At methane leakage rates that are ˜1% of production, which is similar to today's probable leakage rate of ˜1.5% of production, the 40% benefit is realized as gas substitution occurs. For short transitions the leakage rate must be more than 10 to 15% of production for gas substitution not to reduce warming, and for longer transitions the leakage must be much greater. But even if the leakage was so high that the substitution was not of immediate benefit, the 40%-of-zero-carbon benefit would be realized shortly after methane emissions ceased because methane is removed quickly from the atmosphere whereas CO2 is not. The benefits of substitution are unaffected by heat exchange to the ocean. CO2 emissions are the key to anthropogenic climate change, and substituting gas reduces them by 40% of that possible by conversion to zero carbon energy sources. Gas substitution also reduces the rate at which zero carbon energy sources must eventually be introduced.

Cathles, L. M.

2012-06-01

444

Do partly outdated palaeontological data produce just a noise? An assessment of the Middle Devonian-Mississippian biodiversity dynamics in central Asia on the basis of Soviet-time compilations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interregional tracing of trends and events in the biotic evolution is an important task of modern palaeobiology. In Soviet times (1917-1991), numerous palaeontological data have collected for the territory of Russia and neighbouring U. S. S. R. countries. Later, these data were compiled and published in a series of reference volumes. Although this information cannot be updated in a conventional way, it remains valuable for quantitative analyses, particularly because of its comprehensive and unique character. Assessment of the previously collected data on the stratigraphic distribution of Middle Devonian-Mississippian marine invertebrates in three regions of central Asia (central Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) reveals some general patterns of biodiversity dynamics. The total number of genera generally declined during the Givetian-Famennian, whereas a remarkable diversity peak occurred in the Visean. This is consistent with the global pattern and, thus, permits to hypothesize a regional signature of the global trends. Changes in the extinction rate differ, however, between central Asia and the Earth in its entirety, which may be explained particularly by biases in either the regional or the global records. Evidence of the Givetian and Frasnian/Famennian mass extinctions is found in the three regions under study. Results of this tentative study indicate important directions for further research and suggest that central Asia is a highly important domain for studies of mid-Palaeozoic biodiversity dynamics.

Ruban, Dmitry A.

2011-04-01

445

Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

There is growing recognition of the important roles played by predators in regulating ecosystems and sustaining biodiversity. Much attention has focused on the consequences of predator-regulation of herbivore populations, and associated trophic cascades. However apex predators may also control smaller 'mesopredators' through intraguild interactions. Removal of apex predators can result in changes to intraguild interactions and outbreaks of mesopredators ('mesopredator release'), leading in turn to increased predation on smaller prey. Here we provide a review and synthesis of studies of predator interactions, mesopredator release and their impacts on biodiversity. Mesopredator suppression by apex predators is widespread geographically and taxonomically. Apex predators suppress mesopredators both by killing them, or instilling fear, which motivates changes in behaviour and habitat use that limit mesopredator distribution and abundance. Changes in the abundance of apex predators may have disproportionate (up to fourfold) effects on mesopredator abundance. Outcomes of interactions between predators may however vary with resource availability, habitat complexity and the complexity of predator communities. There is potential for the restoration of apex predators to have benefits for biodiversity conservation through moderation of the impacts of mesopredators on their prey, but this requires a whole-ecosystem view to avoid unforeseen negative effects. 'Nothing has changed since I began. My eye has permitted no change. I am going to keep things like this.' From 'Hawk Roosting', by Ted Hughes. PMID:19614756

Ritchie, Euan G; Johnson, Christopher N

2009-07-14

446

Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.  

PubMed

A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as we