Sample records for biogas reactor performance

  1. Model-based scale-up and performance of the Biogas Tower Reactor for anaerobic waste-water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Reinhold; H. Märkl

    1997-01-01

    The Biogas Tower Reactor (BTR), a new type of reactor for anaerobic waste-water treatment, is presented. The characteristic features of the BTR are the tower shape, its modular structure and the internal installations. Gas loading, mixing and sludge distribution can be controlled. A settler is installed on top of the reactor. Performance data of a pilot-scale BTR are presented for

  2. Impact of the substrate loading regime and phosphoric acid supplementation on performance of biogas reactors and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of chicken wastes.

    PubMed

    Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ziganshina, Elvira E; Siniagina, Maria; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Miluykov, Vasili A; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the effects of increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) as well as phosphoric acid addition on mesophilic reactors' performance and biogas production from chicken wastes. Furthermore, microbial community composition in reactors was characterized by a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis. Each step of increasing OLR impacted on the activity of microorganisms what caused a temporary decrease in biogas production. The addition of phosphoric acid resulted in the increased biogas production with values between 361 and 447mLgVS(-1) from day 61 to day 74 compared to control reactor (309-350mLgVS(-1)). With reactors' operation, Bacteroidetes phylotypes were noticeably replaced with Firmicutes representatives, and significant increase of Clostridium sp. was identified. Within Euryarchaeota, Methanosarcina sp. dominated in all analyzed samples, in which high ammonium levels were detected (3.4-4.9NH4(+)-NgL(-1)). These results can help in better understanding the anaerobic digestion process of simultaneously ammonium/phosphate-rich substrates. PMID:26117234

  3. Performance of a novel two-phase continuously fed leach bed reactor for demand-based biogas production from maize silage.

    PubMed

    Linke, Bernd; Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Jost, Carsten; Krieg, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of producing biogas on demand from maize silage using a novel two-phase continuously fed leach bed reactor (LBR) which is connected to an anaerobic filter (AF). Six different feeding patterns, each for 1week, were studied at a weekly average of a volatile solids (VS) loading rate of 4.5 g L(-1) d(-1) and a temperature of 38°C. Methane production from the LBR and AF responded directly proportional to the VS load from the different daily feeding and resulted in an increase up to 50-60% per day, compared to constant feeding each day. The feeding patterns had no impact on VS methane yield which corresponded on average to 330 L kg(-1). In spite of some daily shock loadings, carried out during the different feeding patterns study, the reactor performance was not affected. A robust and reliable biogas production from stalky biomass was demonstrated. PMID:25479391

  4. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-10-01

    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema and hydrogenotrophic genus Methanoculleus in the liquid, which indicated that H2 were converted to methane by both direct (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) and indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) pathways in the liquid. However, the aceticlasitic genus Methanosaeta was dominant for archaea in the biofilm on the HFM, which indicated indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) H2 conversion pathway on the biofilm. PMID:23941705

  5. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents.

    PubMed

    Kougias, Panagiotis G; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    Foam formation can lead to total failure of digestion process in biogas plants. In the present study, possible correlation between foaming and the presence of specific microorganisms in biogas reactors was elucidated. The microbial ecology of continuous fed digesters overloaded with proteins, lipids and carbohydrates before and after foaming incidents was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, the microbial diversity between the liquid and foaming layer was assessed. A number of genera that are known to produce biosurfactants, contain mycolic acid in their cell wall, or decrease the surface tension of the media, increased their relative abundance after foam formation. Finally, a microorganism similar to widely known foaming bacteria (Nocardia and Desulfotomaculum) was found to increase its relative abundance in all reactors once foam was observed, regardless of the used substrate. These findings suggest that foaming and specific microorganisms might have direct association which requires to be further investigated. PMID:24968108

  6. Bioaugmentation of Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidizing Culture in Biogas Reactors Exposed to Increasing Levels of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH4+-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors. PMID:22923397

  7. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Einarsdottir, E S; Angelidaki, I

    2015-08-01

    Foaming is one of the major operational problems in biogas plants, and dealing with foaming incidents is still based on empirical practices. Various types of antifoams are used arbitrarily to combat foaming in biogas plants, but without any scientific support this action can lead to serious deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance in biogas reactors fed with protein or lipid rich substrates. The results showed that both antifoams efficiently suppressed foaming. Moreover rapeseed oil resulted in stimulation of the biogas production. Finally, it was reckoned that the chemical structure of lipids, and more specifically their carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam. PMID:25978353

  8. Estimation of biogas generation from an UASB reactor via multiple regression model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru Akkaya; Ahmet Demir; Gamze Varank

    2012-01-01

    In this study, regression analysis based an estimation model for biogas generated from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating landfill leachate is developed using several leachate parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, chloride, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, total phosphorus. These landfill leachate parameters are monitorized over a period of 1000 days at

  9. Temperature increases from 55 to 75 °C in a two-phase biogas reactor result in fundamental alterations within the bacterial and archaeal community structure.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Antje; Nolte, Christine; Schönberg, Mandy; Klocke, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural biogas plants were operated in most cases below their optimal performance. An increase in the fermentation temperature and a spatial separation of hydrolysis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis are known strategies in improving and stabilizing biogas production. In this study, the dynamic variability of the bacterial and archaeal community was monitored within a two-phase leach bed biogas reactor supplied with rye silage and straw during a stepwise temperature increase from 55 to 75 °C within the leach bed reactor (LBR), using TRFLP analyses. To identify the terminal restriction fragments that were obtained, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed. Above 65 °C, the bacterial community structure changed from being Clostridiales-dominated toward being dominated by members of the Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, and Thermotogales orders. Simultaneously, several changes occurred, including a decrease in the total cell count, degradation rate, and biogas yield along with alterations in the intermediate production. A bioaugmentation with compost at 70 °C led to slight improvements in the reactor performance; these did not persist at 75 °C. However, the archaeal community within the downstream anaerobic filter reactor (AF), operated constantly at 55 °C, altered by the temperature increase in the LBR. At an LBR temperature of 55 °C, members of the Methanobacteriales order were prevalent in the AF, whereas at higher LBR temperatures Methanosarcinales prevailed. Altogether, the best performance of this two-phase reactor was achieved at an LBR temperature of below 65 °C, which indicates that this temperature range has a favorable effect on the microbial community responsible for the production of biogas. PMID:22899497

  10. Unexpected Stability of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes Communities in Laboratory Biogas Reactors Fed with Different Defined Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ratering, S.; Kramer, I.; Schmidt, M.; Zerr, W.; Schnell, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, bacterial communities in 200-liter biogas reactors containing liquid manure consecutively fed with casein, starch, and cream were investigated over a period of up to 33 days. A 16S rRNA gene clone library identified Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as the most abundant bacterial groups in the starting material, at 58.9% and 30.1% of sequences, respectively. The community development of both groups was monitored by real-time PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes communities were unexpectedly stable and hardly influenced by batch-feeding events. The continuous feeding of starch led to community shifts that nevertheless contributed to a stable reactor performance. A longer starving period and a change in the pH value resulted in further community shifts within the Bacteroidetes but did not influence the Firmicutes. Predominant DNA bands from SSCP gels were cloned and sequenced. Sequences related to Peptococcaceae, Cytophagales, and Petrimonas sulfuriphila were found in all samples from all experiments. Real-time PCR demonstrated the abundance of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes and also reflected changes in gene copy numbers in conjunction with a changing pH value and acetate accumulation. PMID:22247168

  11. Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Wastes for Biogas Production in a Fed-Batch Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Velmurugan; R. Alwar Ramanujam

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable wastes (Banana stem, Cabbage and Ladies finger) were an-aerobically digested in a fed-batch laboratory scale reactor at mesophilic conditions (35 o c). The Organic Loading Rate (OLR) was maintained at 2.25 g\\/l.d with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 30 days. The average methane content in the biogas was 65% and the Methane yield was 0.387 l CH4\\/g VS

  12. Biogas production from banana stem waste: optimisation of 10 l sequencing batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zainol; J. Salihon; R. Abdul-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    The performance of biogas production using banana stem waste in anaerobic system was investigated. Mixed culture for this study was from banana plantation soil and acclimatized in anaerobic condition. The performance was tested under the conditions of various temperatures (26degC-40degC), organic loading rates (OLR) (0.4 g TS\\/l.d-2 gTS\\/l.d), and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (3 d-20 d). Conditions for temperature, OLR

  13. Performance of a Biogas Run Petrol Engine for Small Scale Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Naznin

    The use of biogas as an alternative fuel in a 1.5 kW portable electric generator run by a SI (spark ignition) engine was studied, keeping engine modifications to a minimum. The biogas was produced synthetically using a mixture of line supply of natural gas and a regulated flow of carbon-di-oxide from a cylinder. The engine performance was studied using proportional

  14. A dual purpose packed-bed reactor for biogas scrubbing and methane-dependent water quality improvement applying to a wastewater treatment system consisting of UASB reactor and trickling filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system employing a UASB reactor in temperate regions requires biogas as a heat source for the UASB reactor during low temperature seasons. In this case, removal of H2S in the biogas by means of a scrubber before burning is necessary in order to prevent the boilers from corroding. Heating of the UASB reactor is, however, unnecessary in

  15. Biogas Production from Waste using Biofilm Reactor: Factor Analysis in Two Stages System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zainol; J. Salihon; R. Abdul-Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Factor analysis was applied to two stages biogas production from banana stem waste allowing a screening of the experimental variables second stage temperature (T), organic loading rates (OLR) and hydraulic retention times (HRT). Biogas production was found to be strongly influenced by all the above experimental variables. Results from factorial analysis have shown that all variables which were HRT, OLR

  16. An Application of Solar Energy Storage in the Gas: Solar Heated Biogas Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kocar; A. Eryasar

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor that may affect the performance of anaerobic digestion. Therefore, biogas plants without heating system work only in warmer regions for the whole year. In regions with extreme temperature variations, for instance in Turkey, the biogas plant should be built with heating system. One of the methods is to use solar energy to increase the reactor

  17. Argonne National Laboratory's Reactor Performance

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    power reactors. Those older codes, while well calibrated for evaluating the safety of next to a specific reactor application. As a result, SHARP is largely technology neutral and can be appliedSHARP Argonne National Laboratory's Reactor Performance and Safety Simulation Suite #12

  18. Biogas production from different substrates in an experimental Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor anaerobic digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Fantozzi; Cinzia Buratti

    2009-01-01

    Different mixtures were digested in a single-stage, batch, mixed, laboratory scale mesophilic anaerobic digester at the Biomass Research Centre Laboratory (University of Perugia). The yield and the composition of biogas from the different substrates were evaluated and the cumulative curves were estimated. Two experimental campaigns were carried out, the first on three mixtures (chicken, pig and bovine manures), the second

  19. A dual purpose packed-bed reactor for biogas scrubbing and methane-dependent water quality improvement applying to a wastewater treatment system consisting of UASB reactor and trickling filter.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuo

    2002-08-01

    A wastewater treatment system employing a UASB reactor in temperate regions requires biogas as a heat source for the UASB reactor during low temperature seasons. In this case, removal of H2S in the biogas by means of a scrubber before burning is necessary in order to prevent the boilers from corroding. Heating of the UASB reactor is, however, unnecessary in a warm season, and the scrubber and biogas become useless. Methane-dependent water quality improvement using the scrubber and biogas would be one way to use them efficiently during the warm season. The possible dual-purpose use of a packed-bed reactor was examined, with one of its uses being the scrubbing of biogas during the cold season and the other being the methane-dependent improvement of effluent water quality during the warm season. A bench scale packed-bed filled with plastic latticed-ring media was installed in a livestock wastewater treatment plant consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter for post-treatment. The packed-bed was operated with biogas flowing at a superficial velocity of 0.14-0.39 m h(-1) and the hydraulic loading of trickling filter effluent sprayed onto the media 9.4-26.1 m3 m2 day(-1). H2S in the biogas from the UASB reactor was reduced from 1,200-2,500 ppm to less than 2 ppm by the reactor. Methane-dependent water quality improvement was examined using a laboratory scale reactor to which methane and/or air was supplied from the bottom, while plant effluent was spread from the top of the reactor. When the mixture gas of methane and air (volume ratio 1:3) was added to the reactor, biofilm grew on the surface of the media. Accompanying this growth, ammonium and phosphate in the spread water decreased, probably due to assimilation by the methane-oxidizing bacteria. Though assimilation activity dropped after the accumulation of biomass, it could be reactivated by washing out the excess biomass. Periodical backwash at a rate of more than once a week seemed to efficiently maintain the removal activity. The dark brown color of the wastewater could be also reduced in concert with methane oxidation. It seemed that methane-oxidizing bacteria degraded color-causing compounds. These results suggest that the packed-bed reactor is useful for both H2S purification of biogas and methane-dependent effluent water quality improvement. PMID:12137264

  20. Thermal efficiency and environmental performances of a biogas-diesel stationary engine.

    PubMed

    Bilcan, A; Le Corre, O; Delebarre, A

    2003-09-01

    Municipal and agricultural waste, and sludge from wastewater treatment represent a large source of pollution. Gaseous fuels can be produced from waste decomposition and then used to run internal combustion engines for power and heat generation. The present paper focuses on thermal efficiency and environmental performances of dual-fuel engines fuelled with biogas. Experiments have been carried out on a Lister-Petter single cylinder diesel engine, modified for dual-fuel operation. Natural gas was first used as the primary fuel. An empirical correlation was determined to predict the engine load for a given mass flow rate for the pilot fuel (diesel) and for the primary fuel (natural gas). That correlation has then been tested for three synthesized biogas compositions. Computations were performed and the error was estimated to be less than 10%. Additionally, NOx and CO2 contents were measured from exhaust gases. Based on exhausts gas temperature, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of an Arrhenius law were then proposed, resulting in a simpler mean to predict NOx. PMID:14599150

  1. Do two-phase biogas plants separate anaerobic digestion phases? - a mathematical model for the distribution of anaerobic digestion phases among reactor stages.

    PubMed

    Muha, Ivo; Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas; Schönberg, Mandy; Linke, Bernd; Grillo, Alfio; Wittum, Gabriel

    2013-03-01

    In this article a mathematical model is introduced, which estimates the distribution of the four anaerobic digestion phases (hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis) that occur among the leach bed reactor and the anaerobic filter of a biogas plant. It is shown that only the hydrolysis takes place in the first stage (leach bed reactor), while all other anaerobic digestion phases take place in both reactor stages. It turns out that, besides the usually measured raw materials of the acetogenesis and the methanogenesis phases (organic acids), it is also necessary to analyze the process liquid for raw materials of the acidogenesis phase, i.e., sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, etc. The introduced model can be used to monitor the inhibition of the anaerobic digestion phases in reactor stages and can, thus, help to improve the control system of biogas plants. PMID:23290872

  2. Influence of CO2 scrubbing from biogas on the treatment performance of a high rate algal pond.

    PubMed

    Heubeck, S; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A

    2007-01-01

    Biogas produced by anaerobic treatment of wastewater can be collected and used for power generation. However, the biogas may require scrubbing to prevent corrosion by H2S and to improve engine efficiency by reducing the CO2 content. HRAP can be used to scrub biogas during the daytime when they are carbon-limited and have high pH. This study investigates the influence of the carbon dioxide addition from biogas scrubbing on high rate algal pond wastewater treatment performance (in terms of BOD, NH4-N, DRP and E. coli removal) and algal production (growth and species composition). Batch culture experiments were conducted in laboratory microcosms (2 L) and outside mesocosms (20 L). Results indicate that CO2 addition and reduced culture pH increased algal production and nutrient assimilation, decreased high pH mediated nutrient removal processes (phosphate precipitation and ammonia volatilisation), but had little influence on the ability of the culture to remove filtered BODs. Disinfection, as indicated by E.coli removal; was reduced, however, further research on virus removal, which is not affected by culture pH, is required. These preliminary findings indicate the potential to scrub C02 from biogas using high rate pond water without decreasing the effectiveness of wastewater treatment and enabling increased recovery of wastewater nutrients as algal biomass. PMID:17591212

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of biodiesel waste glycerin with municipal wastewater sludge: microbial community structure dynamics and reactor performance.

    PubMed

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2015-04-01

    Two 10 L completely mixed reactors operating at 37°C and 20 days SRT were used to evaluate the relationships between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of biodiesel waste glycerin (BWG) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS). The addition of up to 1.35% (v/v) BWG to reactor feeds yielded increased VS and COD removal together with enhanced the biogas production and methane yield. This represented 50% of the MWS feed COD. Pyrosequencing analysis showed Methanosaeta (acetoclastic) and Methanomicrobium (hydrogenotrophic) to be the methanogenic genera present in greatest diversity during stable reactor operation. Methanosaeta sequences predominated at the lowest BWG loading while those of Methanomicrobium were present in greatest abundance at the higher BWG loadings. Genus Candidatus cloacamonas was present in the greatest number of bacterial sequences at all loadings. Alkalinity, pH, biogas production and methane yield declined and VFA concentrations (especially propionate) increased during the highest BWG loading. PMID:25678409

  4. Low-temperature upgrading of low-calorific biogas for CO2 mitigation using DBD-catalyst hybrid reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Tsukijihara, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Wataru; Okazaki, Ken

    2006-10-01

    Although huge amounts of biogas, which consists of 20-60% of CH4 in CO2/N2, can be obtained from landfills, coal mines, and agricultural residues, most of them are simply flared and wasted: because global warming potential of biogas is 5-15 times as potent as CO2. Poor combustibility of such biogas makes it difficult to utilize in conventional energy system. The purpose of this project is to promote the profitable recovery of methane from poor biogas via non-thermal plasma technology. We propose low-temperature steam reforming of biogas using DBD generated in catalyst beds. Methane is partially converted into hydrogen, and then fed into internal combustion engines for improved ignition stability as well as efficient operation. Low-temperature steam reforming is beneficial because exhaust gas from an engine can be used to activate catalyst beds. Space velocity (3600-15000 hr-1), reaction temperature (300-650^oC), and energy cost (30-150 kJ per mol CH4) have been investigated with simulated biogas (20-60% CH4 in mixtures of CO2/N2). The DBD enhances reaction rate of CH4 by a factor of ten at given catalyst temperatures, which is a rate-determining step of methane steam reforming, while species concentration of upgraded biogas was governed by thermodynamic equilibrium in the presence of catalyst.

  5. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; Kovács, E.; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  6. Improvement of biogas production by bioaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Kovács, K L; Ács, N; Kovács, E; Wirth, R; Rákhely, G; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  7. Effects of reactor configuration on the performance of static-bed submerged media anaerobic reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Three different configurations of cylindrical submerged media anaerobic reactors (SMARs) with packing volumes of 85 items were operated at 35 C for 415 days with COD loading rates varying from 1 to 12 g/l/d and three retention times of 0.5, 1, and 2 days. A synthetic waste consisting of a milk solution with a mineral supplement was used for the feed. Tracer studies on clean-bed and dirty-bed SMARs indicate that reactor configuration, biogas mixing, and biomass accumulation all have a significant effect on SMAR hydraulics and cause short-circuiting. Based on the isothermal energy dissipation theory, the higher hydrostatic pressures resulting from higher SMAR heights increases self-induced biogas mixing and improves the contact efficiency between substrate and organisms. Based on TCOD removal rate, the tallest SMAR performed slightly better at COD loading rates above 4/g/l/d. At COD loading rates equal to or below 4 g/l/d, there was little difference in TCOD removal rate between the three SMARs. The acetoclastic methanogenic activity (AMA) test developed in this study is reproducible with 6.5% at a mean of 0.39 l CH{sub 4} (STP)/gm VSS/d. For VSS less than 1 g/l, a higher AMA is associated with lower VSS concentrations. For VSS greater than 1 g/l, AMA varies within a narrow range of 0.1 to 0.2 l CH{sub 4} (STP)/gm VSS/d. Exit gas recycle at a ratio of 3.5-7.0% of exit gas flowrate resulted in a 5-13% increase in the methane content of the exit gas at a COD loading rate of about 10 g/l/d and a detention time of about 2 days. This suggest that, at high loading rates, hydrogen dissolution rate may be the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion.

  8. Effect of reactor configuration on performance during anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprotim; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2015-09-01

    The efficiency of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is quite low for the treatment of low strength wastewaters (LSWs) due to less biogas production leading to poor mixing. LSW may be treated efficiently by providing adequate mixing in the UASB reactor when gas production is low, and sufficient mixing can be achieved by modifying reactor geometry. Hence, modifying UASB reactor geometry for enhanced mixing and evaluating its performance for the treatment of LSWs would be a worthwhile effort. In the present study, UASB reactor configuration was modified by providing a vertical baffle along the height to promote mixing of reactor contents, and is termed as modified UASB (MUASB). The performance of an on-site pilot-scale MUASB reactor was evaluated for 375 days under ambient condition for the treatment of municipal sewage as LSW and compared with that of the conventional UASB and hybrid UASB (HUASB) reactors. The MUASB reactor showed better performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as compared with UASB and HUASB reactors during this study. At 4?h hydraulic retention time, the total COD removal efficiency of UASB and HUASB reactors was 53.7% and 61%, respectively, which were much lower than the total COD removal efficiency of the MUASB reactor (72.7%). The better performance observed in the MUASB reactor is possibly due to improved mixing. Depth-wise analysis of reactor liquid showed that better mixing in the MUASB reactor enhances the contact of wastewater with biomass, which contributes to the improved treatment efficiency. It seems that MUASB holds promise for LSW treatment. PMID:25751650

  9. Performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater containing erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole mixture.

    PubMed

    Aydin, S; Ince, B; Cetecioglu, Z; Ozbayram, E G; Shahi, A; Okay, O; Arikan, O; Ince, O

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the joint effects of erythromycin-sulfamethoxazole (ES) combinations on anaerobic treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation. The experiments involved two identical anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. One reactor, as control unit, was fed with synthetic wastewater while the other reactor (ES) was fed with a synthetic substrate mixture including ES antibiotic combinations. The influence of ES antibiotic mixtures on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, volatile fatty acid production, antibiotic degradation, biogas production, and composition were investigated. The influent antibiotic concentration was gradually increased over 10 stages, until the metabolic collapse of the reactors, which occurred at 360 days for the ES reactor. The results suggest that substrate/COD utilization and biogas/methane generation affect performance of the anaerobic reactors at higher concentration. In addition, an average of 40% erythromycin and 37% sulfamethoxazole reduction was achieved in the ES reactor. These results indicated that these antibiotics were partly biodegradable in the anaerobic reactor system. PMID:25429450

  10. The effect of transient loading on the performance of a mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor at constant feed strength.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Elif; Ince, Mahir; Engin, Guleda Onkal

    2012-12-15

    Anaerobic contact reactor is a high rate anaerobic process consisting of an agitated reactor and a solids settling tank for recycling. It was proved earlier that this type of reactor design offers highly efficient performance in the conversion of organic matter to biogas. In this study, the effect of transient loading on reactor performance in terms of a number of key intermediates and parameters such as, COD removal, pH and alkalinity change, VFAs, effluent MLSS concentration and biogas efficiency over time was examined. For this purpose, a step increase of organic loading rate from 3.35kg COD/m(3)day to 15.61kg COD/m(3)day was employed. The hydraulic retention time decreased to a value of 8.42h by an increase in the influent flow-rate during the transient loading. It was observed that the mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor (MACR) was quite resistant to large transient shocks. The reactor recovered back to its baseline performance only in 15h after the shock loading was stopped. Hence, it can be concluded that this type of reactor design has a high potential in treating food processing wastewaters with varying flow characteristics. PMID:22960727

  11. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Rodgers; C. E. Coleman; M. Griffiths; G. A. Bickel; J. R. Theaker; I. Muir; A. A. Bahurmuz; S. St. Lawrence; M. Resta Levi

    2008-01-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr–2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS,

  12. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. PMID:25311769

  13. A pyrosequencing-based metagenomic study of methane-producing microbial community in solid-state biogas reactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A solid-state anaerobic digestion method is used to produce biogas from various solid wastes in China but the efficiency of methane production requires constant improvement. The diversity and abundance of relevant microorganisms play important roles in methanogenesis of biomass. The next-generation high-throughput pyrosequencing platform (Roche/454 GS FLX Titanium) provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel microbes within the biogas-generating microbial communities. Results To improve the power of our metagenomic analysis, we first evaluated five different protocols for extracting total DNA from biogas-producing mesophilic solid-state fermentation materials and then chose two high-quality protocols for a full-scale analysis. The characterization of both sequencing reads and assembled contigs revealed that the most prevalent microbes of the fermentation materials are derived from Clostridiales (Firmicutes), which contribute to degrading both protein and cellulose. Other important bacterial species for decomposing fat and carbohydrate are Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes (belonging to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, respectively). The dominant bacterial species are from six genera: Clostridium, Aminobacterium, Psychrobacter, Anaerococcus, Syntrophomonas, and Bacteroides. Among them, abundant Psychrobacter species, which produce low temperature-adaptive lipases, and Anaerococcus species, which have weak fermentation capabilities, were identified for the first time in biogas fermentation. Archaea, represented by genera Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus of Euryarchaeota, constitute only a small fraction of the entire microbial community. The most abundant archaeal species include Methanosarcina barkeri fusaro, Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and Methanosaeta theromphila, and all are involved in both acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Conclusions The identification of new bacterial genera and species involved in biogas production provides insights into novel designs of solid-state fermentation under mesophilic or low-temperature conditions. PMID:23320936

  14. Complete genome sequence of the novel Porphyromonadaceae bacterium strain ING2-E5B isolated from a mesophilic lab-scale biogas reactor.

    PubMed

    Hahnke, Sarah; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-01-10

    In this study, the whole genome sequence of the mesophilic, anaerobic Porphyromonadaceae bacterium strain ING2-E5B (LMG 28429, DSM 28696) is reported. The new isolate belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and was obtained from a biogas-producing lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) optimized for anaerobic digestion of maize silage in co-fermentation with pig and cattle manure. The genome of strain ING2-E5B contains numerous genes encoding proteins and enzymes involved in the degradation of complex carbohydrates and proteinaceous compounds. Moreover, it possesses genes catalyzing the production of volatile fatty acids. Hence, this bacterium was predicted to be involved in hydrolysis and acidogenesis during anaerobic digestion and biomethanation. PMID:25444871

  15. Study on the flow characteristics and the wastewater treatment performance in modified internal circulation reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiade; Xu, Weijun; Yan, Jingjia; Yu, Jianming

    2014-12-01

    A modified internal circulation (MIC) reactor with an external circulation system was proposed and the performance of treating dyeing wastewater using both MIC and typical IC reactor were compared. Utilization of the external circulation system in the MIC reactor could dramatically improve the mixing intensity of the biomass with the wastewater and resulted in better performance. The COD removal efficiency, biogas production, volatile fatty acids and effluent color were approximately 87%, 98 L d?1, 180 mg L?1 and 100 times, respectively, in the MIC reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 5 h and organic loading rate of 15 kg COD m?3 d?1. The hydrodynamics of the MIC reactor under different flows rate of external circulation were also analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The optimal flow rate of external circulation was 12 L min?1, which resulted in a corresponding up-flow velocity of 40 m h?1. The consistency of the result between experiment and simulation validated the scientificity of CFD technique applied to numerical simulation of the MIC reactor. PMID:25461928

  16. Quantification of Syntrophic Fatty Acid-?-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Mesophilic Biogas Reactor by Oligonucleotide Probe Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kaare H.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    1999-01-01

    Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-?-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S. wolfei LYB was closely related to S. wolfei subsp. wolfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid-?-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature-of-dissociation and specificity studies. To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated fatty acid-?-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA, suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae, of which the majority was accounted for by the genus Syntrophomonas. PMID:10543784

  17. Jules Horowitz Reactor: a high performance material testing reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iracane, Daniel; Chaix, Pascal; Alamo, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The physical modelling of materials' behaviour under severe conditions is an indispensable element for developing future fission and fusion systems: screening, design, optimisation, processing, licensing, and lifetime assessment of a new generation of structure materials and fuels, which will withstand high fast neutron flux at high in-service temperatures with the production of elements like helium and hydrogen. JANNUS and other analytical experimental tools are developed for this objective. However, a purely analytical approach is not sufficient: there is a need for flexible experiments integrating higher scales and coupled phenomena and offering high quality measurements; these experiments are performed in material testing reactors (MTR). Moreover, complementary representative experiments are usually performed in prototypes or dedicated facilities such as IFMIF for fusion. Only such a consistent set of tools operating on a wide range of scales, can provide an actual prediction capability. A program such as the development of silicon carbide composites (600-1200 °C) illustrates this multiscale strategy. Facing the long term needs of experimental irradiations and the ageing of present MTRs, it was thought necessary to implement a new generation high performance MTR in Europe for supporting existing and future nuclear reactors. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) project copes with this context. It is funded by an international consortium and will start operation in 2014. JHR will provide improved performances such as high neutron flux ( 10 n/cm/s above 0.1 MeV) in representative environments (coolant, pressure, temperature) with online monitoring of experimental parameters (including stress and strain control). Experimental devices designing, such as high dpa and small thermal gradients experiments, is now a key objective requiring a broad collaboration to put together present scientific state of art, end-users requirements and advanced instrumentation. To cite this article: D. Iracane et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  18. Performance of a Flameless combustion furnace using biogas and natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Colorado; B. A. Herrera; A. A. Amell

    2010-01-01

    Flameless combustion technology has proved to be flexible regarding the utilization of conventional fuels. This flexibility is associated with the main characteristic of the combustion regime, which is the mixing of the reactants above the autoignition temperature of the fuel. Flameless combustion advantages when using conventional fuels are a proven fact. However, it is necessary to assess thermal equipments performance

  19. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of <1 × 10 25 n m -2, while Vc and KIH reach a steady-state condition after a fluence of about 3 × 10 25 n m -2 and 3 × 10 24 n m -2, respectively. At saturation the UTS is raised by about 200 MPa, toughness is reduced to about 40% of its initial value, Vc increases by about a factor of ten while KIH is only slightly reduced. The role of microstructure and trace elements in these behaviours is described. Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  20. Innovative fast breeder reactor concept ‘RAPID’ for improvement of reactor performance and proliferation resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Kambe; Masaki Uotani

    1997-01-01

    The 60 MWe metal fueled fast breeder reactor concept ‘RAPID’ to improve reactor performance and proliferation resistance has been demonstrated. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 5 years. The essential feature of RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly (IFA) instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. RAPID concept enables quick and

  1. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time. PMID:25401272

  2. Integrated biogas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaratunga, M.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated biogas systems as alternatives to fossil fuels in Sri Lanka are considered from standpoints of population growth, land availability, and employment opportunities. Agricultural practices would be improved by use of chemical fertilizers, and health/nutrition problems be alleviated by using biogas systems. Fuel for cooking and rural industries will become more easily available; water weeds, such as water hyacinth and salvinia which pose a threat to waterways and rice paddy lands could be used for the production of biogas and fertilizers. A concept of an integrated biogas system comprising photosynthesis and anaerobic degradation processes to produce food and energy is presented.

  3. Dispersion and treatment performance analysis of an UASB reactor under different hydraulic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Peña, M R; Mara, D D; Avella, G P

    2006-02-01

    Mixing and transport phenomena affect the efficiency of all bioreactor configurations. An even mixing pattern at the macro-level is desirable to provide good conditions for substrate transport to, and from, the microbial aggregates. The state of segregation of particulate material in the reactor is also important. The production of biogas in anaerobic reactors is another factor that affects mixing intensity and hence the interactions between the liquid, solid and gaseous phases. The CSTR model with some degree of short-circuiting, dead zones and bypassing flows seems to describe the overall hydrodynamics of UASBs. However, few data are available in the literature for full-scale reactors that relate process performance to mixing characteristics. Dispersion studies using LiCl were done for four hydraulic loading rates on a full-scale UASB treating domestic wastewater in Ginebra, Valle del Cauca, southwest Colombia. COD, TSS, and Settleable Solids were used to evaluate the performance of organic matter removal. The UASB showed a complete mixing pattern for hydraulic loading rates close to the design value (i.e. Q = 10-13l s(-1) and HRT=8-6 h). Gross mixing distortions and localised stagnant zones, short-circuiting and bypass flows were found in the sludge bed and blanket zones for both extreme conditions (underloading and overloading). The liquid volume contained below the gas-liquid-solid separator was found to contribute to the overall stagnant volume, particularly when the reactor was underloaded. The removal of organic matter showed a log-linear correlation with the dispersion number. PMID:16405944

  4. Metaproteome analysis to determine the metabolically active part of a thermophilic microbial community producing biogas from agricultural biomass.

    PubMed

    Hanreich, Angelika; Heyer, Robert; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Pioch, Markus; Reichl, Udo; Klocke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biogas production. A lot of information about the taxonomic structure and enzymatic potential of such communities has been collected by a variety of gene-based approaches, yet little is known about which of all the assumable metabolic pathways are active throughout the process of biogas formation. To tackle this problem, we established a protocol for the metaproteomic analysis of samples taken from biogas reactors fed with agricultural biomass. In contrast to previous studies where an anaerobic digester was fed with synthetic wastewater, the complex matrix in this study required the extraction of proteins with liquid phenol and the application of paper bridge loading for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were subjected to nanoHPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for characterization. Several housekeeping proteins as well as methanogenesis-related enzymes were identified by a MASCOT search and de novo sequencing, which proved the feasibility of our approach. The establishment of such an approach is the basis for further metaproteomic studies of biogas-producing communities. In particular, the apparent status of metabolic activities within the communities can be monitored. The knowledge collected from such experiments could lead to further improvements of biogas production. PMID:22690648

  5. Polyphasic Analyses of Methanogenic Archaeal Communities in Agricultural Biogas Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Nettmann, E.; Bergmann, I.; Pramschüfer, S.; Mundt, K.; Plogsties, V.; Herrmann, C.; Klocke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas, especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) was used to support and complete the FISH analysis. Five of the six biogas reactors were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The average values were between 60 to 63% of archaeal cell counts (FISH) and 61 to 99% of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies (Q-PCR). Within this order, Methanoculleus was found to be the predominant genus as determined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. The aceticlastic family Methanosaetaceae was determined to be the dominant methanogenic group in only one biogas reactor, with average values for Q-PCR and FISH between 64% and 72%. Additionally, in three biogas reactors hitherto uncharacterized but potentially methanogenic species were detected. They showed closest accordance with nucleotide sequences of the hitherto unclassified CA-11 (85%) and ARC-I (98%) clusters. These results point to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as a predominant pathway for methane synthesis in five of the six analyzed biogas plants. In addition, a correlation between the absence of Methanosaetaceae in the biogas reactors and high concentrations of total ammonia (sum of NH3 and NH4+) was observed. PMID:20154117

  6. Performance comparison of two anammox reactors: SBR and UBF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ren-Cun Jin; Ping Zheng; An-Hui Hu; Qaisar Mahmood; Bao-Lan Hu; Ghulam Jilani

    2008-01-01

    The performance of two selected high rate anammox reactors, i.e. sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and an upflow biofilter (UBF) were compared operating them simultaneously at 30°C. The sludge from anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used for inoculation and synthetic wastewater was fed to both reactors during the experiment. During start-up, the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) was

  7. Performance optimization of the CANDLE reactor for nuclear energy sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sekimoto; A. Nagata

    2010-01-01

    Constant axial shape of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape during life of energy producing (CANDLE) fast reactors show the following outstanding merits: (1) simple and safe, (2) high performance to nuclear nonproliferation and safeguard, (3) small volume of waste, (4) efficient fuel use. However, CANDLE reactor has two inherent problems: (1) destruction of cladding integrity caused by high

  8. Development of empirical models for performance evaluation of UASB reactors treating poultry manure wastewater under different operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-05-01

    A nonlinear modeling study was carried out to evaluate the performance of UASB reactors treating poultry manure wastewater under different organic and hydraulic loading conditions. Two identical pilot scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors (15.7 L) were run at mesophilic conditions (30-35 degrees C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three hydraulic retention times (theta) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days. Imposed volumetric organic loading rates (L(V)) ranged from 0.65 to 4.257 kg COD/(m(3) day). The pH of the feed varied between 6.68 and 7.82. The hydraulic loading rates (L(H)) were controlled between 0.105 and 0.21 m(3)/(m(2)day). The daily biogas production rates ranged between 4.2 and 29.4 L/day. High volumetric COD removal rates (R(V)) ranging from 0.546 to 3.779 kg COD(removed)/(m(3)day) were achieved. On the basis of experimental results, two empirical models having a satisfactory correlation coefficient of about 0.9954 and 0.9416 were developed to predict daily biogas production (Q(g)) and effluent COD concentration (S(e)), respectively. Findings of this modeling study showed that optimal COD removals ranging from 86.3% to 90.6% were predicted with HRTs of 7.9, 9.5, 11.2, 12.6, 13.7 and 14.3 days, and L(V) of 1.27, 1.58, 1.78, 1.99, 2.20 and 2.45 kg COD/(m(3)day) for the corresponding influent substrate concentrations (S(i)) of 10,000, 15,000, 20,000, 25,000, 30,000 and 35,000 mg/L, respectively. PMID:17913349

  9. Reactor performance with high velocity surface feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujit Bhattacharya; Suzanne M. Kresta

    2006-01-01

    Reagents have traditionally been fed into the impeller region of stirred tank reactors to utilize the high levels of turbulence, improve mixing rates and hence reduce mixing limitations. There are; however, numerous operational problems associated with submerged feed with dip tubes so surface feed is still preferred by operations staff. One alternate way of adding reagents into a stirred tank

  10. Microbial characteristics of biogas.

    PubMed

    Moletta, Marina; Wery, Nathalie; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The microbial diversity of biogas was analyzed in order to examine the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms. Six biogas samples were analyzed: five from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestors treating different wastes, and one from landfill. Epifluorescent microscopic counts revealed 10(6) prokarya m(-3). To assess the difference occuring in aerosolization, 498 biogas-borne 16S ribosomal DNA were analyzed and compared to published anaerobic digestor microbial diversity. Results show a large microbial diversity and strong discrepancy with digestor microbial diversity. Three different aerosolisation behaviour patterns can be identified: (i) that of non-aerosolized microorganisms, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Chloroflexi phyla and sulfate-reducing groups, (ii) that of passively aerosolized microorganisms, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and (iii) that of preferentially aerosolized microorganisms, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, as well as strictly aerobic and occasionally pathogenic species, presented high levels of aerosolization. PMID:18360001

  11. Transient two-phase performance of LOFT reactor coolant pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor coolant pumps under transient two-phase flow conditions were obtained based on the analysis of two large and small break loss-of-coolant experiments conducted at the LOFT facility. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the transient two-phase flow effects on the LOFT reactor coolant pump performance during the first quadrant operation. The measured pump characteristics are presented as functions of pump void fraction which was determined based on the measured density. The calculated pump characteristics such as pump head, torque (or hydraulic torque), and efficiency are also determined as functions of pump void fractions. The importance of accurate modeling of the reactor coolant pump performance under two-phase conditions is addressed. The analytical pump model, currently used in most reactor analysis codes to predict transient two-phase pump behavior, is assessed.

  12. A review on optimization production and upgrading biogas through CO2 removal using various techniques.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Dian; Wresta, Arini; Atmaja, Tinton Dwi; Saepudin, Aep

    2014-02-01

    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic materials is a renewable energy resource that consists mainly of CH4 and CO2. Trace components that are often present in biogas are water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, siloxanes, hydrocarbons, ammonia, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Considering the biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that could well substitute the conventional source of energy (fossil fuels), the optimization of this type of energy becomes substantial. Various optimization techniques in biogas production process had been developed, including pretreatment, biotechnological approaches, co-digestion as well as the use of serial digester. For some application, the certain purity degree of biogas is needed. The presence of CO2 and other trace components in biogas could affect engine performance adversely. Reducing CO2 content will significantly upgrade the quality of biogas and enhancing the calorific value. Upgrading is generally performed in order to meet the standards for use as vehicle fuel or for injection in the natural gas grid. Different methods for biogas upgrading are used. They differ in functioning, the necessary quality conditions of the incoming gas, and the efficiency. Biogas can be purified from CO2 using pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation, physical or chemical CO2 absorption. This paper reviews the various techniques, which could be used to optimize the biogas production as well as to upgrade the biogas quality. PMID:24293277

  13. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2015-07-01

    A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage. PMID:25947246

  14. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  15. Influence of partial wetting on trickle-bed reactor performance 

    E-print Network

    Ruecker, Craig Michael

    1985-01-01

    a nickel/molybdenum catalyst was used as a model reaction. All experiments were performed al, 296 'C and 5. 2 MPa. Experimental resul4s show that the conversion increases with gas and liquid flow rates at constan4 space velocity. This suggests..., hydrodenitrogenation, hydrogenation. and hydrocracking of heavy oil residuals. Trickle-bed reactors are also being used for treatment of waste water. A trickle-bed reactor is a. three-phase reactor in which gas and liquid phases flow cocurrently downward over a...

  16. Improvement in fusion reactor performance due to ion channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, G.A.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Meade, D.M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Ion channeling is a recent idea for improving the performance of fusion reactors by increasing the fraction of the fusion power deposited in the ions. In this paper the authors assess the effect of ion channeling on D-T and D-{sup 3}He reactors. The figures of merit used are the fusion power density and the cost of electricity. It is seen that significant ion channeling can lead to about a 50-65% increase in the fusion power density. For the Apollo D-{sup 3}He reactor concept the reduction in the cost of electricity can be as large as 30%.

  17. Effect of Beta limits on reactor performance in EBT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Uckan; D. A. Spong; D. B. Nelson

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity studies that can be carried out to determine the boundaries of the operating regime and to demonstrate the effects of various modes, assumptions, and models on reactor performance (Q value) are described. First the modes believed to limit the core beta and ring plasma performance are discussed, and the simplifications and\\/or assumptions involved in deriving these limits are highlighted.

  18. Biogas as a fuel for solid oxide fuel cells and synthesis gas production: effects of ceria-doping and hydrogen sulfide on the performance of nickel-based anode materials.

    PubMed

    Laycock, Christian J; Staniforth, John Z; Ormerod, R Mark

    2011-05-28

    Numerous investigations have been carried out into the conversion of biogas into synthesis gas (a mixture of H(2) + CO) over Ni/YSZ anode cermet catalysts. Biogas is a variable mixture of gases consisting predominantly of methane and carbon dioxide (usually in a 2 : 1 ratio, but variable with source), with other constituents including sulfur-containing gases such as hydrogen sulfide, which can cause sulfur poisoning of nickel catalysts. The effect of temperature on carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning of 90 : 10 mol% Ni/YSZ under biogas conversion conditions has been investigated by carrying out a series of catalytic reactions of methane-rich (2 : 1) CH(4)/CO(2) mixtures in the absence and presence of H(2)S over the temperature range 750-1000 °C. The effect of ceria-doping on carbon dioxide reforming, carbon deposition and sulfur tolerance has also been investigated by carrying out a similar series of reactions over ceria-doped Ni/YSZ. Ceria was doped at 5 mol% of the nickel content to give an anode catalyst composition of 85.5 : 4.5 : 10 mol% Ni/CeO(2)/YSZ. Reactions were followed using quadrupolar mass spectrometry (QMS) and the amount of carbon deposition was analysed by subjecting the reacted catalyst samples to a post-reaction temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). On undoped Ni/YSZ, carbon deposition occurred predominantly through thermal decomposition of methane. Ceria-doping significantly suppressed methane decomposition and at high temperatures simultaneously promoted the reverse Boudouard reaction, significantly lowering carbon deposition. Sulfur poisoning of Ni/YSZ occurred in two phases, the first of which caused the most activity loss and was accelerated on increasing the reaction temperature, while the second phase had greater stability and became more favourable with increasing reaction temperature. Adding H(2)S significantly inhibited methane decomposition, resulting in much less carbon deposition. Ceria-doping significantly increased the sulfur tolerance of Ni/YSZ, however, in the presence of H(2)S ceria did not promote the reverse Boudouard reaction and at high temperatures carbon deposition was greater over ceria-doped Ni/YSZ. In order to further study the effects of ceria-doping, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was constructed with a ceria-doped anode cermet and its electrical performance on simulated biogas compared to hydrogen was tested. This fuel cell was subsequently ran for 1000 h on simulated biogas with no degradation in its overall electrical performance. PMID:21494706

  19. The role of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in an acidogenic reactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yan; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory-scale acidogenic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was set up to test the effect of pH change on microbial community structure of the reactor biomass and process performance. No immediate performance change on acidogenesis was observed after the pH change. However, as the hydrogenotrophic methanogen population decreased, hydrogen content in biogas increased followed by a sharp decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with acetic acid (HAc) in particular. Recovery of reactor performance following pH correction was only apparent after recovery of hydrogenotrophic methanogen population. These suggested hydrogenotrophic methanogens played a very important role in performance of the acidogenic process. PMID:25466820

  20. Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Linjordet, Roar; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields. PMID:25222739

  1. Performance and Safety Parameters for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [Primm Consulting, LLC

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDV/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared when available with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data.

  2. Performance and safety parameters for the high flux isotope reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm III, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Primm Consulting, LLC, 945 Laurel Hill Road, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo depletion model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cycle 400 and its use in calculating parameters of relevance to the reactor performance and safety during the reactor cycle are presented in this paper. This depletion model was developed to serve as a reference for the design of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel for an ongoing study to convert HFIR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU fuel; both HEU and LEU depletion models use the same methodology and ENDF/B-VII nuclear data as discussed in this paper. The calculated HFIR Cycle 400 parameters, which are compared with measurement data from critical experiments performed at HFIR, data included in the HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR), or data reported by previous calculations, provide a basis for verification or updating of the corresponding SAR data. (authors)

  3. Modern control technology for improved nuclear reactor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, L.C.

    1986-12-01

    One of the main complaints leveled at reactor control systems by utility spokesmen is complexity. One only has to look inside a power reactor control room to appreciate this viewpoint. The high reliability and versatility of modern microprocessors makes possible distributed control systems with only performance data and abnormal conditions being relayed to the control room. In a sense, this emulates the human-body control system where routine repetitive actions are handled in an involuntary manner. The significance of expert systems to the nuclear reactor control and safety systems is their ability to capture human and other expertise and make it available, upon demand, and under almost all circumstances. Thus, human problem-solving skills acquired by the learning process over a long period of time can be captured and employed with the reliability inherent in computers. This is especially important in nuclear plants when human operators are burdened by stress and emotional factors that have a dramatic effect on performance level.

  4. Biogas - the calculable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of fertilizers, reducing its use in agriculture, which protects groundwater and surface water conditions and reduces the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the future more emphasis should be given to increase the effectiveness of existing technologies and other types of innovation could be expanded in energy production. It can be concluded that green energy investments can be rewarding if accurate planning is carried out before the investment.

  5. Anaerobic filter for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavadej, S.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study evaluated the performance of an anaerobic filter in producing biogas from pig waste with 30,000 mg/l of COD. The filter packing was bamboo rings of 1 and 1/2 in. diameter, 1 in. long; the bamboo-bed filter operated satisfactorily in a wide COD loading range of 3.74-15.65 kg/cu m/d which corresponds to the hydraulic retention of 8.47 to 1.68 days. At the optimum loading of 7.299 kg COD/cu m/d, the largest gas rate of 0.212 cu m/kg of COD was produced. The required volume of the digester for 1.2 cu m/d of gas production would be only 1.5 cu m; in practical applications, consideration should be given to the gas collecting system and clogging problems.

  6. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. PMID:25618755

  7. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    PubMed

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-07-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel. PMID:25609385

  8. Biogas - Fuel of the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Dasilva

    1980-01-01

    The potential and economic feasibility of the bioconversion of organic residue into methane fuel is discussed. Since it uses renewable resources otherwise polluting the environment, biogas generation serves a triple function: waste removal, management of the environment, and energy production. It is found that 1000 cu ft of biogas has an energy equivalent of 600 cu ft of natural gas,

  9. Residual biogas potential from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Gioelli, F; Dinuccio, E; Balsari, P

    2011-11-01

    Biogas plants daily produce enormous volumes of digestate that can be handled in its raw form or after mechanical separation. In Italy, effluents are usually stored within aboveground, uncovered tanks, which make them potential emitters of biogas into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of biogas emitted to the atmosphere during the storage phase of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction. The trials were performed at two northwest Italy 1 MWel. biogas plants. A floating system for the residual biogas recovery, and a set of three wind tunnels for NH3 emission measurement were used. The experiment demonstrated significant loss to the atmosphere for each of the gases; specifically, on average, 19.5 and 7.90 N m3 biogas MWhel.(-1) were emitted daily from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction, respectively. PMID:21963905

  10. Pretreatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Gergely; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the utilization of chicken feather waste as a substrate for anaerobic digestion and improving biogas production by degradation of the compact structure of the feather keratin. In order to increase the digestibility of the feather, different pretreatments were investigated, including thermal pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min, enzymatic hydrolysis with an alkaline endopeptidase [0.53-2.66 mL/g volatile solids (VS) feathers] for 0, 2, or 24 h at 55 °C, as well as a combination of these pretreatments. The effects of the treatments were then evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion assays at 55 °C. The enzymatic pretreatment increased the methane yield to 0.40 Nm(3)/kg VS(added), which is 122 % improvement compared to the yield of the untreated feathers. The other treatment conditions were less effective, increasing the methane yield by 11-50 %. The long-term effects of anaerobic digestion of feathers were examined by co-digestion of the feather with organic fraction of municipal solid waste performed with and without the addition of enzyme. When enzyme was added together with the feed, CH(4) yield of 0.485 Nm(3)/kg VS(-1) d(-1) was achieved together with a stable reactor performance, while in the control reactor, a decrease in methane production, together with accumulation of undegraded feather, was observed. PMID:23359010

  11. Upscaling of an electronic nose for completely stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gilles; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier; Delfosse, Philippe; Romain, Anne-Claude

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T(2) statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase. PMID:25446784

  12. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect

    Murto, Marika, E-mail: marika.murto@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Björnsson, Lovisa, E-mail: lovisa.bjornsson@miljo.lth.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Håkan, E-mail: hakan@rosqvist-resurs.se [Rosqvist Resurs, Gamla Malmövägen 25, SE-230 41 Klågerup (Sweden); Bohn, Irene, E-mail: irene.bohn@nsr.se [NSR AB, Hjortshögsvägen 1, SE-251 89 Helsingborg (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ? Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ? Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ? Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ? We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  13. LQG\\/LTR robust control of nuclear reactors with improved temperature performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Ben-Abdennour; Robert M. Edwards; Kwang Y. Lee

    1992-01-01

    The authors present the design of a robust controller using the linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery (LQG\\/LTR) for nuclear reactors with the objective of maintaining a desirable performance for reactor fuel temperature and the temperature of the coolant leaving the reactor for a wide range of reactor powers. The results obtained are compared to those for an observer-based

  14. MCFC fed with biogas: Experimental investigation of sulphur poisoning using impedance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviana Cigolotti; Stephen McPhail; Angelo Moreno; Sung Pil Yoon; Jong Hee Han; Suk Woo Nam; Tae-Hoon Lim

    2011-01-01

    The combination of biogas from anaerobic digestion and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) enables highly efficient utilisation of a renewable energy source, maximizing the energetic yield from alternative fuels and minimizing environmental impact in terms of polluting emissions. However, the contaminant levels in the biogas are often unacceptable for performing and durable operation of an MCFC; it is thus desirable

  15. An Implicit Solution Framework for Reactor Fuel Performance Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Hansen; Chris Newman; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann

    2009-08-01

    The simulation of nuclear reactor fuel performance involves complex thermomechanical processes between fuel pellets, made of fissile material, and the protective cladding that surrounds the pellets. An important design goal for a fuel is to maximize the life of the cladding thereby allowing the fuel to remain in the reactor for a longer period of time to achieve higher degrees of burnup. This presentation presents an initial approach for modeling the thermomechanical response of reactor fuel, and details of the solution method employed within INL's fuel performance code, BISON. The code employs advanced methods for solving coupled partial differential equation systems that describe multidimensional fuel thermomechanics, heat generation, and oxygen transport within the fuel. This discussion explores the effectiveness of a JFNK-based solution of a problem involving three dimensional fully coupled, nonlinear transient heat conduction and that includes pellet displacement and oxygen diffusion effects. These equations are closed using empirical data that is a function of temperature, density, and oxygen hyperstoichiometry. The method appears quite effective for the fuel pellet / cladding configurations examined, with excellent nonlinear convergence properties exhibited on the combined system. In closing, fully coupled solutions of three dimensional thermomechanics coupled with oxygen diffusion appear quite attractive using the JFNK approach described here, at least for configurations similar to those examined in this report.

  16. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  17. Biogenic hydrogen conversion of de-oiled jatropha waste via anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation: process performance, microbial insights, and CO2 reduction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2014-01-01

    We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation) hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L ? d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d) with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55 °C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L ? d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30 °C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of cellulolytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR. PMID:24672398

  18. ForPeerReview Microbiology and performance of a methanogenic biofilm reactor during the1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ForPeerReview 1 Microbiology and performance of a methanogenic biofilm reactor during the1 start (present adress).7 Abbreviated running headline: Start-up of a methanogenic biofilm reactor8 Correspondence and performance of a methanogenic biofilm reactor during the start-up period. Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol

  19. Assessment of innovative fuel designs for high performance light water reactors

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, David Michael

    2006-01-01

    To increase the power density and maximum allowable fuel burnup in light water reactors, new fuel rod designs are investigated. Such fuel is desirable for improving the economic performance light water reactors loaded with ...

  20. Biogasification of biowaste and sewage sludge--measurement of biogas quality.

    PubMed

    Kymäläinen, M; Lähde, K; Arnold, M; Kurola, J M; Romantschuk, M; Kautola, H

    2012-03-01

    Biogas quality, the presence of some trace components (siloxanes, sulfur compounds, volatile organic compounds, VOCs) in biogas, is in a decisive role when determining the biogas utilization and the purification requirements and equipments. In the present work, the effects of process changes related to reactor loading variations on the concentrations of selected trace compounds in biogas were studied. Source separated biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in a mesophilic pilot reactor (200 L) for four months during which the organic load was stepwise increased. The results showed that the process worked steadily up to the load of 8 kgVS m(-3)d(-1). Also the community composition of methanogenic archae stayed largely unaffected by the load increase, and was at all stages typical for a mesophilic biogasification process. Gaseous concentrations of siloxanes, hydrogen sulfide and most VOCs remained at a constant low level, showing no sensitivity to variations in the load and related process changes. However, the total siloxane concentration in the biogas was dependent on feed quality, and the detected concentrations require removal prior to use in turbines or fuel cells. Otherwise, after the removal of siloxanes, the biogas studied in this work is well applicable in various electricity production options, like in gas engines, turbines, microturbines and fuel cells. PMID:21295904

  1. Performance of the PRISM (power reactor - innovative, small module) reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Magee; A. Hunsbedt

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM (power reactor - innovative, small module) modular reactor concept has a totally passive decay heat removal system referred to as the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling

  2. Anaerobic fermentation of biogas liquid pretreated maize straw by rumen microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenyao; Xu, Xiaochen; Gao, Yang; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, Gang

    2014-02-01

    This study intended to investigate the effect of pretreatment of maize straw with biogas liquid on followed fermentation by rumen microorganisms in vitro. The multiple effects including treated time, temperature and dosage of biogas liquid in pretreatment on the followed fermentation performance were analyzed by orthogonal array. The optimum conditions of pretreatment were 9days, 25°C and 50% (v/w) dosage of biogas liquid, which were indicated by the corresponding crystallinity index, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and acetate limiting-step concentration were 57.5%, 73.76% and 1756mg/L, respectively. The ordering sequence of the influential factors for pretreatment was treated time > temperature > dosage of biogas liquid. The results of fermentation showed that the maize straw pretreated by biogas liquid was an efficient and economic pretreatment method of maize straw. PMID:24326083

  3. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L?1 day?1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus.

  4. The feasibility of biogas production on farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Adams, B. A.; Eckstrom, B. P.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Kabrick, R. M.; Sherman, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Biogas technology is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: (1) the potentials and limitations of anaerobic digestion; (2) on site energy generation; (3) relationship of demand to supply; (4) economics of farm scale biogas production; (5) design considerations of the biogas production system; (6) gas utilization; (7) safety guidelines and regulations; and (8) operation, maintenance, and diagnostics of small methane generation systems.

  5. Effects of sawdust on biogas production from cowdung

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, N.S. (Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN)); Mishra, S. (Agriculture Research Centre, Soil and Water Research Inst., Microbiology Dept., Giza (EG)); Maheshwari, R.C. (Dept. of Chemistry, Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan (IN))

    1991-01-01

    The biogas generation was performed using cowdung and sawdust in the ratios of 4:1 and 2:1, respectively. The experiments were also conducted using cowdung alone for the comparison purpose. The increase in the amount of sawdust in the mixture of cowdung and sawdust decreases the quantity of gas production. The production of methane up to three weeks is also effected by the amount of sawdust. The nitrogen contents increase and volatile solids decrease with the digestion of waste materials. The thermogravimetric studies of the materials support the biogas generation as the decomposition of particular part of cowdung.

  6. Titer-plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors: Design and performance of a nanoliter reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Park, Daniel S; You, Byoung-Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Soper, Steven A; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E; Murphy, Michael C

    2010-08-01

    Arrays of continuous flow thermal reactors were designed, configured, and fabricated in a 96-device (12 × 8) titer-plate format with overall dimensions of 120 mm × 96 mm, with each reactor confined to a 8 mm × 8 mm footprint. To demonstrate the potential, individual 20-cycle (740 nL) and 25-cycle (990 nL) reactors were used to perform the continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) for amplification of DNA fragments of different lengths. Since thermal isolation of the required temperature zones was essential for optimal biochemical reactions, three finite element models, executed with ANSYS (v. 11.0, Canonsburg, PA), were used to characterize the thermal performance and guide system design: (1) a single device to determine the dimensions of the thermal management structures; (2) a single CFPCR device within an 8 mm × 8 mm area to evaluate the integrity of the thermostatic zones; and (3) a single, straight microchannel representing a single loop of the spiral CFPCR device, accounting for all of the heat transfer modes, to determine whether the PCR cocktail was exposed to the proper temperature cycling. In prior work on larger footprint devices, simple grooves between temperature zones provided sufficient thermal resistance between zones. For the small footprint reactor array, 0.4 mm wide and 1.2 mm high fins were necessary within the groove to cool the PCR cocktail efficiently, with a temperature gradient of 15.8°C/mm, as it flowed from the denaturation zone to the renaturation zone. With temperature tolerance bands of ±2°C defined about the nominal temperatures, more than 72.5% of the microchannel length was located within the desired temperature bands. The residence time of the PCR cocktail in each temperature zone decreased and the transition times between zones increased at higher PCR cocktail flow velocities, leading to less time for the amplification reactions. Experiments demonstrated the performance of the CFPCR devices as a function of flow velocity, fragment length, and copy number. A 99 bp DNA fragment was successfully amplified at flow velocities from 1 mm/s to 3 mm/s, requiring from 8.16 minutes for 20 cycles (24.48 s/cycle) to 2.72 minutes for 20 cycles (8.16 s/cycle), respectively. Yield compared to the same amplification sequence performed using a bench top thermal cycler decreased nonlinearly from 73% (at 1 mm/s) to 13% (at 3 mm/s) with shorter residence time at the optimal temperatures for the reactions due to increased flow rate primarily responsible. Six different DNA fragments with lengths between 99 bp and 997 bp were successfully amplified at 1 mm/s. Repeatable, successful amplification of a 99 bp fragment was achieved with a minimum of 8000 copies of the DNA template. This is the first demonstration and characterization of continuous flow thermal reactors within the 8 mm × 8 mm footprint of a 96-well micro-titer plate and is the smallest continuous flow PCR to date. PMID:20871807

  7. Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is described here. Two conclusions can be made form computations performed under the assumption of a uniform reactor vessel temperature. First, the heat transferred across the annulus from the reactor vessel and then to ambient conditions is very dependent on the surface emissivities of the reactor vessel and RCCS panels. These emissivities should be periodically checked to ensure the safety function of the RCCS. Second, the heat transfer from the reactor vessel is reduced by a maximum of 10% by the presence of steam at 1 atm in the reactor cavity annulus for an assumed constant in the transmission of radiant energy across the annulus can be expected to result in an increase in the reactor vessel temperature for the MHTGR. Further investigation of participating radiation media, including small particles, in the reactor cavity annulus is warranted. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Performance and Lifetime Assessment of Reactor Wall and Nearby Components during Plasma Instabilities*

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    . .--.­ .. .-- ------.-- . #12;. . . ,, . Performance and Lifetime Components Assessment of during Plasma Reactor Wall loss of reactor concept. structural damage to plasma-facing components due to the plasma confinement materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious

  9. Chemical performance and high temperature characterization of micromachined chemical reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Srinivasan; S. L. Firebaugh; I.-M. Hsing; J. Ryley; M. P. Harold; K. F. Jensen; M. A. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    Chemical throughput, product distribution, and lifetime studies have been conducted in Si micromachined chemical reactors (microreactors) for catalytic partial oxidation reactions. Experiments using Pt-catalyzed NH3 oxidation as model reaction show that conversion and selectivity behavior of conventional reactors can be reproduced in the microreactor. Highly flammable gases that explode in conventional reactors have been safely oxidized in the microreactor. Packaging

  10. Biogas in Nepal--Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, D.K.

    1983-12-01

    The tremendous need and potential of biogas in Nepal, supported by a very large cattle population, seems to be primarily limited by manpower and budgetary constraints and poor planning and implementation. Besides cooking and lighting, considerable potential, particularly at the rural level exists for biogas powered agro-processing applications such as rice hulling, oil expelling and flour grinding. Experience has shown that such applications, for which equipment is easily available, can be better served by community Biogas plants. The government of Nepal, with assistance from international organizations such as the Asian Development Bank, is strengthening the Biogas Company and taking other appropriate measures to disseminate and establish biogas on a firm footing.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas. PMID:23831800

  12. Anaerobic treatment of coconut husk liquor for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Leitão, R C; Araújo, A M; Freitas-Neto, M A; Rosa, M F; Santaella, S T

    2009-01-01

    The market for coconut water causes environmental problems as it is one of the major agro-industrial solid wastes in some developing countries. With the aim of reusing the coconut husk, Embrapa developed a system for processing this raw material. During the dewatering stage Coconut Husk Liquor (CHL) is generated with chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 60 to 70 g/L due to high concentrations of sugars and tannins. The present study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of CHL through Anaerobic Toxicity Assay and the operation of a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that CHL can be treated through a UASB reactor operating with an OLR that reaches up to 10 kg/m3.d and that is maintained stable during the whole operation. With this operational condition, the removal efficiency was higher than 80% for COD and approximately 78% for total tannins, and biogas production was 20 m3 of biogas or 130 KWh per m3 of CHL. Seventy-five percent of the biogas composition was methane and toxicity tests demonstrated that CHL was not toxic to the methanogenic consortia. Conversely, increasing the concentration of CHL leads to increased methanogenic activity. PMID:19448321

  13. Waste to Energy: Biogas CHP 

    E-print Network

    Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    Restaurant Waste Grease Trap Waste Methane Yield, ft3gas/per ton Brown Grease yields 4x the amount of gas as WWTP solids 17 165 660 ? Increase in biogas production, electricity and hot water ? Potential revenue from tipping fees ? Increased...

  14. Performance and Safety Analysis of a Generic Small Modular Reactor 

    E-print Network

    Kitcher, Evans Damenortey, 1987-

    2012-11-07

    of Coolant Accident LEU Low Enriched Uranium MAUA Multi Attribute Utility Analysis PWR Pressurized Water Reactor PR Proliferation Resistance SCA Single Channel Analysis SMR Small Modular Reactor vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page... coolant for the reactor is light water which also acts as the moderator. The fuel is usually low enriched uranium (LEU) in the uranium dioxide (UO2) form, or occasionally mixed oxide containing both uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide (UO2+PuO2...

  15. Technical bases to consider for performance and demonstration testing of space fission reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Hixson; M. G. Houts; S. D. Clement

    2004-01-01

    Performance and demonstration testing are critical to the success of a space fission reactor program. However, the type and extent to which testing of space reactors should be performed has been a point of discussion within the industry for many years. With regard to full power ground nuclear tests, questions such as: (1) Do the benefits outweigh the risks; (2)

  16. Technical Bases to Consider for Performance and Demonstration Testing of Space Fission Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie L. Hixson; Michael G. Houts; Steven D. Clement

    2004-01-01

    Performance and demonstration testing are critical to the success of a space fission reactor program. However, the type and extent to which testing of space reactors should be performed has been a point of discussion within the industry for many years. With regard to full power ground nuclear tests, questions such as 'Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Are there

  17. High-performance simulations for atmospheric pressure plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugunov, Svyatoslav

    Plasma-assisted processing and deposition of materials is an important component of modern industrial applications, with plasma reactors sharing 30% to 40% of manufacturing steps in microelectronics production. Development of new flexible electronics increases demands for efficient high-throughput deposition methods and roll-to-roll processing of materials. The current work represents an attempt of practical design and numerical modeling of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The system utilizes plasma at standard pressure and temperature to activate a chemical precursor for protective coatings. A specially designed linear plasma head, that consists of two parallel plates with electrodes placed in the parallel arrangement, is used to resolve clogging issues of currently available commercial plasma heads, as well as to increase the flow-rate of the processed chemicals and to enhance the uniformity of the deposition. A test system is build and discussed in this work. In order to improve operating conditions of the setup and quality of the deposited material, we perform numerical modeling of the plasma system. The theoretical and numerical models presented in this work comprehensively describe plasma generation, recombination, and advection in a channel of arbitrary geometry. Number density of plasma species, their energy content, electric field, and rate parameters are accurately calculated and analyzed in this work. Some interesting engineering outcomes are discussed with a connection to the proposed setup. The numerical model is implemented with the help of high-performance parallel technique and evaluated at a cluster for parallel calculations. A typical performance increase, calculation speed-up, parallel fraction of the code and overall efficiency of the parallel implementation are discussed in details.

  18. Methanogenic community and performance of fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors with reticular polyurethane foam with different pore sizes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingnan Yang; Chika Tada; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Shigeki Sawayama

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of the pore size of bed material and bed type on the methanogenic performance and community in fixed and fluidized bed reactors supplied with acetic acid as the sole organic substrate. Fixed-bed reactors with polyurethane foam had a greater biomass retention capacity and better reactor performance than fluidized-bed reactors. A polyurethane pore size of 20

  19. Developing a Comprehensive Software Suite for Advanced Reactor Performance and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Bradley, Keith S [ORNL] [ORNL; Fischer, Paul F [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Micheal A [ORNL] [ORNL; Tautges, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ferencz, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Martineau, Richard C [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Rajeev [ORNL] [ORNL; Obabko, Aleksandr [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the reactor analysis capabilities of the nuclear power reactor simulation tools that are being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Toolkit. The NEAMS Toolkit is an integrated suite of multi-physics simulation tools that leverage high-performance computing to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of performance and safety of advanced reactor and fuel designs. The Toolkit effort is comprised of two major components, the Fuels Product Line (FPL), which provides tools for fuel performance analysis, and the Reactor Product Line (RPL), which provides tools for reactor performance and safety analysis. This paper provides an overview of the NEAMS RPL development effort.

  20. Comparison of reactor performance in the nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Futamura; Hisahiro Einaga; Aihua Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The performances of three different types of plasma reactors such as ferroelectric packed-bed (FPB), pulsed corona (PCR), and silent discharge (SDP) were compared in the decomposition of trichloroethylene (Cl2C=CHCl, TCE), bromomethane (CH3Br), and tetrafluoromethane (CF4). Irrespective of reactors, HAP (hazardous air pollutants) reactivity decreased in the order: TCE>CH 3Br>CF4. Similar byproducts were obtained with any of the above reactors, and

  1. Reliable reactor coolant pump seal performance - the station's role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Pothier; R. Metcalfe

    1989-01-01

    During the early days of the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) power reactor program, operators and designers learned that close attention to reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals was imperative for achieving high-capacity factors. This lesson was driven home by unpredictable and frequent seal failures in the following early CANDU plants. Those seal failures caused forced outages, maintenance\\/dose burdens, and heavy-water losses.

  2. Advanced-power-reactor design concepts and performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, H. W.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Springborn, R. H.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Five reactor cooling concepts which allow continued reactor operation following a single rupture of the coolant system are presented for application with the APR. These concepts incorporate convective cooling, double containment, or heat pipes to ensure operation after a coolant line rupture. Based on an evaluation of several control system concepts, a molybdenum clad, beryllium oxide sliding reflector located outside the pressure vessel is recommended.

  3. Performance testing of carbon--carbon composites as plasma-facing materials for magnetic fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Causey; W. L. Hsu; A. E. Pontau; C. D. Croessmann; M. A. Ulrickson

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study of the properties affecting the performance of carbon--carbon composites as plasma-facing materials in magnetic fusion reactors. A composite has already been chosen for the protective limiter of the rf antenna in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and composites are being considered for divertor applications in the Compact Ignition Tokamak. In direct comparison

  4. RETRACTED ARTICLE: The Evaluation of Reactor Performance by using Flibe and Flinabe Molten Salts in the APEX Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Turgay; Hançerlio?ullar?, Aybaba

    2012-04-01

    The modeling of APEX hybrid reactor, produced by using ARIES-RS hybrid reactor technology, has been performed by using the MCNP-4B computer code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (Li2BeF4) and Flinabe (LiNaBeF4) were used as cooling materials. APEX reactor was modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between percent 0-12 to the molten salts. The result of the study indicated that fissile material production, UF4 and ThF4 heavy metal salt increased nearly at the same percentage and it was observed that the percentage of it was practically the same in both materials. In order for the hybrid reactor to work itself in terms of tritium, TBR (tritium breeding ratio) should be lower than 1.05. When flibe molten salt was utilized in the APEX hybrid reactor, TBR was calculated as >1, 22 and when flinabe molten salt was used, TBR was calculated as >1.06.

  5. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    ?ater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Marinšek Logar, Romana

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. PMID:25836034

  6. Factors influencing the degradation of garbage in methanogenic bioreactors and impacts on biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Kengo

    2012-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of garbage is attracting much attention because of its application in waste volume reduction and the recovery of biogas for use as an energy source. In this review, various factors influencing the degradation of garbage and the production of biogas are discussed. The surface hydrophobicity and porosity of supporting materials are important factors in retaining microorganisms such as aceticlastic methanogens and in attaining a higher degradation of garbage and a higher production of biogas. Ammonia concentration, changes in environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, and adaptation of microbial community to ammonia have been related to ammonia inhibition. The effects of drawing electrons from the methanogenic community and donating electrons into the methanogenic community on methane production have been shown in microbial fuel cells and bioelectrochemical reactors. The influences of trace elements, phase separation, and co-digestion are also summarized in this review. PMID:22395906

  7. Progress and Recent Trends in Biogas Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fatih Demirbas; Mehmet Balat

    2009-01-01

    In this study, progresses and recent trends in biogas processing are reviewed. Biogas is generated from biomass by digestion under anaerobic conditions in the presence of microorganisms. Anaerobic digestion occurs in the absence of air and is typically carried out for a few weeks. The anaerobic digestion process occurs in the following four basic steps: (1) hydrolysis, (2) acidogenesis, (3)

  8. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (<10% TS) because it allows for the use of a smaller volume of reactor and because it reduces wastewater production. In addition, it produces a fertilizer that is easier to transport. Performance of anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop. PMID:19462259

  9. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. PMID:21975301

  10. Alkaline pretreatment for enhancement of biogas production from banana stem and swine manure by anaerobic codigestion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengming; Li, Jihong; Liu, Chen; Liu, Xiaoling; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Shizhong; Fan, Guifang; Zhang, Lei

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to propose and investigate the availability of digested banana stem (BS) to produce biogas. Squeezed BS with less moisture content was used for biogas production through a combination of NaOH pretreatment, solid-state fermentation, and codigestion technologies. NaOH doses were optimized according to biogas fermentation performance, and the best dose was 6% (by weight) based on the total solid (TS) of BS. Under this condition, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents decreased from 18.36%, 32.36% and 14.6% to 17.10%, 30.07%, and 10.65%, respectively, after pretreatment. After biogas digestion, TS and volatile solid (VS) reductions of the codigestion were 48.5% and 70.4%, respectively, and the biogas and methane yields based on VS loading were 357.9 and 232.4 mL/g, which were 12.1% and 21.4%, respectively, higher than the control. Results indicated that the proposed process could be an effective method for using BS to produce biogas. PMID:24128397

  11. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    PubMed

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. PMID:22230660

  12. Performance of piezoresistive and piezoelectric sensors in pulsed reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Holbert, K. E. (Keith E.); McCready, S. S. (Steven S.); Heger, A. S. (A. Sharif); Harlow, T. H. (Thomas H.); Spearing, D. R. (Dane R.)

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed reactor-based experiments require radiation tolerant sensors that do not perturb the device under test, or allow a radiation-induced signal to mask the true sensor output. Several commercial off-the-shelf accelerometers, pressure transducers, and acoustic emission sensors were subjected to multiple high-power reactor pulses. A piezoresistive accelerometer capable of operation to at least 44 kGy and 8.7 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} is identified, and a piezoresistive pressure transducer that is resistant to about half that radiation level is selected. Further, two piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors employing lead metaniobate are also found to function to 55 kGy and 1.1 x 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}.

  13. Enhancement of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor performance by lithium conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Mansfield; K. W. Hill; J. D. Strachan; M. G. Bell; S. D. Scott; R. Budny; E. S. Marmar; J. A. Snipes; J. L. Terry; S. Batha; R. E. Bell; M. Bitter; C. E. Bush; Z. Chang; D. S. Darrow; E. Fredrickson; B. Grek; H. W. Herrmann; A. Janos; D. L. Jassby; F. C. Jobes; D. W. Johnson; L. C. Johnson; F. M. Levinton; D. R. Mikkelsen; D. Mueller; D. K. Owens; A. T. Ramsey; A. L. Roquemore; C. H. Skinner; T. Stevenson; B. C. Stratton; E. Synakowski; G. Taylor; A. von Halle; S. von Goeler; K. L. Wong; S. J. Zweben

    1996-01-01

    Wall conditioning in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. McGuire etal., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] by injection of lithium pellets into the plasma has resulted in large improvements in deuterium–tritium fusion power production (up to 10.7 MW), the Lawson triple product (up to 1021 m?3 s keV), and energy confinement time (up to 330 ms). The maximum

  14. Dry anaerobic digestion in batch mode: design and operation of a laboratory-scale, completely mixed reactor.

    PubMed

    Guendouz, J; Buffière, P; Cacho, J; Carrère, M; Delgenes, J-P

    2010-10-01

    A laboratory-scale (40 l) reactor was designed to investigate dry anaerobic digestion. The reactor is equipped with an intermittent paddle mixer, enabling complete mixing in the reactor. Three consecutive batch dry digestion tests of municipal solid waste were performed under mesophilic conditions and compared to operation results obtained on a pilot-scale (21 m(3)) with the same feedstock. Biogas and methane production at the end of the tests were similar (around 200 m(3) CH(4)STP/tVS), and the dynamics of methane production and VFA accumulation concurred. However, the maximal levels of VFA transitory accumulation varied between reactors and between runs in a same reactor. Ammonia levels were similar in both reactors. These results show that the new reactor accurately imitates the conditions found in larger ones. Adaptation of micro-organisms to the waste and operating conditions was also pointed out along the consecutive batches. PMID:20096555

  15. Application of a real-time qPCR method to measure the methanogen concentration during anaerobic digestion as an indicator of biogas production capacity.

    PubMed

    Traversi, Deborah; Villa, Silvia; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Degan, Raffaella; Gilli, Giorgio

    2012-11-30

    Biogas is an energy source that is produced via the anaerobic digestion of various organic materials, including waste-water sludge and organic urban wastes. Among the microorganisms involved in digestion, methanogens are the major microbiological group responsible for methane production. To study the microbiological equilibrium in an anaerobic reactor, we detected the methanogen concentration during wet digestion processes fed with pre-treated urban organic waste and waste-water sludge. Two different pre-treatments were used in successive experimental digestions: pressure-extrusion and turbo-mixing. Chemical parameters were collected to describe the process and its production. The method used is based on real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) with the functional gene mcrA as target. First, we evaluated the validity of the analyses. Next, we applied this method to 50 digestate samples and then we performed a statistical analysis. A positive and significant correlation between the biogas production rate and methanogen abundance was observed (r = 0.579, p < 0.001). This correlation holds both when considering all of the collected data and when the two data sets are separated. The pressure-extrusion pre-treatment allowed to obtain the higher methane amount and also the higher methanogen presence (F = 41.190, p < 0.01). Moreover a higher mean methanogen concentration was observed for production rate above than of 0.6 m(3) biogas/kg TVS (F = 7.053; p < 0.05). The applied method is suitable to describe microbiome into the anaerobic reactor, moreover methanogen concentration may have potential for use as a digestion optimisation tool. PMID:22910214

  16. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  17. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  18. Effects of nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum on performance of methanogenic fixed-film reactors.

    PubMed

    Murray, W D; van den Berg, L

    1981-09-01

    The conversion of acetic acid to methane and carbon dioxide by a mixed methanogenic population from an anaerobic fixed-film digestor was stimulated by the addition of nickel (100 nM) and cobalt (50 nM) and especially by the addition of these elements in combination. Molybdenum addition (50 nM) was only slightly stimulatory when added in combination with both nickel and cobalt. The addition of these trace metals to anaerobic fixed-film digestors, which treat food processing waste, greatly enhanced reactor performance. Total gas and methane productions were increased 42%, greater volumes of waste could be effectively treated, and reactor residence time was shortened. However, the lag period for reactor start-up was not reduced. Tests showed that reactor performance was increased because trace nutrient addition allowed accumulation of a thicker methanogenic fixed film. PMID:16345846

  19. Reactor instrumentation and control design and performance simulation for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. A.; Alley, A. D.; Halfen, F. J.; Brynsvold, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    The SP-100 flight system will be launched with all primary and secondary lithium in the solid state. Once in orbit, the reactor will be brought critical and maintained at a low power level while the lithium is thawed out. Once the system is thawed out, the reactor power will be controlled to provide the energy source required by the power conversion system to meet the payload electrical power requirements. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem which includes the reactor control drives, instrumentation and the digital controller provides for the control of the nuclear subsystem to perform these operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic shutdown and restart under certain off-normal conditions. The design and performance of this system are described.

  20. Performance of boiling water reactor fuel lead test assemblies to 35 MWd/kg U

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, T.C.; Ikemoto, R.N.; Gehl, S.

    1986-01-01

    This joint Electric Power Research Institute/General Electric (EPRI/GE) fuel performance program involved thorough preirradiation characterization of fuel used in lead test assemblies (LTAs), detailed surveillance of their operation, and interim site examinations of the assemblies during reactor outages. The program originally included four GE-5 LTAs operating in the Peach Bottom-2 (PB-2) reactor. The program was later modified to include the pressurized fuel rod test assembly in the Peach Bottom-3 (PB-3) reactor. The program modification also included extending the operation of the PB-2 and PB-3 LTA fuel beyond normal discharge exposures. Results are summarized in the paper.

  1. Performance Analysis of B4C Used as Shielding Material in China Experiment Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Ruoxian; Xie, Guangshang; Wang, Xiaorong

    Hot-pressed boron carbide (B4C) pellet will be used as shielding material in China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) which is the first fast reactor in China. In this paper, two types of B4C sample provided by two different units in China were investigated on out-reactor properties, and one type of sample was studied on irradiation performance. Finally, the evaluation of domestic B4C pellet as shielding material in CEFR was given: the B4C pellets produced in China could satisfy the requirements of CEFR.

  2. Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

    2011-06-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components. PMID:21751715

  3. Biofilm Performance in an Aerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor During the Start-Up Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dandan Zhou; Heli Wang; Xiaotao Bi; Shuangshi Dong

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of an aerobic fluidized-bed biofilm reactor (AFBBR) at the start-up stage. By means of cultivating bacteria naturally in a growth culture medium that has similar ingredients as the feed water for the AFBBR reactor, the seeding bacteria solution with sufficient amount of lively and well-acclimated bacteria and very low suspended solid was obtained after 4

  4. Comparison of reactor performance in the nonthermal plasma chemical processing of hazardous air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Futamura; Hisahiro Einaga; Aihua Zhang

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three different types of plasma reactors such as ferroelectric packed-bed (FPR), pulsed corona (PCR), and silent discharge (SDR) were compared in the decomposition of trichloroethylene (Cl2C=CHCl, TCE), bromomethane (CH3Br), and tetrafluoromethane (CF4). Irrespective of reactors, hazardous air pollutant (HAP) reactivity in dry N2 decreased in the order: TCE>CH3Br>CF4. Similar byproducts were obtained with any of the above

  5. Prediction of thermal-hydraulic performance of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jr. Gazley; G. H. Harpole; L. S. Yao; W. H. Krase; J. Catton; J. Grzesik; W. Matyskiela

    1977-01-01

    The report describes work performed under a project to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GCFRs). Existing GCFR designs are briefly described with emphasis on the core cooling and associated systems. Factors affecting the convective heat transfer and pressure drop in the core are examined, particularly the effects of surface roughness on the enhancement of heat transfer,

  6. Performance and methanogenic community of rotating disk reactor packed with polyurethane during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingnan Yang; Kenichiro Tsukahara; Shigeki Sawayama

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed anaerobic rotating disk reactor (ARDR) packed with polyurethane was used in continuous mode for organic waste removal under thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic conditions. This paper reports the effects of the rotational speed on the methanogenic performance and community in an ARDR supplied with acetic acid synthetic wastewater as the organic substrate. The best performance was obtained from the

  7. Absorption degree analysis on biogas separation with ionic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Suojiang; Bao, Di; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping

    2014-10-22

    For biogas upgrading, present work mainly focuses on either thermodynamics or mass transfer properties. A systematical study on these two aspects is important for developing a new biogas separation process. In this work, a new criterion "absorption degree", which combines both thermodynamics and mass transfer properties, was proposed for the first time to comprehensively evaluate the absorption performance. Henry's law constants of CO2 and CH4 in ionic liquids-polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers mixtures were investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL) were determined. The results indicate that IL-NHD mixtures exhibit not only a high CO2/CH4 selectivity, but also a fast kL for CO2 absorption. The [bmim][NO3]+NHD mixtures present a high absorption degree value for CO2 but a low value for CH4. For presenting a highest relative absorption degree value, the 50wt% [bmim][NO3]+50wt% NHD mixture is recommended for biogas upgrading. PMID:25459814

  8. Microaerobic digestion of sewage sludge on an industrial-pilot scale: the efficiency of biogas desulphurisation under different configurations and the impact of O2 on the microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Ramos, I; Pérez, R; Reinoso, M; Torio, R; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-07-01

    Biogas produced in an industrial-pilot scale sewage sludge reactor (5m(3)) was desulphurised by imposing microaerobic conditions. The H2S concentration removal efficiency was evaluated under various configurations: different mixing methods and O2 injection points. Biogas was entirely desulphurised under all the configurations set, while the O2 demand of the digester decreased over time. Although the H2S removal seemed to occur in the headspace, S(0) (which was found to be the main oxidation product) was scarcely deposited there in the headspace. O2 did not have a significant impact on the digestion performance; the VS removal remained around 47%. Conversely, DGGE revealed that the higher O2 transfer rate to the sludge maintained by biogas recirculation increased the microbial richness and evenness, and caused an important shift in the structure of the bacterial and the archaeal communities in the long term. All the archaeal genera identified (Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum and Methanoculleus) were present under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions. PMID:24874874

  9. The development of biogas technology in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiranjivi, C.; Raviprasad, A.; Rao, K. V.

    Biogas from organic wastes is a potential renewable energy to meet the domestic energy needs in India. The fundamentals of bio-gasification by anaerobic digestion are presented. The production of biogas from cattle manure in small anaerobic digesters is discussed, illustrated by a popular digester model. The need for the development of community digesters for the needs of a village and its implications are mentioned. The research work on biogasification at Andhra University is summarized.

  10. Quantifying temperature and flow rate effects on the performance of a fixed-bed chromatographic reactor.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tien D; Seidel-Morgenstern, A

    2011-11-01

    Chromatographic reactors are based on coupling chemical reactions with chromatographic separation in fixed-beds. Temperature and flow rate are important parameters for the performance of such reactors. Temperature affects mainly adsorption, chemical equilibria, mass transfer and reaction kinetics, whereas flow rate influences residence time and dispersion. In order to evaluate the mentioned effects, the hydrolysis reactions of methyl formate (MF) and methyl acetate (MA) were chosen as case studies. These reactions were performed experimentally in a lab-scale fixed-bed chromatographic reactor packed with a strong acidic ion exchange resin. The chosen reactions can be considered to represent a relative fast (MF) and a relative slow (MA) reaction. The processes which take place inside the reactor were described and simulated using an isothermal equilibrium dispersive model. The essential model parameters were determined experimentally at different temperatures and flow rates. The performance of the chromatographic reactor was evaluated at several discrete constant temperature levels by quantifying product purity, productivity and yield. The work provides insight regarding the influence of temperature and flow rate on values of the model parameters and the performance criteria. PMID:21963179

  11. Pathogenic bacteria and mineral N in soils following the land spreading of biogas digestates and fresh manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goberna; S. M. Podmirseg; S. Waldhuber; B. A. Knapp; C. García; H. Insam

    2011-01-01

    The on-farm production of renewable energy from animal manures has rapidly expanded in central and northern Europe, with thousands of anaerobic reactors. This process has increased the land spreading of biogas digestates, replacing the use of fresh manure as a fertiliser. The environmental benefits and risks of such a change still need to be defined. We hypothesised that applying to

  12. Biogas production experimental research using algae.

    PubMed

    Baltr?nas, Pranas; Misevi?ius, Antonas

    2015-01-01

    The current study is on the the use of macro-algae as feedstock for biogas production. Three types of macro-algae, Cladophora glomerata (CG), Chara fragilis (CF), and Spirogyra neglecta (SN), were chosen for this research. The experimental studies on biogas production were carried out with these algae in a batch bioreactor. In the bioreactor was maintained 35?±?1°C temperature. The results showed that the most appropriate macro-algae for biogas production are Spirogyra neglecta (SN) and Cladophora glomerata (CG). The average amount of biogas obtained from the processing of SN - 0.23 m(3)/m(3)d, CG - 0.20 m(3)/m(3)d, and CF - 0.12 m(3)/m(3)d. Considering the concentration of methane obtained during the processing of SN and CG, which after eight days and until the end of the experiment exceeded 60%, it can be claimed that biogas produced using these algae is valuable. When processing CF, the concentration of methane reached the level of 50% only by the final day of the experiment, which indicates that this alga is less suitable for biogas production. PMID:25859392

  13. The long-term effects of ethanol on immobilized cell reactor performance using K. fragilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Dale, M C; Okos, M R

    1990-12-01

    The effects of ethanol on reactor performance were studied in a small, 5-cm packed height, "differential" type immobilized cell reactor. Lactose utilizing yeast cells, Kluyveromyces fragilis, were absorbed to a porous adsorbant sponge matrix in a gas continuous reactor. Step changes in the feed ethanol concentration to the column (10-130 g/L) were used to test the reactor response over extended periods of time (about 30-50 h per dosage level) followed by a return to basal zero inlet ethanol feed. Effluent cell density and effluent cell viability were measured at intervals. An inhibitory response in ethanol productivity to feed dosage ethanol levels above 20 g/L was detected almost immediately, with a near steady state response noted within 2.5 h of initiating the dosage. Feed ethanol levels above 50 g/L resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in reactor productivity over time, which was associated with a decrease in the fraction of viable shed cells in the reactor effluent. The reactor response to a step removal of the ethanol inhibition was also monitored. Quick and complete rebounding of the fermentation rate to the original basal rate was noted following dosage concentrations of under 50 g/L ethanol. Recovery rates slowed following ethanol dosage levels above 50 g/L. Viable shed cell density improved overtime during the slow recovery periods. Growth rates (as determined by shed cell density) were more strongly inhibited than productivity. Growth responded more slowly to changes in ethanol environment as growth rates at 30 h fell to about 40% of the rates measured 7.5 h after initiation of a dosage level. It is concluded that ethanol contributions to cell injury and death (and consequent ICR performance degradation) may be more important than ethanol inhibition of productivity rates in the long-term operation of immobilized cell reactors at ethanol concentrations over 50 g/L. PMID:18595035

  14. Production of biogas from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart) (Solms) in a two-stage bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Kivaisi; M. Mtila

    1998-01-01

    A two-stage rumen-derived anaerobic digestion process was tested for the conversion of water hyacinth shoots and a mixture of the shoots with cowdung (7:3) into biogas. Under conditions similar to those of the rumen and loading rates (LR) in the range of 11.6–19.3g volatile solids (VS) l-1d-1 in the rumen reactor, the degradation efficiencies were 38% for the shoots and

  15. Anaerobic digestion of corn stovers for methane production in a novel bionic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixia; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Fan, Shiyang; Jin, Shuguang; Wu, Dan; Fang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To improve the biogas production from corn stovers, a new bionic reactor was designed and constructed. The bionic reactor simulated the rumen digestion of ruminants. The liquid was separated from corn stovers and refluxed into corn stovers again, which simulated the undigested particles separated from completely digested materials and fed back again for further degradation in ruminant stomach. Results showed that the bionic reactor was effective for anaerobic digestion of corn stovers. The liquid amount and its reflux showed an obvious positive correlation with biogas production. The highest biogas production rate was 21.6 ml/gVS-addedd, and the total cumulative biogas production was 256.5 ml/gVS-added. The methane content in biogas ranged from 52.2% to 63.3%. The degradation of corn stovers were greatly enhanced through simulating the animal digestion mechanisms in this bionic reactor. PMID:24923659

  16. Tokamaks with high-performance resistive magnets: advanced test reactors and prospects for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Leclaire, R.; Yang, T.

    1981-10-01

    Scoping studies have been made of tokamak reactors with high performance resistive magnets which maximize advantages gained from high field operation and reduced shielding requirements, and minimize resistive power requirements. High field operation can provide very high values of fusion power density and n tau/sub e/ while the resistive power losses can be kept relatively small. Relatively high values of Q' = Fusion Power/Magnet Resistive Power can be obtained. The use of high field also facilitates operation in the DD-DT advanced fuel mode. The general engineering and operational features of machines with high performance magnets are discussed. Illustrative parameters are given for advanced test reactors and for possible commercial reactors. Commercial applications that are discussed are the production of fissile fuel, electricity generation with and without fissioning blankets and synthetic fuel production.

  17. Improving biogas yields using an innovative concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Rajib; Ahring, B K; Uellendahl, H

    2012-01-01

    The potential of a new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure-based biogas plants was investigated at laboratory scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was applied to the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas yield before reintroducing the fiber fraction into the biogas reactor. The increase in methane yield of the digested manure fibers was investigated by applying the WEx treatment under five different process conditions. The WEx treatment at 180 °C and a treatment time of 10 min without addition of oxygen was found to be optimal, resulting in 136% increase in methane yield compared with the untreated digested manure fibers in batch experiments. In a continuous mesophilic reactor process the addition of WEx-treated digested fibers in co-digestion with filtered manure did not show any signs of process inhibition, and the overall methane yield was on average 75% higher than in a control reactor with addition of non-treated digested fibers. PMID:22907461

  18. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  19. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  20. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry--a life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten; Sommer, Sven G; Bruun, Sander

    2014-11-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then produced from conventional fossil fuels. The scenarios can often provide benefits for one impact category while causing impacts in another. PMID:25226057

  1. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23880131

  2. Influence of total solid and inoculum contents on performance of anaerobic reactors treating food waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Forster-Carneiro; M. Pérez; L. I. Romero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the biomethanization process of food waste (FW) from a university campus restaurant in six reactors with three different total solid percentages (20%, 25% and 30% TS) and two different inoculum percentages (20–30% of mesophilic sludge). The experimental procedure was programmed to select the initial performance parameters (total solid and inoculum contents) in

  3. Calculated performance of various structural materials in fusion-reactor blankets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Williams; R. T. Santoro; T. A. Gabriel

    1975-01-01

    The calculated nuclear performances of niobium, SS-304, and nimonic-105 ; as structural materials in a conceptual D-T fusion-reactor blanket model are ; compared. For each structural material, the tritium breeding ratio, the energy-; deposition rate, the operating dose, the time dependence of the neutron-induced ; activity, the time dependence of the dose from the activation products, the time ; dependence

  4. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process: thermodynamic and dynamic process simulation.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiaze Augustine; Born, Jens; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach for the operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe index, CO2 content and calorific value were found to be controllable by the H2/CO2 ratio fed the methanation reactor. An optimal H2/CO2 ratio of 3.45-3.7 was seen to result in a product gas with high calorific value and Wobbe index. The dynamic reactor simulation verified that the process start-up was feasible within several minutes to facilitate surplus electricity use from renewable energy systems. PMID:25453430

  5. A Comparison of Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor Performance for Spacecraft Cabin Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Reinermann, Dana N.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a maturing process technology that shows potential for spacecraft life support system application. Incorporating PCO into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization system requires an understanding of basic performance, particularly with regard to partial oxidation product production. Four PCO reactor design concepts have been evaluated for their effectiveness for mineralizing key trace volatile organic com-pounds (VOC) typically observed in crewed spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Mineralization efficiency and selectivity for partial oxidation products are compared for the reactor design concepts. The role of PCO in a spacecraft s life support system architecture is discussed.

  6. Economic analysis of microaerobic removal of H2S from biogas in full-scale sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Díaz, I; Ramos, I; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2015-09-01

    The application of microaerobic conditions during sludge digestion has been proven to be an efficient method for H2S removal from biogas. In this study, three microaerobic treatments were considered as an alternative to the technique of biogas desulfurization applied (FeCl3 dosing to the digesters) in a WWTP comprising three full-scale anaerobic reactors treating sewage sludge, depending on the reactant: pure O2 from cryogenic tanks, concentrated O2 from PSA generators, and air. These alternatives were compared in terms of net present value (NPV) with a fourth scenario consisting in the utilization of iron-sponge-bed filter inoculated with thiobacteria. The analysis revealed that the most profitable alternative to FeCl3 addition was the injection of concentrated O2 (0.0019€/m(3) biogas), and this scenario presented the highest robustness towards variations in the price of FeCl3, electricity, and in the H2S concentration. PMID:26046427

  7. ANALYSIS OF SEPCTRUM CHOICES FOR SMALL MODULAR REACTORS-PERFORMANCE AND DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Kafle, Nischal

    2011-04-26

    and for keeping me motivated. v NOMENCLATURE BWR Boiling Water Reactor FP Fission Products LWR Light Water Reactor IRIS International Reactor Innovative and Secure MA Minor actinides MHR Modular High Temperature Reactor MWe Megawatt Electric 239Pu... ........................................................................................... 30 vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 The reactor schematic of International reactor innovative and secure (IRIS) ........ 4 2 The reactor schematic of Pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) ............................ 6 3 Reactor core...

  8. Performance Assessment of the Commercial CFD Software for the Prediction of the Reactor Internal Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gong Hee; Bang, Young Seok; Woo, Sweng Woong; Kim, Do Hyeong; Kang, Min Ku

    2014-06-01

    As the computer hardware technology develops the license applicants for nuclear power plant use the commercial CFD software with the aim of reducing the excessive conservatism associated with using simplified and conservative analysis tools. Even if some of CFD software developer and its user think that a state of the art CFD software can be used to solve reasonably at least the single-phase nuclear reactor problems, there is still limitation and uncertainty in the calculation result. From a regulatory perspective, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) is presently conducting the performance assessment of the commercial CFD software for nuclear reactor problems. In this study, in order to examine the validity of the results of 1/5 scaled APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) flow distribution tests and the applicability of CFD in the analysis of reactor internal flow, the simulation was conducted with the two commercial CFD software (ANSYS CFX V.14 and FLUENT V.14) among the numerous commercial CFD software and was compared with the measurement. In addition, what needs to be improved in CFD for the accurate simulation of reactor core inlet flow was discussed.

  9. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Charles A. Baldwin; Philip L. Winston; Jason M. Harp; Scott A. Ploger; Tyler Gerczak; Isabella J. van Rooyen; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva

    2014-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.5% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuel–including the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructures–was evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocrabon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 1×10 4 to 5×10 4 for 154Eu and 8×10 7 to 3×10 5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs release from compacts was <3×10 6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98×105 experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs release in two capsules to approximately 10 5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. Palladium, silver, and uranium were found in the SiC layer of irradiated particles, and characterization of these elements within the SiC microstructure is the subject of ongoing focused study.

  10. Treatment of a chocolate industry wastewater in a pilot-scale low-temperature UASB reactor operated at short hydraulic and sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Arzate-Archundia, O; Solís-Morelos, C; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a 244-L pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (18 ± 0.6 °C) for approximately 250 d. The applied organic loading rate (OLR) was varied between 4 and 7 kg/m(3)/d by varying the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (6.4 ± 0.3 h). The CODsol removal efficiency was low (59-78%). The measured biogas production increased from 240 ± 54 to 431 ± 61 L/d during the experiments. A significant linear correlation between the measured biogas production and removed OLR indicated that 81.69 L of biogas were produced per kg/m(3) of CODsol removed. Low average reactor volatile suspended solids (VSS) (2,700-4,800 mg/L) and high effluent VSS (177-313 mg/L) were derived in a short sludge retention time (SRT) (4.9 d). The calculated SRT was shorter than those reported in the literature, but did not affect the reactor's performance. Average sludge yield was 0.20 kg-VSS/kg-CODsol. The low-temperature anaerobic treatment was a good option for the pre-treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater. PMID:23508162

  11. Carbon source--a strong determinant of microbial community structure and performance of an anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Kundu, K; Bergmann, I; Hahnke, S; Klocke, M; Sharma, S; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2013-12-01

    Industrial effluents differ in their organic composition thereby providing different carbon sources to the microbial communities involved in its treatment. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of microbial community structure with wastewater composition and reactor's performance. Self-immobilized granules were developed in simulated wastewater based on different carbon sources (glucose, sugarcane molasses, and milk) in three hybrid anaerobic reactors operated at 37°C. To study archaeal community structure, a polyphasic approach was used with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. While PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene did not reveal major shifts in diversity of archaea with change in substrate, quantification of different groups of methanogens and total bacteria by real-time PCR showed variations in relative abundances with the dominance of Methanosaetaceae and Methanobacteriales. These data were supported by differences in the ratio of total counts of archaea and bacteria analyzed by catalyzed reporter deposition - fluorescence in situ hybridization. During hydraulic and organic shocks, the molasses-based reactor showed the best performance followed by the milk- and the glucose-based reactor. The study indicates that carbon source shapes the microbial community structure more in terms of relative abundance with distinct metabolic capacities rather than its diversity itself. PMID:23994689

  12. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    PubMed

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse. PMID:25958146

  13. High-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis for biogas upgrading: the role of anaerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Gong, Shufen; Sun, Yuanzi; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis has been proved to be a feasible biological method for biogas upgrading. To improve its performance, the feasibility of typical anaerobic granules as the inoculum was investigated in both batch and continuous experiments. The results from batch experiments showed that glucose-acclimated granules seemed to perform better than granules acclimated to acidified products (AP, i.e. acetate, propionate and ethanol) in in situ biogas upgrading systems and a slightly higher H2 consumption rate (1.5?mmol H2?g VSS(-1)?h(-1)) was obtained for glucose-acclimated granules. For AP-acclimated granules, the inhibition on anaerobic digestion and pH increase (up to 9.55±0.16) took place, and the upgrading performance was adversely affected. In contrast, better performance for AP-acclimated granules was observed in ex situ systems, possibly due to their higher hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activities (HMA). Moreover, when gas-liquid mass transfer limitations were alleviated, the upgrading performance was significantly improved (three-fold) for both glucose-acclimated and AP-acclimated granules. The HMA of anaerobic granules could be further enhanced to improve biogas upgrading performance via continuous cultivation with H2/CO2 as the sole substrate. During the three months' cultivation, secondary granulation and microbial population shift were observed, but anaerobic granules still remained intact and their HMA increased from 0.2 to 0.6?g COD?g VSS(-1)?d(-1). It indicated that the formation of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic granules, a new type of anaerobic granules specialized for high-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and biogas upgrading, might be possible. Conclusively, anaerobic granules showed great potential for biogas upgrading. PMID:25347307

  14. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production. PMID:25808519

  15. Application of an anaerobic hybrid reactor for petrochemical effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Mehrdadi, Naser; Hashemian, Seyed Jamaladdin

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic hybrid reactor (UASB/Filter) was used for petrochemical wastewater treatment in mesophilic conditions. The seeded flocculent sludge from a UASB plant treating dairy wastewater, acclimatized to the petrochemical wastes in a two-stage operation. After start up, under steady-state conditions, experiments were conducted at OLRs of between 0.5 and 24 kg TCOD m(-3) d(-1), hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 4-48 h and up-flow velocities 0.021-0.25 mh(-1). Removal efficiencies in the range of 42-86% were achieved at feed TCOD concentrations of 1,000-4,000 mg L(-1). The results of reactor performance at different operational conditions and its relations are presented and discussed in this paper. Then, the obtained data are used for determination of kinetic models. The results showed that a second-order model and a modified Stover-Kincannon model were the most appropriate models for this reactor. Finally, the biogas production data were used for the determination of biogas production kinetics. PMID:22643402

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW. PMID:20400285

  17. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    The conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design has been performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey was completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins were designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicted that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Friedel, G. (Internationale Atomreaktorbau GmbH (INTERATOM), Bergisch Gladbach (Germany, F.R.)); Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Moreau, J. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)); Perks, M. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment (UK)

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Performance of metal and oxide fuel cores during accidents in large liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Royl, P.H.; Kussmaul, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Cahalan, J.E.; Wigeland, R.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Friedel, G. (Interatom, W-5060 Bergisch-Gladbach 1 (DE)); Moreau, J. (Centre d'Etude Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR)); Perks, M. (AEA-Technology, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6AT (GB))

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports on a cooperative effort among European and U.S. analysts, which is an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a 3500-MW (thermal), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) is performed. The study focuses on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower, and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Core designs with a similar power output that have been previously analyzed in Europe under ULOF accident conditions are also included in this comparison. Emphasis is placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to postulated accident conditions and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than do oxide-fueled reactors of the same design.

  20. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined. PMID:21764417

  1. Performance of molybdenum with UF 4 at high temperatures as a wall material for space reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. E. Erkmen; S. Anghaie

    1997-01-01

    Thin 99.99 pct purity molybdenum (Mo) foils for use in gas core reactors have been tested in both liquid and gaseous uranium\\u000a tetrafluoride (UF4) at temperature ranges of 1500 to 2000 K under argon pressures approaching 600 torr for exposure times of 15 to 75 minutes.\\u000a Weight change measurements have been performed before and after the experiments. Surface and cross-sectional

  2. CFARMHD -- A MathCAD PC program to evaluate performance and economics of CFARII fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Logan

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a PC computer program ``CFARMHD``, developed to evaluate the performance (MHD cycle efficiency) and economics (Cost-of-Electricity CoE) for pulsed fusion reactors using the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance of Plant (BoP). The CFARII concept to which this code applies is generic to any fusion driver which can be characterized by an assumed yield Y

  3. CFARMHD -- A MathCAD PC program to evaluate performance and economics of CFARII fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Logan

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a PC computer program CFARMHD'', developed to evaluate the performance (MHD cycle efficiency) and economics (Cost-of-Electricity CoE) for pulsed fusion reactors using the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance of Plant (BoP). The CFARII concept to which this code applies is generic to any fusion driver which can be characterized by an assumed yield Y

  4. Calculated performance of various structural materials in fusion-reactor blankets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Williams; R. T. Santoro; T. A. Gabriel

    1976-01-01

    The calculated nuclear performances of niobium, Type 304 stainless steel, and nimonic-105 as structural materials in a conceptual D-T fusion-reactor blanket model are compared. For each structural material, the tritium breeding ratio, the energy-deposition rate, the operating dose, the time dependence of the neutron-induced activity, the time dependence of the dose from the activation products, the time dependence of the

  5. Analysis of counterpart tests performed in boiling water reactor experimental simulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bovalini; F. DAuria; A. De Varti; P. Maugeri; M. Mazzini

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained at the University of Pisa on small-break loss-of-coolant accident counterpart experiments carried out in boiling water reactor (BWR) experimental simulators are summarized. In particular, the results of similar experiments performed in the PIPER-ONE, Full Integral Simulation Test (FIST), and ROSA-III facilities are analyzed. The tests simulate a transient originated by a small break

  6. Technical Bases to Consider for Performance and Demonstration Testing of Space Fission Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hixson, Laurie L.; Houts, Michael G.; Clement, Steven D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop D466, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Performance and demonstration testing are critical to the success of a space fission reactor program. However, the type and extent to which testing of space reactors should be performed has been a point of discussion within the industry for many years. With regard to full power ground nuclear tests, questions such as 'Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Are there equivalent alternatives? Can a test facility be constructed (or modified) in a reasonable amount of time? Will the test article accurately represent the flight system? Are the costs too restrictive?' have been debated for decades. There are obvious benefits of full power ground nuclear testing such as obtaining systems integrated reliability data on a full-scale, complete end-to-end system. But these benefits come at some programmatic risk. In addition, this type of testing does not address safety related issues. This paper will discuss and assess these and other technical considerations essential in deciding which type of performance and demonstration testing to conduct on space fission reactor systems. (authors)

  7. Mixed Uranium/Refractory Metal Carbide Fuels for High Performance Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim [Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI), PO Box 116502, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6502 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Single phase, solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides have been proposed as an advanced nuclear fuel for advanced, high-performance reactors. Earlier studies of mixed carbides focused on uranium and either thorium or plutonium as a fuel for fast breeder reactors enabling shorter doubling owing to the greater fissile atom density. However, the mixed uranium/refractory carbides such as (U, Zr, Nb)C have a lower uranium densities but hold significant promise because of their ultra-high melting points (typically greater than 3700 K), improved material compatibility, and high thermal conductivity approaching that of the metal. Various compositions of (U, Zr, Nb)C were processed with 5% and 10% metal mole fraction of uranium. Stoichiometric samples were processed from the constituent carbide powders, while hypo-stoichiometric samples with carbon-to-metal (C/M) ratios of 0.92 were processed from uranium hydride, graphite, and constituent refractory carbide powders. Processing techniques of cold uniaxial pressing, dynamic magnetic compaction, sintering, and hot pressing were investigated to optimize the processing parameters necessary to produce high density (low porosity), single phase, solid-solution mixed carbide nuclear fuels for testing. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate and characterize the performance of these mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for high performance, ultra-safe nuclear reactor applications. (authors)

  8. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  9. Team Bug Bag Biogas For Nicaragua

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Team Bug Bag Biogas For Nicaragua Project Recap The task for Team Bug Bag was to create three times a day. In order to achieve this task, Team Bug Bag researched multiple different types customer needs and analyzing the external research, Team Bug Bag created a batch anaerobic digester

  10. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. PMID:24837280

  11. Performance of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor fuelled with different types of fertile TRISO particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Talamo; Waclaw Gudowski

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed on operation of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) with a thorium based fuel. The major options for a thorium fuel are a mixture with light water reactors spent fuel, mixture with military plutonium or with with fissile isotopes of uranium. Consequently, we assumed three models of the fuel containing a mixture of thorium with

  12. Performance of sequencing batch biofilm and sequencing batch reactors in simultaneous p?nitrophenol and nitrogen removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amat Ngilmi Ahmad Sujari

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in the simultaneous removal of p?nitrophenol (PNP) and ammoniacal nitrogen. SBBRs involved the use of polyurethane sponge cubes and polyethylene rings, respectively, as carrier materials. The results demonstrate that complete removal of PNP was achievable for the SBR and

  13. The Bosch Process-Performance of a Developmental Reactor and Experimental Evaluation of Alternative Catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Mansell, J. Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bosch-based reactors have been in development at NASA since the 1960's. Traditional operation involves the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen over a steel wool catalyst to produce water and solid carbon. While the system is capable of completely closing the loop on oxygen and hydrogen for Atmosphere Revitalization, steel wool requires a reaction temperature of 650C or higher for optimum performance. The single pass efficiency of the reaction over steel wool has been shown to be less than 10% resulting in a high recycle stream. Finally, the formation of solid carbon on steel wool ultimately fouls the catalyst necessitating catalyst resupply. These factors result in high mass, volume and power demands for a Bosch system. Interplanetary transportation and surface exploration missions of the moon, Mars, and near-earth objects will require higher levels of loop closure than current technology cannot provide. A Bosch system can provide the level of loop closure necessary for these long-term missions if mass, volume, and power can be kept low. The keys to improving the Bosch system lie in reactor and catalyst development. In 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration refurbished a circa 1980's developmental Bosch reactor and built a sub-scale Bosch Catalyst Test Stand for the purpose of reactor and catalyst development. This paper describes the baseline performance of two commercially available steel wool catalysts as compared to performance reported in the 1960's and 80's. Additionally, the results of sub-scale testing of alternative Bosch catalysts, including nickel- and cobalt-based catalysts, are discussed.

  14. Theoretical analysis of the subcritical experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. M.; Dos Santos, A. [Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of the subcritical experiments performed at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor employing the coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/TORT systems was successfully accomplished. All the analysis was performed employing ENDF/B-VII.0. The theoretical approach follows all the steps of the subcritical model of Gandini and Salvatores. The theory/experiment comparison reveals that the calculated subcritical reactivity is in a very good agreement to the experimental values. The subcritical index ({xi}) shows some discrepancies although in this particular case some work still have to be made to model in a better way the neutron source present in the experiments. (authors)

  15. Irradiation performance of advanced coated particles for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, R.P.; Mehner, A.W.; Merlini, C.

    1983-06-01

    Advanced coated fuel particles doped with fission product and oxygen getters were screened for their mechanical irradiation performance compared to undoped reference-coated fuel particles of the high- and low-enriched uranium cycle and the thorium/ high-enriched uranium cycle. The in-pile test was conducted under nominal and extreme operating conditions of current high-temperature gas-cooled reactor requirements. Doped coated fuel particles do not perform significantly better than reference particle systems; although, some advanced kernel varieties showed promising results.

  16. Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    brian G. Woods; Jose Reyes, Jr.; John Woods; John Groome; Richard Wright

    2004-12-31

    This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance under high decay power conditions for a spectrum of breaks located at a variety of locations, (b) to compare advanced thermal hydraulic computer code predictions to the APEX high decay power test data and (c) to develop new passive safety system concepts that could be used for Generation IV higher power reactors.

  17. Benchmarking of Software and Methods for Use in Transient Multidimensional Fuel Performance with Spatial Reactor Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Banfield, James E [ORNL] [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL] [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL] [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL] [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL] [ORNL; Baird, Mark L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The key physics involved in accurate prediction of reactor-fuel-element behavior includes neutron transport and thermal hydraulics. The thermal hydraulic feedback mechanism is primarily provided through cross sections to the neutron transport that are temperature and density dependent. Historically, this coupling was primarily seen only in reactor simulators, which are well suited to model the reactor core, giving only a coarse treatment to individual fuel pins as well as simple models for thermal distribution calculations. This poor resolution on the primary coupling mechanisms can lead to conservatisms that should be removed to improve fuel design and performance. This work seeks to address the resolution of space-time-dependent neutron kinetics with thermal feedback within the fuel pin scale in the multiphysics framework. The specific application of this new capability is transient performance analysis of space-time-dependent temperature distribution of fuel elements. The coupling between the neutron transport and the thermal feedback is extremely important in this highly coupled problem, primarily applicable to reactivity-initiated-accidents (RIAs) and loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCAs). The capability developed will include the coupling of the time-dependent neutron transport with the time-dependent thermal diffusion capability. An improvement in resolution and coupling is proposed by developing neutron transport models that are internally coupled with high fidelity within fuel pin thermal calculations in a multiphysics framework. Good agreement is shown with benchmarks and problems from the literature of RIAs and LOCAs for the tools used.

  18. Performance and emissions of a catalytic reactor with propane, diesel, and Jet A fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the performance and emissions of a catalytic reactor operated with propane, No. 2 diesel, and Jet A fuels. A 12-cm diameter and 16-cm long catalytic reactor using a proprietary noble metal catalyst was operated at an inlet temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 Pa and reference velocities of 10 to 15 m/s. No significant differences between the performance of the three fuels were observed when 98.5 percent purity propane was used. The combustion efficiency for 99.8-percent purity propane tested later was significantly lower, however. The diesel fuel contained 135 ppm of bound nitrogen and consequently produced the highest NOx emissions of the three fuels. As much as 85 percent of the bound nitrogen was converted to NOx. Steady-state emissions goals based on half the most stringent proposed automotive standards were met when the reactor was operated at an adiabatic combustion temperature higher than 1350 K with all fuels except the 99.8-percent purity propane. With that fuel, a minimum temperature of 1480 K was required.

  19. Treatment of Slaughter House Wastewater in a Sequencing Batch Reactor: Performance Evaluation and Biodegradation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Pradyut; Debsarkar, Anupam; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2013-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains diluted blood, protein, fat, and suspended solids, as a result the organic and nutrient concentration in this wastewater is vary high and the residues are partially solubilized, leading to a highly contaminating effect in riverbeds and other water bodies if the same is let off untreated. The performance of a laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) has been investigated in aerobic-anoxic sequential mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater. The reactor was operated under three different variations of aerobic-anoxic sequence, namely, (4+4), (5+3), and (3+5) hr. of total react period with two different sets of influent soluble COD (SCOD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) level 1000 ± 50?mg/L, and 90 ± 10?mg/L, 1000 ± 50?mg/L and 180 ± 10?mg/L, respectively. It was observed that from 86 to 95% of SCOD removal is accomplished at the end of 8.0?hr of total react period. In case of (4+4) aerobic-anoxic operating cycle, a reasonable degree of nitrification 90.12 and 74.75% corresponding to initial NH4+-N value of 96.58 and 176.85?mg/L, respectively, were achieved. The biokinetic coefficients (k, Ks, Y, kd) were also determined for performance evaluation of SBR for scaling full-scale reactor in future operation. PMID:24027751

  20. Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conklin

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is

  1. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  2. Safety System Design Concept and Performance Evaluation for a Long Operating Cycle Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Arai; Seijiro Suzuki; Mikihide Nakamaru; Hideaki Heki

    2003-01-01

    The long operating cycle simplified boiling water reactor is a reactor concept that pursues both safety and the economy by employing a natural circulation reactor core without a refueling, a passive decay heat removal, and an integrated building for the reactor and turbine. Throughout the entire spectrum of the design basis accident, the reactor core is kept covered by the

  3. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team indicates that the proposed solutions to the investigated operating cycle length barriers are both feasible and consistent with sound design practice.

  4. Analysis of factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Du, Bin; Xue, Xiaodong; Dai, Peng; Zhang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor. During a 140-day long-term operation, influent pH value, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio were selected as operating factors to evaluate the maintenance and recovery of nitrite accumulation. Results showed that high DO concentration (2-4 mg/L) could damage nitrite accumulation immediately. However, nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) could be increased from 1.68 ± 1.51 to 35.46 ± 7.86% when increasing the pH values from 7.5 to 8.3 due to the increased free ammonia concentration. Afterwards, stable partial nitrification and high NAR could be recovered when the reactor operated under low DO concentration (0.5-1.0 mg/L). However, it required a long time to recover the partial nitrification of the reactor when the influent COD/N ratios were altered. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis implied that ammonium oxidizing bacteria were completely recovered to the dominant nitrifying bacteria in the system. Meanwhile, sludge volumetric index of the reactor gradually decreased from 115.6 to 56.6 mL/g, while the mean diameter of sludge improved from 74.57 to 428.8 ?m by using the strategy of reducing settling time. The obtained results could provide useful information between the operational conditions and the performance of partial nitrification when treating nitrogen-rich industrial wastewater. PMID:23942879

  5. Quantification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing microbial communities in biogas processes

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Dolfing, Jan; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M; Schnürer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Changes in communities of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and methanogens caused by elevated ammonia levels were quantified in laboratory-scale methanogenic biogas reactors operating at moderate temperature (37°C) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The experimental reactor was subjected to gradually increasing ammonia levels (0.8–6.9 g NH4+-N l?1), whereas the level of ammonia in the control reactor was kept low (0.65–0.90 g NH4+-N l?1) during the entire period of operation (660 days). Acetate oxidation in the experimental reactor, indicated by increased production of 14CO2 from acetate labelled in the methyl carbon, occurred when ammonia levels reached 5.5 and 6.9 g NH4+-N l?1. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers targeted by newly designed qPCR primers were Thermacetogenium phaeum, Clostridium ultunense, Syntrophaceticus schinkii and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans. The results showed a significant increase in abundance of all these bacteria except T. phaeum in the ammonia-stressed reactor, coincident with the shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation. As the abundance of the bacteria increased, a simultaneous decrease was observed in the abundance of aceticlastic methanogens from the families Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. qPCR analyses of sludge from two additional high ammonia processes, in which methane production from acetate proceeded through syntrophic acetate oxidation (reactor SB) or through aceticlastic degradation (reactor DVX), demonstrated that SAOB were significantly more abundant in the SB reactor than in the DVX reactor. PMID:23761313

  6. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  7. Thermic model to predict biogas production in unheated fixed-dome digesters buried in the ground.

    PubMed

    Terradas-Ill, Georgina; Pham, Cuong H; Triolo, Jin M; Martí-Herrero, Jaime; Sommer, Sven G

    2014-03-18

    In many developing countries, simple biogas digesters are used to produce energy for domestic purposes from anaerobic digestion of animal manure. We developed a simple, one-dimensional (1-D), thermal model with easily available input data for unheated, unstirred, uninsulated, fixed-dome digesters buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas, and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope nearly 1, R(2) = 0.96). Model validation for methane production gave root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 54.4 L CH4 digester(-1) day(-1) and relative-root-mean-square errors (rRMSEP(%)) of 35.4%. The validation result was considerably improved if only using winter data (RMSE = 26.1 L CH4 digester(-1) day(-1); rRMSEP(%) = 17.7%). The model performed satisfactorily in light of the uncertainties attached to it. Since unheated digesters suffer critically low methane production during the winter, the model could be particularly useful for assessing methane production and for improving the ability of unheated digesters to provide sufficient energy during cold periods. PMID:24517412

  8. ANALYSIS OF SEPCTRUM CHOICES FOR SMALL MODULAR REACTORS-PERFORMANCE AND DEVELOPMENT 

    E-print Network

    Kafle, Nischal

    2011-04-26

    . The research mainly focused on producing a small modular reactor (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) design to analyze the fuel depletion and plutonium and minor actinide accumulation with varying power densities. The reactors running at low power densities were found...

  9. Performance evaluation of anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media for treating wastewater of mild alkali treated rice straw in ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan; Mehta, Himali; Dixit, Garima; Madamwar, Datta; Shah, Amita R

    2014-01-01

    Four anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media viz. gravel (R1), pumice stone (R2), polypropylene saddles (R3) and ceramic saddles (R4) were operated in semi-continuous mode. Biomethanation potential of the wastewater generated during alkali-treatment of rice straw in ethanol production process was investigated at ambient conditions. The reactors were operated with varying organic loading rates (0.861-4.313 g COD l(-1) d(-1)) and hydraulic retention time (3-15 days). Higher COD removal efficiency (69.2%) and methane yield (0.153 l CH4 g(-1) CODadded) were achieved in reactor R2 at 15 days HRT. Modified Stover-Kincannon model was applied to estimate the bio-kinetic coefficients and fitness of the model was checked by the regression coefficient for all the reactors. The model showed an excellent correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The present study demonstrated the treatment of wastewater from alkali treated rice straw for production of biogas. PMID:24291309

  10. Benchmarking Method for Estimation of Biogas Upgrading Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberga, D.; Kuplais, ?.; Veidenbergs, I.; D?ce, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a new benchmarking method proposed for estimation of different biogas upgrading schemes. The method has been developed to compare the indicators of alternative biogas purification and upgrading solutions and their threshold values. The chosen indicators cover both economic and ecologic aspects of these solutions, e.g. the prime cost of biogas purification and storage, and the cost efficiency of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The proposed benchmarking method has been tested at "Daibe" - a landfill for solid municipal waste.

  11. Performance Assessment of a Fusion Hybrid Reactor Based on the Gasdynamic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry

    2010-11-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance of a fusion hybrid reactor whose fusion component is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) is presented. Since the primary role of the fusion component is to supply high energy neutrons that will induce fission reactions in a blanket surrounding the plasma, it can operate at or below ``break even'' condition. Unlike other fusion devices proposed for this component, the GDM is a linear, cylindrically symmetric device that can operate in steady state making it uniquely suited for this application. We investigate the power producing capability of such a hybrid reactor using the thorium fuel cycle whereby neutrons generated by DT reactions in the GDM impinge on a thorium-232 blanket. These 14.1 MeV neutrons will breed uranium-233 in the blanket and simultaneously burn it to generate power. We treat both the fusion component and the blanket as semi-infinite cylinders so that one-dimensional analysis can be applied. The two relevant equations in this regard are the time evolution of the U-233 density in the blanket, and the neutron one dimensional diffusion equation. We address the steady state operation of this reactor and find that it can produce gigawatts of power per cm, safely since it is ``subcritical,'' and securely since the fuel cycle is proliferation resistant. The approach to steady state will also be presented and analyzed.

  12. An Ru-based catalytic membrane reactor for dry reforming of methane—its catalytic performance compared with tubular packed bed reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Paturzo; Fausto Gallucci; Angelo Basile; Giovanni Vitulli; Paolo Pertici

    2003-01-01

    The methane reforming with CO2 seems to be a promising reaction system useful to reduce the greenhouse contribution of both gases into the atmosphere. On this basis, and considering the potentiality of this reaction system, the dry reforming reaction has been carried out in an Ru-based ceramic tubular membrane reactor, in which two Ru depositions have been performed using the

  13. A Performance-Based Training Qualification Guide/Checklist Developed for Reactor Operators at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Robert C.

    A Performance-Based Training (PBT) Qualification Guide/Checklist was developed that would enable a trainee to attain the skills, knowledge, and attitude required to operate the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Design of this guide/checklist was based on the Instructional System Design Model. The needs analysis identified…

  14. Techno-socio-economic study of bio-gas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This study covers technological, social and economic aspects of the biogas program in Chitawan, Nepal. Many interesting facts are revealed which may be useful for future planning of Nepalese biogas programs. Concerning the social aspects, only big farmers (having more than 4 bighas of land and more than 10 domestic animals) were found to have biogas plants. No farmer who had a biogas plant was illiterate. As for the technical aspects of the total gas ovens used in the area, 66% were of BTI design. Most of the ovens were of 0.45-m/sup 3/ capacity. The life of BTI ovens was found to be shorter than the life of ovens of other companies. BTI ovens are not useful when farmers have to use a big pot for cooking. All farmers of the area were found to be convinced of the utility of the biogas plant. With regard to the economic aspects of using biogas plants, farmers were able to save 53% of the total expenditure which they had been spending for fuel. Wood consumption was reduced to 50% by using biogas. The internal rate of return of a 2.8-m/sup 3/ biogas plant was found to be 14% assuming that the plant would last for 20 years. Most of the farmers in the area did not have biogas plants. The main reason given was that there were not enough capital and cattle to begin such an operation.

  15. Studies of the impact of fuel enrichment on the performance of the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving several organizations, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project made performance calculations for 19 different combinations of reactor core volume, fuel density and enrichment, power level, and other relevant parameters. These calculations were performed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, ORNL analyzed 14 other cases. With the aid of data from these 33 cases, the laboratory has been able to correlate the most important performance characteristics (peak thermal flux in the reflector and core life) with fuel enrichment, fuel density, and power. The correlations permits the investigation of additional cases without going to the expense of doing completely new neutronics calculations for each new one and can be used to prepare curves showing the effects of different enrichments and of different fuel densities within the entire range from existing technology to the very advanced, as yet undeveloped fuels that have been proposed from time to time.

  16. Performance of plastic- and sponge-based trickling filters treating effluents from an UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P G S; Marcus, A K; Rittmann, B E; Chernicharo, C A L

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the performance of two trickling filters (TFs) filled with plastic- or sponge-based packing media treating the effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), and the OLR applied to the TFs was 0.30-0.65 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The sponge-based packing medium (Rotosponge) gave substantially better performance for ammonia, total-N, and organic matter removal. The superior TF-Rotosponge performance for NH(4)(+)-N removal (80-95%) can be attributed to its longer biomass and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT), as well as enhancements in oxygen mass transfer by dispersion and advection inside the sponges. Nitrogen removals were significant (15 mgN L(-1)) in TF-Rotosponge when the OLRs were close to 0.75 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), due to denitrification that was related to solids hydrolysis in the sponge interstices. For biochemical oxygen demand removal, higher HRT and SRT were especially important because the UASB removed most of the readily biodegradable organic matter. The new configuration of the sponge-based packing medium called Rotosponge can enhance the feasibility of scaling-up the UASB/TF treatment, including when retrofitting is necessary. PMID:23416595

  17. Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Li, Meimei; Chopra, O. K.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels. Focus is on Type 316SS and mod.9Cr-1Mo. The sodium effects were evaluated by comparing the mechanical properties data in air and sodium. Carburization and decarburization were found to be the key factors that determine the tensile and creep properties of the steels. A beneficial effect of sodium exposure on fatigue life was observed under fully reversed cyclic loading in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. However, when hold time was applied during cyclic loading, the fatigue life was significantly reduced. Based on the mechanical performance of the steels in sodium, consideration of sodium effects in high temperature structural design of advanced fast reactors is discussed.

  18. Effect of auxotrophies on yeast performance in aerated fed-batch reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Carmine; Paciello, Lucia [Dept. Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)] [Dept. Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Alteriis, Elisabetta de [Dept. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli 'Federico II', Via Cinthia, 80100 Napoli (Italy)] [Dept. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli 'Federico II', Via Cinthia, 80100 Napoli (Italy); Brambilla, Luca [Dept. Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milano (Italy)] [Dept. Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 20126 Milano (Italy); Parascandola, Palma, E-mail: pparascandola@unisa.it [Dept. Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)] [Dept. Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper contributes to fill the gap existing between the basic and applied research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mathematical model sheds light on the physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast behavior in fed-batch is influenced by biological and environmental determinants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process optimization would make possible the production of heterologous proteins which are not yet on the market. -- Abstract: A systematic investigation on the effects of auxotrophies on the performance of yeast in aerated fed-batch reactor was carried out. Six isogenic strains from the CEN.PK family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one prototroph and five auxotrophs, were grown in aerated fed-batch reactor using the same operative conditions and a proper nutritional supplementation. The performance of the strains, in terms of final biomass decreased with increasing the number of auxotrophies. Auxotrophy for leucine exerted a profound negative effect on the performance of the strains. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells of the strain carrying four auxotrophies and its significant viability loss, were indicative of an oxidative stress response induced by exposure of cells to the environmental conditions. The mathematical model was fundamental to highlight how the carbon flux, depending on the number and type of auxotrophies, was diverted towards the production of increasingly large quantities of energy for maintenance.

  19. Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2012-08-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

  20. Effect of equation of state on prediction of trickle bed reactor model performance 

    E-print Network

    Netherland, Donald Wayne

    1985-01-01

    OF SCIENCE May l985 Najor Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF EQUATION OF STATE ON PREDICTION OF TRICKLE BED REACTOR MODEL PERFORMANCE A Thesis DONALD WAYNE NETHERLAND Approved as to style and content by: A. Akge (Chairman of C ttee R. G. Anth...)) (1/TR) (70) The method used to converge equilibrium constants and vapor to feed ratio is presented by Prausnitz et al. (1980): s Luce (AR) = 3(y))- 3( 3) (71) and x = z /((K -1)4R+I) (72) then y)= Kx (73) G ( 4 R ) I 3 ( K 3 1 ) z 3 / ( ( K 3...

  1. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Burstein, S. (Wisconsin Electric Power Co., Milwaukee, WI (USA)); Gibbons, J.P. (Philadelphia Electric Co., PA (USA)); High, M.D. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (USA)); O'Boyle, D.R. (Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (USA)); Pickens, T.A. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (USA)); Pilmer, D.F. (Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (USA)); Tomonto, J.R. (Florida Po

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs.

  2. Biogas production: current state and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Weiland

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas\\u000a emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier\\u000a of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle\\u000a fuel.

  3. Design and scale-up of an oxidative scrubbing process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas.

    PubMed

    Krischan, J; Makaruk, A; Harasek, M

    2012-05-15

    Reliable and selective removal of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an essential part of the biogas upgrading procedure in order to obtain a marketable and competitive natural gas substitute for flexible utilization. A promising biogas desulfurization technology has to ensure high separation efficiency regardless of process conditions or H(2)S load without the use or production of toxic or ecologically harmful substances. Alkaline oxidative scrubbing is an interesting alternative to existing desulfurization technologies and is investigated in this work. In experiments on a stirred tank reactor and a continuous scrubbing column in laboratory-scale, H(2)S was absorbed from a gas stream containing large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into an aqueous solution prepared from sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The influence of pH, redox potential and solution aging on the absorption efficiency and the consumption of chemicals was investigated. Because of the irreversible oxidation reactions of dissolved H(2)S with H(2)O(2), high H(2)S removal efficiencies were achieved while the CO(2) absorption was kept low. At an existing biogas upgrading plant an industrial-scale pilot scrubber was constructed, which efficiently desulfurizes 180m(3)/h of raw biogas with an average removal efficiency of 97%, even at relatively high and strongly fluctuating H(2)S contents in the crude gas. PMID:22440540

  4. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly insertion into a commercial reactor within the desired timeframe (by 2022).

  5. Microfluidic enzymatic-reactors for peptide mapping: strategy, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiling; Zhai, Jianjun; Tian, Yuping; Lu, Haojie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jia, Weitao; Liu, Baohong; Yang, Pengyuang; Xu, Yunmin; Wang, Honghai

    2004-12-01

    The design and characterization of two kinds of poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) microfluidic enzymatic-reactors along with their analytical utility coupled to MALDI TOF and ESI MS were reported. Microfluidic devices integrated with microchannel and stainless steel tubing (SST) was fabricated using a PDMS casting technique, and was used for the preparation of the enzymatic-reactor. The chemical modification was performed by introducing carboxyl groups to PDMS surface based on ultraviolet graft polymerization of acrylic acid. The covalent and physical immobilization of trypsin was carried out with the use of the activation reagents 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide(EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and a coupling reagent poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)(PDDA), respectively. The properties and success of processes of trypsin immobilization were investigated by measuring contact angle, infrared absorption by attenuated total reflection spectra, AFM imaging and electropherograms. An innovative feature of the microfluidic enzymatic-reactors is the feasibility of performing on-line protein analysis by embedded SST electrode and replaceable tip. The lab-made devices provide an excellent extent of digestion of several model proteins even at the fast flow rate of 3.5 microL min(-1) for the EDC/NHS-made device and 0.8 microL min(-1) for the PDDA-made device, which afford very short residence times of 5 s and 20 s, respectively. In addition, the lab-made devices are less susceptive to memory effect and can be used for at least 50 runs in one week without noticeable loss of activity. Moreover, the degraded PDDA-made device can be regenerated by simple treatment of a HCl solution. These features are the most required for microfluidic devices used for protein analysis. PMID:15570370

  6. Performance Analyses of 38 kWe Turbo-Machine Unit for Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper developed a design and investigated the performance of 38 kWe turbo-machine unit for space nuclear reactor power systems with Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The compressor and turbine of this unit are scaled versions of the NASA's BRU developed in the sixties and seventies. The performance results of turbo-machine unit are calculated for rotational speed up to 45 krpm, variable reactor thermal power and system pressure, and fixed turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 1144 K and 400 K. The analyses used a detailed turbo-machine model developed at the University of New Mexico that accounts for the various energy losses in the compressor and turbine and the effect of compressibility of the He-Xe (40 mole/g) working fluid with increased flow rate. The model also accounts for the changes in the physical and transport properties of the working fluid with temperature and pressure. Results show that a unit efficiency of 24.5% is achievable at rotation speed of 45 krpm and system pressure of 0.75 MPa, assuming shaft and electrical generator efficiencies of 86.7% and 90%. The corresponding net electric power output of the unit is 38.5 kWe, the flow rate of the working fluid is 1.667 kg/s, the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency for the compressor are 1.60 and 83.1%, and 1.51 and 88.3% for the turbine.

  7. Performance Analyses of 38 kWe Turbo-Machine Unit for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

    2008-01-21

    This paper developed a design and investigated the performance of 38 kWe turbo-machine unit for space nuclear reactor power systems with Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The compressor and turbine of this unit are scaled versions of the NASA's BRU developed in the sixties and seventies. The performance results of turbo-machine unit are calculated for rotational speed up to 45 krpm, variable reactor thermal power and system pressure, and fixed turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 1144 K and 400 K. The analyses used a detailed turbo-machine model developed at University of New Mexico that accounts for the various energy losses in the compressor and turbine and the effect of compressibility of the He-Xe (40 mole/g) working fluid with increased flow rate. The model also accounts for the changes in the physical and transport properties of the working fluid with temperature and pressure. Results show that a unit efficiency of 24.5% is achievable at rotation speed of 45 krpm and system pressure of 0.75 MPa, assuming shaft and electrical generator efficiencies of 86.7% and 90%. The corresponding net electric power output of the unit is 38.5 kWe, the flow rate of the working fluid is 1.667 kg/s, the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency for the compressor are 1.60 and 83.1%, and 1.51 and 88.3% for the turbine.

  8. Performance of a catalytic reactor at simulated gas turbine combustor operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.; Mroz, T. S.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a catalytic reactor 12 cm in diameter and 17 cm long was evaluated at simulated gas turbine combustor operating conditions using premixed propane and air. Inlet temperatures of 600 and 800 K, pressures of 3 and 6 atm, and reference velocities of 9 to 30 m/s were tested. Data were taken for equivalence ratios as high as 0.43. The operating range was limited on the low-temperature side by very poor efficiency; the minimum exit temperature for good performance ranged from 1400 to 1600 K depending on inlet conditions. As exit temperatures were raised above this minimum, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons decreased, carbon monoxide emissions became generally less than 1 g CO/kg fuel, and nitrogen oxides were less than about 0.1 g NO2/kg fuel.

  9. Fusion performance analysis of plasmas with reversed magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, E.; Bell, M.; Budny, R. V.; McCune, D. C.; Medley, S. S.; Nazikian, R.; Synakowski, E. J.; von Goeler, S.; White, R. B.; Zweben, S. J.

    1999-08-01

    A case for substantial loss of fast ions degrading the performance of tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas [Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] with reversed magnetic shear (RS) is presented. The principal evidence is obtained from an experiment with short (40-70 ms) tritium beam pulses injected into deuterium beam heated RS plasmas [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 924 (1999)]. Modeling of this experiment indicates that up to 40% beam power is lost on a time scale much shorter than the beam-ion slowing down time. Critical parameters which connect modeling and experiment are: The total 14 MeV neutron emission, its radial profile, and the transverse stored energy. The fusion performance of some plasmas with internal transport barriers is further deteriorated by impurity accumulation in the plasma core.

  10. Performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Sobolev, Yu.; Beck, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Hampel, G.; Heil, W.; Kieser, R.; Reich, T.; Trautmann, N.; Ziegner, M.

    2014-04-01

    The performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz with a maximum peak energy of 10MJ is described. The solid deuterium converter with a volume of cm3 (8mol), which is exposed to a thermal neutron fluence of n/cm2, delivers up to 240000 UCN ( m/s) per pulse outside the biological shield at the experimental area. UCN densities of 10 cm3 are obtained in stainless-steel bottles of 10 L. The measured UCN yields compare well with the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation developed to model the source and to optimize its performance for the upcoming upgrade of the TRIGA Mainz into a user facility for UCN physics.

  11. Performance evaluation and kinetic modeling of the start-up of a UASB reactor treating municipal wastewater at low temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ilter Turkdogan-Aydinol; Kaan Yetilmezsoy; Sezen Comez; Hurrem Bayhan

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic modeling-based study was carried out to evaluate the start-up performance of a 10-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket\\u000a (UASB) reactor treating municipal wastewater under different organic and hydraulic loading conditions. The reactor was operated\\u000a for 105 days (around 4 months) below 20 °C and with three different hydraulic retention times of 24, 12 and 5 h. Imposed volumetric\\u000a organic loading rates (OLR) ranged

  12. High rate performance and characterization of granular methanogenic sludges in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with various defined substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Fukuzaki; Naomichi Nishio; Shiro Nagai

    1995-01-01

    High rate granular methanogenic fermentations were performed in one-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic wastewaters containing starch, sucrose, ethanol, and butyrate plus propionate. All granules formed showed high settling velocities which enabled high cell mass retention and accommodation of high loading rates. The maximum COD removal rates (g COD\\/l-reactor·d) obtained after 500-d operations were 7.6 for starch,

  13. Energy balance model of a SOFC cogenerator operated with biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Van herle; F. Maréchal; S. Leuenberger; D. Favrat

    2003-01-01

    A small cogeneration system based on a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) fed on the renewable energy source biogas is presented. An existing farm biogas production site (35m3 per day), currently equipped with a SOFC demonstration stack, is taken for reference. A process flow diagram was defined in a software package allowing to vary system operating parameters like the fuel

  14. Anaerobic digestion of household organic waste to produce biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir-Akbar Hessami; Sky Christensen; Robert Gani

    1996-01-01

    Biogas may be readily obtained by the anaerobic digestion of organic waste. If communities and towns could harness the energy which is contained in the organic waste which they presently dispose of in landfills or compost, this fuel could supplement or completely satisfy their heat energy requirements.Biogas production from household organic waste is rare because existing digesters are not suitable

  15. Improving seasonal energy efficiency ratio for biogas air conditioner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenjun Xu

    2011-01-01

    The biogas air conditioner is a new style air condition system which is composed of the biogas heat pump (BHP), the second heat exchanger and some auxiliary equipments such as fans, water pumps, etc. The mathematic model including the primary heat exchanger model, the second heat exchanger model, the water spraying chamber model, the mixed air model, the BHP model,

  16. BIOGAS PLANT INVESTMENT ANALYSIS, COST BENEFIT AND MAIN FACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andres Menind; Jüri Olt

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of a biogas station is possible only with a large investment and a good answer to these main questions. 1. Would it be profitable? 2. What are the risks? 3. Is the current support for the establishment of a biogas station sufficient? 4. What are the main factors, which the funding depends on? 5. Is the current buying

  17. Biogas Potential on Long Island, New York: A Quantification Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, D.; Patel, S.; Tonjes, D.

    2011-08-25

    Biogas is the product of anaerobic digestion of waste, whether occurring spontaneously in landfills or under controlled conditions in digesters. Biogas is viewed as an important energy source in current efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels and dependency on imported resources. Several studies on the assessment of biogas potential have been made at regional, national, and global scales. However, because it is not economically feasible to transport biogas feedstock over long distances, it is more appropriate to consider local waste sources for their potential to produce biogas. An assessment of the biogas potential on Long Island, based on the review of local landfills, wastewater treatment plants, solid waste generation and management, and agricultural waste, found that 234 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of methane (CH{sub 4}) from biogas might be harvestable, although substantial barriers for complete exploitation exist. This number is equivalent to 2.52 TW-h of electricity, approximately 12% of fossil fuel power generation on Long Island. This work can serve as a template for other areas to rapidly create or approximate biogas potentials, especially for suburban U.S. locations that are not usually thought of as sources of renewable energy.

  18. Biogas production from municipal solid wastes using an integrated rotary drum and anaerobic-phased solids digester system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoning; Zhang, Ruihong; Gikas, Petros; Rapport, Joshua; Jenkins, Bryan; Li, Xiujin

    2010-08-01

    This research was conducted to develop an integrated rotary drum reactor (RDR)-anaerobic-phased solids (APS) digester system for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas energy and achieve waste reduction. A commercial RDR facility was used to provide a 3-d pretreatment and sufficient separation of the organics from MSW and then the organics were digested in a laboratory APS-digester system for biogas production. The organics generated from the RDR contained 50% total solids (TS) and 36% volatile solids (VS) on wet basis. The APS-digester was started at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.1 gVS L(-1) d(-1) and operated at three higher OLRs of 4.6, 7.7 and 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1). At the OLR of 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1) the system biogas production rate was 3.5 L L(-1) d(-1) and the biogas and methane yields were 0.38 and 0.19 L gVS(-1), respectively. Anaerobic digestion resulted in 38% TS reduction and 53% VS reduction in the organic solids. It was found that the total VFA concentration reached a peak value of 15,000 mg L(-1) as acetic acid in the first 3d of batch digestion and later decreased to about 500 mg L(-1). The APS-digester system remained stable at each OLRs for over 100d with the pH in the hydrolysis reactors in the range of 7.3-7.8 and the pH in the biogasification reactor in 7.9-8.1. The residual solids after the digestion had a high heating value of 14.7 kJ gTS(-1). PMID:20409703

  19. Calculations of two series of experiments performed at the poolside facility using the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Maerker; M. L. Williams

    1982-01-01

    This report contains two papers that were presented at the Fourth ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry in Washington, DC on March 22 to 26, 1982 and serves as documentation of the analytical work performed by the Engineering Physics Division. These papers describe discrete ordinate calculations of two series of experiments that were performed at the Poolside Facility as part of

  20. Performance of permeable media rotating reactors used for pretreatment of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Hassard, F; Cartmell, E; Biddle, J; Stephenson, T

    2014-01-01

    The impact of organic loading rate (OLR) on carbonaceous materials and ammonia removal was assessed in bench scale rotating media biofilm reactors treating real wastewater. Media composition influences biofilm structure and therefore performance. Here, plastic mesh, reticulated coarse foam and fine foam media were operated concurrently at OLRs of 15, 35 and 60 g sCOD m(-2)d(-1) in three bench scale shaft mounted advanced reactor technology (SMART) reactors. The sCOD removal rate increased with loading from 6 to 25 g sCOD m(-2)d(-1) (P < 0.001). At 35 g BOD5m(-2)d(-1), more than double the arbitrary OLR limit of normal nitrifying conditions (15 g BOD5m(-2)d(-1)); the removal efficiency of NH(4)-N was 82 ± 5, 27 ± 19 and 39 ± 8% for the mesh, coarse foam and fine foam media, respectively. Increasing the OLR to 35 gm(-2)d(-1) decreased NH(4)-N removal efficiency to 38 ± 6, 21 ± 4 and 21 ± 6%, respectively. The mesh media achieved the highest stable NH(4)(+)-N removal rate of 6.5 ± 1.6 gm(-2)d(-1) at a sCOD loading of 35 g sCOD m(-2)d(-1). Viable bacterial numbers decreased with increasing OLR from 2 × 10(10)-4 × 10(9) cells per ml of biofilm from the low to high loading, suggesting an accumulation of inert non-viable biomass with higher OLR. Increasing the OLR in permeable media is of practical benefit for high rate carbonaceous materials and ammonia removal in the pretreatment of wastewater. PMID:24804669

  1. [Effects of outer type and built-in type straw bio-reactors on tomato growth and photosynthetic performance].

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Yu; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Zou, Zhi-Rong; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Fei

    2013-03-01

    Taking the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar "Kuiguan108" as test object, a comparative study was made on the effects of outer type and built-in type straw bio-reactors on the CO2 concentration, air relative humidity , air vapor pressure deficit in the solar greenhouse during the tomato growth over autumn-delayed cultivation as well as the effects of the bio-reactors on the tomato growth and photosynthetic performance. As compared with that in CK, the average CO2 concentration in the greenhouse with outer type straw bio-reactor at 9:30-11:30 and 14:30-15:00 on sunny days was increased significantly by 207. 3 and 103 micromol . mol-1 , respectively, and the ave-rage CO2 concentration in the greenhouse with built-in straw bio-reactor at 9:30-11:30 on sunny days was raised by 19.0 micromol . mol-1. Both the outer type and the built-in type straw bio-reactors promoted the tomato plant height growth and early flowering, enhanced the plant net photosynthetic rate and the yield per plant and per unit area significantly, and decreased the plant transpiration rate at the stages of vegetative growth and fruit- bearing significantly. Nevertheless, as compared with built-in type straw bio-reactor, outer type straw bio-reactor was more suitable for the autumn- delayed cultivation of tomato in solar greenhouse. PMID:23755491

  2. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Pöschl; Shane Ward; Philip Owende

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input

  3. [Study on performance characteristics of carbon membrane-aerated biofilm reactor treating municipal wastewater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Jun; Yang, Feng-Lin; Hu, Shao-Wei; Liu, Qiang

    2007-03-01

    A carbon membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was developed to treat municipal wastewater. Tests were conducted to investigate oxygen transfer ability of carbon membrane, the bacteria adhesion and reactor's set-up performance. The optimum parameters were determined in terms of intra-membrane pressure, COD and nitrogen ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results showed that compared with that of other hollow fibres, bacterial suspended exhibited a high degree of adhesion onto carbon membrane and that oxygen transfer coefficient of carbon membrane was 0.36 m/h, so that it was feasible to serve as both biofilm carrier and aerator. NH4(+) -N removal, denitrification and COD removal efficiency could reach 95%, 92% and 88%, respectively, under the conditions of intra-membrane pressure of 0.025 MPa, carbon nitrogen ratio of 5 and HRT of 8 h, and effluent quality could be up to A standard in the national discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant (GB 18918-2002) . Furthermore, the system displayed better resistance to shock loads. PMID:17633627

  4. Performance of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor fed with wastewaters contaminated with Zn2+.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana P G C; Duque, Anouk F; Bessa, Vânia S; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-10-15

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (AGS-SBR) receiving water streams supplied with different loads of Zn(2+) (50 and 100 mg L(-1)) during an operation of 866 cycles (ca. 109 days). When the metal was not fed, chemical oxygen demand (COD), PO4(3-) and NH4(+) were efficiently removed, with efficiencies of 56, 23 and 72% respectively. DGGE profiles showed that Zn(2+) supply negatively affected the bacterial diversity and community structure of the granules. Consequently, the shock loadings with Zn(2+), particularly at the higher levels (100 mg L(-1)), affected the nutrient removal in the AGS-SBR, although the reactor still generally complied with admissible legal values concerning organic matter, nitrogen and Zn. Simultaneous removal of PO4(3-) and TSS in such conditions needs further refining but the application of aerobic granular SBR in the treatment of Zn(2+) contaminated wastewaters seems viable. PMID:23880431

  5. High-rate anaerobic composting with biogas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    DeBaere, L.; Verstraete, W.

    1984-03-01

    In Belgium a novel high rate anaerobic composting process with biogas has been developed as an alternative to aerobic systems, producing a commercial dry compost and 60 to 95 cubic metres methane per ton of municipal solid waste. This is a high value energy source simultaneously yielding a stabilized end product. The process was developed so that digestion could take place at 25 to 35% total solids, thus reducing the amount of water needed to dilute the waste, decreasing the digestor volume and cutting transportation costs. The end product is odorless and stable. High rate anaerobic composting of MSW can be combined with sewage sludge stabilization. Manure, vegetable or fruit wastes can be co-treated in certain proportions as required. About 15 to 20% of the energy produced is transformed into electricity and heat and consumed as the waste disposal plant itself. 120 to 140 US $ worth of methane gas and compost can be produced per cubic metre of reactor per year, making anaerobic composting economically attractive.

  6. Influence of biogas flow rate on biomass composition during the optimization of biogas upgrading in microalgal-bacterial processes.

    PubMed

    Serejo, Mayara L; Posadas, Esther; Boncz, Marc A; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The influence of biogas flow rate (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)) on the elemental and macromolecular composition of the algal-bacterial biomass produced from biogas upgrading in a 180 L photobioreactor interconnected to a 2.5 L external bubbled absorption column was investigated using diluted anaerobically digested vinasse as cultivation medium. The influence of the external liquid recirculation/biogas ratio (0.5 < L/G < 67) on the removal of CO2 and H2S, and on the concentrations of O2 and N2 in the upgraded biogas, was also evaluated. A L/G ratio of 10 was considered optimum to support CO2 and H2S removals of 80% and 100%, respectively, at all biogas flow rates tested. Biomass productivity increased at increasing biogas flow rate, with a maximum of 12 ± 1 g m(-2) d(-1) at 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1), while the C, N, and P biomass content remained constant at 49 ± 2%, 9 ± 0%, and 1 ± 0%, respectively, over the 175 days of experimentation. The high carbohydrate contents (60-76%), inversely correlated to biogas flow rates, would allow the production of ?100 L of ethanol per 1000 m(3) of biogas upgraded under a biorefinery process approach. PMID:25675110

  7. Performance of co-immobilized yeast and glucoamylase in a fluidized bed reactor for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, M.Y.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Davison, B.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Spurrier, M.A.; Webb, O.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The performance of co-immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase was evaluated in a fluidized bed reactor. Soluble starch and yeast extract were used as feed stocks. The biocatalyst performed well and demonstrated no significant loss of activity or physical integrity during 10 weeks of continuous operation. The reactor was easily operated and required no pH control. No operational problems were encountered from bacterial contaminants even though the reactor was operated under non-sterile conditions over the entire course of experiments. Productivities ranged between 25 to 44 g ethanol L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. The experiments demonstrated that ethanol inhibition and bed loading had significant effects on bed performance.

  8. A comparison of the performance of compact neutrino detector designs for nuclear reactor safeguards and monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Reyna, D. E.; McKeown, R. W.; High Energy Physics; Drexel Univ.

    2006-10-27

    There has been an increasing interest in the monitoring of nuclear fuel for power reactors by detecting the anti-neutrinos produced during operation. Small liquid scintillator detectors have already demonstrated sensitivity to operational power levels, but more sensitive monitoring requires improvements in the efficiency and uniformity of these detectors. In this work, we use a montecarlo simulation to investigate the detector performance of four different detector configurations. Based on the analysis of neutron detection efficiency and positron energy response, we find that the optimal detector design will depend on the goals and restrictions of the specific installation or application. We have attempted to present the relevant information so that future detector development can proceed in a profitable direction.

  9. [Influencing factors for operational performance of a biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration using SPG membrane].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jun-Liang

    2014-08-01

    The microbubble-aerated biofilm reactor provides a feasibility to apply microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment processes. In this study, Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes were used for microbubble aeration in a fixed bed biofilm reactor treating synthetic municipal wastewater. The influencing factors for operational performance of the bioreactor were investigated, including operating parameters, SPG membrane fouling and its structural changes. The results indicated that there was no significant influences of air flux, organic loading rate and packed bed on COD removal and an average COD removal efficiency of 80% -90% could be achieved under different operating conditions. On the other hand, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations decreased significantly along with reducing air flux or increasing organic loading rate. As a result, the ammonia removal deteriorated gradually and the average ammonia removal efficiency decreased from 80% -90% to 20% -30% At the same time, the total nitrogen (TN) removal achieved in the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process was also reduced from 30% -40% to about 20% , due to nitrification inhibition. Higher available porosity could be obtained when ring packing was used in the fixed bed, resulting in improvement of contaminant removal performance. An oxygen utilization efficiency of close to 100% could be achieved at low air fluxes or high organic loading rates during microbubble aeration. Both biofilm growth and organic foulant accumulation on SPC, membrane surface contributed to membrane fouling after long-term operation. The average pore size and porosity of SPG membrane increased significantly due to the chemical corrosion caused by alkali NaClO solution used for online cleaning. Then the air permeation of SPG membrane was affected by membrane fouling and destroyed pore structure. PMID:25338375

  10. Treatment of wastewater from coffee bean processing in anaerobic fixed bed reactors with different support materials: performance and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Fia, Fátima R L; Matos, Antonio T; Borges, Alisson C; Fia, Ronaldo; Cecon, Paulo R

    2012-10-15

    An evaluation was performed of three upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactors for the treatment of wastewater from coffee bean processing (WCP). The supports used were: blast furnace cinders, polyurethane foam and crushed stone with porosities of 53, 95 and 48%, respectively. The testing of these 139.5 L reactors consisted of increasing the COD of the influent (978; 2401 and 4545 mg L(-1)), while maintaining the retention time of 1.3 days. For the maximum COD applied, the reactor filled with foam presented removals of 80% (non-filtered samples) and 83% (filtered samples). The greater performance of the reactor filled with foam is attributed to its porosity, which promoted greater collection of biomass. From the results, it could be concluded that the reactors presented satisfactory performance, especially when using the foam as a support. Furthermore, the modified Stover-Kincannon and second order for multicomponent substrate degradation models were successfully used to develop a model of the experimental data. PMID:22609965

  11. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation. PMID:23500587

  12. Enhanced biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion from a trinary mix substrate over a binary mix substrate.

    PubMed

    Ara, Efath; Sartaj, Majid; Kennedy, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    The synergetic enhancement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of trinary and binary mix of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) + primary sludge (PS) + thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) as substrates was investigated through batch biological methane potential (BMP) and semi-continuous flow reactor tests. Cumulative biogas yield (CBY) yield for the binary mix of OFMSW:TWAS was 555, 580, and 660 mL/g volatile solids (VS)added for an OFMSW:TWAS ratio of 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25, respectively, which was 48, 78.5, and 140% higher than the calculated expected biogas (CEB) yield from the corresponding individual substrates. The trinary mixture of OFMSW:TWAS:PS at ratios of 25:37.5:375.5, 50:25:25 and 75:12.5:12.5 was able to produce 680, 710 and 780 mL/g VSadded, respectively, which was 25.5, 62.0 and 135.6% more biogas than the calculated expected biogas yield from the corresponding individual substrates. Cumulative methane yield (CMY) of trinary mixtures was also higher than the corresponding binary mixtures (20, 27, and 12 % increase for OFMSW:TWAS:PS at a ratio of 25:37.5:37.5, 50:25:25, and 75:12.5:12.5 compared to the binary mix of OFMSW:TWAS at a ratio of 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25, respectively). Methane content of the biogas varied from 54 to 57%. The results from semi-continuous flow anaerobic reactors under hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15, 10 and 7 days supported the results of batch biological methane potential tests. The results were conclusive that enhancement in biogas production was noticeably higher from the co-digestion of trinary mix of organic fraction of municipal solid waste+ thickened waste activated sludge + primary sludge than the binary mix organic fraction of municipal solid waste+thickened waste activated sludge or thickened waste activated sludge+primary sludge with concomitant improvements in VS removal and biodegradability for tri-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge. PMID:25964293

  13. Enhancing anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge for increasing biogas generation.

    PubMed

    Bien, January B; Malina, Grzegorz; Bien, Jurand D; Wolny, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The article presents results of biogas generation from sewage sludge after applying two pretreatment methods: sonification and thermal hydrolysis. Original results and literature data of the ultrasonic field influence on biogas generation were compared with literature data concerning effectiveness of the thermal hydrolysis. Sludge pretreatment by the ultrasonic field intensified the biogas production as the amounts of biogas was of ca. 20-24% higher, as compared to the nontreated sludge. The highest generation of biogas was observed after a shorter time. The degree of organic matter reduction was of 45-47%. The content of volatile fatty acids dropped down to 139 mg CH3COOH dm(-3) during 20 days. During the thermal pretreatment of sludge the amounts of generated biogas were ca. 25% higher, as compared to nontreated sludge. The maximum biogas production of 0.92 dm3 was observed in the day 9 of fermentation. To-date results indicate that efficiency of ultrasonic disintegration depends on sonification time, type of heads, as well as power and frequency transmitted to heads. PMID:15137710

  14. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  15. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana

    2015-09-01

    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12?h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20?mg?S(0)?g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9?mg?S(0)?g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24?h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6?mg?L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24?h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater. PMID:25737383

  16. Impact of coexistence of flocs and biofilm on performance of combined nitritation-anammox granular sludge reactors.

    PubMed

    Hubaux, N; Wells, G; Morgenroth, E

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) removal from high-strength wastewater can be accomplished in single-stage combined nitritation-anammox reactors with suspended growth biomass composed of floccular sludge, granular sludge, or of any mix of these 2 different sludge fractions. To date, the influence of floccular biomass on granular sludge reactor performance and stability has not been investigated experimentally or numerically. To address this knowledge gap, two 1D multi-species models were developed in Aquasim to assess the importance of small levels of flocs in putatively granular sludge combined nitritation-anammox reactors for different bulk oxygen concentrations and organics loads. The models included the growth and decay of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing organism (AOO), nitrite-oxidizing organisms (NOO), heterotrophic organisms (OHO), and anammox organisms (AMO) in exclusively granular sludge reactors, and in granular sludge reactors with small levels (?5% of total biomass) of flocs. While maximum N removal efficiencies were similar for both model structures, floc addition led to a lower optimal dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) as well as a narrower maximum N removal peak, suggesting that small levels of floccular material may decrease process robustness to bulk oxygen changes. For some DO levels, this led to drastic efficiency drops. Furthermore, floc addition also led to substantial segregation in activity and microbial population distribution, with AOO, NOO and OHO concentrated in flocs and AMO concentrated in granules. Increased organic loading (COD:N = 4:3) improved maximum N removal efficiency in both model structures, but yielded substantially different predictions for optimal DO setpoint and process robustness to variations in DO. Taken together, our results indicate that even small levels of floccular biomass in biofilm reactors can have profound implications for reactor performance and optimization and for segregation of linked microbial processes, and suggest that the common practice of neglecting small levels of floccular material in biofilm models and in practice may lead to erroneous predictions. PMID:25462723

  17. SIEX3: A correlated computer code for prediction of fast reactor mixed oxide fuel and blanket pin performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Baker; D. R. Wilson

    1986-01-01

    The SIEX3 computer program was developed to calculate the fuel and cladding performance of oxide fuel and oxide blanket pins irradiated in the fast neutron environment of a liquid metal cooled reactor. The code is uniquely designed to be accurate yet quick running and use a minimum of computer core storage. This was accomplished through the correlation of physically based

  18. The Impact of Mission Performance Requirements on the Development of an Early-Flight Space Fission Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I. Poston

    2003-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from past space fission reactor programs is that a small first step should be taken to successfully deploy a space fission system. The ``size'' of the first step is primarily determined by the mission performance requirements, most importantly power, lifetime, and mass. This paper discusses the benefits of keeping these requirements as simple as possible.

  19. Enhanced performance of deuterium-tritium-fueled supershots using extensive lithium conditioning in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Mansfield; J. D. Strachan; M. G. Bell; S. D. Scott; R. Budny; E. S. Marmar; J. A. Snipes; J. L. Terry; S. Batha; R. E. Bell; M. Bitter; C. E. Bush; Z. Chang; D. S. Darrow; D. Ernst; B. Grek; H. W. Herrmann; K. W. Hill; A. Janos; D. L. Jassby; F. C. Jobes; D. W. Johnson; L. C. Johnson; F. W. Levinton; D. R. Mikkelsen; D. Mueller; D. K. Owens; A. L. Roquemore; C. H. Skinner; T. Stevenson; B. C. Stratton; E. Synakowski; G. Taylor; A. von Halle; S. von Goeler; K. L. Wong; S. J. Zweben

    1995-01-01

    In the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. McGuire etal., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] a substantial improvement in fusion performance has been realized by combining the enhanced confinement due to tritium fueling with the enhanced confinement due to extensive conditioning of the limiter with lithium. This combination has resulted in not only significantly higher global energy confinement times

  20. Performance and granulation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating saline sulfate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Yu, Lian; Yu, Deshuang; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Peiyu; Ji, Zhongguang

    2014-02-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was employed to treat saline sulfate wastewater. Mesophilic operation (35 ± 0.5 °C) was performed with hydraulic retention time fixed at 16 h. When the salinity was 28 g L(-1), the chemical oxygen demand and sulfate removal efficiencies were 52 and 67 %, respectively. The salinity effect on sulfate removal was less than that on organics removal. The methane productions were 887 and 329 cm(3) L(-1) corresponding to the NaCl concentrations of 12 and 28 g L(-1), respectively. High salinity could stimulate microbes to produce more extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and granulation could be performed better. Besides, with the high saline surroundings, a great deal of Na(+) compressed the colloidal electrical double-layer, neutralized the negative charge of the sludge particles and decreased their electrostatic repulsion. The repulsion barrier disappeared and coagulation took place. The maximum size of granules was 5 mm, which resulted from the coupled triggering forces of high EPSs and Na(+) contents. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were dominant in the high saline surroundings while the methane-producing archaea dominated in the low saline surroundings. The SRB were affected least by the salinity. PMID:23624725

  1. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

  2. Process flow model of solid oxide fuel cell system supplied with sewage biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van herle, J.; Maréchal, F.; Leuenberger, S.; Membrez, Y.; Bucheli, O.; Favrat, D.

    A model for a 100 kW class solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system running on biogas from a sewage sludge digestion plant was implemented in a process flow scheme using external steam reforming. The model stack consisted of planar anode supported cells operated at 800 °C displaying state-of-the-art electrochemical performance (0.15 W/cm 2 at 80% fuel utilisation). Real annual data from an existing sewage plant were used as input to the model. From the input of 43 m 3/h biogas (63% CH 4), equivalent to 269 kW (higher heating value, HHV), the SOFC stack was calculated to deliver 131 kW el electricity (48.7%) using a steam-to-carbon ratio of 0.5. This would allow the sewage site to more than cover its own electrical needs, hence to depollute the waste stream at negative energy cost. In its current exploitation using a low efficient gas engine (130 kW), the site is only ?50% self-sufficient. Special attention was given to the thermal balance of the stack. The stack developed heat (143 kW) could be balanced by endothermal reforming (78 kW) and by cathode excess air ? (=3), allowing a temperature difference between stack inlet and outlet of 200 K. The case was compared to other fuel scenarios. Steam-added biogas behaves basically identically to steam-reformed methane. For partial oxidation of biogas or pure hydrogen feeding, electrical efficiency drops to under 43% while ? needs to be raised to 4.5 to maintain the 200 K thermal gradient over the stack.

  3. Production of Biogas from Wastewaters of Food Processing Industries 

    E-print Network

    Sax, R. I.; Holtz, M.; Pette, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Process used in converting biodegradable, soluble, organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters to a directly-burnable biogas composed mainly of methane has been developed, tested, and commercially applied...

  4. Effect of phenol on the nitrogen removal performance and microbial community structure and composition of an anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alyne Duarte; Leal, Cíntia Dutra; Dias, Marcela França; Etchebehere, Claudia; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto L; de Araújo, Juliana Calabria

    2014-08-01

    The effects of phenol on the nitrogen removal performance of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with anammox activity and on the microbial community within the reactor were evaluated. A phenol concentration of 300 mg L(-1) reduced the ammonium-nitrogen removal efficiency of the SBR from 96.5% to 47%. The addition of phenol changed the microbial community structure and composition considerably, as shown by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Some phyla, such as Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, increased in abundance, whereas others, such as Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, GN04, WS3, and NKB19, decreased. The diversity of the anammox bacteria was also affected by phenol: sequences related to Candidatus Brocadia fulgida were no longer detected, whereas sequences related to Ca. Brocadia sp. 40 and Ca. Jettenia asiatica persisted. These results indicate that phenol adversely affects anammox metabolism and changes the bacterial community within the anammox reactor. PMID:24907569

  5. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Maranon, E., E-mail: emara@uniovi.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  6. Effect of biological pretreatments in enhancing corn straw biogas production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhang Zhong; Zhongzhi Zhang; Yijing Luo; Shanshan Sun; Wei Qiao; Meng Xiao

    2011-01-01

    A biological pretreatment with new complex microbial agents was used to pretreat corn straw at ambient temperature (about 20°C) to improve its biodegradability and anaerobic biogas production. A complex microbial agent dose of 0.01% (w\\/w) and pretreatment time of 15days were appropriate for biological pretreatment. These treatment conditions resulted in 33.07% more total biogas yield, 75.57% more methane yield, and

  7. Livestock-biogas-fruit systems in South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongjun Chen

    1997-01-01

    Fruit farming and animal husbandry have existed for a long time in Meixian, Guangdong, South China. However, Meixian suffers from shortages of rural energy and organic fertilizer and from environmental pollution. A new eco-agricultural system, the livestock-biogas-fruit system, has been designed successfully in this region by adding biogas production to fight these problems. A study which was conducted in seven

  8. Performance evaluation of nonthermal plasma reactors for NO oxidation in diesel engine exhaust gas treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Yamamoto; B. S. Rajanikanth; Masaaki Okubo; Tomoyuki Kuroki; Masaya Nishino

    2003-01-01

    The discharge plasma-chemical hybrid process for NOx removal from the flue gas emissions is an extremely effective and economical approach in comparison with the conventional selective catalytic reduction system. In this paper we bring out a relative comparison of several discharge plasma reactors from the point of NO removal efficiency. The reactors were either energized by AC or by repetitive

  9. Performance characteristics of the annular core research reactor fuel motion detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Kelly; K. T. Stalker

    1983-01-01

    Recent proof tests have shown that the annular core research reactor (ACRR) fuel motion detection system has reached its design goals of providing high temporal and spatial resolution pictures of fuel distributions in the ACRR. The coded aperture imaging system (CAIS) images the fuel by monitoring the fission gamma rays from the fuel that pass through collimators in the reactor

  10. Performance of non-thermal DBD plasma reactor during the removal of hydrogen sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Jun Liang; Hong-Ping Fang; Jian Li; Feng Zheng; Jing-Xin Li; Yu-Quan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Destruction of hydrogen sulfide using dielectric barrier discharge plasma in a coaxial cylindrical reactor was carried out at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Three types of DBD reactor were compared in terms of specific energy density (SED), equivalent capacitances of the gap (Cg) and the dielectric barrier (Cd), energy yield (EY), and H2S decomposition. In addition, byproducts during the decomposition

  11. Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.

    PubMed

    Papurello, Davide; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Silvestri, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding ?1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (?1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed. PMID:25081854

  12. Effects of acetate and propionate on the performance of a photosynthetic biofilm reactor for sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Hurse, T J; Keller, J

    2005-01-20

    The effects of acetate and propionate on the performance of a recently proposed and characterized photosynthetic biological sulfide removal system have been investigated with a view to predicting this concept's suitability for removing sulfide from wastewater undergoing or having undergone anaerobic treatment. The concept relies on substratum-irradiated biofilms dominated by green sulfur bacteria (GSB), which are supplied with radiant energy in the band 720-780 nm. A model reactor was fed for 7 months with a synthetic wastewater free of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), after which time intermittent dosing of the wastewater with acetate or propionate was begun. Such dosing suppressed the areal net sulfide removal rate by approximately 50%, and caused the principal net product of sulfide removal to switch from sulfate to elemental-S. Similarly suppressed values of this rate were observed when the wastewater was dosed continuously with acetate, and this rate was not significantly affected by changes in the concentration of ammonia-N in the feed. The main net product of sulfide removal was again elemental-S, which was scarcely released into the liquid, however. Sulfate reduction and sulfur reduction were observed when the light supply was interrupted and were inferred to be occurring within the irradiated biofilm. A preexisting conceptual model of the biofilm was augmented with both of these reductive processes, and this augmented model was shown to account for most of the observed effects of VFA dosing. The implications of these findings for the practicality of the technology are considered. PMID:15584053

  13. Alloy development for irradiation performance in fusion reactors. Annual report, September 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Harling, O K; Grant, N J

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the research and development work performed during the second year of an M.I.T. project directed toward the development of improved structural alloys for the fusion reactor first wall application. Several new alloys have been produced by rapid solidification. Emphasis in alloy design and production has been placed on producing austenitic Type 316SS with fine dispersions of TiC and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles. Results of mechanical and microstructural tests are presented. A number of neutron irradiations have been initiated on samples fabricated from alloys produced in this project. A dual beam, heavy ion and helium ion, irradiation was completed using several alloys and a range of temperatures, damage rates and total doses. Modeling of irradiation phenomena has been continued with emphasis in the last year upon understanding the effect of recoil resolution on relatively stable second phase particles. Work continued to fully characterize the microstructure of several ZrB/sub 2/ doped stainless steels.

  14. Performance evaluation for carbonation of steel-making slags in a slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Chang, E-E; Chen, Chung-Hua; Chen, Yi-Hung; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-02-15

    CO(2) sequestration by the aqueous carbonation of steel-making slag under various operational conditions was investigated in this study. The effects of the operational conditions, including type of steel-making slag, reaction time, reaction temperature, and CO(2) flow rate, on the performance of the carbonation process were evaluated. The results indicated that the BOF slag had the highest carbonation conversion, approximately 72%, at a reaction time of 1h, an operating pressure of 101 kPa and a temperature of 60°C due to its higher BET surface area of BOF slag compared to UF, FA, and BHC slags. The major factors affecting the carbonation conversion are reaction time and temperature. The reaction kinetics of the carbonation conversion can be expressed by the shrinking-core model. The measurements of the carbonated material by the SEM and XRD instruments provide evidence indicating the suitability of using the shrinking-core model in this investigation. Comparison of the results with other studies suggests that aqueous carbonation by slurry reactor is viable due to its higher mass transfer rate. PMID:21168964

  15. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  16. Biogas as a fuel source for SOFC co-generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van herle, Jan; Membrez, Yves; Bucheli, Olivier

    This study reports on the combination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generators fueled with biogas as renewable energy source, recoverable from wastes but at present underexploited. From a mobilisable near-future potential in the European Union (EU-15) of 17 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe), under 15% appears to be converted today into useful heat and power (2 Mtoe). SOFCs could improve and promote the exploitation of biogas on manifold generation sites as small combined heat and power (5-50 kW el), especially for farm and sewage installations, raising the electrical conversion efficiency on such reduced and variable power level. Larger module packs of the high temperature ceramic converter would also be capable of operating on contaminated fuel of low heating value (less than 40% that of natural gas) which can emanate from landfill sites (MW-size). Landfill gas delivers 80% of current world biogas production. This document compiles and estimates biogas data on actual production and future potential and presents the thermodynamics of the biogas reforming and electrochemical conversion processes. A case study is reported of the energy balance of a small SOFC co-generator operated with agricultural biogas, the largest potential source.

  17. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  18. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Water: Performance and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Darius D.

    This experimental study investigated the thermal hydraulic behavior and boiling mechanisms present in a scaled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The experimental facility reflects a ¼ scale model of one conceptual design for decay heat removal in advanced GenIV nuclear reactors. Radiant heaters supply up to 25 kW/m2 onto a three parallel riser tube and cooling panel test section assembly, representative of a 5° sector model of the full scale concept. Derived similarity relations have preserved the thermal hydraulic flow patterns and integral system response, ensuring relevant data and similarity among scales. Attention will first be given to the characterization of design features, form and heat losses, nominal behavior, repeatability, and data uncertainty. Then, tests performed in single-phase have evaluated the steady-state behavior. Following, the transition to saturation and subsequent boiling allowed investigations onto four parametric effects at two-phase flow and will be the primary focus area of remaining analysis. Baseline conditions at two-phase flow were defined by 15.19 kW of heated power and 80% coolant inventory, and resulted in semi-periodic system oscillations by the mechanism of hydrostatic head fluctuations. Void generation was the result of adiabatic expansion of the fluid due to a reduction in hydrostatic head pressure, a phenomena similar to flashing. At higher powers of 17.84 and 20.49 kW, this effect was augmented, creating large flow excursions that followed a smooth and sinusoidal shaped path. Stabilization can occur if the steam outflow condition incorporates a nominal restriction, as it will serve to buffer the short time scale excursions of the gas space pressure and dampen oscillations. The influences of an inlet restriction, imposed by an orifice plate, introduced subcooling boiling within the heated core and resulted in chaotic interactions among the parallel risers. The penultimate parametric examined effects of boil-off and inventory loss, where five different stages of natural circulation flow were identified: single-phase heating, transitional nucleate boiling, hydrostatic head fluctuations, stable two-phase flow, and geysering. Finally, the implementation of the model RCCS to a full scale plant was investigated by a multivariate test simulating an hypothetical accident scenario.

  19. Impact of design options on natural circulation performance of the AFR-300 advanced fast reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. D.

    2002-03-07

    The AFR-300, Advanced Fast Reactor (300 Mwe), has been proposed as a Generation IV concept. It could also be used to dispose of surplus weapons grade plutonium or as an actinide burner for transmutation of high level radioactive waste. AFR-300 uses metallic fuel and sodium coolant. The design of AFR-300 takes account of the successful design and operation of EBR-II, but the AFR-300 design includes a number of advances such as an advanced fuel cycle, inspectability and improved economics. One significant difference between AFR-300 and EBR-II is that AFR-300 is considerably larger. Another significant difference is that AFR-300 has no auxiliary EM pump in the primary loop to guarantee positive core flow when the main primary pumps are shut down. Thus, one question that has come up in connection with the AFR-300 design is whether natural circulation flow is sufficient to prevent damage to the core if the primary pumps fail. Insufficient natural circulation flow through the core could result in high cladding temperatures and cladding failure due to eutectic penetration of the cladding by the metal fuel. The rate of eutectic penetration of the cladding is strongly temperature dependent, so cladding failure depends on how hot the cladding gets and how long it is at elevated temperatures. To investigate the adequacy of natural circulation flow, a number of pump failure transients and a number of design options have been analyzed with the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code. This code has been validated for natural circulation behavior by analysis of Shutdown Heat Removal Tests performed in EBR-II. The AFR-300 design includes flywheels on the primary pumps to extend the pump coastdown times, and the size of the flywheels can be picked to give optimum coastdown times. One series of transients that has been run consists of protected loss-of-flow transients with various values for the combined moment of inertia of the pump, the motor and the flywheel giving coastdown times from 70 seconds to 586 seconds. In this transient series both the main pump motors and the pony motors lose power. Another series of loss-of-flow cases involved staggered failures of the pony motors. The main pump motors fail, the reactor scrams, and the pumps coast down to pony motor speed. Then at various times the pony motors are assumed to fail. If the pony motors fail at the wrong time, then the resulting transient can be more severe than if the pony motors failed at the same time as the main motors. A third series of cases involved a reactor scram followed by failure of both the main pump motors and the pony motors at various times. For all of these cases, satisfactory natural circulation behavior can be obtained if the right design options are used.

  20. Effect of particle pinch on the fusion performance and profile features of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor-like fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the plasma temperature and density in an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device has been studied by numerically solving the energy transport equation coupled with the particle transport equation. The effect of particle pinch, which depends on the magnetic curvature and the safety factor, has been taken into account. The plasma is primarily heated by the alpha particles which are produced by the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. A semi-empirical method, which adopts the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law, has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. The fusion performances (the fusion energy gain factor, Q) similar to the ITER inductive scenario and non-inductive scenario (with reversed magnetic shear) are obtained. It is shown that the particle pinch has significant effects on the fusion performance and profiles of a fusion reactor. When the volume-averaged density is fixed, particle pinch can lower the pedestal density by ˜30 % , with the Q value and the central pressure almost unchanged. When the particle source or the pedestal density is fixed, the particle pinch can significantly enhance the Q value by 60 % , with the central pressure also significantly raised.

  1. Method and apparatus for enhancing reactor air-cooling system performance

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An enhanced decay heat removal system for removing heat from the inert gas-filled gap space between the reactor vessel and the containment vessel of a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. Multiple cooling ducts in flow communication with the inert gas-filled gap space are incorporated to provide multiple flow paths for the inert gas to circulate to heat exchangers which remove heat from the inert gas, thereby introducing natural convection flows in the inert gas. The inert gas in turn absorbs heat directly from the reactor vessel by natural convection heat transfer.

  2. Method and apparatus for enhancing reactor air-cooling system performance

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1996-03-12

    An enhanced decay heat removal system is disclosed for removing heat from the inert gas-filled gap space between the reactor vessel and the containment vessel of a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. Multiple cooling ducts in flow communication with the inert gas-filled gap space are incorporated to provide multiple flow paths for the inert gas to circulate to heat exchangers which remove heat from the inert gas, thereby introducing natural convection flows in the inert gas. The inert gas in turn absorbs heat directly from the reactor vessel by natural convection heat transfer. 6 figs.

  3. Explicit temperature-based model for anaerobic digestion: application in domestic wastewater treatment in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Donoso-Bravo, A; Bandara, W M K R T W; Satoh, H; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2013-04-01

    Temperature is an important environmental variable that can strongly affect the performance of anaerobic reactors working at ambient temperatures. This study presents a mechanistic mathematical model which depends in an explicit way on the operating temperature. The cardinal temperature model function is proposed to describe the temperature dependence of the kinetic parameters and the experimental data from an UASB-degasification system was used to calibrate and validate the model. The performance of the model is compared with the classic Arrhenius approach. The results showed that the temperature-based model of the anaerobic digestion is able to reproduce a long-term reactor operation in terms of biogas production and the concentration of organic matter at fluctuating ambient temperature. PMID:23454390

  4. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production.

    PubMed

    Marañón, E; Castrillón, L; Quiroga, G; Fernández-Nava, Y; Gómez, L; García, M M

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH(4)/kg VS(feed) for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36°C, for an OLR of 1.2g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55°C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment. PMID:22743289

  5. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    PubMed

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. PMID:24120116

  6. Nylon fibers as supporting media in anaerobic hybrid reactors: it's effects on system's performance and microbial distribution.

    PubMed

    Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Suvajittanont, Worakrit; Suraraksa, Benjaphon; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Bhumiratana, Sakarindr

    2003-11-01

    The performances of three anaerobic hybrid reactors with various nylon fiber densities per packed bed volume (33, 22, and 11 kg/m(3) in R1, R2, and R3, respectively) as supporting media were evaluated through their ability to remove organic compounds in cassava starch wastewater. In addition, the distributions of non-methanogenic and methanogenic population in the reactors were investigated. During a 6-month operation, the organic loading rate was increased in stepwise from 0.5 to 4.0 kg COD/m3/day and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) shortened to 5.4 days. The COD removal efficiency was more favorable in R1 (87%) and R2 (84%) than in R3 (70%). The total biomass in the reactors with greater nylon fiber densities was also higher and increased from 20.4 to 67.3 g VSS and to 57.5 g VSS in R1 and R2, respectively. When the HRT was further shortened to 3 days, however, the efficiency of both reactors demonstrated a declining trend and reached 74% in R1 and 61% in R2. The distribution of microbial populations involved in the reactors was determined using the Most Probable Number technique. The result showed the lowest number of methanogens in R3 which correlated well to its relatively low efficiency. The number of non-methanogens in all reactors was, nonetheless, comparable. By shortening the HRT to 3 days, the methanogenic population in R2 diminished in both attached and suspended biomass whereas a slight reduction was detected only in the attached biomass of R1. PMID:14568046

  7. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Ho; Shin, Chang-Ha; Son, Sung-Min; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Park, Joo-Yang

    2013-08-01

    Combined system of high-rate anaerobic reactors for treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) was developed and investigated in this study. The system composed of one common primary hybrid reactor which was shared by two different secondary filter reactors. An overall COD removal efficiency of 93.5% was achieved in both systems. The secondary reactors contributed not only in enhancing the COD removal efficiency, but also ensured the performance stability of the entire system. Biomass remained intact in the secondary reactor in contrast to the primary reactor in which occasional washout of biomass was observed. The pH of POME was adjusted at the beginning of the operation, as the process continued POME did not require the external pH adjustment as the pH was maintained in desired range. The biogas was produced up to 110 l/d with the yield of 0.171-0.269 l [CH?]/g [COD removed] and 59.5-78.2% content of methane. PMID:23489567

  8. Performance of an on-site UASB reactor treating leachate at low temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riitta H. Kettunen; Jukka A. Rintala

    1998-01-01

    A pilot-scale UASB reactor was used to study treatment of municipal landfill leachate (COD 1.5–3.2gl?1) at low temperatures (13–23°C) and in on-site conditions for 226days. The reactor was successfully operated by decreasing the process temperature as leachate temperature decreased in winter. Despite changes in leachate quality, 65–75% COD and up to 95% BOD7 removals were achieved at 18–23°C with organic

  9. Optimization of process performance in a granule-based anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bao-Shan; Guo, Qiong; Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the individual and interactive effects of influent substrate concentration (TNinf), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and upflow velocity (Vup) on the performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in a granule-based upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor were investigated by employing response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The purpose of this work was to identify the optimal combination of TNinf, HRT and Vup with respect to the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) and nitrogen removal rate (NRR). The reduced cubic models developed for the responses indicated that the optimal conditions corresponded to a TNinf content of 644-728mgNL(-1), an HRT of 0.90-1.25h, and a Vup of 0.60-1.79mh(-1). The results of confirmation trials were similar to the predictions of the developed models. These results provide useful information for improving the nitrogen removal performance of the anammox process in a UASB reactor. PMID:25156877

  10. Anaerobic filter reactor performance for the treatment of complex dairy wastewater at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

    2003-10-01

    The wastewaters discharged by raw milk quality control laboratories are more complex than the ones commonly generated by dairy factories because of the presence of certain chemicals such as sodium azide or chloramphenicol, which are used for preserving milk before analysis. The treatment of these effluents has been carried out in a full-scale plant comprising a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR). After more than 2 years of operation, a successful anaerobic treatment of these effluents was achieved, without fat removal prior to the anaerobic reactor. The organic loading rates maintained in the AF reactor were 5-6 kg COD/m(3) d, with COD removal being higher than 90%. No biomass washout was observed, and most of the fat contained in the wastewaters was successfully degraded. The addition of alkalinity is crucial for the maintenance of a proper buffer medium to ensure pH stability. The effluent of the AF reactor was successfully treated in the SBR reactor, and a final effluent with a COD content below 200 mg/l and total nitrogen below 10mg N/l was obtained. PMID:12946891

  11. Nitrate removal characteristics of high performance fluidized-bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Fahid K J; Dahab, Mohamed F

    2004-10-01

    Two laboratory-scale high performance fluidized bed biofilm reactors (FBBR) with sand as the biofilm carrier were used to investigate the denitrification of high-strength nitrate wastewater with specific emphasis on the effect the nitrogen loading rate and the superficial velocity (V(s)). The results demonstrated that the FBBR system is capable of efficiently handling an exceptionally high nitrate nitrogen concentration of 1000 mg N/L. At a loading rate of 6.3 kg-N/m(3)(bed).d almost complete denitrification was achieved with a removal efficiency of 99.8% and an effluent concentration of 2mg N/L at V(s) values of 45, 55 and 65 m/h. The maximum efficient loading rate (R(max)) at which the US drinking water nitrate-nitrogen standard concentration of 10mg N/L would be exceeded was found to be a function of the applied V(s). The R(max) was found to be 12 kg-N/m(3)(bed).d at a V(s) value of 45 m/h. As V(s) was increased to 55 and 65 m/h, the optimum R(max) dropped to 9.5 and 8 kg-N/m(3)(bed).d, respectively. Higher denitrification rates were achieved at relatively lower V(s). However, there is a minimum practical velocity below which agglomeration of biomass would occur. The suspended solids concentration in the effluent was below 30 mg/L throughout the study. PMID:15350424

  12. Performance of uasb reactor treating leachate from acidogenic fermenter in the two-phase anaerobic digestion of food waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S Shin; S. K Han; Y. C Song; C. Y Lee

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating leachate from acidogenic fermenter in the two-phase anaerobic digestion of food waste. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was consistently over 96% up to the loading rates of 15.8gCOD\\/ld. The methane production rate increased to 5.5l\\/ld. Of all the COD removed, 92%

  13. Performance of sequencing batch biofilm and sequencing batch reactors in simultaneous p-nitrophenol and nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chin-Ping; Seng, Chye-Eng; Sujari, Amat Ngilmi Ahmad; Lim, Poh-Eng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in the simultaneous removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and ammoniacal nitrogen. SBBRs involved the use of polyurethane sponge cubes and polyethylene rings, respectively, as carrier materials. The results demonstrate that complete removal of PNP was achievable for the SBR and SBBRs up to the PNP concentration of 350 mg/l (loading rate of 0.368 kg/m3 d). At this loading rate, the average ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiency for the SBR and SBBR (with polyethylene rings) was reduced to 86% and 96%, respectively. However, the SBBR (with polyurethane sponge cubes) still managed to achieve an almost 100% ammoniacal nitrogen removal. Based on the results, the performance of the SBBRs was better than that of SBR in PNP and ammoniacal nitrogen removal. The results of the gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses indicate that complete mineralization of PNP was achieved in all of the reactors. PMID:19705610

  14. Steam plasma reforming of biogas by non-thermal pulsed discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Nam Chun; Si Wouk Kim; Hyoung Oon Song

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop technology that can convert biogas to synthesis gas (SynGas), a low emission substituted\\u000a energy, using a non-thermal pulsed plasma method. To investigate the characteristics of the SynGas production from simulated\\u000a biogas, the reforming characteristics were studied about the variations of pulse frequency, biogas component ratio (C3H8\\/CO2), vapor flow ratio (H2O\\/TFR), biogas velocity

  15. Comparison of the performance of a reactor equipped with a Ti\\/Pt and an SS anode for simultaneous cyanide removal and copper recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Szpyrkowicz; S. N Kaul; E Molga; M DeFaveri

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on the destruction of copper complexed cyanides and the simultaneous recovery of copper in a lab-scale batch electrochemical reactor. The performance of the reactor equipped with a stainless steel (SS) plate anode is compared with the data relative to the process conducted with a Ti\\/Pt anode having the same overall size. Both

  16. Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate within a two-phase solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Heeg, Kathrin; Pohl, Marcel; Sontag, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Klocke, Michael; Nettmann, Edith

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities involved in biogas production from wheat straw as the sole substrate were investigated. Anaerobic digestion was carried out within an up-flow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) reactor connected to an anaerobic filter (AF) by liquor recirculation. Two lab-scale reactor systems were operated simultaneously at 37 °C and 55 °C. The UASS reactors were fed at a fixed organic loading rate of 2.5 g L(-1) d(-1), based on volatile solids. Molecular genetic analyses of the bacterial and archaeal communities within the UASS reactors (digestate and effluent liquor) and the AFs (biofilm carrier and effluent liquor) were conducted under steady-state conditions. The thermophilic UASS reactor had a considerably higher biogas and methane yield in comparison to the mesophilic UASS, while the mesophilic AF was slightly more productive than the thermophilic AF. When the thermophilic and mesophilic community structures were compared, the thermophilic system was characterized by a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequence analysis. The composition of the archaeal communities was phase-separated under thermophilic conditions, but rather stage-specific under mesophilic conditions. Family- and order-specific real-time PCR of methanogenic Archaea supported the taxonomic distribution obtained by rrs sequence analysis. The higher anaerobic digestion efficiency of the thermophilic compared to the mesophilic UASS reactor was accompanied by a high abundance of Firmicutes and Methanosarcina sp. in the thermophilic UASS biofilm. PMID:25467556

  17. Enzyme research and applications in biotechnological intensification of biogas production.

    PubMed

    Parawira, Wilson

    2012-06-01

    Biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Using local resources such as agricultural crop remains, municipal solid wastes, market wastes and animal waste, energy (biogas), and manure are derived by anaerobic digestion. The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolysed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis are areas in need of drastic improvement for economic production of biogas from complex organic matter such as lignocellulosic material and sewage sludge. Despite development of pretreatment techniques, sugar release from complex biomass still remains an expensive and slow step, perhaps the most critical in the overall process. This paper gives an updated review of the biotechnological advances to improve biogas production by microbial enzymatic hydrolysis of different complex organic matter for converting them into fermentable structures. A number of authors have reported significant improvement in biogas production when crude and commercial enzymes are used in the pretreatment of complex organic matter. There have been studies on the improvement of biogas production from lignocellulolytic materials, one of the largest and renewable sources of energy on earth, after pretreatment with cellulases and cellulase-producing microorganisms. Lipids (characterised as oil, grease, fat, and free long chain fatty acids, LCFA) are a major organic compound in wastewater generated from the food processing industries and have been considered very difficult to convert into biogas. Improved methane yield has been reported in the literature when these lipid-rich wastewaters are pretreated with lipases and lipase-producing microorganisms. The enzymatic treatment of mixed sludge by added enzymes prior to anaerobic digestion has been shown to result in improved degradation of the sludge and an increase in methane production. Strategies for enzyme dosing to enhance anaerobic digestion of the different complex organic rich materials have been investigated. This review also highlights the various challenges and opportunities that exist to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of complex organic matter for biogas production. The arguments in favor of enzymes to pretreat complex biomass are compelling. The high cost of commercial enzyme production, however, still limits application of enzymatic hydrolysis in full-scale biogas production plants, although production of low-cost enzymes and genetic engineering are addressing this issue. PMID:21851320

  18. Gas Sensing of SnO2 Nanocrystals Revisited: Developing Ultra-Sensitive Sensors for Detecting the H2S Leakage of Biogas

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lin; Chen, Yuejiao; Ma, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    As a typical mode of energy from waste, biogas technology is of great interest to researchers. To detect the trace H2S released from biogas, we herein demonstrate a high-performance sensor based on highly H2S-sensitive SnO2 nanocrystals, which have been selectively prepared by solvothermal methods using benzimidazole as a mineralization agent. The sensitivity of as-obtained SnO2 sensor towards 5?ppm H2S can reach up to 357. Such a technique based on SnO2 nanocrystals opens up a promising avenue for future practical applications in real-time monitoring a trace of H2S from the leakage of biogas. PMID:25112163

  19. Performance Comparison of Metallic, Actinide Burning Fuel in Lead-Bismuth and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    Various methods have been proposed to “incinerate” or “transmutate” the current inventory of trans-uranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non-fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years.

  20. Improvement of biogas production by biotechnological manipulation of the microbial population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Acs; Z. Bagi; G. Rakhely; E. Kovacs; R. Wirth; K. L. Kovacs

    2011-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy carrier and the production of biogas is associated with double benefits: elimination of environmental pollution problems is coupled with the generation of useful energy. Biogas technologies commonly apply natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. This is partly due to the fact that, from a microbiological aspect, this is a very complicated and complex system. Moreover, the

  1. Differences in the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms as revealed through their transport by biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Moletta; Jean-Philippe Delgenes; Jean-Jacques Godon

    2007-01-01

    The aerosol microbial diversity of biogas was analyzed in order to examine the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms. Six biogas samples were analyzed: five from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestors treating different wastes, and one from landfill. Epifluorescent microscopic counts reveal that with 106 Prokarya m?3, only one per one thousand billion were aerosolized from the digestor sludges to the biogas.

  2. Substrate inhibition and control for high rate biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This research addresses a critical aspect of the technical feasibility of biogas recovery with poultry manure using anaerobic digestion, namely, inhibition and toxicity factors limiting methane generation under high rate conditions. The research was designed to identify the limiting factors and to examine alternative pretreatment and in situ control methods for the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure as an energy producing system. Biogas production was indicated by the daily gas volume produced per unit digester capacity. Enhanced biogas generation from the anaerobic digester systems using poultry manure was studied in laboratory- and pilot-scale digester operations. It was found that ammonia nitrogen concentration above 4000 mg/l was inhibitory to biogas production. Pretreatment of the manure by elutriation was effective for decreasing inhibitory/toxic conditions. Increased gas production resulted without an indication of serious inhibition by increased volatile acids, indicating a limitation of available carbon sources. For poultry manure digestion, the optimum pH range was 7.1 to 7.6. Annual costs for pretreatment/biogas systems for 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 birds were estimated and compared with annual surplus energy produced. The economic break-even point was achieved in digesters for greater than 30,000 birds. Capital cost of the digester system was estimated to be $18,300 with annual costs around $4000. It is anticipated that the digester system could be economically applied to smaller farms as energy costs increase.

  3. Tritium Self-Sufficiency and Neutron Shielding Performance of Self-Cooled Liquid Blanket System for Helical Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan)

    2005-04-15

    Compatibility between tritium self-sufficiency and neutron shielding performance of self-cooled liquid blanket systems without solid neutron multiplier was investigated for the purpose of application to the conceptual helical reactor design of modified FFHR2 having the blanket space of 120 cm. The results of the neutronics calculation indicated that all of the Li/V-alloy, Flibe/V-alloy and Flibe/JLF-1 (Reduced Activation Ferritic steel) blankets are feasible for tritium breeding ability and neutron shielding performance. With the use of vanadium alloys, operation efficiency will be enhanced.

  4. Performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor coupled with up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for treatment of onion dehydration wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hala El-Kamah; Mohamed Mahmoud; Ahmed Tawfik

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a promising system consisting of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was investigated for onion dehydration wastewater treatment. Laboratory experiments were conducted at two different phases, i.e., phase (1) at overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11h (UASB reactor: 6h and DHS reactor: 5h) and phase (2) at overall HRT

  5. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation\\/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Essadki; B. Gourich; Ch. Vial; H. Delmas; M. Bennajah

    2009-01-01

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation\\/electroflotation (EC\\/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The

  6. The performance of ENDF/B-V. 2 nuclear data for fast reactor calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, C.A.; Collins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations with ENDF/B-V.2 data have been made for twenty-five fast-spectrum integral assemblies covering a wide range of sizes and compositions. Analysis was done by transport codes with refined cross section processing methods and detailed reactor modelling. The predictions of fission rate distributions and control rod worths were emphasized for the more prototypic benchmark cores. The results show considerable improvements in agreement with experiment compared with analysis using ENDF/B-IV data, but it is apparent that significant errors remain for fast reactor design calculations.

  7. Performance of commercial off-the-shelf microelectromechanical systems sensors in a pulsed reactor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hobert, Keith Edwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heger, Arlen S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccready, Steven S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-07-15

    Prompted by the unexpected failure of piezoresistive sensors in both an elevated gamma-ray environment and reactor core pulse tests, we initiated radiation testing of several MEMS piezoresistive accelerometers and pressure transducers to ascertain their radiation hardness. Some commercial off-the-shelf sensors are found to be viable options for use in a high-energy pulsed reactor, but others suffer severe degradation and even catastrophic failure. Although researchers are promoting the use of MEMS devices in radiation-harsh environment, we nevertheless find assurance testing necessary.

  8. Performance Analysis of Potassium Heat Pipes Radiator for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

    2004-02-04

    A detailed design and performance results of C-C finned, and armored potassium heat pipes radiator for a 110 kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The radiator consists of two sections; each serves an equal number of STMCs and has 162 longitudinal potassium heat pipes with 0.508 mm thick C-C fins. The width of the C-C fins at the minor diameter of the radiator is almost zero, but increases with distance along the radiator to reach 3.7 cm at the radiator's major diameter. The radiator's heat pipes (OD = 2.42 cm in front and 3.03 cm in rear) have thin titanium (0.0762 mm thick) liners and wicks (0.20 mm thick with an effective pore radius of 12-16 {mu}m) and a 1.016 mm thick C-C wall. The wick is separated from the titanium liner by a 0.4 mm annulus filled with liquid potassium to increase the capillary limit. The outer surfaces of the heat pipes in the front and rear sections of the radiator are protected with a C-C armor that is 2.17 mm and 1.70 mm thick, respectively. The inside surface of the heat pipes in the front radiator is thermally insulated while the C-C finned condensers of the rear heat pipes are exposed, radiating into space through the rear opening of the radiator cavity. The heat pipes in both the front and the rear radiators have a 1.5 m long evaporator section and each dissipates 4.47 kW while operating at 43.6% of the prevailing sonic limit. The front and rear radiator sections are 5.29 m and 2.61 m long with outer surface area and mass of 47.1 m2 and 314.3 kg, and 39.9 m2 and 243.2 kg, respectively. The total radiator is 7.63 m long and has minor and major diameters of 1.48 m and 5.57 m, respectively, and a total surface area of 87 m2; however, the effective radiator area, after accounting for heat rejection through the rear of the radiator cavity, is 98.8 m2. The radiator's total mass including the C-C armor is 557.5 kg and the specific area and specific mass are 6.41 kg/m2 and 5.07 kg/kWe, respectively.

  9. Analysis of the performance of the Westinghouse reactor vessel level indicating system for tests at semiscale. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Miller, G.N.

    1982-10-01

    The Westinghouse Reactor Vessel Level Indicating System (RVLIS), a differential pressure level measurement system, was tested at SEMISCALE. This report contains the analyses of these tests and the conclusions of these analyses. The tests performed included small break and intermediate break tests. Also, frequency response and natural circulation tests were run and analyzed. The RVLIS always indicated a level less than the two phase froth level. The RVLIS output in early small break tests indicated a level 200 cm greater than actual collapsed liquid level. This discrepancy was caused by structural differences between SEMISCALE and a Westinghouse reactor. Once modifications were made so that SEMISCALE better simulated a Westinghouse PWR, the maximum difference between RVLIS and SEMISCALE instrumentation was 30 cm or 3% which is less than the stated uncertainty of the Westinghouse RVLIS.

  10. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  11. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    PubMed Central

    Köhring, Michael; Böttger, Stefan; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors. PMID:26007746

  12. Influence of inoculum on performance of anaerobic reactors for treating municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilton Silva Lopes; Valderi Duarte Leite; Shiva Prasad

    2004-01-01

    The influence of bovine rumen fluid inoculum during anaerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) was studied in this work. The parameters adopted for evaluation were the biostabilization constant of total volatile solids (TVS) and the biostabilization time of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) applied to the reactors. The work was realized in four anaerobic batch

  13. A study of catalytic p-cyclodextrin carbonate membrane reactor performance in PNPA hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariapina Natoli; Cecilia Pagliero; Francesco Trotta; Enrico Drioli

    1997-01-01

    A catalytic cyclodextrin membrane reactor system is a promising tool for the production of chemicals of potential interest. To investigate the application of membrane immobilized carbonate derivative ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) for the p-nitrophenylacetate (PNPA) hydrolysis, the effect of different average degree of ?-CD carbonate substitution (DS), the amount of immobilized ?-CD carbonate and operating conditions such as pH and temperature have

  14. Performance of an upflow anaerobic reactor combining a sludge blanket and a filter treating sugar waste

    SciTech Connect

    Guiot, S.R.; Van den Berg, L.

    1985-06-01

    A new hybrid reactor, the upflow blanket filter (UBF), which combines an open volume in the bottom two-thirds of the reactor for a sludge blanket and submerged plastic rings (Flexiring, Koch Inc., 235 squared m/cubic m) in the upper one-third of the reactor volume, was studied. This UBF reactor was operated at 27 degrees C at loading rates varying from 5 to 51 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l day with soluble sugar wastewater (2500 mg COD/l). Maximum removal rates of 34 g COD/l day and CH/sub 4/ production rates of 7 vol/vol day (standard temperature and pressure (STP)) were obtained. The biomass activity was about 1.2 g COD/g volatile suspended solids per day. Conversion (based on effluent soluble COD) was over 93% with loading rates up to 26 g COD/l day. At higher loading rates conversion decreased rapidly. The packing was very efficient in retaining biomass. 11 references.

  15. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Anderson

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m\\/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures

  16. Performance improvement analysis of boiling water reactors by incorporation of hydride fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Kan; Greenspan Ehud

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of improving the neutronic characteristics of boiling water reactors (BWR) by using U–Zr hydride fuel is studied. Several modified BWR fuel assembly designs are considered. These include designs in which hydride fuel rods replace water rods only, replace water rods and a fraction of the oxide fuel rods, replace oxide fuel in the upper half of all the

  17. HYBRID ADSORPTION-MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF PERCHLORATE REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Schideman; K. J. Hegger; E. Morgenroth; B. J. Kim

    This study introduces the novel HAMBgR process (Hybrid Adsorption Membrane Biological Reactor) and presents an application for the efficient removal of perchlorate from contaminated waters. This process combines the economic advantages of a microbiological treatment with the reliability of a physicochemical process. Batch isotherm experiments show that the ion-exchange adsorbents from this study can be effectively and continuously regenerated biologically

  18. Metaproteome analysis of the microbial communities in agricultural biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Heyer, R; Kohrs, F; Benndorf, D; Rapp, E; Kausmann, R; Heiermann, M; Klocke, M; Reichl, U

    2013-09-25

    In biogas plants agricultural waste and energy crops are converted by complex microbial communities to methane for the production of renewable energy. In Germany, this process is widely applied namely in context of agricultural production systems. However, process disturbances, are one of the major causes for economic losses. In addition, the conversion of biomass, in particular of cellulose, is in most cases incomplete and, hence, insufficient. Besides technical aspects, a more profound characterization concerning the functionality of the microbial communities involved would strongly support the improvement of yield and stability in biogas production. To monitor these communities on the functional level, metaproteome analysis was applied in this study to full-scale agricultural biogas plants. Proteins were extracted directly from sludge for separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subsequent identification with mass spectrometry. Protein profiles obtained with SDS-PAGE were specific for different biogas plants and often stable for several months. Differences of protein profiles were visualized by clustering, which allowed not only the discrimination between mesophilic and thermophilic operated biogas plants but also the detection of process disturbances such as acidification. In particular, acidification of a biogas plant was detected in advance by disappearance of major bands in SDS-PAGE. Identification of proteins from SDS-PAGE gels revealed that methyl CoM reductase, which is responsible for the release of methane during methanogenesis, from the order Methanosarcinales was significantly decreased. Hence, it is assumed that this enzyme might be a promising candidate to serve as a predictive biomarker for acidification. PMID:23369865

  19. Performance evaluation of a continuous bipolar electrocoagulation\\/electrooxidation–electroflotation (ECEO–EF) reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hossein Mahvi; Seyed Jamal Al-din Ebrahimi; Alireza Mesdaghinia; Hamed Gharibi; Mohammad Hossein Sowlat

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a continuous bipolar ECEO–EF reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent. The reactor was comprised of two distinct units: electrochemical and separation. In the electrochemical unit, Al, stainless steel, and RuO2\\/Ti plates were used. All the measurements were performed according to the standard methods. Maximum efficiency

  20. Desulfitobacterium hafniense Is Present in a High Proportion within the Biofilms of a High-Performance Pentachlorophenol-Degrading, Methanogenic Fixed-Film Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Lanthier, M.; Juteau, P.; Lépine, F.; Beaudet, R.; Villemur, R.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading, methanogenic fixed-film reactor by using broken granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. This methanogenic consortium was acclimated with increasing concentrations of PCP. After 225 days of acclimation, the reactor was performing at a high level, with a PCP removal rate of 1,173 ?M day?1, a PCP removal efficiency of up to 99%, a degradation efficiency of approximately 60%, and 3-chlorophenol as the main chlorophenol residual intermediate. Analyses by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that Bacteria and Archaea in the reactor stabilized in the biofilms after 56 days of operation. Important modifications in the profiles of Bacteria between the original granular sludge and the reactor occurred, as less than one-third of the sludge DGGE bands were still present in the reactor. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments with probes for Archaea or Bacteria revealed that the biofilms were composed mostly of Bacteria, which accounted for 70% of the cells. With PCR species-specific primers, the presence of the halorespiring bacterium Desulfitobacterium hafniense in the biofilm was detected very early during the reactor acclimation period. D. hafniense cells were scattered in the biofilm and accounted for 19% of the community. These results suggest that the presence of PCP-dehalogenating D. hafniense in the biofilm was crucial for the performance of the reactor. PMID:15691966

  1. Effects of staged vessels on dissolver performance. Internal R and D final report. [Staged reactors at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Sivasubramanian, R.; Givens, E.N.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted under ICRC's Program Area 12.1.7, on the effects of staged vessels on dissolver performance. Results showed that operating the dissolvers in series decreased the preasphaltenes yield. From a process viewpoint, this should increase the amount of recoverable product, because recovery from the plant's critical solvent deashing unit will increase when preasphaltene content decreases. Neither conversion nor oil, asphaltene, or gas yields were affected by reactor configuration. Process data taken at residence times from 20 to 60 min and temperatures from 780 to 840/sup 0/F showed that oil yields were directly affected by reaction time, but relatively insensitive to temperature. Operating the dissolvers at staged temperatures may have some potential advantages. For Lafayette Kentucky number 9 coal, operating the first dissolver at 810/sup 0/F and the second at 840/sup 0/F, agreed with the results observed under similar conditions on Lafayette coal. By operating the first reactor at a lower temperature, the oil yields were improved, compared to operating both reactors at the same temperature. The hydrocarbon gas yields and hydrogen consumption were lower in the staged-temperature than in the isothermal mode. 8 references, 9 figures, 26 tables.

  2. Thermal performance of fresh mixed-oxide fuel in a fast flux LMR (liquid metal reactor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ethridge; R. B. Baker

    1985-01-01

    A test was designed and irradiated to provide power-to-melt (heat generation rate necessary to initiate centerline fuel melting) data for fresh mixed-oxide UOâ-PuOâ fuel irradiated in a fast neutron flux under prototypic liquid metal reactor (LMR) conditions. The fuel pin parameters were selected to envelope allowable fabrication ranges and address mass production of LMR fuel using sintered-to-size techniques. The test

  3. Comparison of rod- versus filament-type methanogenic granules: microbial population and reactor performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Min Wu; Jiirgen H. Thiele; Mahendra K. Jain; H. Stuart Pankratz; Robert F. Hickey; J. Gregory Zeikus

    1993-01-01

    Two types of methanogenic granules capable of high chemical oxygen demand removal rates were developed in laboratory-scale upflow reactors at 35° C. One granule type (R-granules) had a rod-type Methanothrix-like species as the predominant species whereas the other (F-granules) had a filament-type M. soehngenii-like acetate-utilizer as the predominant species. These two types of granules were compared in terms of operational

  4. Impact of design options on natural circulation performance of the AFR-300 advanced fast reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunn

    2002-01-01

    The AFR-300, Advanced Fast Reactor (300 Mwe), has been proposed as a Generation IV concept. It could also be used to dispose of surplus weapons grade plutonium or as an actinide burner for transmutation of high level radioactive waste. AFR-300 uses metallic fuel and sodium coolant. The design of AFR-300 takes account of the successful design and operation of EBR-II,

  5. A high-performance non-circular Tokamak power reactor design study - UWMAK-III

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Conn; G. L. Kulcinski; C. W. Maynard; R. W. Boom; R. G. Clemmer; G. A. Emmert; R. Aronstein; A. Bowles; S. Ghose; J. Davis

    1977-01-01

    UWMAK-III is a conceptual small-size power reactor design study of a noncircular Tokamak to produce a thermal power output of 5000 MW and a continuous net electrical output of 1985 MW, with a net plant efficiency of about 42%. Major design features comprise the use of the molybdenum-based alloy TZM as the primary structural material, aluminum as the stabilizer and

  6. The effect of velocity and porosity profiles on the performance of fixed bed reactors

    E-print Network

    Amin, Kaushik

    1983-01-01

    utilized to refine the model. An implicit finite difference technique developed by Crank and Nicholson was used to solve the systems of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations, Solution time required for all the reaction systems was less thar... for the reactor models requires numerical solution of a set of coupled nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations. Several finite difference and collocation techniques are reported for such a system of equations by Crank and Nicholson(1947), Valdimir...

  7. Mechanical Performance of Ferritic Martensitic Steels for High Dose Applications in Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderoglu, Osman; Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered for core applications and pressure vessels in Generation IV reactors as well as first walls and blankets for fusion reactors. There are significant scientific data on testing and industrial experience in making this class of alloys worldwide. This experience makes F/M steels an attractive candidate. In this article, tensile behavior, fracture toughness and impact property, and creep behavior of the F/M steels under neutron irradiations to high doses with a focus on high Cr content (8 to 12) are reviewed. Tensile properties are very sensitive to irradiation temperature. Increase in yield and tensile strength (hardening) is accompanied with a loss of ductility and starts at very low doses under irradiation. The degradation of mechanical properties is most pronounced at <0.3 T M ( T M is melting temperature) and up to 10 dpa (displacement per atom). Ferritic/martensitic steels exhibit a high fracture toughness after irradiation at all temperatures even below 673 K (400 °C), except when tested at room temperature after irradiations below 673 K (400 °C), which shows a significant reduction in fracture toughness. Creep studies showed that for the range of expected stresses in a reactor environment, the stress exponent is expected to be approximately one and the steady state creep rate in the absence of swelling is usually better than austenitic stainless steels both in terms of the creep rate and the temperature sensitivity of creep. In short, F/M steels show excellent promise for high dose applications in nuclear reactors.

  8. Zirconium alloy performance in light water reactors: A review of UK and Scandinavian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pickman, D.O. [UK Atomic Energy Authority, Preston (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Various aspects of zirconium alloy development for light water reactors in the UK and Scandinavia are reviewed, including the contribution made by some unique nuclear testing facilities. Among the problems encountered were the irradiation enhancement of corrosion and hydrogen pickup, crud deposition, iodine-induced stress-corrosion cracking on power ramping, and severe cladding deformation in loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The causes and behavior of defects, including hydride defects and fretting corrosion, are discussed.

  9. Gel-sphere-pac fuel for thermal reactors: assessment of fabrication technology and irradiation performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatty; R. E. R. L. Norman; K. J. Notz

    1979-01-01

    Recent interest in proliferation-resistant fuel cycles for light-water reactors has focused attention on spiked plutonium and ²³³U-Th fuels, requiring remote refabrication. The gel-sphere-pac process for fabricating metal-clad fuel elements has drawn special attention because it involves fewer steps. Gel-sphere-pac fabrication technology involves two major areas: the preparation of fuel spheres of high density and loading these spheres into rods in

  10. Liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel rod performance and modeling at high burnup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Verbeek; H. Toebbe; N. Hoppe; B. Steinmetz

    1978-01-01

    The fuel rod modeling codes IAMBUS and COMETHE were used in the analysis and interpretation of postirradiation examination results of mixed-oxide fuel pins. These codes were developed in the framework of the SNR-300 research and development (R and D) program at Interatom and Belgonucleaire, respectively. SNR-300 is a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor demonstration plant designed and presently constructed in consortial

  11. Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tawfik; A. Ohashi; H. Harada

    2010-01-01

    The performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent at different sponge volume of 38.2,\\u000a 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6% was investigated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and flow rate were kept constant at 2.6 h and 0.46 m3\\/day, respectively. The results obtained indicated that reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1% significantly\\u000a decreased the

  12. The Impact of Mission Performance Requirements on the Development of an Early-Flight Space Fission Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, David I.

    2003-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from past space fission reactor programs is that a small first step should be taken to successfully deploy a space fission system. The ``size'' of the first step is primarily determined by the mission performance requirements, most importantly power, lifetime, and mass. This paper discusses the benefits of keeping these requirements as simple as possible. Several issues are presented that demonstrate how lower-power, shorter-lifetime, and higher-mass requirements can significantly decrease development risk for a fission system.

  13. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanapong Duangmanee

    2009-01-01

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used

  14. On-farm animal waste for biogas production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The current state of knowledge and bottlenecks of animal waste management systems is reviewed briefly. The estimated biogas production potential from manures in the State of Hawaii is tabulated. Waste management systems for two pig farms in the state are described. (MHR)

  15. Adsorption of natural gas and biogas components on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel A. A. C. Esteves; Marta S. S. Lopes; Pedro M. C. Nunes; José P. B. Mota

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the adsorption equilibria of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, as well as natural gas odorants tert-butyl mercaptan and tetrahydrothiophene, on an activated carbon with the desirable characteristics for use in a guard bed for adsorbed natural gas storage, but that can also be applied for separation of biogas components, such as carbon

  16. Oxidation reduction potential as a parameter to regulate micro-oxygen injection into anaerobic digester for reducing hydrogen sulphide concentration in biogas.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Long D; Manassa, Patrick; Dawson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Shona K

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) to regulate the injection of a small amount of oxygen into an anaerobic digester for reducing H2S concentration in biogas. The results confirm that micro-oxygen injection can be effective for controlling H2S formation during anaerobic digestion without disturbing the performance of the digester. Biogas production, composition, and the removal of volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were monitored to assessment the digester's performance. Six days after the start of the micro-oxygen injection, the ORP values increased to between -320 and -270 mV, from the natural baseline value of -485 mV. Over the same period the H2S concentration in the biogas decreased from over 6000 ppm to just 30 ppm. No discernible changes in the VS and COD removal rates, pH and alkalinity of the digestate or in the biogas production or composition were observed. PMID:25306445

  17. Microalgae as substrates for fermentative biogas production in a combined biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Mussgnug, J H; Klassen, V; Schlüter, A; Kruse, O

    2010-10-01

    Most organic matter can be used for bioenergy generation via anaerobic fermentation. Today, crop plants like maize play the dominant role as substrates for renewable biogas production. In this work we investigated the suitability of six dominant microalgae species (freshwater and saltwater algae and cyanobacteria) as alternative substrates for biogas production. We could demonstrate that the biogas potential is strongly dependent on the species and on the pretreatment. Fermentation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was efficient with a production of 587 ml(±8.8 SE) biogas g volatile solids(-1) (VS(-1)), whereas fermentation of Scenedesmus obliquus was inefficient with only 287 ml(±10.1 SE) biogas g VS(-1) being produced. Drying as a pretreatment decreased the amount of biogas production to ca. 80%. The methane content of biogas from microalgae was 7-13% higher compared to biogas from maize silage. To evaluate integrative biorefinery concepts, hydrogen production in C. reinhardtii prior to anaerobic fermentation of the algae biomass was measured and resulted in an increase of biogas generation to 123% (±3.7 SE). We conclude that selected algae species can be good substrates for biogas production and that anaerobic fermentation can seriously be considered as final step in future microalgae-based biorefinery concepts. PMID:20691224

  18. In situ optical studies of methane and simulated biogas oxidation on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell anodes.

    PubMed

    Kirtley, John D; Steinhurst, Daniel A; Owrutsky, Jeffery C; Pomfret, Michael B; Walker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Novel integration of in situ near infrared (NIR) thermal imaging, vibrational Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIRES) coupled with traditional electrochemical measurements has been used to probe chemical and thermal properties of Ni-based, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes operating with methane and simulated biogas fuel mixtures at 800 °C. Together, these three non-invasive optical techniques provide direct insight into the surface chemistry associated with device performance as a function of cell polarization. Specifically, data from these complementary methods measure with high spatial and temporal resolution thermal gradients and changes in material and gas phase composition in operando. NIR thermal images show that SOFC anodes operating with biogas undergo significant cooling (?T = -13 °C) relative to the same anodes operating with methane fuel (?T = -3 °C). This result is general regardless of cell polarization. Simultaneous Raman spectroscopic measurements are unable to detect carbon formation on anodes operating with biogas. Carbon deposition is observable during operation with methane as evidenced by a weak vibrational band at 1556 cm(-1). This feature is assigned to highly ordered graphite. In situ FTIRES corroborates these results by identifying relative amounts of CO2 and CO produced during electrochemical removal of anodic carbon previously formed from an incident fuel feed. Taken together, these three optical techniques illustrate the promise that complementary, in situ methods have for identifying electrochemical oxidation mechanisms and carbon-forming pathways in high temperature electrochemical devices. PMID:24247646

  19. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangmanee, Thanapong

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration was affected by changes in liquid heights the most, followed by changes in flow rates. Feasibility studies for H2S removal from biogas by micro-aeration were conducted at the Ames Water Pollution Control Facility (AWPCF) by using different types of liquid media available at the plant, i.e. plant effluent, mixed liquor, and digester supernatant. From the experiment at AWPCF, it was found that operating pHs were affected by the amount of alkalinity in the liquid media and that the removal efficiencies were affected by the operating pH. Among all the liquid media tested, digester supernatant showed the greatest potential with more than 99% H2S removal at an operating pH of 7.0 and volumetric biogas flow rate of 21.6 m3/m 3-hr. By increasing trace metal contents and temperature of the medium, the hydrogen sulfide removal rate was greatly improved. The operating cost of the full-scale system was estimated to be approximately $2/kg-S-removed. In addition, it was also revealed that abiotic sulfide oxidation accounted for 95% of overall sulfide oxidation. This technology is expected to widen the use of biogas as a renewable fuel since the maintenance requirements of biogas handling equipment, the methane purification costs, and the emissions of SOx will dramatically be reduced. Importantly, the technology does not require inoculation of special bacteria, addition of nutrients and trace elements, or chemicals for pH control.

  20. Titania and alumina sol-gel-derived microfluidics enzymatic-reactors for peptide mapping: design, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiling; Tian, Yuping; Liu, Baohong; Lu, Haojie; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Jianjun; Jin, Hong; Yang, Pengyuang; Xu, Yunmin; Wang, Honghai

    2004-01-01

    The design and characterization of titania-based and alumina-based Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidics enzymatic-reactors along with their analytical features in coupling with MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS were reported. Microfluidics with microchannel and stainless steel tubing (SST) were fabricated using PDMS casting and O(2)-plasma techniques, and were used for the preparation of an enzymatic-reactor. Plasma oxidation for the PDMS microfluidic system enabled the channel wall of the microfluidics to present a layer of silanol (SiOH) groups. These SiOH groups act as anchors onto the microchannel wall linked covalently with the hydroxyl groups of trypsin-encapsulated sol matrix. As a result, the trypsin-encapsulated gel matrix was anchored onto the wall of the microchannel, and the leakage of gel matrix from the microchannel was effectively prevented. A feature of the microfluidic enzymatic-reactors is the feasibility of performing on-line protein analysis by attached SST electrode and replaceable tip. The success of trypsin encapsulation was investigated by AFM imaging, assay of enzymatic activity, CE detection, and MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS analysis. The lab-made devices provide an excellent extent of digestion even at a fast flow rate of 7.0 microL/min, which affords the very short residence time of ca. 2 s. With the present device, the digestion time was significantly shortened compared to conventional tryptic reaction schemes. In addition, the encapsulated trypsin exhibits increased stability even after continuous use. These features are required for high-throughput protein identification. PMID:15595729

  1. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluska, Jacek; Klein, Marek; Kazimierski, Pawe?; Karda?, Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  2. Initial performance assessment of the Westinghouse AP600 containment design and related safety issues. [Advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tills, J.L. (Tills (Jack) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Washington, K.E.; Nicolette, V.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The CONTAIN code is currently being used to predict containment thermal hydraulic conditions during design basis and severe accidents for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs such as the Westinghouse AP600. In the AP600 design, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is used for reducing long-term overpressure during accidents. CONTAIN models for heat and mass transfer within the AP600 containment and outer air cooling channel are verified by comparing recent CONTAIN calculations to integral test data obtained by Westinghouse in their PCCS Integral Test Facility. The comparison includes test in which the outer containment wall is both dry and wet, that is, the wet tests involve an evaporative water film that enhances heat transfer as will be the case for AP600. The appropriateness of the heat and mass transfer analogy methodology used in the CONTAIN code is demonstrated. Code model limitations are discussed along with model development plans and applications for AP600.

  3. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs. PMID:24350482

  4. Maximising biogas in anaerobic digestion by using engine waste heat for thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment of sludge.

    PubMed

    Pickworth, B; Adams, J; Panter, K; Solheim, O E

    2006-01-01

    Dublin's Ringsend WWTP was designed to serve a population of approximately 1.2 million p.e. with a sludge production of 37,000 dry tonnes per year after upgrading to full secondary treatment. Several technical solutions were put forward as part of a design, build, finance and operate (DBFO) competition, with the chosen solution being a proposal by Black and Veatch for a combination of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology and anaerobic digestion with Cambi thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment (THP). The THP plant was built by Cambi and handed over to B&V in 2002. The plant is now operated by Celtic Anglian Water. In September 2004 a test was carried out on the mass and energy balance of the plant following 2 years of operation and is detailed in this paper. The process enables digestion at very high dry solids feed and low hydraulic retention time. The plant was built with three digesters of 4250 m3 each and is fed with hydrolysed sludge at 11% DS. There are four no. 1 MW Jenbacher engines operating mainly on biogas. Each pair of engines is fitted with a waste heat boiler with a capacity of one tonne steam per hour. These boilers have sufficient capacity to provide 80% of the steam required for the THP, which in turn provides all the heat for the subsequent digestion in the form of hydrolysed feed. There are two main biogas boilers for top up steam and other uses of the biogas including thermal oxidation of concentrated odours. PMID:17087375

  5. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    PubMed

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications. PMID:23508153

  6. Performance of a sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur-producing membrane biofilm reactor treating sulfide-containing bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Hasar, Halil; Kaksonen, Anna H; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-05-01

    Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated in mining, petrochemical plants, tanneries, viscose rayon manufacture, and the gasification of coal. Colorless sulfur bacteria can oxidize sulfide to elemental sulfur (S°), which can be recovered, when oxygen is their electron acceptor. This study evaluated sulfide oxidation and S° recovery in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating the effluent from a sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor. Sulfide oxidation efficiency (37-99%) and S° recovery (64-89% of oxidized sulfide) could be controlled by manipulating the sulfide loading, oxygen pressure to the fibers, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). For example, too-low oxygen pressure decreased S° recovery due to decreased sulfide oxidation, but too-high oxygen pressure lowered S° recovery due to its oxidation to sulfate. Most importantly, high sulfide oxidation (>98%) and conversion to S° (>75%) could be achieved together when the sulfide loading was less than 1.7 mol/m²·d and the O? pressure was sufficient to give an O? flux of at least 1.5 mol/m²·d. However, higher sulfide loading could be compensated by a higher O? pressure, and the best performance occurred when the sulfide loading was high (2 molS/m²·d), the O? pressure was high (?1 atm), and the HRT was short (1.9 h). Membrane fouling caused a low O? flux, which led to low sulfide-oxidation efficiency, but fouling could be reversed by mild acid washing. PMID:21452867

  7. Airlift column photobioreactors for Porphyridium sp. culturing: Part II. verification of dynamic growth rate model for reactor performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hu-Ping; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic growth rate model has been developed to quantify the impact of hydrodynamics on the growth of photosynthetic microorganisms and to predict the photobioreactor performance. Rigorous verification of such reactor models, however, is rare in the literature. In this part of work, verification of a dynamic growth rate model developed in Luo and Al-Dahhan (2004) [Biotech Bioeng 85(4): 382-393] was attempted using the experimental results reported in Part I of this work and results from literature. The irradiance distribution inside the studied reactor was also measured at different optical densities and successfully correlated by the Lambert-Beer Law. When reliable hydrodynamic data were used, the dynamic growth rate model successfully predicted the algae's growth rate obtained in the experiments in both low and high irradiance regime indicating the robustness of this model. The simulation results also indicate the hydrodynamics is significantly different between the real algae culturing system and an air-water system that signifies the importance in using reliable data input for the growth rate model. PMID:22068388

  8. Anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in intermittent UASB reactors: influence of effluent recirculation.

    PubMed

    Couras, C S; Louros, V L; Gameiro, T; Alves, N; Silva, A; Capela, M I; Arroja, L M; Nadais, H

    2015-09-01

    This work studied the influence of effluent recirculation upon the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in the feedless phase of intermittent upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. Several laboratory-scale tests were performed with different organic loads in closed circuit UASB reactors inoculated with adapted flocculent sludge. The data obtained were used for determination of specific substrate removal rates and specific methane production rates, and adjusted to kinetic models. A high initial substrate removal was observed in all tests due to adsorption of organic matter onto the anaerobic biomass which was not accompanied by biological substrate degradation as measured by methane production. Initial methane production rate was about 45% of initial soluble and colloidal substrate removal rate. This discrepancy between methane production rate and substrate removal rate was observed mainly on the first day of all experiments and was attenuated on the second day, suggesting that the feedless period of intermittent UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater should be longer than one day. Effluent recirculation expressively raised the rate of removal of soluble and colloidal substrate and methane productivity, as compared with results for similar assays in batch reactors without recirculation. The observed bed expansion was due to the biogas production and the application of effluent recirculation led to a sludge bed contraction after all the substrates were degraded. The settleability of the anaerobic sludge improved by the introduction of effluent recirculation this effect being more pronounced for the higher loads. PMID:25803484

  9. Performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor coupled with up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for treatment of onion dehydration wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Kamah, Hala; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a promising system consisting of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was investigated for onion dehydration wastewater treatment. Laboratory experiments were conducted at two different phases, i.e., phase (1) at overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11h (UASB reactor: 6h and DHS reactor: 5h) and phase (2) at overall HRT of 9.4h (UASB reactor: 5.2h and DHS reactor: 4.2h). Long-term operation results of the proposed system showed that its overall TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN and NH(4)-N removal efficiencies were 92 ± 5, 95 ± 2, 95 ± 2, 72 ± 6 and 99 ± 1.3%, respectively (phase 1). Corresponding values for the 2nd phase were 85.4 ± 5, 86 ± 3, 87 ± 6, 65 ± 8 and 95 ± 2.8%. Based on the available results, the proposed system could be more viable option for treatment of wastewater generated from onion dehydration industry in regions with tropical or sub-tropical climates and with stringent discharge standards. PMID:21546245

  10. Defluoridation of drinking water by electrocoagulation/electroflotation in a stirred tank reactor with a comparative performance to an external-loop airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Vial, Ch; Delmas, H; Bennajah, M

    2009-09-15

    Defluoridation using batch electrocoagulation/electroflotation (EC/EF) was carried out in two reactors for comparison purpose: a stirred tank reactor (STR) close to a conventional EC cell and an external-loop airlift reactor (ELAR) that was recently described as an innovative reactor for EC. The respective influences of current density, initial concentration and initial pH on the efficiency of defluoridation were investigated. The same trends were observed in both reactors, but the efficiency was higher in the STR at the beginning of the electrolysis, whereas similar values were usually achieved after 15min operation. The influence of the initial pH was explained using the analyses of sludge composition and residual soluble aluminum species in the effluents, and it was related to the prevailing mechanisms of defluoridation. Fluoride removal and sludge reduction were both favored by an initial pH around 4, but this value required an additional pre-treatment for pH adjustment. Finally, electric energy consumption was similar in both reactors when current density was lower than 12mA/cm(2), but mixing and complete flotation of the pollutants were achieved without additional mechanical power in the ELAR, using only the overall liquid recirculation induced by H(2) microbubbles generated by water electrolysis, which makes subsequent treatments easier to carry out. PMID:19375221

  11. A COMPARISON OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF A LOW pH HIGH S TRENG TH DISSOLVED ORGANIC WASTE WATER IN MEMBRANE AND PACKED BED REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Zyl; Ekama GA; Riedel KJ; Wentzel MC

    An Anaerobic Membrane Bio-Reactor (AnMBR) is being developed for the treatment of Fischer-Tropsch reaction water (FTRW) originating in Sasol's coal to fuel synthesis process. The laboratory-scale AnMBR uses A4-size submerged flat panel ultra filtration membranes to induce a 100% solids-liquid-separation. Membrane scour to minimize fouling is provided by a biogas recirculation system - biogas is extracted from the headspace and

  12. Influence of carrier filling ratio on the performance of moving bed biofilm reactor in treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiyuan; Sun, Tichang; Wu, Gen; Li, Mingyue; Qiu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of carrier filling ratio on the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor in degrading chemical oxygen demand, phenol, thiocyanate, and ammonia from coking wastewater at 20h of hydraulic retention time. The operational experiments under different carrier filling ratios ranging from 20% to 60% were investigated. The maximum removal efficiency of 89%, 99% and 99% for COD, phenol and thiocyanate, and minimum sensitivity to the increasing contaminants concentration in the influent were achieved at 50% carrier filling ratio. The Haldane competitive substrate inhibition kinetics model was used to describe the relationship between the oxygen uptake rate of ammonium oxidizers and the concentration of free ammonium. The highest biofilm microbial community functional diversity (Shannon's diversity index, H') and evenness (Shannon's evenness index, E') were obtained at 50% carrier filling ratio in all runs using a Biolog ECO microplate. PMID:24907566

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Vu, T. K. V.; Vu, D. Q.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required. PMID:25715690

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, T K V; Vu, D Q; Jensen, L S; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2015-05-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required. PMID:25715690

  15. High performance controlled reactors from micellar assemblies of aromatic amino acid amphiphiles for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vijay, R; Angayarkanny, S; Baskar, Geetha; Mandal, A B

    2012-09-01

    The micellar assemblies of lauryl esters of tyrosine (LET) and phenylalanine (LEP) show extraordinary emulsification properties. The structural similarity in respect of the aromatic ring between the dispersed phase, styrene, and the surfactants facilitates solubilization of styrene up to four times the weight of LEP and 11 times that of LET. We propose that the solubilization site varies between core in the LEP and shell in the LET micelles. LET affords double emulsions, water in oil in water (w/o/w) over a narrow phase composition, for example at R=7.15, where R represents ratio of weight of styrene to LET. A schematic model depicting the solubilization site of styrene at different regions in LET and LEP micelles has been proposed. On polymerization, the emulsions with LET and LEP micelles generated high molecular weight polymer nanoparticles of size 12-49 nm with low polydispersity index (P(d)). This demonstrates that micellar assemblies act as templating controlled reactors for the polymerization reaction. We demonstrate that PS nanoparticle dispersion of size 49 nm with polymer weight fraction as high as 42.80% could be produced from emulsions with the LET surfactant, in contrast to LEP that is 50% less efficient. Polymerization of these emulsions occurs predominantly through a micellar nucleation mechanism. It is significant to note that under the same conditions, the control experiments with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelles resulted in polymers with broad distribution, P(d)>3.0 in molecular weight. PMID:22727402

  16. Steam generator materials performance in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chafey, J.E.; Roberts, D.I.

    1980-11-01

    This paper reviews the materials technology aspects of steam generators for HTGRs which feature a graphite-moderated, uranium-thorium, all-ceramic core and utilizes high-pressure helium as the primary coolant. The steam generators are exposed to gas-side temperatures approaching 760/sup 0/C and produce superheated steam at 538/sup 0/C and 16.5 MPa (2400 psi). The prototype Peach Bottom I 40-MW(e) HTGR was operated for 1349 EFPD over 7 years. Examination after decommissioning of the U-tube steam generators and other components showed the steam generators to be in very satisfactory condition. The 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain HTGR, now in the final stages of startup, has achieved 70% power and generated more than 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ MWh of electricity. The steam generators in this reactor are once-through units of helical configuration, requiring a number of new materials factors including creep-fatigue and water chemistry control. Current designs of larger HTGRs also feature steam generators of helical once-through design. Materials issues that are important in these designs include detailed consideration of time-dependent behavior of both base metals and welds, as required by current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code rules, evaluation of bimetallic weld behavior, evaluation of the properties of large forgings, etc.

  17. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. PMID:24333792

  18. Transmutation Performance Analysis for Inert Matrix Fuels in Light Water Reactors and Computational Neutronics Methods Capabilities at INL

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope; Samuel E. Bays; S. Piet; R. Ferrer; Mehdi Asgari; Benoit Forget

    2009-05-01

    The urgency for addressing repository impacts has grown in the past few years as a result of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) accumulation from commercial nuclear power plants. One path that has been explored by many is to eliminate the transuranic (TRU) inventory from the SNF, thus reducing the need for additional long term repository storage sites. One strategy for achieving this is to burn the separated TRU elements in the currently operating U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) fleet. Many studies have explored the viability of this strategy by loading a percentage of LWR cores with TRU in the form of either Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels or Inert Matrix Fuels (IMF). A task was undertaken at INL to establish specific technical capabilities to perform neutronics analyses in order to further assess several key issues related to the viability of thermal recycling. The initial computational study reported here is focused on direct thermal recycling of IMF fuels in a heterogeneous Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) bundle design containing Plutonium, Neptunium, Americium, and Curium (IMF-PuNpAmCm) in a multi-pass strategy using legacy 5 year cooled LWR SNF. In addition to this initial high-priority analysis, three other alternate analyses with different TRU vectors in IMF pins were performed. These analyses provide comparison of direct thermal recycling of PuNpAmCmCf, PuNpAm, PuNp, and Pu. The results of this infinite lattice assembly-wise study using SCALE 5.1 indicate that it may be feasible to recycle TRU in this manner using an otherwise typical PWR assembly without violating peaking factor limits.

  19. Reactor service life extension program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Caskey; R. L. Sindelar; R. S. Ondrejcin; E. W. Baumann

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The

  20. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10Nm(3)CH4Mg(-1)TS(-1) and 245±26Nm(3) CH4Mg(-1)TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292Nm(3) CH4Ha(-1) and 4549Nm(3)CH4Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50€Nm(-3)CH4(-1) and 0.81€Nm(-3)CH4(-1), and 0.10€kWhEE(-1) and 0.19€kWhEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  1. Biogas as a fuel source for SOFC co-generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Van herle; Yves Membrez; Olivier Bucheli

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on the combination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generators fueled with biogas as renewable energy source, recoverable from wastes but at present underexploited. From a mobilisable near-future potential in the European Union (EU-15) of 17 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe), under 15% appears to be converted today into useful heat and power (2Mtoe).SOFCs could improve and

  2. Production of Methane Biogas as Fuel Through Anaerobic Digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongtang Yu; Floyd L. Schanbacher

    \\u000a Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biotechnology by which biomass is converted by microbes to methane (CH4) biogas, which can then be utilized as a renewable fuel to generate heat and electricity. A genetically and metabolically\\u000a diverse community of microbes (mainly bacteria and methanogens) drives the AD process through a series of complex microbiological\\u000a processes in the absence of oxygen. During

  3. Biogas production in batch and semicontinuous digesters using water hyacinth

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Kavadia, K.M.; Shroff, K.C.; Mahajan, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Semicontinuous digestion experiments at ambient temperature conducted in a pilot size mixed digester using groundwater hyacinth showed that maximum specific methane production rate was obtained at the highest volatile solids loading rate and lowest hydraulic detention time. Specific methane production rate is correlated with volatile solids loading rate; this correlation offers a simple tool to design semicontinuous biogas digesters for commercial plants using water hyacinth.

  4. Root-cause analysis of the better performance of the coarse-mesh finite-difference method for CANDU-type reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W. [Candu Energy Inc., 2285 Speakman Dr., Mississauga, ON L5B 1K (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Recent assessment results indicate that the coarse-mesh finite-difference method (FDM) gives consistently smaller percent differences in channel powers than the fine-mesh FDM when compared to the reference MCNP solution for CANDU-type reactors. However, there is an impression that the fine-mesh FDM should always give more accurate results than the coarse-mesh FDM in theory. To answer the question if the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors was just a coincidence (cancellation of errors) or caused by the use of heavy water or the use of lattice-homogenized cross sections for the cluster fuel geometry in the diffusion calculation, three benchmark problems were set up with three different fuel lattices: CANDU, HWR and PWR. These benchmark problems were then used to analyze the root cause of the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors. The analyses confirm that the better performance of the coarse-mesh FDM for CANDU-type reactors is mainly caused by the use of lattice-homogenized cross sections for the sub-meshes of the cluster fuel geometry in the diffusion calculation. Based on the analyses, it is recommended to use 2 x 2 coarse-mesh FDM to analyze CANDU-type reactors when lattice-homogenized cross sections are used in the core analysis. (authors)

  5. Ecophysiological characteristics and biogas production of cadmium-contaminated crops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huayong; Tian, Yonglan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Luyi; Dai, Liming

    2013-10-01

    The present study proposes a novel strategy to get a rational production of biogas of the biomass residues from phytoremediation. This study investigates physiological responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation and biogas production from canola, oat and wheat in pot and batch experiments. The results indicate that (1) aerial biomasses for canola, oat and wheat were enhanced by 5 mg Cd/kg soil by 19.41%, 8.78% and 3.38%, and the upper limit of Cd concentration that canola, oat and wheat can tolerate for aerial biomass production were 50, 10 and 10 mg Cd/kg soil; (2) canola accumulates more Cd than oat and wheat in its aerial parts; (3) cumulative biogas yields were 159.37%, 179.23% and 111.34% of the control when Cd in the shoot were 2.00±0.44, 39.80±1.25 and 6.37±0.15 mg Cd/kg biomass for canola, oat and wheat. Phytoremediation in cooperation with bioenergy production provide new insights for both soil remediation and energy research. PMID:23978478

  6. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. PMID:24269061

  7. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  8. Fast reactor fuel pin performance requirements for off-normal events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Baars; T. Hikido; J. E. Hanson

    1979-01-01

    HEDL is conducting an experimental transient testing program to evaluate the performance of prototypic Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins up to the cladding integrity limit. The relationship is described of the HEDL\\/TREAT transient overpower test program to the confirmation of FFTF fuel pin design bases via the FFTF fuel pin design procedure.

  9. Early-in-life thermal performance of UOâ--PuOâ fast reactor fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Baker; R. D. Leggett

    1979-01-01

    Results from the combined analyses of two thermal performance tests, HEDL P-19 and HEDL P-20 are described. The tests were designed to provide data on the power required to cause incipient fuel melting early in life under conditions prototypic of FFTF driver fuel pins and similar FBR fuel systems.

  10. Continuously-stirred anaerobic digester to convert organic wastes into biogas: system setup and basic operation.

    PubMed

    Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation. PMID:22824993

  11. Continuously-stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System Setup and Basic Operation

    PubMed Central

    Usack, Joseph G.; Spirito, Catherine M.; Angenent, Largus T.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a bioprocess that is commonly used to convert complex organic wastes into a useful biogas with methane as the energy carrier 1-3. Increasingly, AD is being used in industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste(water) treatment applications 4,5. The use of AD technology allows plant operators to reduce waste disposal costs and offset energy utility expenses. In addition to treating organic wastes, energy crops are being converted into the energy carrier methane 6,7. As the application of AD technology broadens for the treatment of new substrates and co-substrate mixtures 8, so does the demand for a reliable testing methodology at the pilot- and laboratory-scale. Anaerobic digestion systems have a variety of configurations, including the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow (PF), and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) configurations 9. The CSTR is frequently used in research due to its simplicity in design and operation, but also for its advantages in experimentation. Compared to other configurations, the CSTR provides greater uniformity of system parameters, such as temperature, mixing, chemical concentration, and substrate concentration. Ultimately, when designing a full-scale reactor, the optimum reactor configuration will depend on the character of a given substrate among many other nontechnical considerations. However, all configurations share fundamental design features and operating parameters that render the CSTR appropriate for most preliminary assessments. If researchers and engineers use an influent stream with relatively high concentrations of solids, then lab-scale bioreactor configurations cannot be fed continuously due to plugging problems of lab-scale pumps with solids or settling of solids in tubing. For that scenario with continuous mixing requirements, lab-scale bioreactors are fed periodically and we refer to such configurations as continuously stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs). This article presents a general methodology for constructing, inoculating, operating, and monitoring a CSAD system for the purpose of testing the suitability of a given organic substrate for long-term anaerobic digestion. The construction section of this article will cover building the lab-scale reactor system. The inoculation section will explain how to create an anaerobic environment suitable for seeding with an active methanogenic inoculum. The operating section will cover operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting. The monitoring section will introduce testing protocols using standard analyses. The use of these measures is necessary for reliable experimental assessments of substrate suitability for AD. This protocol should provide greater protection against a common mistake made in AD studies, which is to conclude that reactor failure was caused by the substrate in use, when really it was improper user operation 10. PMID:22824993

  12. Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2010-09-01

    The performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent at different sponge volume of 38.2, 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6% was investigated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and flow rate were kept constant at 2.6 h and 0.46 m(3)/day, respectively. The results obtained indicated that reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1% significantly decreased the removal efficiency of COD(total) from 80 +/- 8 to 62 +/- 14%; COD(soluble) from 71.2 +/- 10 to 53.7 +/- 18% and COD(particulate) from 86 +/- 10 to 62 +/- 15%. With further reduction of the sponge volume down to 9.6%, the removal efficiency was dropped to 54 +/- 15% for COD(total); 44.1 +/- 14% for COD(soluble) and 42 +/- 12% for COD(particulate). Likewise, the nitrification efficiency and fecal coliform (FC) removal was strongly affected by decreasing the sponge volume of the DHS system, i.e., the nitrification efficiency was dropped by a value of 48.3% when reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1%. At sponge volume of 38.2%, the DHS system removes 2.6 +/- 0.3 log(10)/100 ml of FC which is significantly higher than that at sponge volume of 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6%. Accordingly, it is recommended to design and operate such a system at a bulk sponge volume not exceeding 38.2% of the total reactor volume and at an HRT of 2.6 h. PMID:20013130

  13. Nitritation performance and biofilm development of co- and counter-diffusion biofilm reactors: modeling and experimental comparison.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongchang; Terada, Akihiko; Lackner, Susanne; Smets, Barth F; Henze, Mogens; Xia, Siqing; Zhao, Jianfu

    2009-06-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the start-up performance and biofilm development in two different biofilm reactors with aim of obtaining partial nitritation. The reactors were both operated under oxygen limited conditions, but differed in geometry. While substrates (O2, NH3) co-diffused in one geometry, they counter-diffused in the other. Mathematical simulations of these two geometries were implemented in two 1-D multispecies biofilm models using the AQUASIM software. Sensitivity analysis results showed that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient (Ki) and maximum specific growth rate of ammonia-oxidizing (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were the determinant parameters in nitrogen conversion simulations. The modeling simulations demonstrated that Ki had stronger effects on nitrogen conversion at lower (0-10 m d(-1)) than at the higher values (>10 m d(-1)). The experimental results showed that the counter-diffusion biofilms developed faster and attained a larger maximum biofilm thickness than the co-diffusion biofilms. Under oxygen limited condition (DO<0.1 mg L(-1)) and high pH (8.0-8.3), nitrite accumulation was triggered more significantly in co-diffusion than counter-diffusion biofilms by increasing the applied ammonia loading from 0.21 to 0.78 g NH4+-NL(-1) d(-1). The co- and counter-diffusion biofilms displayed very different spatial structures and population distributions after 120 days of operation. AOB were dominant throughout the biofilm depth in co-diffusion biofilms, while the counter-diffusion biofilms presented a stratified structure with an abundance of AOB and NOB at the base and putative heterotrophs at the surface of the biofilm, respectively. PMID:19375773

  14. Simulated performance of reactor configurations for hot-water pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Shao, Xiongjun; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-09-01

    During the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for subsequent microbial or enzymatic processing, the fiber reactivity typically increases with increasing severity but so does sugar degradation. Experimental results with sugarcane bagasse show that this tradeoff can be mitigated substantially by pretreatment in a flow-through (FT) mode. A model that incorporates both kinetics and mass transfer was developed to simulate the performance of pretreatment in plug flow, counter-current flow, cross flow, discrete counter-current and partial FT configurations. The simulated results compare well to the literature for bagasse pretreated in both batch and FT configurations. A variety of FT configurations result in sugar degradation that is very low (1-5%) and 5-20-fold less than a conventional plug flow configuration. The performance exhibits strong sensitivity to the extent of hemicellulose solubilization, particularly for a conventional plug flow configuration. PMID:25088298

  15. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor plate performance and lifetime considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.

    1990-03-01

    The ITER divertor plate performance during the technology phase of operation has been analyzed. High-Z materials, such as tungsten and tantalum, have been considered as plasma side materials, and refractory metal alloys, Ta-10W, TZM, Nb-1Zr, and V-15Cr-5Ti, plus copper alloys have been considered as the structural materials. The fatigue lifetime have been predicted for structural plates and for duplex plates with the plasma side material bonded to the structure. The results indicate that refractory alloys have a comparable or improved performance to copper alloys. Peak allowable heat fluxes for these analyses are in the range of 15--20 MW/m{sup 2} for 2 mm thick structural plates and 7--11 MW/m{sup 2} for 4 mm thick duplex plates. 4 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Effect of temperature on the performance of an anaerobic tubular reactor treating fruit and vegetable waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bouallagui; O. Haouari; Y. Touhami; R. Ben Cheikh; L. Marouani; M. Hamdi

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the performance of anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) in the thermophilic (55°C) process with those under psychrophilic (20°C) and mesophilic (35°C) conditions in a tubular anaerobic digesters on a laboratory scale. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 10 to 20 days, and raw fruit and vegetable waste was supplied in a semi-continuous mode

  17. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor plate performance and lifetime considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mattas

    1990-01-01

    The ITER divertor plate performance during the technology phase of operation has been analyzed. High-Z materials, such as tungsten and tantalum, have been considered as plasma side materials, and refractory metal alloys, Ta-10W, TZM, Nb-1Zr, and V-15Cr-5Ti, plus copper alloys have been considered as the structural materials. The fatigue lifetime have been predicted for structural plates and for duplex plates

  18. Performance evaluation of a continuous bipolar electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation (ECEO-EF) reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Ebrahimi, Seyed Jamal Al-Din; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Gharibi, Hamed; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-09-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a continuous bipolar ECEO-EF reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent. The reactor was comprised of two distinct units: electrochemical and separation. In the electrochemical unit, Al, stainless steel, and RuO(2)/Ti plates were used. All the measurements were performed according to the standard methods. Maximum efficiency of the reactor for phosphate removal was 99% at pH of 6, current density of 3A, detention time of 60 min, and influent phosphate concentration of 50mg/l. The corresponding value for ammonia removal was 99% at a pH of 7 under the same operational conditions as for phosphate removal. For both phosphate and ammonia, the removal efficiency was highest at neutral pH, with higher current densities, and with lower influent concentrations. In addition to removal of phosphate and ammonia, application of the Al(3+) plates enabled the removal of nitrite and nitrate, which may be present in wastewater effluent and are also products of the electrochemical process. The reactor was also able to decrease the concentrations of phosphate, ammonia, and COD under actual wastewater conditions by 98%, 98%, and 72%, respectively. According to the results of the present study, the reactor can be used for efficient removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater. PMID:21741172

  19. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  20. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  1. Comparison of 20-kWe space nuclear power systems: Impact of reactor temperature and technology upon system design and performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Carre; E. Proust; S. Chaudourne; P. Keirle; Z. Tilliette; J. Trouve; B. Vrillon

    1988-01-01

    The design studies dedicated to three concepts of 20 kWe turboelectric power systems, purposely selected to cover a wide range of technologies applicable to low power systems are presented. The system performances will be analyzed as a function of reactor temperature and of the relevant technology.

  2. Comparison of 20-kWe space nuclear power systems: Impact of reactor temperature and technology upon system design and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Chaudourne, S.; Keirle, P.; Tilliette, Z.; Trouve, J.; Vrillon, B.

    The design studies dedicated to three concepts of 20 kWe turboelectric power systems, purposely selected to cover a wide range of technologies applicable to low power systems are presented. The system performances will be analyzed as a function of reactor temperature and of the relevant technology.

  3. Production of sorption functional media (SFM) from clinoptilolite tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qi, Jingyao; Chi, Liying; Wang, Dong; Wang, Zhaoyang; Li, Ke; Li, Xin

    2013-02-15

    The few reuse and large stockpile of zeolite tailings led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the zeolite tailings as one of principal raw materials to prepare sorption functional media (SFM) by a high temperature sintering process. The SFM was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for domestic wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The physical, chemical and sorption properties of SFM were also determined. The microstructure of the SFM was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results revealed that: (1) zeolite tailings could be used to produce the SFM under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the sorption and desorption isotherm of ammonia nitrogen on SFM could be well described by the Langmuir formula; (3) in terms of removing organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity and colourity, the performance of the biofilter with SFM was superior to that with haydite; and (4) SFM BAF has a stronger adaptability to low temperature (6-11°C) for NH(3)-N removal compared to haydite BAF. Therefore, the SFM produced from the zeolite tailings was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23287409

  4. Performance and microbial community profiles in an anaerobic reactor treating with simulated PTA wastewater: from mesophilic to thermophilic temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-kun; Ma, Kai-li; Meng, Ling-wei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ke

    2014-09-15

    Performance and microbial community profiles in a hybrid anaerobic reactor treating synthetic PTA wastewater (contained the major pollutants terephthalate and benzoate) were studied over 220 days from 33 °C to 52 °C. Results indicated that PTA treatment process was highly sensitive to temperature variations in terms of COD removal. Operation at 37 °C showed the best performance as well as the most diverse microbial community revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone library and T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). Finally, the anaerobic process achieved a total COD removal of 77.4%, 91.9%, 87.4% and 66.1% at 33, 37, 43 and 52 °C. While the corresponding TA removal were 77.6%, 94.0%, 89.1% and 60.8%, respectively. Sequence analyses revealed acetoclastic Methanosaeta was preponderant at 37 °C, while hydrogenotrophic genera including Methanobrevibacter and Methanofollis were more abundant at other temperatures. For bacterial community, 16 classes were identified. The largely existent Syntrophorhabdus members (belonging to ?-Proteobacteria) at 37 °C was likely to play an important role in mesophilic anaerobic wastewater treatment system contained terephthalate. Meanwhile, ?-Proteobacteria seemed to be favored in an anaerobic system higher than 43 °C. PMID:24952270

  5. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor/ Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR) System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    JAFARI, Jalil; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; NABIZADEH, Ramin; FARROKHI, Mehrdad; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR)-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater. Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2–2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3. The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3. Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively. Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewater.

  6. Long-term effects of operating temperature and sulphate addition on the methanogenic community structure of anaerobic hybrid reactors.

    PubMed

    Pender, Seán; Toomey, Margaret; Carton, Micheál; Eardly, Dónal; Patching, John W; Colleran, Emer; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2004-02-01

    The diversity, population dynamics, and activity profiles of methanogens in anaerobic granular sludges from two anaerobic hybrid reactors treating a molasses wastewater both mesophilically (37 degrees C) and thermophilically (55 degrees C) during a 1081 day trial were determined. The influent to one of the reactors was supplemented with sulphate, after an acclimation period of 112 days, to determine the effect of competition with sulphate-reducing bacteria on the methanogenic community structure. Sludge samples were removed from the reactors at intervals throughout the operational period and examined by amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDRA) and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. In total, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, 12 of which were sequenced. The methanogenic communities in both reactors changed during the operational period. The seed sludge and the reactor biomass sampled during mesophilic operation, both in the presence and absence of sulphate, was characterised by a predominance of Methanosaeta spp. Following temperature elevation, the dominant methanogenic sequences detected in the non-sulphate supplemented reactor were closely related to Methanocorpusculum parvum. By contrast, the dominant OTUs detected in the sulphate-supplemented reactor upon temperature increase were related to the hydrogen-utilising methanogen, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The observed methanogenic community structure in the reactors correlated with the operational performance of the reactors during the trial and with physiological measurements of the reactor biomass. Both reactors achieved chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of over 90% during mesophilic operation, with or without sulphate supplementation. During thermophilic operation, the presence of sulphate resulted in decreased reactor performance (effluent acetate concentrations of >3000 mg/l and biogas methane content of <25%). It was demonstrated that methanogenic conversion of acetate at 55 degrees C was extremely sensitive to inhibition by sulphide (50% inhibition at 8-17 mg/l unionised sulphide at pH 7.6-8.0), while the conversion of H(2)/CO(2) methanogenically was favoured. The combination of experiments carried out demonstrated the presence of specific methanogenic populations during periods of successful operational performance. PMID:14723931

  7. Biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Dilhani, Jayakodi A T; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations of 1-fold [28 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN)], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold and plants harvested from a polluted water body. This study was carried out for a period of 4 months at ambient mesophilic temperatures of 30.3-31.3 degrees C using six 3-barreled batch-fed reactors with the innermost barrel (45 L) being used as the digester. There was no marked variation in the C/N ratios of the plants cultured under different nitrogen concentrations. The addition of fresh cow dung having a low C/N of 8 resulted in a significant reduction in the C/N ratios of the water hyacinth substrates. However, gas production commenced 3 days after charging the reactors and gas production rates peaked in 4-7 days. The volatile solids (VS) degradation and gas production patterns manifested that in conventional single-stage batch digesters acidogenesis and methanogenesis of water hyacinth requires a retention time of around 27-30 days and 27-51 days, respectively. Substrates in the f-1 digester (i.e., the digester containing plants grown under 28 TN mg/L) having the lowest VS content of 45.3 g/L with a highest C/N ratio of 16 showed fairly higher gas production rates consistently (10-27 days) with higher gas yields containing around 50-65% of CH4 (27-51 days). Moreover the highest overall VS (81.7%) removal efficiencies were reported from the f-1 digester. Fairly higher gas production rates and gas yields with fairly higher CH4 contents were also noticed from the f-2 digester containing substrates having a C/N of 14 and f-out digester (containing the plants harvested from the polluted water body) having the lowest C/N ratio of 9.7 with a fairly high VS content of 56 g/L. CH4 production was comparatively low in the f-1/8, f-1/4 and f-1/2 digesters having VS rich substrates with varying C/N ratios. We conclude that water hyacinth could be utilized for biogas production irrespective of the fact that the plants are grown under higher or lower nitrogen concentrations and that there is no necessity for the C/N ratio to be within the optimum range of 20-32 required for anaerobic digestion. Further it is concluded that several biochemical characteristics of the substrates significantly influences biogas production besides the C/N ratio. PMID:17558773

  8. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL AND RECOVERY FROM SWINE WASTE: RESULTS OF PRETREATMENT WITH AN ANAEROBIC SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Largus T. Angenent; Lutgarde Raskin

    An approach is presented for the on-site treatment of diluted swine waste. The approach (1) incorporates anaerobic digestion with an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) to stabilize waste, reduce odor, and reduce solids and organic compounds, while producing biogas; (2) increases the ortho-phosphate concentration of the anaerobic digester effluent by enhanced biological phosphorus removal; and (3) uses chemical precipitation of

  9. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters.

    PubMed

    Cabrol, Léa; Urra, Johana; Rosenkranz, Francisca; Kroff, Pablo Araya; Plugge, Caroline M; Lesty, Yves; Chamy, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD. PMID:26067498

  10. Effect of equation of state on prediction of trickle bed reactor model performance

    E-print Network

    Netherland, Donald Wayne

    1985-01-01

    equilibrium calculation were performed. A flow chart for the trickle bed model is shown in Figure l. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from the fugacity coefficient: At Sv = 4 j/4 For SRK the liquid fugacity coefficient is given by: (37) AL n... the interaction Parameter gjk to be zero The SRK equation of state is given by 2 = 1/(l-h)-a. /(b. RT)(h/(1+h)) (41) where h = b P/(ZRT) (42) and b. = 0. 08664(R T /Pc) (43) 0 TPRTP. op Sn . v. . P, . S. cj cj j b " j zj ) z) E . E' . A. A'. z 6z b...

  11. Wastewater treatment performance of a filtration bio-reactor equipped with a mesh as a filter material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Kiso; Yong-Jun Jung; Takashi Ichinari; Minsoo Park; Takane Kitao; Kazuyuki Nishimura; Kyung-Seok Min

    2000-01-01

    The mesh filtration bio-reactor (MFBR) was equipped with a nylon mesh as filter material instead of a microfiltration membrane in a membrane bio-reactor. Laboratory scale MFBRs were used for the experiments. We have observed that a mesh having a pore size of 100 ?m effectively rejected activated sludge and that the reactor retained SS of up to 9000 mg·l?1 with a flux

  12. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Fang; Sompong O-Thong; Kanokwan Boe; Irini Angelidaki

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4\\/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors,

  13. A case for biogas energy application for rural industries in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Vijay; R. Prasad; J. P. Singh; V. P. S. Sorayan

    1996-01-01

    Rural India has a vast potential of biogas generation and application. During the past two decades, biogas has been promoted mostly as a cooking fuel in the rural areas. According to the prevailing practices in these areas, fuel for cooking is not being purchased but collected by the users from the farm fields and surrounding areas. Majority of rural population

  14. Evaluation of biogas production from different biomass wastes with\\/without hydrothermal pretreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Qiao; Xiuyi Yan; Junhui Ye; Yifei Sun; Wei Wang; Zhongzhi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Municipal biomass waste is regarded as new available energy source, although it could cause serious environmental pollution. Generally, biogas recovery by anaerobic digestion was seen as an ideal way to treat biomass waste. Different types of biomass waste have different biogas production potential. In this paper, cow manure, pig manure, municipal sewage sludge, fruit\\/vegetable waste, and food waste were chosen

  15. Quality control and performance evaluation of k0-based neutron activation analysis at the Portuguese research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, H. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Blaauw, M.; Almeida, S. M.; Dionisio, I.; Canha, N. H.

    2010-10-01

    The quality control (QC) and performance evaluation for the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA) at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI) has been developed with the intention of using the method to meet the demands of trace element analysis for the applications in environmental, epidemiological and nutritional studies amongst others. The QC and performance evaluation include the following aspects: (1) estimation of the overall/combined standard uncertainty from the primary uncertainty sources; (2) validation of the method using a synthetic multi-element standard (SMELS); and (3) analysis of the certified reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA): NIST-SRM-1633a and NIST-SRM-1648 and the reference material from the International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA-RM-336, for the purpose of controlling the overall accuracy and precision of the analytical results. The obtained results revealed that the k0-NAA method established at the RPI was fit for the purpose. The overall/combined standard uncertainty was estimated for elements of interest in the intended applications. The laboratory's analytical results as compared to the assigned values with the bias were less than 12% for most elements, except for a few elements which biased within 13-18%. The u-score values for most elements were less than |1.64|, except for Co, La and Ti within |1.64|-|1.96| and Sc, Cr, K and Sb within |1.96|-|2.58|. The NIST-1633a was also analyzed over 14 months for the purpose of evaluating the reproducibility of the method. The quality factors of k0-NAA established at RPI were evaluated, proving that the method meets the requirements of trace element analysis, which is also considering the method's performance for which the k0-NAA affords a specific, rapid and convenient capability for the intended applications.

  16. Decomposition Characteristics of an Artificial Biogas in a Low-Pressure DC Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuhiro; Oshita, Takamasa; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori

    The decomposition characteristics of an artificial biogas, which is a mixture of CH4, CO2 and H2S, using a low pressure DC glow discharge have been investigated. It is found that H2, CO, C2H2, H2O, CS2 and COS are produced from the artificial biogas in the glow discharge. About 65 % of hydrogen atoms in CH4 are converted into H2 at the input energy of 800 J, at which CH4 is completely decomposed, and the decomposition characteristics of the artificial biogas has little dependency on H2S additive. Farther, H2S has a tendency to be decomposed earlier than the other components of the artificial biogas. When the glow discharge is generated in the artificial biogas with H2S, some of carbon atoms are found to deposit on electrodes and the wall of a discharge chamber.

  17. Nonrenewable Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a “Pig-Biogas-Fish” System in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing; Wu, Xiaofang; Yang, Haiping; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to analyze a “pig-biogas-fish” system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the “pig-biogas-fish” system is 0.60?MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO2 emission intensity is 0.05?kg CO2-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the “pig-biogas-fish” system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology. PMID:23213302

  18. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION OF PROPANE IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR WITH SEPARATE FEED OF REACTANTS III. ROLE OF CATALYST LOAD ON REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUIDO SARACCO; JAN WILLEM VELDSINK; GEERT F. VERSTEEG; WIM P. M. VAN SWAAIJ

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with a pilot plant study on the catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. The importance of the amount of catalyst (1% b.w. Pt on ?-Al2O3), deposited on the pore walls of the membrane, is investigated. Two membranes were prepared by the so called urea method, intruding different amounts of the

  19. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A. (eds.)

    1986-09-01

    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.

  20. Water-Energy Nexus: the case of biogas production from energy crops evaluated by Water Footprint and LCA methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Caporali, Enrica; Federici, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the production of biogas from aerobic digestion of energy crops. The production of biogas is an important case study because its spread, similar to other sources of bioenergy, creates questions about the environmental effects, the competition in the food market as well as the progressive change of land use. In particular is hereby analyzed the nexus between bioenergy production and water, which plays a key role because water resources are often the limiting factor in energy production from energy crops. The environmental performances of biogas production were analyzed through Water Footprint (WF) and Life cycle assessment (LCA): the integration of LCA and WF represents an attempt of taking advantage of their complementary strengths in environmental assessment, trying to give a comprehensive analysis of bioenergy production sustainability. Eighteen scenarios were considered, trying to figure out the performances of different combinations of locations (north, center, south Italy), crops (maize, sorghum, wheat) and treatments (anaerobic digestion with water dilution or manure co-digestion). WF assessment shows that cultivation phase is the most impacting on water resource use along the entire system life cycle. In particular, water requirements for crop growth shows that sorghum is the more water saver crop (in terms of consumptive water use to produce the amount of crop needed to produce 1 GJ of biogas energy content). Moreover WF investigates the kind of water use and shows that wheat, despite being the most intensive water user, exploits more green water than the other crops.WF was evaluated with respect to water stress indicators for the Italian territory, underlining the higher criticalities associated with water use in southern Italy and identifying consumptive blue water use, in this area, as the main hotspot. Therefore biogas production from energy crops in southern Italy is unsustainable from a water management perspective. At a basin scale, WF results obtained for central Italy were compared with local water availability (Merse river basin), pinpointing the time dependence of the sustainability. This analysis highlights that wheat, even if more water intensive than other crops, has a WF that not burdens the driest period as maize and sorghum does, underlying importance of assessing the temporal distribution of water use. Further, WF was combined with LCA. First WF results were used as input for LCA inventory, and then some indicators of the selected impact assessment method were analyzed to obtain additional information mainly on water resource quality. The overall results show that biogas production from energy crops has in general negative impacts (i.e. beneficial environmental performances), due to the savings associated with avoided conventional energy production, for all the indicators except water depletion, fresh water ecotoxicity and marine ecotoxicity. WF and LCA results show the benefit of coupling the two methods. Since WF focuses on the water use and the LCA focus on an extended range of environmental loads, creating synergies between these two approaches can help having a comprehensive assessment and a better insight in the Nexus.

  1. A comprehensive model of anaerobic bioconversion of complex substrates to biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Biotechnology] [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Biotechnology

    1999-05-05

    A dynamic model describing the anaerobic degradation of complex material, and codigestion of different types of wastes, was developed based on a model previously described. In the model, the substrate is described by its composition of basic organic components, i.e., carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, the concentration of intermediates such as volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, and important inorganic components, i.e., ammonia, phosphate, cations, and anions. This allows dynamic changes of the process during a shift of substrate composition to be simulated by changing the input substrate data. The model includes 2 enzymatic hydrolytic steps, 8 bacterial steps and involves 19 chemical compounds. The model also includes a detailed description of pH and temperature characteristics. Free ammonia, acetate, volatile fatty acids, (VFA) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) constitute the primary modulating factors in the model. The model was tested with success in lab-scale reactors codigesting manure with glycerol trioleate or manure with gelatin. Finally, the model was validated using results from a full-scale biogas plant codigesting manure together with a proteinous wastewater and with bentonite-bound oil, which is a waste with high content of lipids.

  2. Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas. PMID:24762182

  3. Prediction of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) performance for the treatment of aniline using artificial neural networks (ANN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Delnavaz; B. Ayati; H. Ganjidoust

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the results of 1-year efficiency forecasting using artificial neural networks (ANN) models of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for a toxic and hard biodegradable aniline removal were investigated. The reactor was operated in an aerobic batch and continuous condition with 50% by volume which was filled with light expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as carrier. Efficiency evaluation

  4. Biohydrogen production from Tequila vinasses in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: effect of initial substrate concentration, temperature and hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Buitrón, Germán; Carvajal, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    The effect of the temperature (25 and 35 degrees C), the hydraulic retention time, HRT, (12 and 24 h) and initial substrate concentration on hydrogen production from Tequila vinasse was studied using a sequencing batch reactor. When 25 degrees C and 12-h HRT were applied, only insignificant biogas quantities were produced; however, using 24 h of HRT and temperatures of 25 and 35 degrees C, biogas containing hydrogen was produced. A maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate of 50.5 mL H(2) L(-1) h(-1) (48 mmol H(2) L(reactor)(-1) d(-1)) and an average hydrogen content in the biogas of 29.2+/-8.8% were obtained when the reactor was fed with 3 g COD L(-1), at 35 degrees C and 12-h HRT. Methane formation was observed when the longer HRT was applied. Results demonstrated the feasibility to produce hydrogen from this waste without a previous pre-treatment. PMID:20655747

  5. Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

    2013-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

  6. Aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification in a membrane biofilm reactor: treatment performance and the effect of oxygen ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei-yun; Dong, Wen-yi; Shao, Ming-fei; Lv, Xiao-mei; Li, Ji; Peng, Liang-yu; Wang, Hong-jie

    2013-10-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) process was successfully achieved in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). PVDF membrane was employed to supply the methane and oxygen for biofilm, which was coexistence of methanotrophs and denitrifier. With a feeding NO3(-)-N of 30 mg/L, up to 97% nitrate could be removed stably. The oxygen ventilation modes impacted the denitrification performance remarkably, resulting in different nitrate removal efficiencies and biofilm microorganism distribution. The biofilm sludge showed a high resistance to the DO inhibition, mainly due to the co-existing methanotroph being capable of utilizing oxygen perferentially within biofilm, and create an anoxic micro-environment. The denitrification of both nitrate and nitrite by biofilm sludge conformed to the Monod equation, and the maximum specific nitrate utilization rate (k) ranged from 1.55 to 1.78 NO3(-)-N/g VSS-d. The research findings should be significant to understand the considerable potential of MBfR as a bioprocess for denitrification. PMID:23582221

  7. Influence of the C/N ratio on the performance of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing sequencing batch reactors at short SRTs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katja; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-04-01

    Many waste streams that are suitable substrates for mixed culture bioplastic (polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHA) production are nutrient limited and may need to be supplemented to allow sufficient growth of PHA accumulating bacteria. The scope of this study was to investigate the necessity of nutrient supplementation for the enrichment of an efficient PHA producing mixed culture. We studied the influence of different degrees of carbon and nitrogen limitation on the performance of an acetate-fed feast-famine sequencing batch reactor (SBR) employed to enrich PHA storing bacteria. The microbial reaction rates in the SBR showed a shift with a change in the limiting substrate: high acetate uptake rates were found in carbon-limited SBRs (medium C/N ratios 6-13.2 Cmol/Nmol), while nitrogen-limited SBRs (medium C/N ratios 15-24 Cmol/Nmol) were characterized by high ammonia uptake rates. Biomass in strongly nitrogen-limited SBRs had higher baseline PHA contents in the SBR, but carbon-limited SBRs resulted usually in biomass with higher maximal PHA storage capacities. The PHA storage capacity in a nitrogen-limited SBR operated at 0.5 d SRT decreased significantly over less than 5 months operation. For the microbial selection and biomass production stage of a PHA production process carbon limitation seems thus favourable and nutrient deficient wastewaters may consequently require supplementation with nutrients for the selection of a stable PHA storing biomass with a high storage capacity. PMID:20189213

  8. Effects of salinity on performance and microbial community structure of an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; Wang, Sen; Chang, Qingbo; Wang, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    The effects of salinity on the performance and microbial community structure of activated sludge were investigated in an anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [Formula: see text]-N decreased as the influent salinity increased from 0.5% to 6%. The specific oxygen utilization rate of activated sludge increased from 22.47 to 43.16?mg?O2?g(-1)?mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS)?h(-1) with the increase in salinity from 0.5% to 4% and subsequently decreased to 18.3?mg?O2?g(-1)?MLSS?h(-1) at 6% salinity. The specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR) and specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR) decreased slowly at 0.5-1% salinity and then decreased rapidly with the increase in salinity from 1% to 6%. The SNOR diminished at a faster rate than the SAOR with the increase in salinity from 0.5% to 6%. The specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) decreased with the increase in salinity, whereas the SNRR was higher than the sum of SAOR and SNOR at 0.5-6% salinity. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed obvious changes in microbial community structure at different salinities. Some microbes were capable of tolerating up to 6% salinity in the SBR, such as Planomonospora sphaerica, Nitrosomonas sp. Is32, and Denitromonas sp. D2-1. PMID:25686658

  9. Towards molecular biomarkers for biogas production from lignocellulose-rich substrates.

    PubMed

    Lebuhn, Michael; Hanreich, Angelika; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Andreas; Bauer, Christoph; Pérez, Carmen Marín

    2014-10-01

    Biogas production from lignocellulose-rich agricultural residues is gaining increasingly importance in sustainable energy production. Hydrolysis/acidogenesis (H/A) of lignocellulose as the initial rate-limiting step deserves particular optimization. A mixture of straw/hay was methanized applying two-phase digester systems with an initial H/A reactor and a one-stage system at different, meso- and thermophilic temperatures. H/A was intensified with increasing pH values and increasing temperature. H/A fermenters, however, were prone to switch to methanogenic systems at these conditions. Substrate turnover was accelerated in the bi-phasic process but did not reach the methanation efficiency of the single-stage digestion. There was no indication that two different cellulolytic inocula could establish in the given process. Bacterial communities were analyzed applying conventional amplicon clone sequencing targeting the hypervariable 16S rRNA gene region V6-V8 and by metagenome analyses applying direct DNA pyrosequencing without a PCR step. Corresponding results suggested that PCR did not introduce a bias but offered better phylogenetic resolution. Certain Clostridium IV and Prevotella members were most abundant in the H/A system operated at 38 °C, certain Clostridium III and Lachnospiraceae bacteria in the 45 °C, and certain Clostridium IV and Thermohydrogenium/Thermoanaerobacterium members in the 55 °C H/A system. Clostridium III representatives, Lachnospiraceae and Thermotogae dominated in the thermophilic single-stage system, in which also a higher portion of known syntrophic acetate oxidizers was found. Specific (RT-)qPCR systems were designed and applied for the most significant and abundant populations to assess their activity in the different digestion systems. The RT-qPCR results agreed with the DNA based community profiles obtained at the different temperatures. Up to 10(12) 16S rRNA copies mL(-1) were determined in H/A fermenters with prevalence of rRNA of a Ruminococcaceae subgroup. Besides, Thermohydrogenium/Thermoanaerobacterium rRNA prevailed at thermophilic and Prevotellaceae rRNA at mesophilic conditions. The developed (RT)-qPCR systems can be used as biomarkers to optimize biogas production from straw/hay and possibly other lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:24785351

  10. Effect of internal diffusional restrictions on the hydrolysis of penicillin G: reactor performance and specific productivity of 6-APA with immobilized penicillin acylase.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Pedro; Flores, Sebastián; Wilson, Lorena; Illanes, Andrés

    2011-09-01

    A mathematical model that describes the heterogeneous reaction-diffusion process involved in penicillin G hydrolysis in a batch reactor with immobilized penicillin G acylase is presented. The reaction system includes the bulk liquid phase containing the dissolved substrate (and products) and the solid biocatalyst phase represented by glyoxyl-agarose spherical porous particles carrying the enzyme. The equations consider reaction and diffusion components that are presented in dimensionless form. This is a complex reaction system in which both products of reaction and the substrate itself are inhibitors. The simulation of a batch reactor performance with immobilized penicillin G acylase is presented and discussed for the internal diffusional restrictions impact on effectiveness and productivity. Increasing internal diffusional restrictions, through increasing catalyst particle size and enzyme loading, causes impaired catalyst efficiency expressed in a reduction of effectiveness factor and specific productivity. High penicillin G initial concentrations decrease the impact of internal diffusional restrictions by increasing the mass transfer towards porous catalyst until product inhibition becomes significant over approximately 50 mM of initial penicillin G, where a drop in conversion rate and a maximum in specific productivity are then obtained. Results highlight the relevance of considering internal diffusional restrictions, reactor performance, and productivity analysis for proper catalyst and reactor design. PMID:21505803

  11. The performance enhancements of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for domestic sludge treatment--a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Siewhui; Sen, Tushar Kanti; Kayaalp, Ahmet; Ang, Ha Ming

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, carbon emission and therefore carbon footprint of water utilities is an important issue. In this respect, we should consider the opportunities to reduce carbon footprint for small and large wastewater treatment plants. The use of anaerobic rather than aerobic treatment processes would achieve this aim because no aeration is required and the generation of methane can be used within the plant. High-rate anaerobic digesters receive great interests due to their high loading capacity and low sludge production. Among them, the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors have been most widely used. However, there are still unresolved issues inhibiting the widespread of this technology in developing countries or countries with climate temperature fluctuations (such as subtropical regions). A large number of studies have been carried out in order to enhance the performance of UASB reactors but there is a lack of updated documentation. In face of the existing limitations and the increasing importance of this technology, the authors present an up-to-date review on the performance enhancements of UASB reactors over the last decade. The important aspects of this article are: (i) enhancing the start-up and granulation in UASB reactors, (ii) coupling with post-treatment unit to overcome the temperature constraint, and (iii) improving the removal efficiencies of the organic matter, nutrients and pathogens in the final effluent. Finally the authors have highlighted future research direction based on their critical analysis. PMID:22560620

  12. Performance of a 24,000 liter, multi stage Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) for ethanol from sugars, and application of the CSRS towards cellulosics

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C. [Bio-Process Innovation Inc., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gribb, D.; Lehman, R.L. [Permeate Refining Inc., Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot scale 24,000 liter, 4 stage reactor has been built, installed, and is undergoing performance trials. This Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) allows the continuous production and separation of ethanol from the fermentation broth using stirred reactor stages crossed with gas stripping of the overflow broth. The gas stripping of ethanol speeds fermentation rates by reducing the ethanol concentration on the lower stages. This CSRS is designed to have ethanol recovered from the exiting vapors using a solvent absorption column, after which the ethanol will be recovered from the solvent. The CSRS was installed in March of 1995, and has been operated as a continuous cascade type fermenter (without separation). The reactor has been running continuously since September of 1995 with feed rates varying between 0 (when feed tanks are exhausted) to 20 LPM. Yeast densities of a flocculent yeast have been measured at up to 50% cell settling volume. Preliminary work on biomass conversion to ethanol using the CSRS is being performed. Pretreatment studies, xylose fermentations, and SSF of cellulose have been started. It is planned to operate a two section CSRS for the successive conversion of hemicellulose/xylans followed by cellulose/glucans to ethanol.

  13. Production of nitrous oxide from anaerobic digester centrate and its use as a co-oxidant of biogas to enhance energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Yaniv D; Woo, Sung-Geun; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-05-20

    Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) is a new process for wastewater treatment that removes nitrogen from wastewater and recovers energy from the nitrogen in three steps: (1) NH4(+) oxidation to NO2(-); (2) NO2(-) reduction to N2O gas; and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy production. In this work, we optimize Steps 1 and 2 for anaerobic digester centrate, and we evaluate Step 3 for a full-scale biogas-fed internal combustion engine. Using a continuous stirred reactor coupled to a bench-scale sequencing batch reactor, we observed sustained partial oxidation of NH4(+) to NO2(-) and sustained (3 months) partial reduction of NO2(-) to N2O (75-80% conversion, mass basis), with >95% nitrogen removal (Step 2). Alternating pulses of acetate and NO2(-) selected for Comamonas (38%), Ciceribacter (16%), and Clostridium (11%). Some species stored polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and coupled oxidation of PHB to reduction of NO2(-) to N2O. Some species also stored phosphorus as polyphosphate granules. Injections of N2O into a biogas-fed engine at flow rates simulating a full-scale system increased power output by 5.7-7.3%. The results underscore the need for more detailed assessment of bioreactor community ecology and justify pilot- and full-scale testing. PMID:24780056

  14. Biomass-to-electricity: analysis and optimization of the complete pathway steam explosion--enzymatic hydrolysis--anaerobic digestion with ICE vs SOFC as biogas users.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, M; Barra, S; Sagnelli, F; Zitella, P

    2012-11-01

    The paper deals with the energy analysis and optimization of a complete biomass-to-electricity energy pathway, starting from raw biomass towards the production of renewable electricity. The first step (biomass-to-biogas) is based on a real pilot plant located in Environment Park S.p.A. (Torino, Italy) with three main steps ((1) impregnation; (2) steam explosion; (3) enzymatic hydrolysis), completed by a two-step anaerobic fermentation. In the second step (biogas-to-electricity), the paper considers two technologies: internal combustion engines and a stack of solid oxide fuel cells. First, the complete pathway has been modeled and validated through experimental data. After, the model has been used for an analysis and optimization of the complete thermo-chemical and biological process, with the objective function of maximization of the energy balance at minimum consumption. The comparison between ICE and SOFC shows the better performance of the integrated plants based on SOFC. PMID:22940353

  15. Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester Performance Under Different Feed-Loading Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardiere, John; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Domaschko, Max; Chatfield, Mark

    The effect of feed-loading frequency on digester performance was studied on a thermophilic anaerobic digester with a working volume of 27.43 m3. The digester was fed 0.93 m3 of chicken-litter slurry/d, containing 50.9 g/L chemical oxygen demand. The treatments were loading frequencies of 1, 2, 6, and 12 times/d. The hourly pH, biogas production, and methane percent of the biogas were less stable at lower feed frequencies. There was no statistical difference among treatments in methanogenic activity. The feed-loading frequency of six times per day treatment provided the greatest biogas production.

  16. Influence of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludges on biogas production and sludge quality.

    PubMed

    Pecharaply, Athapol; Parkpian, Preeda; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2007-06-01

    This research investigated operating parameters and treatment efficiency for the digestion of sewage and brewery sludge. The prime objective of this study was to enhance the quality of treated sludge for use as agriculture fertilizer and to enhance biogas production, a by-product that can be used as an energy source. Three bench-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) anaerobic digesters were operated at mesophilic condition (36+/-0.2 degrees C). A mixture of sewage and brewery sludge were used as substrates at ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, based on wet weight basis (w/w). For each digester, the solids retention times (SRT) were 20 days. The organic loading and volatile solids loading were between 1.3-2.2 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m3/day and 0.9-1.5 kg/m3/day, respectively. The digester fed with brewery sludge as co-substrate yielded higher treatment efficiency than sewage sludge alone. The removal efficiencies measured in terms of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total chemical oxygen demands (TCOD) ranged from 40% to 75% and 22% to 35%, respectively. Higher SCOD and TCOD removal efficiencies were obtained when higher fractions of brewery sludge was added to the substrate mixture. Removal efficiency was lowest for sewage sludge alone. Measured volatile solid (VS) reduction ranged from 15% to 20%. Adding a higher fraction of brewery sludge to the mixture increased the VS reduction percentage. The biogas production and methane yield also increased with increase in brewery sludge addition to the digester mixture. The methane content present in biogas of each digester exceeded 70% indicating the system was functioning as an anaerobic process. Likewise the ratio of brewery sewage influenced not only the treatment efficiency but also improved quality of treated sludge by lowering number of pathogen (less than 2 MPN/g of dried sludge) and maintaining a high nutrient concentration of nitrogen (N) 3.2-4.2%, phosphorus (P) 1.9-3.2% and potassium (K) 0.95-0.96%. The heavy metals, chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) remaining in digested sludge were present at relatively high levels (Cr 1,849-4,230 and Cu 930-2,526 mg/kg dried sludge). The metals were present as organic matter-bound and sulfide-bound fractions that are not soluble and available. The digested sludge could be safely applied to soil as a plant nutrient source, without fecal coliforms or heavy metals risk. A sludge mixture ratio of 25:75 (sewage:brewery), which generated the higher nutrient concentrations (N=4.22%, P=3.20% and K=0.95%), biogas production and treatment efficiency meet the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) safety guidelines required for agricultural application. Biogas production and methane at the 25:75 ratio (sewage:brewery) yielded highest amount of VSremoved (0.65 m3/kg) and CODremoved (220 L/kg), respectively. PMID:17558772

  17. Impacts of biogas projects on agro-ecosystem in rural areas — A case study of Gongcheng

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Weichao; Chen, Bin

    2011-09-01

    The rapid growth of agro-ecosystem has been the focus of "New Rural Construction" in China due to intensive energy consumption and environmental pollution in rural areas. As a kind of renewable energy, biogas is helpful for new energy development and plays an important role in the sustainable development of agro-ecosystem in China. To evaluate the effects of biogas on agro-ecosystem from a systematic angle, we discussed the status quo of household biogas and identified its main factors that may have impacts on agro-ecosystem. An indicator framework covering environmental, social and economic aspects was established to quantify the impacts exerted by biogas project on agro-ecosystem. A case study of Gongcheng was then conducted to evaluate the combined impact of biogas project using the proposed indicator framework. Results showed that there was a notable positive effect brought by the application of biogas, and the integrated benefit has been significantly improved by 60.36%, implying that biogas as a substitute energy source can promote the sustainable level of rural areas.

  18. Biogas and methane yield in response to co- and separate digestion of biomass wastes.

    PubMed

    Adelard, Laetitia; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Rakotoniaina, Volana

    2015-01-01

    The impact of co-digestion as opposed to separate digestion, on biogas and methane yield (apparent synergetic effects) was investigated for three biomass materials (pig manure, cow manure and food waste) under mesophilic conditions over a 36 day period. In addition to the three biomass materials (digested separately), 13 biomass mixtures (co-digested) were used. Two approaches for modelling biogas and methane yield during co-digestion, based on volatile solids concentration and ultimate gas and methane potentials, were evaluated. The dependency of apparent synergetic effects on digestion time and biomass mixture composition was further assessed using measured cumulative biogas and methane yields and specific biogas and methane generation rates. Results indicated that it is possible, based on known volatile solids concentration and ultimate biogas or methane yields for a set of biomass materials digested separately, to accurately estimate gas yields for biomass mixtures made from these materials using calibrated models. For the biomass materials considered here, modelling indicated that the addition of pig manure is the main cause of synergetic effects. Co-digestion generally resulted in improved ultimate biogas and methane yields compared to separate digestion. Biogas and methane production was furthermore significantly higher early (0-7 days) and to some degree also late (above 20 days) in the digestion process during co-digestion. PMID:25492719

  19. Differences in the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms as revealed through their transport by biogas.

    PubMed

    Moletta, Marina; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2007-06-15

    The aerosol microbial diversity of biogas was analyzed in order to examine the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms. Six biogas samples were analyzed: five from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestors treating different wastes, and one from landfill. Epifluorescent microscopic counts reveal that with 10(6) Prokarya m(-3), only one per one thousand billion were aerosolized from the digestor sludges to the biogas. SSU (Small Sub Unit) ribosomal fingerprinting (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) shows that microbial communities in the biogas were not just a rough copy of anaerobic digestor microbial communities and underlines that all microorganisms are not equally convoyed by biogas. To assess the difference occurring in aerosolization, 675 biogas-borne SSU ribosomal DNA were analyzed and compared to published anaerobic digestor microbial diversity. Results show that microorganisms belonging to Archaea, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Chloroflexi phyla and sulfate-reducing groups were non-aerosolized whereas microorganisms belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, TM7 phyla as well as strictly aerobic and occasionally pathogenic species presented high levels of aerosolization. Finally, microorganisms belonging to Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla represent passively-aerosolized microorganisms with similar frequencies in biogas-borne and anaerobic digestor microbial communities. PMID:17445868

  20. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. PMID:25022835

  1. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilization.

    PubMed

    Holm-Nielsen, J B; Al Seadi, T; Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2009-11-01

    One of the common tendencies of animal production activities in Europe and in developed countries in general is to intensify the animal production and to increase the size of the animal production units. High livestock density is always accompanied by production of a surplus of animal manure, representing a considerable pollution threat for the environment in these areas. Avoiding over-fertilization is not only important for environmental protection reasons but also for economical reasons. Intensive animal production areas need therefore suitable manure management, aiming to export and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel - the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable energy systems (RES) have set forward a fixed goal of supplying 20% of the European energy demands from RES by year 2020. A major part of the renewable energy will originate from European farming and forestry. At least 25% of all bioenergy in the future can originate from biogas, produced from wet organic materials such as: animal manure, whole crop silages, wet food and feed wastes, etc. PMID:19217772

  2. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hut?an, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  4. Performance of a pilot-scale sewage treatment: An up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors combined system by sulfur-redox reaction process under low-temperature conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanobu Takahashi; Takashi Yamaguchi; Yoshiharu Kuramoto; Akihiro Nagano; Satoshi Shimozaki; Haruhiko Sumino; Nobuo Araki; Shinichi Yamazaki; Shuji Kawakami; Hideki Harada

    2011-01-01

    Performance of a wastewater treatment system utilizing a sulfur-redox reaction of microbes was investigated using a pilot-scale reactor that was fed with actual sewage. The system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor with a recirculation line. Consequently, the total CODCr (465±147mgL?1; total BOD of 207±68mgL?1) at the influent was reduced

  5. Integrated fuel performance and thermal-hydraulic sub-channel models for analysis of sodium fast reactors

    E-print Network

    Fricano, Joseph William

    2012-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) show promise as an effective way to produce clean safe nuclear power while properly managing the fuel cycle. Accurate computer modeling is an important step in the design and eventual licensing ...

  6. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Tapping

    2008-01-01

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable

  7. Performance and population analysis of a non-sterile trickle bed reactor inoculated with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, a thermophilic hydrogen producer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Groenestijn van J. W; J. S. Geelhoed; H. P. Goorissen; K. P. H. Meesters; A. J. M. Stams; P. A. M. Claassen

    2009-01-01

    Non-axenic operation of a 400 L trickle bed reactor inoculated with the thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, yielded 2.8 mol H2\\/mol hexose converted. The reactor was fed with a complex medium with sucrose as the main substrate, continuously flushed with nitrogen gas, and operated at 73°C. The volumetric productivity was 22 mmol H2\\/(L filterbed h). Acetic acid and lactic acid were the

  8. Investigation of the Performance of D2O-Cooled High-Conversion Reactors for Fuel Cycle Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This report presents FY13 activities for the analysis of D2O cooled tight-pitch High-Conversion PWRs (HCPWRs) with U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores aiming at break-even or near breeder conditions while retaining the negative void reactivity. The analyses are carried out from several aspects which could not be covered in FY12 activities. SCALE 6.1 code system is utilized, and a series of simple 3D fuel pin-cell models are developed in order to perform Monte Carlo based criticality and burnup calculations. The performance of U-Pu fueled cores with axial and internal blankets is analyzed in terms of their impact on the relative fissile Pu mass balance, initial Pu enrichment, and void coefficient. In FY12, Pu conversion performances of D2O-cooled HCPWRs fueled with MOX were evaluated with small sized axial/internal DU blankets (approximately 4cm of axial length) in order to ensure the negative void reactivity, which evidently limits the conversion performance of HCPWRs. In this fiscal year report, the axial sizes of DU blankets are extended up to 30 cm in order to evaluate the amount of DU necessary to reach break-even and/or breeding conditions. Several attempts are made in order to attain the milestone of the HCPWR designs (i.e., break-even condition and negative void reactivity) by modeling of HCPWRs under different conditions such as boiling of D2O coolant, MOX with different 235U enrichment, and different target burnups. A similar set of analyses are performed for Th-U fueled cores. Several promising characteristics of 233U over other fissile like 239Pu and 235U, most notably its higher fission neutrons per absorption in thermal and epithermal ranges combined with lower ___ in the fast range than 239Pu allows Th-U cores to be taller than MOX ones. Such an advantage results in 4% higher relative fissile mass balance than that of U-Pu fueled cores while retaining the negative void reactivity until the target burnup of 51 GWd/t. Several other distinctions between U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores are identified by evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of keff, mass balance, and void coefficient. The effect of advanced iron alloy cladding (i.e., FeCrAl) on the performance of Pu conversion in MOX fueled cores is studied instead of using standard stainless-steel cladding. Variations in clad thickness and coolant-to-fuel volume ratio are also exercised. The use of FeCrAl instead of SS as a cladding alloy reduces the required Pu enrichment and improves the Pu conversion rate primarily due to the absence of nickel in the cladding alloy that results in the reduction of the neutron absorption. Also the difference in void coefficients between SS and FeCrAl alloys is nearly 500 pcm over the entire burnup range. The report also shows sensitivity and uncertainty analyses in order to characterize D2O cooled HCPWRs from different aspects. The uncertainties of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected reactor cores are evaluated at different burnup points in order to find similarities and trends respect to D2O-HCPWR.

  9. Biologically Fe 2+ oxidizing fluidized bed reactor performance and controlling of Fe 3+ recycle during heap bioleaching: an artificial neural network-based model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bestamin Ozkaya; Erkan Sahinkaya; Pauliina Nurmi; Anna H. Kaksonen; Jaakko A. Puhakka

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a biological Fe2+ oxidizing fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was modeled by a popular neural network-back-propagation algorithm over a period of\\u000a 220 days at 37 °C under different operational conditions. A method is proposed for modeling Fe3+ production in FBR and thereby managing the regeneration of Fe3+ for heap leaching application, based on an artificial neural network-back-propagation algorithm. Depending on

  10. Hydrodynamic performance of pilot-scale duckweed, algal-based, rock filter and attached-growth media reactors used for waste stabilisation pond research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Short; N. J. Cromar; H. J. Fallowfield

    2010-01-01

    The specific nature of fluid dynamics within waste stabilisation ponds can have a determining influence on their functional treatment performance. This paper presents the results of hydraulic tracer experiments undertaken to characterise the hydrodynamic behaviour of several pilot-scale advanced pond treatment systems (a duckweed-based pond, a conventional algal-based ‘open’ pond, a rock filter and a novel horizontal-flow attached-growth media reactor)

  11. Planned experimental studies on natural-circulation and stability performance of boiling water reactors in four experimental facilities and first results (NACUSP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. M de Kruijf; K. C. J Ketelaar; G Avakian; P Gubernatis; D Caruge; A Manera; T. H. J. J Van der Hagen; G Yadigaroglu; G Dominicus; U Rohde; H.-M Prasser; F Castrillo; M Huggenberger; D Hennig; J. L Munoz-Cobo; C Aguirre

    2003-01-01

    Within the 5th Euratom framework programme the NACUSP project focuses on natural-circulation and stability characteristics of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This paper gives an overview of the research to be performed. Moreover, it shows the first results obtained by one of the four experimental facilities involved. Stability boundaries are given for the low-power low-pressure operating range, measured in the CIRCUS

  12. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with three crop residues for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wei, Luoyu; Duan, Qiwu; Hu, Guoquan; Zhang, Guozhi

    2014-03-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic semi-continuous co-digestion of dairy manure (DM) with three crop straw residues (SRs), rice straw, corn stalks and wheat straw under five mass mixing ratios (SRs/DM) were investigated. During the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, four periods were identified: startup, first stage of stabilization, second stage of stabilization, and suppression. Following the four periods, the biogas production rate varied between 101 and 576mL L(-1)d(-1). A high CH4 content and volatile solid reduction was maintained at the SRs/DM mass mixing ratio 1:9. The highest cumulative biogas production of more than 19L was obtained at ratio 5:5. However, ratio 9:1 performed worst in the whole process. Systematic analysis of the elements revealed nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements contents were important for the AD. Overall, the semi-continuous AD is efficient within a wide range of SRs/DM mass mixing ratios. PMID:24525215

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  14. Development of on-line FTIR spectroscopy for siloxane detection in biogas to enhance carbon contactor management.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, C A; Vale, P; Brown, A S; Simms, N J; McAdam, E J

    2015-08-15

    Activated carbon filters are used to limit engine damage by siloxanes when biogas is utilised to provide electricity. However, carbon filter siloxane removal performance is poorly understood as until recently, it had not been possible to measure siloxanes on-line. In this study, on-line Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was developed to measure siloxane concentration in real biogas both upstream (86.1-157.5mgm(-3)) and downstream (2.2-4.3mgm(-3)) of activated carbon filters. The FTIR provided reasonable precision upstream of the carbon vessel with a root mean square error of 10% using partial least squares analysis. However, positive interference from volatile organic carbons was observed in downstream gas measurements limiting precision at the outlet to an RMSE of 1.5mgm(-3) (47.8%). Importantly, a limit of detection of 3.2mgm(-3) was identified which is below the recommended siloxane limit and evidences the applicability of on-line FTIR for this application. PMID:25966392

  15. Mass and performance estimates for 5 to 1000 kW(e) nuclear reactor power systems for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, L. O.; Gallup, D. R.; Marshall, A. C.

    1991-03-01

    Masses and radiator areas of typical space nuclear power concepts are estimated as a function of the continuous electrical power required during a ten-year mission. Results are presented as a function of power level in the range of 5 to 1000 kW electrical. Three general reactor types will be discussed: (1) the radiatively cooled Star-C reactor technology with thermionic conversion external to the core; (2) liquid metal cooled technology with pin-type thermionic fuel element conversion in the core; and (3) the liquid metal cooled SP-100 reactor technology with thermoelectric, Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine conversion systems. Mass estimates include all satellite subsystems except the payload itself. Area estimates include radiators to dump waste heat from the power conversion and power conditioning subsystems but not the payload. All system components utilize near-term technology with the exception of the Sp-100 Rankine and refractory Stirling concepts.

  16. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapping, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable and non-replaceable components such as feeders and steam generators, and materials choices for new designs, such as the advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) and enhanced CANDU-6. The basis for these choices, including a brief summary of the R&D necessary to support such decisions is provided. Finally we briefly discuss the materials and R&D needs beyond the immediate future, including new concepts to improve plant operability and component reliability.

  17. Comparison of biogas production from wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass.

    PubMed

    Oleszek, Marta; Król, Aleksandra; Tys, Jerzy; Matyka, Mariusz; Kulik, Mariusz

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition and efficiency of biogas production in the methane fermentation process of silages of wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass were compared. An attempt was made to answer the question on how the habitat and the way of utilization of plants affect chemical composition and biogas yield. Physicochemical properties such as dry matter, organic dry matter, protein, fat, crude fiber fraction, macro- and microelements content were considered. The anaerobic digestion process and FTIR analysis were also carried out. The results showed that the two varieties differ essentially in their physical and chemical properties. The cultivated variety was characterized by higher biogas yield (406Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS) than the wild one (120Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS). This was probably related to the chemical composition of plants, especially the high content of indigestible crude fiber fractions and ash. These components could reduce biogas quantity and quality. PMID:24518439

  18. Determination of methane emission rates on a biogas plant using data from laser absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Groth, Angela; Maurer, Claudia; Reiser, Martin; Kranert, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the work was to establish a method for emission control of biogas plants especially the observation of fugitive methane emissions. The used method is in a developmental stage but the topic is crucial to environmental and economic issues. A remote sensing measurement method was adopted to determine methane emission rates of a biogas plant in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. An inverse dispersion model was used to deduce emission rates. This technique required one concentration measurement with an open path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) downwind and upwind the source and basic wind information, like wind speed and direction. Different operating conditions of the biogas plant occurring on the measuring day (December 2013) could be represented roughly in the results. During undisturbed operational modes the methane emission rate averaged 2.8 g/s, which corresponds to 4% of the methane gas production rate of the biogas plant. PMID:25446786

  19. Effective anaerobic biodegradation of municipal solid waste fresh leachate using a novel pilot-scale reactor: comparison under different seeding granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghuan; Zhou, Jizhi; Qian, Guangren; Liu, Jianyong

    2014-08-01

    A novel integrated internal and external circulation (IIEC) reactor was developed for anaerobic biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) fresh leachate with chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 40,000 and 60,000mg/l. The pilot-scale IIEC reactor was inoculated with two kinds of granular sludge from paper mill (SPM) and from citric acid factory (SCF), respectively. The bio-treating capacity in contaminant removal and biogas production performed much superior to others' results, principally attributed to appropriate configuration modification. Compared to SCF, much higher organic loading rate (40.5 vs 23.0kgCOD/m(3)d) and COD removal efficiency (>80% vs 60-75%) were achieved for the reactor with SPM. For methane production, 11.77 or ?6m(3)STP/m(3)d of rate and 66-85% of content were observed with SPM or SCF, respectively. Due to better sludge concentrations and methanogenic activity, these findings indicate the anaerobic reactor could effectively bio-treat MSW leachate for methane generation, especially inoculated with granular sludge derived from leachate-like-wastewater. PMID:24755395

  20. Comparative bio-fuel performance in internal combustion engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Crookes

    2006-01-01

    An experimental programme examining performance and emissions from spark- and compression-ignition engines, running on a variety of bio-fuels, including simulated bio-gas and commercial seed oil is presented. Both engines were single-cylinder laboratory-type engines of comparable power output having variable speed and load capability, the spark-ignition engine additionally having variable compression ratio. For bio-gas, containing carbon dioxide, emissions of oxides of

  1. Effects of increasing organic loading rate on performance and microbial community shift of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating diluted pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Yuguang; Li, Kai; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-09-01

    The performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated in the treatment of diluted pharmaceutical fermentation wastewater for a continuous operation of 140 days. The dynamics and compositions of the microbial community were monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2.7 kg COD/m(3) d to 7.2 COD/m(3) d led to an increase in the COD removal efficiency from 83% to 91%. The dominant bacteria shifted from Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (14.5%) and Firmicutes (4.0%) to Firmicutes (48.4%), Bacteroidetes (9.5%) and Proteobacteria (5.4%). For archeaon, the dominant groups changed from Thermoplasmata (24.4%), Thermoprotei (18.0%) and Methanobacteria (30.8%) to Thermoplasmata (70.4%) and Methanomicrobia (16.8%). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Thermoplasmata and Methanobacteria could outcompete other species and dominated in the reactor under higher OLR. The results indicated that, to some extent, microbial community shift could reflect the performance of the reactor and a significant community shift corresponded to a considerable process event. PMID:24725962

  2. Performance and modeling of dual digestion process for biodegradation of cellulose containing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tansel, B.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study a dual digestion process for decomposing refuse and sludge mixtures to produce methane gas. A laboratory scale dual digestion system was used to study the performance of the process of influents with high cellulose content. A mechanistic model of the system based on volatile solids content was developed to compare the economics of the thermophilic dual digestion process with thermophilic and mesophilic single stage anaerobic digestion and mesophilic dual digestion processes with respect to changes in feed concentration and composition. Experimental and simulation studies showed that for small digesters heat loss from the digester surface is the most significant heat sink. For large digesters (greater than 0.1 MG) sensible heat of the influent becomes the most significant heat sink. Experimental studies indicated that significant amounts of energy can be generated during the oxygen aerobic digestion of thickened sludge-paper mixtures. Steady state temperatures in the aerobic digester can be reached two decays after the start-up. Biogas production rates in the aerobic stage as high as 3.0 liters per liter of reactor volume and 0.31 liters per gram of solids added to the anaerobic digester were observed. A second mechanistic model of the duel digestion process was developed based on chemical oxygen demand. This model includes the relationships between pH, alkalinity, methane content in the biogas and inhibition of the methane formation reaction by the presence of toxic substances and unionized volatile acids.

  3. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. PMID:25257071

  4. Determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Operational and meteorological aspects.

    PubMed

    Hrad, Marlies; Piringer, Martin; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2015-09-01

    A micrometeorological method, combining an inverse dispersion technique with path-integrated concentration measurements, was applied on an Austrian biogas plant over the period of more than one year to determine emissions of the whole plant. Measurement campaigns were conducted to characterize the emission response to operational activities (e.g. digestate management) and meteorological changes. When digestate storage tanks were filled, an average emission rate of 7.2kg CH4/h (approx. 4% of the calculated CH4 production) was determined, while 5.4kg CH4/h of emissions (approx. 3% of the calculated CH4 production) were quantified after the tanks had been emptied. It could be observed that besides the operation mode (e.g. filling level or agitation of the openly stored digestate, maintenance), the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and solar radiation (e.g. heat flux) can also affect the emission rate. PMID:26000833

  5. Biogas production from co-digestion of dairy manure and food waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamed M. El-Mashad; Ruihong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of manure-screening on the biogas yield of dairy manure was evaluated in batch digesters under mesophilic conditions (35°C). Moreover, the study determined the biogas production potential of different mixtures of unscreened dairy manure and food waste and compared them with the yield from manure or food waste alone. A first-order kinetics model was developed to calculate the methane

  6. Performance of on-site pilot static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for treating dairy processing wastewater and chemical oxygen demand balance modeling under different operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin Hwan; Park, Jaeyoung; Ellis, Timothy G

    2015-02-01

    The performance and operational stability of a pilot-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for the treatment of dairy processing wastewater were investigated under a wide range of organic and hydraulic loading rates and temperature conditions. The SGBR achieved average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS)-removal efficiencies higher than 90% even at high loading rates up to 7.3 kg COD/m(3)/day, with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 h, and at low temperatures of 11 °C. The average methane yield of 0.26 L CH4/g COD(removed) was possibly affected by a high fraction of particulate COD and operation at low temperatures. The COD mass balance indicated that soluble COD was responsible for most of the methane production. The reactor showed the capacity of the methanogens to maintain their activity and withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads. PMID:25164570

  7. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-05

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

  8. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  9. Fission reactors and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The American-designed boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor dominate the designs currently in use and under construction worldwide. As in all energy systems, materials problems have appeared during service; these include stress-corrosion of stainless steel pipes and heat exchangers and questions regarding crack behavior in pressure vessels. To obtain the maximum potential energy from our limited uranium supplies is is essential to develop the fast breeder reactor. The materials in these reactors are subjected to higher temperatures and neutron fluxes but lower pressures than in the water reactors. The performance required of the fuel elements is more arduous in the breeder than in water reactors. Extensive materials programs are in progress in test reactors and in large test rigs to ensure that materials will be available to meet these conditions.

  10. Biogas production from lignocelluloses by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment: effects of recovery and reuse of NMMO.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Maryam M; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2014-06-01

    The effects of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment on barley straw and forest residues were investigated for biogas production. The pretreatments were performed at 90°C with 85% NMMO for 3-30h. The best pretreatment conditions resulted in 100% improvement in methane yield during the subsequent digestion compared to that of the untreated lignocelluloses. Methane yields of 0.23 and 0.15Nm(3) CH4/kg VS were obtained from barley straw and forest residues, respectively, corresponding to 88% and 83% of the theoretical yields. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment with recovered and reused NMMO was also studied over the course of five cycles. Pretreatment with recycled NMMO showed the same performance as the fresh NMMO on barley straw. However, pretreatment of forest residues with recycled NMMO resulted in 55% reduction in methane yield. PMID:24736089

  11. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, Rangaraj [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Torrijos, Michel, E-mail: michel.torrijos@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Sousbie, Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lugardon, Aurelien [Naskeo Environnment, 52 rue Paul Vaillant Couturier, F-92240 Malakoff (France); Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. • Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. • Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2. • Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. • Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.5–6.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during hydrolysis in the TPAR and the deficit in methane production in the TPMR attributed to COD loss due to biomass synthesis and adsorption of hard COD onto the flocs. These results including the complicated operational procedure of the two-phase process and the economic factors suggested that the single-phase process could be the preferred system for FVW.

  12. Calculated performance of a mercury-compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R B

    1951-01-01

    An analysis was made at a flight Mach number of 1.5, an altitude of 45,000 feet, a turbine-inlet temperature of 1460 degrees R, of a mercury compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source. The calculations covered a range of turbine-exhaust and turbine-inlet pressures and condenser-inlet Mach numbers. For a turbine--inlet pressure of 40 pounds per square inch absolute, a turbine-exhaust pressure of 14 pounds per square inch absolute, and a condenser-inlet Mach number of 0.23 the calculated airplane gross weight required to carry a 20,000 pound payload was 322000 pounds and the reactor heat release per unit volume was 8.9 kilowatts per cubic inch. These do not represent optimum operating conditions.

  13. Impact of increasing NaCl concentrations on the performance and community composition of two anaerobic reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lefebvre; S. Quentin; M. Torrijos; J. J. Godon; J. P. Delgenès; R. Moletta

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic treatment of saline effluents using halophilic and halotolerant microbial consortia is of major interest. Inhibition\\u000a of anaerobic digestion is known to occur at high salt content. However, it seems that the suitable adaptation of an anaerobic\\u000a sludge makes possible the treatment of saline wastewater. In this study, a non-saline anaerobic sludge was inoculated in two\\u000a anaerobic batch reactors

  14. Performance and Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics of a Sulfate-Reducing Fluidized-Bed Reactor Treating Acidic Metal-Containing Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. Kaksonen; Peter D. Franzmann; Jaakko A. Puhakka

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of simulated acidic wastewater (pH 2.5–5)containing sulfate (1.0–2.2 g l-1), zinc (15–340 mg l -1) and iron (57 mg l -1) was studied in a sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) at 35 °C.The original lactate feed for enrichment and maintenance\\u000a of the FBRculture was replaced stepwise with ethanol over 50 days. The robustnessof the process was studied by increasing

  15. Performance and population analysis of a non-sterile trickle bed reactor inoculated with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, a thermophilic hydrogen producer.

    PubMed

    van Groenestijn, J W; Geelhoed, J S; Goorissen, H P; Meesters, K P M; Stams, A J M; Claassen, P A M

    2009-04-01

    Non-axenic operation of a 400 L trickle bed reactor inoculated with the thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, yielded 2.8 mol H2/mol hexose converted. The reactor was fed with a complex medium with sucrose as the main substrate, continuously flushed with nitrogen gas, and operated at 73 degrees C. The volumetric productivity was 22 mmol H2/(L filterbed h). Acetic acid and lactic acid were the main by-products in the liquid phase. Production of lactic acid occurred when hydrogen partial pressure was elevated above 2% and during suboptimal fermentation conditions that also resulted in the presence of mono- and disaccharides in the effluent. Methane production was negligible. The microbial community was analyzed at two different time points during operation. Initially, other species related to members of the genera Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldicellulosiruptor were present in the reactor. However, these were out-competed by C. saccharolyticus during a period when sucrose was completely used and no saccharides were discharged with the effluent. In general, the use of pure cultures in non-sterile industrial applications is known to be less useful because of contamination. However, our results show that the applied fermentation conditions resulted in a culture of a single dominant organism with excellent hydrogen production characteristics. PMID:19016484

  16. Use of cellulolytic marine bacteria for enzymatic pretreatment in microalgal biogas production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos; Rivas, Mariella

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with "whole-cell" cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a "whole-cell" cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  17. Development of a pilot scale anaerobic digester for biogas production from cow manure and whey mix.

    PubMed

    Comino, Elena; Rosso, Maurizio; Riggio, Vincenzo

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents results from anaerobic digestion of cow manure and whey mix. A pilot scale anaerobic digester, 128 l in volume, has been developed, to operate under batch and fed-batch conditions. The versatile and unique characteristics of the instrument allowed testing the methane production directly in the farm. The digester performance was evaluated with two calibration tests, the main for a period of 56 days. The study test was divided into three phases, one for each type of feeding operation (batch, fed-batch, batch). The initial phase of digestion resulted in 57 l-CH(4)/kg-VS, the second phase had a yield of 86.6 l-CH(4)/kg-VS and the third one had a production of 67 l-CH(4)/kg-VS. The total methane yield was equal to 211.4 l-CH(4)/kg-VS. Using the obtained pilot plant results to a real scale diary production cycle, it was possible to evaluate an electricity production equal to 8.86 kwh per 1 t/d. The conducted tests did show that there is a good potential to the use of a cow manure and whey biomass mix for biogas production. PMID:19559606

  18. Performance and microbial communities of a continuous stirred tank anaerobic reactor treating two-phases olive mill solid wastes at low organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Rincón, B; Raposo, F; Borja, R; Gonzalez, J M; Portillo, M C; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2006-02-24

    A study of the performance and microbial communities of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating two-phases olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) was carried out at laboratory-scale. The reactor operated at a mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C) and an influent substrate concentration of 162 g total chemical oxygen demand (COD)L(-1) and 126 g volatile solids (VS)L(-1). The data analyzed in this work corresponded to a range of organic loading rates (OLR) of between 0.75 and 3.00 g CODL(-1)d(-1), getting removal efficiencies in the range of 97.0-95.6%. Methane production rate increased from 0.164 to 0.659 L CH(4)L(reactor)(-1)d(-1) when the OLR increased within the tested range. Methane yield coefficients were 0.225 L CH(4)g(-1) COD removed and 0.290 L CH(4)g(-1) VS removed and were virtually independent of the OLR applied. A molecular characterization of the microbial communities involved in the process was also accomplished. Molecular identification of microbial species was performed by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing. Among the predominant microorganisms in the bioreactor, the Firmicutes (mainly represented by Clostridiales) were the most abundant group, followed by the Chloroflexi and the Gamma-Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas species as the major representative). Other bacterial groups detected in the bioreactor were the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deferribacteres. Among the Archaea, the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii was the most representative species. PMID:16168509

  19. Significant performance enhancement of a UASB reactor by using acyl homoserine lactones to facilitate the long filaments of Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Mingyue; Ma, Hailing; Gong, Shufen; Ai, Guomin; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Jie; Wang, Kaijun; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2015-08-01

    Methanosaeta strains are frequently involved in the granule formation during methanogenic wastewater treatment. To investigate the impact of Methanosaeta on granulation and performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, three 1-L working volume reactors noted as R1, R2, and R3 were operated fed with a synthetic wastewater containing sodium acetate and glucose. R1 was inoculated with 1-L activated sludge, while R2 and R3 were inoculated with 200-mL concentrated pre-grown Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac culture and 800 mL of activated sludge. Additionally, R3 was daily dosed with 0.5 mL/L of acetyl ether extract of 6Ac spent culture containing its quorum sensing signal carboxyl acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). Compared to R1, R2 and R3 had a higher and more constant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and alkaline pH (8.2) during the granulation phase, particularly, R3 maintained approximately 90 % COD removal. Moreover, R3 formed the best granules, and microscopic images showed fluorescent Methanosaeta-like filaments dominating in the R3 granules, but rod cells dominating in the R2 granules. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries showed increased diversity of methanogen species like Methanosarcina and Methanospirillum in R2 and R3, and increased bacteria diversity in R3 that included the syntrophic propionate degrader Syntrophobacter. Quantitative PCR determined that 6Ac made up more than 22 % of the total prokaryotes in R3, but only 3.6 % in R2. The carboxyl AHL was detected in R3. This work indicates that AHL-facilitated filaments of Methanosaeta contribute to the granulation and performance of UASB reactors, likely through immobilizing other functional microorganisms. PMID:25776059

  20. Aging degradation of BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactor internals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ware

    1989-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently performed an assessment of the aging of the reactor internals in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), and identified the unresolved technical issues related to the degradation of these components. Several failures in BWR reactor internals have been caused by a combination of susceptible materials, environment, preload stress, and flow-induced vibration. ASME Code Section

  1. Characterization of a biogas-producing microbial community by short-read next generation DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Renewable energy production is currently a major issue worldwide. Biogas is a promising renewable energy carrier as the technology of its production combines the elimination of organic waste with the formation of a versatile energy carrier, methane. In consequence of the complexity of the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involved the biotechnology of the microbiological process leading to biogas production is poorly understood. Metagenomic approaches are suitable means of addressing related questions. In the present work a novel high-throughput technique was tested for its benefits in resolving the functional and taxonomical complexity of such microbial consortia. Results It was demonstrated that the extremely parallel SOLiD™ short-read DNA sequencing platform is capable of providing sufficient useful information to decipher the systematic and functional contexts within a biogas-producing community. Although this technology has not been employed to address such problems previously, the data obtained compare well with those from similar high-throughput approaches such as 454-pyrosequencing GS FLX or Titanium. The predominant microbes contributing to the decomposition of organic matter include members of the Eubacteria, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, family Clostridiaceae. Bacteria belonging in other systematic groups contribute to the diversity of the microbial consortium. Archaea comprise a remarkably small minority in this community, given their crucial role in biogas production. Among the Archaea, the predominant order is the Methanomicrobiales and the most abundant species is Methanoculleus marisnigri. The Methanomicrobiales are hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Besides corroborating earlier findings on the significance of the contribution of the Clostridia to organic substrate decomposition, the results demonstrate the importance of the metabolism of hydrogen within the biogas producing microbial community. Conclusions Both microbiological diversity and the regulatory role of the hydrogen metabolism appear to be the driving forces optimizing biogas-producing microbial communities. The findings may allow a rational design of these communities to promote greater efficacy in large-scale practical systems. The composition of an optimal biogas-producing consortium can be determined through the use of this approach, and this systematic methodology allows the design of the optimal microbial community structure for any biogas plant. In this way, metagenomic studies can contribute to significant progress in the efficacy and economic improvement of biogas production. PMID:22673110

  2. An evaluation of the performance and optimization of a new wastewater treatment technology: the air suction flow-biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Forde, P; Kennelly, C; Gerrity, S; Collins, G; Clifford, Eoghan

    2015-05-01

    In this laboratory study, a novel wastewater treatment technology, the air suction flow-biofilm reactor (ASF-BR) - a sequencing batch biofilm reactor technology with a passive aeration mechanism - was investigated for its efficiency in removing organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, from high-strength synthetic wastewaters. A laboratory-scale ASF-BR comprising 2 reactors, 350?mm in diameter and 450?mm in height, was investigated over 2 studies (Studies 1 and 2) for a total of 430 days. Study 1 lasted a total of 166 days and involved a 9-step sequence alternating between aeration, anoxic treatment and settlement. The cycle time was 12.1?h and the reactors were operated at a substrate loading rate of 3.60?g filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf)/m(2) media/d, 0.28?g filtered total nitrogen (TNf)/m(2) media/d, 0.24?g ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N)/m(2) media/d and 0.07?g ortho-phosphate (PO4-P)/m(2) media/d. The average removal rates achieved during Study 1 were 98% CODf, 88% TNf, 97% NH4-N and 35% PO4-P. During Study 2 (264 days), the unit was operated at a loading rate of 2.49?g CODf/m(2) media/d, 0.24?g TNf/m(2) media/d, 0.20?g NH4-N/m(2) media/d and 0.06 PO4-P/m(2) media/d. The energy requirement during this study was reduced by modifying the treatment cycle in include fewer pumping cycles. Removal rates in Study 2 averaged 97% CODf, 86% TNf, 99% NH4-N and 76% PO4-P. The excess sludge production of the system was evaluated and detailed analyses of the treatment cycles were carried out. Biomass yields were estimated at 0.09?g SS/g CODf, removed and 0.21?g SS/g CODf, removed for Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Gene analysis showed that the use of a partial vacuum did not affect the growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The results indicate that the ASF-BR and passive aeration technologies can offer efficient alternatives to existing technologies. PMID:25413003

  3. A GIS-BASED APPROACH FOR OPTIMIZING THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLLECTIVE BIOGAS PLANTS T. Bioteau, F. Boret, O. Tretyakov, F. Bline, M. Balynska, R. Girault,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A GIS-BASED APPROACH FOR OPTIMIZING THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLLECTIVE BIOGAS PLANTS T. Bioteau, F 2012 (117) A GIS-BASED APPROACH FOR OPTIMIZING THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLLECTIVE BIOGAS PLANTS T. Bioteau of potential development of collective biogas plants in France, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS

  4. Demonstration of anaerobic biogas digesters in developing countries. Part III. The Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.H.; Morales, E.C.

    1980-03-01

    The main theme of this series of articles is that ours is now a world-wide society, short on meeting needs for energy yet long on waste from our industrial, agricultural and human consumption processes. This is a study report about developments in the Philippines where waste management has been recognized and considered as an important practical source of energy. This is revealed by several reports of the number of biogas plants in operation in this country. According to the July 31, 1977 survey made by the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industries, 200 biogas plants were then installed and in operation of which 46 were government-owned and 154 privately-owned. More have been installed since then. This report presents some of the operating observations and developments from the joint engineering analyses project of the Philippines Bureau of Animal Industry, Man and the Biosphere Inter-Agency Committee on Ecological Studies, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and the National Institute of Science and Technology. The project's main objective was to show that establishing a biogas plant involves not only the production of a methane gas mixture but the integration of its other products as part of a system (i.e., using effluent water from the biogas digester for production of algae chlorell sp. for livestock and poultry feed, production of fish and fertilizing-irrigating of pasture and vegetable plots.). Housing development sewer systems with added biogas generators are also discussed.

  5. Conversion of biogas to bioproducts by algae and methane oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    van der Ha, David; Nachtergaele, Leen; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rameiyanti, Devi; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-12-18

    Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion is typically converted into electricity and low value heat. In this study, biogas is microbially transformed into valuable bioproducts. As proof of principle, the production of feed additives, i.e. lipids and polyhydroxybutyrate, out of biogas was evaluated. In a first stage, the CO? in a synthetic biogas was photosynthetically fixed by an algae Scenedesmus sp. culture at an average rate of 192 ± 9 mg CO? L?¹ liquid d?¹, resulting in concomitant O? production. After N-depletion, more than 30% of the 220 ± 7 mg lipids g?¹ total organic carbon were unsaturated. In a second stage, the theoretical resulting gas mixture of 60% CH? and 40% O? was treated by a methane oxidizing Methylocystis parvus culture, with oxidation rates up to 452 ± 7 mg?¹ CH?-C L?¹ liquid d?¹. By repeated N-limitation, concentrations of 295 ± 50 mg intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate g?¹ cell dry weight were achieved. Finally, a one-stage approach with controlled coculturing of both microbial groups resulted in harvestable bioflocs. This is the first time that a total microbial conversion of both greenhouse gases into biomass was achieved without external O? provision. Based on these results, a biotechnological approach is discussed whereby all kinds of biogas can be transformed into valuable bioproducts. PMID:23186036

  6. Emergy analysis of a farm biogas project in China: A biophysical perspective of agricultural ecological engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. Y.; Zhang, B.; Cai, Z. F.

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to present a biophysical understanding of the agricultural ecological engineering by emergy analysis for a farm biogas project in China as a representative case. Accounting for the resource inputs into and accumulation within the project, as well as the outputs to the social system, emergy analysis provides an empirical study in the biophysical dimension of the agricultural ecological engineering. Economic benefits and ecological economic benefits of the farm biogas project indicated by market value and emergy monetary value are discussed, respectively. Relative emergy-based indices such as renewability ( R%), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) are calculated to evaluate the environmental load and local sustainability of the concerned biogas project. The results show that the farm biogas project has more reliance on the local renewable resources input, less environmental pressure and higher sustainability compared with other typical agricultural systems. In addition, holistic evaluation and its policy implications for better operation and management of the biogas project are presented.

  7. Biogas production from plant biomass used for phytoremediation of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Verma, V K; Singh, Y P; Rai, J P N

    2007-05-01

    In present study, potentials of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water chestnut (Trapa bispinnosa) employed for phytoremediation of toxic metal rich brass and electroplating industry effluent, were examined in terms of biogas generation. Inability of the plants to grow in undiluted effluent directed to select 20%, 40% and 60% effluent concentrations (with deionized water) for phytoremediation experiments. Slurry of both the plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that by the control plants grown in unpolluted water; the effect being more pronounced with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% effluent. Maximum cumulative production of biogas (2430c.c./100gdm of water hyacinth and 1940c.c./100gdm of water chest nut) and per cent methane content (63.82% for water hyacinth and 57.04% for water chestnut) was observed at 5mm particle size and 1:1 substrate/inoculum ratio, after twenty days incubation. Biogas production was quicker (maximum from 8-12days) in water hyacinth than in water chestnut (maximum from 12-16days). The qualitative and quantitative variations in biogas production were correlated with COD, C, N, C/N ratio and toxic metal contents of the slurry used. PMID:16831546

  8. The French nuclear power plant reactor building containment contributions of prestressing and concrete performances in reliability improvements and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Rouelle, P.; Roy, F. [Electricite de France, Paris (France). Engineering and Construction Div.

    1998-12-31

    The Electricite de France`s N4 CHOOZ B nuclear power plant, two units of the world`s largest PWR model (1450 Mwe each), has earned the Electric Power International`s 1997 Powerplant Award. This lead NPP for EDF`s N4 series has been improved notably in terms of civil works. The presentation will focus on the Reactor Building`s inner containment wall which is one of the main civil structures on a technical and safety point of view. In order to take into account the necessary evolution of the concrete technical specification such as compressive strength low creep and shrinkage, the HSC/HPC has been used on the last N4 Civaux 2 NPP. As a result of the use of this type of professional concrete, the containment withstands an higher internal pressure related to severe accident and ensures higher level of leak-tightness, thus improving the overall safety of the NPP. On that occasion, a new type of prestressing has been tested locally through 55 C 15 S tendons using a new C 1500 FE Jack. These updated civil works techniques shall allow EDF to ensure a Reactor Containment lifespan for more than 50 years. The gains in terms of reliability and cost saving of these improved techniques will be developed hereafter.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of antibiotic residue in combination with hydrothermal pretreatment for biogas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Chunxing; Ma, Dachao; Zhang, Zhikai; Xu, Guangwen

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic residues are difficult to be treated or utilized because of their high water content and residual antibiotics. This article is devoted to investigating the possibility of biogas production from cephalosporin C residue (CPCAR), one typical type of antibiotic residues, via anaerobic digestion in combination with hydrothermal pretreatment (HTPT). The results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the combination of HTPT and anaerobic digestion can provide a viable way to convert CPCAR into biogas, and the biogas and methane yields reached 290 and 200ml(gTS)(-1), respectively. This article further evaluated the proposed technology in terms of energy balance and technical feasibility based on theoretical calculation using the data from a pilot HTPT test. It was shown that the process is totally self-sufficient in energy and its main challenging problem of ammonia inhibition can be solved via ammonia stripping. PMID:26038331

  10. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. PMID:23726145

  11. Field test of infrared thermography applied to biogas controlling in landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, Francisco J.; Muñoz, Jaime M.; González, Daniel A.; Tejero, Juan I.; Cobo, Adolfo; Gil, José L.; Conde, Olga M.; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2007-04-01

    The gases accumulated inside the landfill as result of the fermentation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) known as biogas, are taking into consideration all possible uses as direct transformation into electricity. The system for collecting, regulating and controlling the biogas must include all the necessary safety features where the biogas leakage presents a high impact. Infrared thermography can be use to detect gas leakages due to the differences in temperature between the gas and the immediate surroundings. This method is able to monitor a wide area of landfill sites, quickly. This technology will not be effective if the differences in temperature are not better than five degrees. This paper describes a field test conducted to study the limitations of the infrared thermography caused by weather conditions and the moment of day or/and season when the thermal images was captured. Pipelines, borders, cells, covers, slopes and leakage (hot spots) are studied and optimum conditions are defined.

  12. Impact of enzymatic pretreatment on corn stover degradation and biogas production.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, Michel; Vervaeren, Han; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Raes, Katleen

    2014-12-01

    Corn stover is an agricultural residue consisting of lignocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose polymers, sheeted in a lignin barrier. Corn stover can be used as feedstock for biogas production. Previous studies have shown biological pretreatment of lignocellulose materials can increase digestibility of the substrate improving hydrolysis, the rate-limiting step in biogas production. The impact of pretreating with different enzymes (laccase, manganese peroxidase and versatile peroxidase) and different incubation times, (0, 6 and 24 h) was studied. The effect on the matrix and biomethane production was determined. Pretreatments did not yield high concentrations of phenolic compounds, inhibitors of biogas production. The laccase enzyme showed an increase in biomethane production of 25% after 24 h of incubation. Pretreatment with peroxidase enzymes increased biomethane production with 17% after 6 h of incubation. As such it can be concluded that by introducing the different enzymes at different stages during pretreatment an increased biomethane production can be obtained. PMID:25285760

  13. Techno-economical study of biogas production improved by steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Kabir, Maryam M; Zilouei, Hamid; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2013-11-01

    Economic feasibility of steam explosion pretreatment for improvement of biogas production from wheat straw and paper tube residuals was investigated. The process was simulated by Aspen plus ®, and the economical feasibility of five different plant capacities was studied by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Total project investment of a plant using paper tube residuals or wheat straw was 63.9 or 61.8 million Euros, respectively. The manufacturing cost of raw biogas for these two feedstocks was calculated to 0.36 or 0.48 €/m(3) of methane, respectively. Applying steam explosion pretreatment resulted in 13% higher total capital investment while significantly improved the economy of the biogas plant and decreased the manufacturing cost of methane by 36%. The sensitivity analysis showed that 5% improvement in the methane yield and 20% decrease in the raw material price resulted in 5.5% and 8% decrease in the manufacturing cost of methane, respectively. PMID:24035891

  14. Anaerobic treatment of activated sludge from Swedish pulp and paper mills--biogas production potential and limitations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna; Truong, Xu-Bin; Gustavsson, Jenny; Svensson, Bo H; Nilsson, Fredrik; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2011-10-01

    The methane potential of activated sludge from six Swedish pulp and paper mills was evaluated. The methane production potential of sludge samples ranged from 100-200 NmL CH4 g(-1) volatile solids (VS) and for four of the six sludge samples the potential exceeded 170 NmL CH4 g(-1) VS. The effects of sludge age and dewatering on the methane production potential were evaluated. The effects of enzymatic and ultrasonic pre-treatment on the digestibility of sludge were also investigated, but energy or enzyme inputs in viable ranges did not exert a detectable, positive effect. Long-term, semi-continuous trials with sludge from two of the mills were also conducted in attempts to develop stable biogas production at loading rates up to 4 g VS L(-1). Cobalt addition (0.5 mg L(-1)) was here found to positively affect the turnover of acetate. High viscosity was a problem in all the experimental reactors and this limited the organic loading rate. PMID:22329147

  15. Impact of high external circulation ratio on the performance of anaerobic reactor treating coal gasification wastewater under thermophilic condition.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Li, Kun

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory-scale external circulation anaerobic reactor (ECAR) was developed to treat actual coal gasification wastewater. The external circulation ratio (R) was selected as the main operating variable for analysis. From the results, with the hydraulic retention time of 50h, pH>8.0 and R of 3, the COD, total phenols, volatile phenol and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies were remarkably increased to 10±2%, 22±5%, 18±1%, and -1±2%, respectively. Besides, increasing R resulted in more transformation from bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to free EPS in the liquid and the particle size distribution of anaerobic granular sludge accumulated in the middle size range of 1.0-2.5mm. Results showed the genus Saccharofermentans dominanted in the ECAR and the bacterial community shift was observed at different external circulation ratio, influencing the pollutants removal profoundly. PMID:26081627

  16. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjun; Zhou, Haokui; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Geng, Alei; Liu, Fanghua; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ? 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg). Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future. PMID:26070087

  17. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in decision-making. PMID:23201601

  18. The potential of biogas production from municipal solid waste in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Tadesse; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Ambelu, Argaw; Van Gerven, Tom; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the potential of organic municipal solid waste generated in an urban setting in a tropical climate to produce biogas. Five different categories of wastes were considered: fruit waste, food waste, yard waste, paper waste, and mixed waste. These fractions were assessed for their efficiency for biogas production in a laboratory-scale batch digester for a total period of 8 weeks at a temperature of 15-30 °C. During this period, fruit waste, food waste, yard waste, paper waste, and mixed waste were observed to produce 0.15, 0.17, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.15 m(3) of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, respectively. The biogas produced and caloric value of each feedstock was in the range of 1.25?×?10(-3) m(3) (17 kWh)/cap/day (paper waste) to 15?×?10(-3) m(3) (170 kWh)/cap/day (mixed waste). Paper waste produced the least (<1×10(-3)(<17.8 kWh)/cap/day), and mixed waste produced the highest methane yield (10?×?10(-3) m(3) (178 kWh)/cap/day). Thus, mixed waste was found to be more efficient than other feedstocks for biogas and methane production; this was mainly related to the better C/N ratio in mixed waste. Taking the total waste production in Jimma into account, the total mixed organic solid waste could produce 865?×?10(3) m(3) (5.4 m(3)/capita) of biogas or 537?×?10(3) m(3) (3.4 m(3)/capita) of methane per year. The total caloric value of methane production potential from mixed organic municipal solid waste was many times higher than the total energy requirement of the area. PMID:24700205

  19. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Geng, Alei; Liu, Fanghua; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ? 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg). Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future. PMID:26070087

  20. Bioconversion of solar energy into gaseous fuel (biogas) at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantskhava, E. S.

    Various bacterial systems that can be used to convert proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides into gaseous fuel (biogas) and thus to replace the diminishing sources of natural fuels are discussed. Consideration is given to the individual reaction stages (i.e., the hydrolytic, acidogenic, and methanogenic steps) of the anaerobic fermentation process that produces methane and CO2 from raw biochemicals and to particular bacterial cultures responsible for these reactions. Special attention is given to the effects of various conditions of culture maintenance, such as hydrogenation and the rate and the manner of substrate renewal, on the yield of CH4 in the industrial production of biogas.

  1. Sustained use of biogas fuel and blood pressure among women in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Maniraj; Basnyat, Buddha; Fischer, Rainald; Froeschl, Guenter; Wolbers, Marcel; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2015-01-01

    Background More than two fifths of the world's population cook with solid fuels and are exposed to household air pollution (HAP). As of now, no studies have assessed whether switching to alternative fuels like biogas could impact cardiovascular health among cooks previously exposed to solid fuel use. Methods We conducted a propensity score matched cross-sectional study to explore if the sustained use of biogas fuel for at least ten years impacts blood pressure among adult female cooks of rural Nepal. We recruited one primary cook ?30 years of age from each biogas (219 cooks) and firewood (300 cooks) using household and measured their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Household characteristics, kitchen ventilation and 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide were assessed. We matched cooks by age, body mass index and socio-economic status score using propensity scores and investigated the effect of biogas use through multivariate regression models in two age groups, 30–50 years and >50 years to account for any post-menopausal changes. Results We found substantially reduced 24-h kitchen carbon monoxide levels among biogas-using households. After matching and adjustment for smoking, kitchen characteristics, ventilation status and additional fuel use, the use of biogas was associated with 9.8 mmHg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), ?20.4 to 0.8] and 6.5 mmHg lower DBP (95% CI, ?12.2 to ?0.8) compared to firewood users among women >50 years of age. In this age group, biogas use was also associated with 68% reduced odds [Odds ratio 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.71)] of developing hypertension. These effects, however, were not identified in younger women aged 30–50 years. Conclusions Sustained use of biogas for cooking may protect against cardiovascular disease by lowering the risk of high blood pressure, especially DBP, among older female cooks. These findings need to be confirmed in longitudinal or experimental studies. PMID:25460655

  2. An ecotoxicological evaluation of soil fertilized with biogas residues or mining waste.

    PubMed

    Ró?y?o, Krzysztof; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jo?ko, Izabela; Kraska, Piotr; Kwieci?ska-Poppe, Ewa; Andruszczak, Sylwia

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an ecotoxicological evaluation of soil fertilized with biogas digestate (BD) or mining waste (MS). The study was performed under pot experiment conditions. BD was added at a dose of 1.5 and 3 % to the soil. MS was applied at a dose of 10 and 20 %. Samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment and after 180 and 360 days from the start of the study. In addition, a parallel experiment with the addition of CaO was done. This was designed to eliminate the adverse effect of low soil pH on the test organisms. A battery of ecotoxicological tests was used based on tests with plants (Phytotoxkit F), microorganisms (Microtox®), and crustaceans (Daphtoxkit F). In most cases, the obtained results showed that the investigated wastes had a stimulating effect on the growth of Lepidium sativum roots. The highest content of BD was an exception since it inhibited the growth of L. sativum roots. After adding BD and MS, both the luminescence of Vibrio fischeri and the mortality of Daphnia magna was at a similar level to that in the control soil. An exception was the significant increase in the mortality of D. magna after 48 h for soil with 3 % BD. The tests performed after 6 and 12 months showed that, with time, the toxicity of the waste-amended soil fluctuated, but ultimately decreased in most cases compared to the control. The effect of the addition of CaO on the examined toxicity parameters was different and depended on the experimental variant. PMID:25561251

  3. Co-treatment of landfill leachate in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors: analysis of system performance and biomass activity by means of respirometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Capodici, M; Di Trapani, D; Viviani, G

    2014-01-01

    Aged or mature leachate, produced by old landfills, can be very refractory; for this reason mature leachate is difficult to treat alone, but it can be co-treated with sewage or domestic wastewater. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of leachate co-treatment with synthetic wastewater, in terms of process performance and biomass activity, by means of respirometric techniques. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), named SBR1 and SBR2, were fed with synthetic wastewater and two different percentages of landfill leachate (respectively 10% and 50% v v(-1) in SBR1 and SBR2). The results showed good chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency for both reactors, with average COD removals equal to 91.64 and 89.04% respectively for SBR1 and SBR2. Furthermore, both SBRs showed good ammonia-nitrogen (AN) removal efficiencies, higher than 60%, thus confirming the feasibility of leachate co-treatment with a readily biodegradable wastewater. Significant respiration rates were obtained for the heterotrophic population (average values of maximum oxygen uptake rate equal to 37.30 and 56.68 mg O2 L(-1) h(-1) respectively for SBR1 and SBR2), thus suggesting the feasibility of leachate co-treatment with synthetic wastewater. PMID:24647193

  4. Changes in performance and bacterial communities in response to various process disturbances in a high-rate biohydrogen reactor fed with galactose.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jong-Hun; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2015-07-01

    High-rate biohydrogen production was achieved via hybrid immobilized cells fed with galactose in a continuous reactor system. The hybrid immobilized cells were broken down after 20days and began to form granules by self-aggregation. The peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 11.8±0.6LH2/L-d and 2.1±0.1molH2/molgalactoseadded, respectively, were achieved at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8h with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 45g/L-d. This is the highest yet reported for the employment of galactose in a continuous system. Various process disturbances including shock loading, acidification, alkalization and starvation were examined through bacterial community analysis via pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The proportion of Clostridia increased during the stable biohydrogen production periods, while that of Bacilli increased when the reactor was disturbed. However, due to the stability of the self-aggregated granules, the process performance was regained within 4-7days. PMID:25683506

  5. Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

  6. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2003-07-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, and improved waste form characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium oxide fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in 233U. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly in the reduction of plutonium inventories. While uranium-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium in discharged fuel, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the 238U. Here, we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed-oxide fuel in a light water reactor. Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2, where >70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnups of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels for similar plutonium enrichments. For equal specific burnups of ~60 MWd/kg (i.e., using variable plutonium weight percentages to give the desired burnup), the thorium-based fuels still outperform the uranium-based fuels by more than a factor of 2, where the total plutonium consumption in a three-batch, 18-month cycle was 60 to 70%. This is fairly significant considering that 10 to 15% (by weight) more plutonium is needed in the thorium-based fuels as compared to the uranium-based fuels to achieve these burnups. Furthermore, thorium-based fuels could also be used as a strategy for reducing the amount of long-lived nuclides (including the minor actinides) and thus the radiotoxicity in spent nuclear fuel. Although the breeding of 233U is a concern, the presence of 232U and its daughter products (namely 208Tl) can aid in making this fuel self-protecting, and/or enough 238U can be added to denature the fissile uranium. From these calculations, it appears that thorium-based fuel for plutonium incineration is superior when compared to uranium-based fuel and should be considered as an alternative to traditional MOX in both current and future/advanced reactor designs.

  7. Development of a computer control system for anaerobic methane-producing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Podruzny, M.F.; van den Berg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion processes with rapid production of methane are economical methods of waste stabilization. At the present time, these processes require highly trained technical staff and analytical equipment. The rudiments of a simple computer process control system are described to alleviate the need for analytical equipment and trained staff. Gas production was chosen as the controlled variable since it is a very sensitive indicator of digestor performance and can be measured rapidly. Feed rate was chosen as the manipulated variable. The aim was to develop a program which would maintain the performance of the process under normal operating conditions, and, in the event of a severe upset, would signal that a problem existed so remedial action could be taken. The digestor used was a down-flow stationary fixed film reactor. The waste used was a synthetic sugar waste containing 1% (w/v) sugar (10g chemical oxygen demand/L). The desired rate of biogas production was chosen as 250L/day at an approximate methane content of 50%.

  8. A dynamic model for calculating methane emissions from digestate based on co-digestion of animal manure and biogas crops in full scale German biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Muha, Ivo; Linke, Bernd; Wittum, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this work is the development of a model for the estimation of methane emissions for storage tanks of biogas plants. Those can be estimated depending on (i) hydraulic retention time in the digester, (ii) an arbitrary removal rate of the digestate from the storage tank and (iii) arbitrary temperature conditions in the storage tank. Furthermore, the model is capable of considering an arbitrary mixture of manure and crops in the input material. The model was validated by data from 21 full scale biogas plants in Germany digesting cow manure and crops. A realistic scenario for the removal rate and temperature conditions in the storage tank was then investigated and special emphasis was given to the effect of hydraulic retention time and proportion of crops in the mixture on the input VS methane yield from the digester and the storage tank. PMID:25239786

  9. Bio-entrapped membrane reactor and salt marsh sediment membrane bioreactor for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater: treatment performance and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Yao, Yinuo; Ng, How Yong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a bio-entrapped membrane reactor (BEMR) and a salt marsh sediment membrane bioreactor (SMSMBR) were evaluated to study the organic treatment performance of pharmaceutical wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and salinity were also studied. The conventional biomass in the BEMR cannot tolerate well of the hypersaline conditions, resulting in total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 54.2-68.0%. On the other hand, microorganisms in the SMSMBR, which was seeded from coastal shore, strived and was able to degrade the complex organic in the presence of salt effectively, achieving 74.7-90.9% of TCOD removal efficiencies. Marine microorganisms able to degrade recalcitrant compounds and utilize hydrocarbon compounds were found in the SMSMBR, which resulted in higher organic removal efficiency than the BEMR. However, specific nitrifying activity decreased and inhibited due to the saline effect that led to poor ammonia nitrogen removal. PMID:25203236

  10. Possible effects of UO/sub 2/ oxidation on light water reactor spent fuel performance in long-term geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Almassy, M.Y.; Woodley, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a conventionally mined geologic formation is the nearest-term option for permanently isolating radionuclides from the biosphere. Because irradiated uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) fuel pellets retain 95 to 99% of the radionuclides generated during normal light water reactor operation, they may represent a significant barrier to radionuclide release. This document presents a technical assessment of published literature representing the current level of understanding of spent fuel characteristics and conditions that may degrade pellet integrity during a geologic disposal sequence. A significant deterioration mechanism is spent UO/sub 2/ oxidation with possible consequences identified as fission gas release, rod diameter increases, cladding breach extension, and release of solid fuel particles containing radionuclides. Areas requiring further study to support development of a comprehensive spent fuel performance prediction model are highlighted. A program and preliminary schedule to obtain the information needed to develop model correlations are also presented.

  11. Design and part-load performance of a hybrid system based on a solid oxide fuel cell reactor and a micro gas turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Costamagna; L. Magistri; A. F. Massardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and off-design analysis of a hybrid system (HS) based on the coupling of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) with a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The SOFC reactor model is presented and discussed, taking into account the influence of the reactor lay-out, the current density, the air utilisation factor, the cell

  12. Crocheted ETFE-reactor for on-line post-column photoderivatization of diclofenac in high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, O; Krauss, G J

    1997-12-01

    A sensitive and selective bioanalytical method for diclofenac using reversed-phase HPLC and fluorescence detection is described. Diclofenac was detected as its fluorescent derivative after on-line post-column photoderivatization. Irradiation with UV light of diclofenac in aqueous solutions leads to the sequential loss of both chlorine substituents and ring closure. The major product, carbazole-1-acetic acid, was detected by a fluorescence detector using an excitation wavelength of 286 nm and an emission wavelength of 360 nm. The self-made reactor was a crocheted ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE, named TEFZEL) capillary, 20 m in length, wound directly around a 253.7 nm UV lamp. The capillary was crocheted in order to overcome peak widening. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using a Regis SPS 100 RP-8 column (5 microm; 150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and a LiChrospher 100 RP-18 (5 microm) guard column from E. Merck. The detection limit was 1 ng ml(-1) at an injection volume of 20 microl. Daily relative standard deviations (RSD) were 5.5%, (73 ng diclofenac/ml, n = 9), and 5.1% (405 ng diclofenac/ml, n = 6), respectively. Chromatograms of human aqueous humor and human serum containing diclofenac, and figures showing the time dependent increase/decrease of the photoderivatization product, are shown. PMID:9502151

  13. Advanced fuels modeling: Evaluating the steady-state performance of carbide fuel in helium-cooled reactors using FRAPCON 3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Luther, Jr.

    Uranium carbide (UC) has long been considered a potential alternative to uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel, especially in the context of Gen IV gas-cooled reactors. It has shown promise because of its high uranium density, good irradiation stability, and especially high thermal conductivity. Despite its many benefits, UC is known to swell at a rate twice that of UO2. However, the swelling phenomenon is not well understood, and we are limited to a weak empirical understanding of the swelling mechanism. One suggested cladding for UC is silicon carbide (SiC), a ceramic that demonstrates a number of desirable properties. Among them are an increased corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength, and irradiation stability. However, with increased temperatures, SiC exhibits an extremely brittle nature. The brittle behavior of SiC is not fully understood and thus it is unknown how SiC would respond to the added stress of a swelling UC fuel. To better understand the interaction between these advanced materials, each has been implemented into FRAPCON, the preferred fuel performance code of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); additionally, the material properties for a helium coolant have been incorporated. The implementation of UC within FRAPCON required the development of material models that described not only the thermophysical properties of UC, such as thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, but also models for the swelling, densification, and fission gas release associated with the fuel's irradiation behavior. This research is intended to supplement ongoing analysis of the performance and behavior of uranium carbide and silicon carbide in a helium-cooled reactor.

  14. Benchmarking of the MIT High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor TRISO-coated particle fuel performance model

    E-print Network

    Stawicki, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    MIT has developed a Coated Particle Fuel Performance Model to study the behavior of TRISO nuclear fuels. The code, TIMCOAT, is designed to assess the mechanical and chemical condition of populations of coated particles and ...

  15. Predicting kinetic model of biogas production and biodegradability organic materials: biogas production from vinasse at variation of COD/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Syaichurrozi, Iqbal; Budiyono; Sumardiono, Siswo

    2013-12-01

    The biogas fermentation of vinasse (TS 7.015 ± 0.007%) was investigated within a wide range of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/N (Total Nitrogen) ratio. Urea (46% nitrogen content) was added into substrate to adjust COD/N ratio of 400/7-700/7. This study used batch anaerobic digesters in laboratory-scale that were operated at room temperature in 60 days. The results showed that control variable, 400/7, 500/7, 600/7, 700/7 generated total biogas of 107.45, 123.87, 133.82, 139.17, 113.27 mL/g COD and had the value of COD removal of 31.274 ± 0.887, 33.483 ± 0.266, 36.573 ± 1.689, 38.088 ± 0.872, 32.714 ± 0.881%, respectively. Variable with COD/N ratio of 600/7 was the best variable. In the kinetic model of biogas production, variable with COD/N of 600/7 had kinetic constant of A (mL/g COD), ? (mL/g COD.day), ? (days) of 132.580, 15.200, 0.213, respectively. The model equation of kinetic of biodegradability organic materials obtained was [formula in text]. PMID:24128402

  16. Renewable hybrid systems using biogas fuzzy multi-sets and fuzzy multi-rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Barin; L. Canha; A. Abaide; K. Magnago; B. Wottrich

    2009-01-01

    In response to the escalating energy crisis and related pollution problems verified worldwide, it is essential to assume new energy technologies that use renewable energy sources in an efficient and environmentally friendly manner. Accordingly, biomass appears as a renewable, clean, and widely available source. This paper focuses in biogas production from livestock manure by using anaerobic digesters to decompose the

  17. ANALYTICAL APPROACH FOR PREDICTING BIOGAS GENERATION IN A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Bamgboye; B. S. Ogunsina; S. A. Oke

    There is an increasing worldwide interest in the effective utilisation of municipal solid wastes as an avenue of reducing its high cost of clearing. Municipal solid wastes are usefully converted into a medium grade fuel (biogas) to reduce its nuisance value to the environment. In this paper, the potential of vegetable (putriscible) component of municipal solid wastes was examined in

  18. Operation of molten carbonate fuel cells with different biogas sources: A challenging approach for field trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogisch, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Daza Bertrand, L.

    In the past years research in the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) area has been focusing its efforts on the utilisation of natural gas as fuel (S. Geitmann, Wasserstoff- & Brennstoffzellen-Projekte, 2002, ISBN 3-8311-3280-1). In order to increase the advantages of this technology, an international consortium has worked on the utilisation of biogas as fuel in MCFC. During the 4 years lasting RTD project EFFECTIVE two different gas upgrading systems have been developed and constructed together with two mobile MCFC test beds which were operated at different locations for approximately 2.000-5.000 h in each run with biogas from different origins and quality. The large variety of test locations has enabled to gather a large database for assessing the effect of the different biogas qualities on the complete system consisting of the upgrading and the fuel cell systems. The findings are challenging. This article also aims at giving an overview of the advantages of using biogas as fuel for fuel cells.

  19. Evaluation of methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry on ossein factory wastes.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Uma, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ossein factory wastes, which include primary clarified bone waste (PCBW) and sinews for methane production, by monitoring methanogenic activity of predigested biogas plant slurry. A specific methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry (anaerobic seed) was measured at 38 degrees C using different proportions of ossein factory wastes in an assay medium. The pH of slurry was intensively maintained until course of digestion. A moderate proportion of both substrates showed a maximum methane production at 20 days of incubation in batch mode. However, a maximum cumulative methane yield achieved by biogas plant slurry on PCBW was low as compared to sinews. The best organic matter degradation was achieved even at a high proportion of ossein factory wastes used in digesters. These substitutes would be useful, without seriously reducing total gas production, for methane production if they partially mixed with cattle dung. As a result of this preliminary study, we suggest that ossein factory wastes are potential alternative sources for biogas production in ossein factory. PMID:23741852

  20. The potential of agro-industrial residues for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia K. Kivaisi; M. S. T. Rubindamayugi

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues with a large potential for anaerobic conversion into

  1. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  3. 75 FR 51500 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...on Pressurized Water Reactor Sump Performance (Open...Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) Design (Open...Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) Design (Open...Respect to Emerging Technology in Nuclear Power Plants,'' and...

  4. An assessment of BWR (boiling water reactor) Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J.; Kelly, D.L.; Jones, K.R.; Dallman, F.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Effects of hydraulic retention time and nitrobenzene concentration on the performance of sequential upflow anaerobic filter and air lift reactors in treating nitrobenzene-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Gu, Jingjing; Yin, Weizhao; Lu, Mengxiong; Li, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Sequential upflow anaerobic filter (UAF)/air lift (ALR) reactors were employed to investigate the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrobenzene (NB) concentration on treatment of NB-containing wastewater. The results showed that NB was effectively reduced to aniline (AN) with glucose as co-substrate in the UAF reactor. The AN and the remaining intermediates after the UAF reactor were then efficiently degraded in the ALR reactor. A removal efficiency of 100% and 96% was obtained for NB and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively, using sequential UAF/ALR reactors with an HRT of 8-72 h in the UAF reactor and 2-18 h in the ALR reactor. The corresponding optimal influent NB concentration varied between 100 and 400 mg l(-1) to achieve the optimal NB and COD removal. The NB removal efficiency decreased to 90% and to 97% if the HRT in the UAF reactor decreased from 8 to 2 h and the influent NB concentration increased from 400 to 800 mg l(-1), respectively. The results showed that sequential UAF/ALR system can be operated at low HRTs and high NB concentrations without significantly affecting the removal efficiency of NB in the reactor system. The UAF/ALR system can provide an effective yet low cost method for treatment of NB-containing industrial wastewater. PMID:24969431

  6. Physicochemical Characterization of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide in the Solid State for Enhancing Biogas Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanfeng He; Yunzhi Pang; Yanping Liu; Xiujin Li; Kuisheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    The biogas yield of rice straw during anaerobic digestion can be substantially increased through solid-state sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment. This study was conducted to explore the mechanisms of biogas yield enhancement. The chemical compositions of the pretreated rice straw were first analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas permeation chromatography

  7. Characteristics of volatile compounds removal in biogas slurry of pig manure by ozone oxidation and organic solvents extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujun; Feng, Lianshuang; Zhao, Xiaosong; Ma, Xiulan; Yang, Jingmin; Liu, Huiqing; Dou, Sen; Zhou, Miping; Xie, Zhonglei

    2013-09-01

    Biogas slurry is not suitable for liquid fertilizer due to its high amounts of volatile materials being of complicated composition and peculiar smell. In order to remove volatiles from biogas slurry efficiently, the dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to clear the composition of volatiles. Nitrogen stripping and superfluous ozone were also used to remove volatiles from biogas slurry. The results showed that there were 21 kinds of volatile compounds in the biogas slurry, including sulfur compounds, organic amines, benzene, halogen generation of hydrocarbons and alkanes, some of which had strong peculiar smell. The volatile compounds in biogas slurry can be removed with the rate of 53.0% by nitrogen stripping and with rate of 81.7% by the oxidization and stripping of the superfluous ozone. On this basis, the removal rate of the volatile compounds reached 99.2% by chloroform and n-hexane extraction, and almost all of odor was eliminated. The contents of some dissolved organic compounds decreased obviously and however main plant nutrients had no significant change in the biogas slurry after being treated. PMID:24520722

  8. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector. PMID:24841069

  9. Exploitation of olive mill wastewater and liquid cow manure for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Dareioti, Margarita A; Dokianakis, Spyros N; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Zafiri, Constantina; Kornaros, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Co-digestion of organic waste streams is an innovative technology for the reduction of methane/greenhouse gas emissions. Different organic substrates are combined to generate a homogeneous mixture as input to the anaerobic reactor in order to increase process performance, realize a more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. In this study, the potential of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of a mixture containing olive mill wastewater (OMW) and liquid cow manure (LCM) using a two-stage process has been evaluated by using two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C) in order to separately monitor and control the processes of acidogenesis and methanogenesis. The overall process was studied with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 19 days. The digester was continuously fed with an influent composed (v/v) of 20% OMW and 80% LCM. The average removal of dissolved and total COD was 63.2% and 50%, respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal was 34.2% for the examined mixture of feedstocks operating the system at an overall OLR of 3.63 g CODL(reactor)(-1)d(-1). Methane production rate at the steady state reached 0.91 L CH(4)L(reactor)(-1)d(-1) or 250.9L CH(4) at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) per kg COD fed to the system. PMID:20303252

  10. Measurement of bromate in bread by high performance liquid chromatography with post-column flow reactor detection.

    PubMed

    Himata, K; Noda, M; Ando, S; Yamada, Y

    1997-01-01

    An analytical procedure was developed to measure bromate residues in baked goods using a sequence of clean-up procedures followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a post-column reaction for oxidants. Deionized water was used to extract bromate from bread samples. The extract was treated with a C-18 solid phase extraction column to remove lipids, a cation exchange column with the silver cation to remove chloride, and an ultrafiltration membrane to remove proteins. Further treatment of the extract with the sodium form of a propylsulphonic acid ion exchange column was necessary to remove the silver that leached from the silver column. The method had a detection limit of 3 ng/g in baked goods. Recoveries of bromate from breads ranged from 73 to 86% at a fortified bromate level of 5-100 ng/g. Pullman-type white bread, produced by a sponge and dough method, was prepared in our laboratory for measurement of residual bromate. The dough was scaled in three different weights at different specific volumes (3.8, 4.1, 4.3), and samples of each of the three weights were baked for six different baking times ranging from 24 to 34 min. When bromate at a level of 25 mg/kg was added to flour, no residual bromate was detected in any of the samples, regardless of weight and baking time. PMID:9519122

  11. Performance of media types in psychrophilic anaerobic treatment of dairy wastewater in attached films packed bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vartak, D.R.; Engler, C.R.; Ricke, S.C. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Retention of microorganisms in anaerobic digesters by providing an attachment medium potentially can increase their productivity at lower operating temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of attached-film bioreactors; for psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. Eight digesters were maintained in an environmental chamber, with the temperature varied between 37 and 10{degrees}C. Two digesters were packed with limestone gravel, two with pieces cut from non-woven polyester matting, two with a combination of limestone gravel and polyester pieces, and two had no packing. Digester operation was initiated at a temperature of 37{degrees}C. After the digesters reached stable operation at the initial temperature, the temperature was lowered slowly to 10{degrees}C. The temperature was held at 10{degrees}C for five weeks after stabilizing. It was found that the polyester medium with its high porosity and surface to volume ratio had the best overall performance in terms of methane productivity at both 37 and 10{degrees}C.

  12. Performance of copper chloride-impregnated sorbents on mercury vapor control in an entrained-flow reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-11-15

    An entrained-flow system has been designed and constructed to simulate in-flight mercury (Hg) capture by sorbent injection in ducts of coal-fired utility plants. The test conditions of 1.2-sec residence time, 140{degree}C gas temperature, 6.7 m/sec (22 ft/sec) gas velocity, and 0-0.24 g/m{sup 3} (0-15 lbs of sorbent per 1 million actual cubic feet of flue gas sorbent injection rates were chosen to simulate conditions in the ducts. Four kinds of sorbents were used in this study. Darco Hg-LH (lignite-based) served as a benchmark sorbent with which Hg control capability of other sorbents could be compared. Also, Darco-FGD (lignite-based) was used as a representative raw activated carbon sorbent. Two different copper chloride-impregnated sorbents were developed in the laboratory and tested in the entrained-flow system to examine the possibility of using these sorbents at coal-fired power plants. The test results showed that one of the copper chloride sorbents has remarkable elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation capability, and the other sorbent demonstrated a better performance in Hg removal than Darco Hg-LH. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Performance of copper chloride-impregnated sorbents on mercury vapor control in an entrained-flow reactor system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Sup; Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C

    2008-11-01

    An entrained-flow system has been designed and constructed to simulate in-flight mercury (Hg) capture by sorbent injection in ducts of coal-fired utility plants. The test conditions of 1.2-sec residence time, 140 degrees C gas temperature, 6.7 m/sec (22 ft/sec) gas velocity, and 0-0.24 g/m3 (0-15 lbs of sorbent per 1 million actual cubic feet of flue gas [lb/MMacf]) sorbent injection rates were chosen to simulate conditions in the ducts. Four kinds of sorbents were used in this study. Darco Hg-LH served as a benchmark sorbent with which Hg control capability of other sorbents could be compared. Also, Darco-FGD was used as a representative raw activated carbon sorbent. Two different copper chloride-impregnated sorbents were developed in our laboratory and tested in the entrained-flow system to examine the possibility of using these sorbents at coal-fired power plants. The test results showed that one of the copper chloride sorbents has remarkable elemental mercury (Hg(o)) oxidation capability, and the other sorbent demonstrated a better performance in Hg removal than Darco Hg-LH. PMID:19044161

  14. Impact on reactor configuration on the performance of anaerobic MBRs: treatment of settled sewage in temperate climates.

    PubMed

    Martin Garcia, I; Mokosch, M; Soares, A; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2013-09-15

    The treatment efficiency and membrane performance of a granular and suspended growth anaerobic membrane bioreactor (G-AnMBR and AnMBR respectively) were compared and evaluated. Both anaerobic MBRs were operated in parallel during 250 days with low strength wastewater and under UK weather conditions. Both systems presented COD and BOD removal efficiencies of 80-95% and >90% respectively. Effluent BOD remained between 5 and 15 mgBOD L(-1) through the experimental period while effluent COD increased from 25 mg L(-1) to 75 mg L(-1) as temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C respectively indicating the production of non biodegradable organics at lower temperatures. Although similar levels of low molecular weight organics were present in the sludge supernatant, recycling of the mixed liquor from the membrane tank to the bioreactor at a low upflow velocity enhanced interception of solids in the sludge bed of the G-AnMBR limiting the solid and colloidal load to the membrane as compared to the suspended system. Results from flux step test showed that critical flux increased from 4 to 13 L m(-2) h(-1) and from 3 to 5 L m(-2) h(-1) with gas sparging intensities varying from 0.007 m s(-1) to 0.041. Additional long term trials in which the effect of gas sparging rate and backwashing efficiency were assessed confirmed the lower fouling propensity of the G-AnMBR. PMID:23863382

  15. Prediction of Fuel Performance and Fission Gas Release Behavior during Normal Operation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor by JAERI and FZJ Modeling Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro SAWA; Shouhei UETA; Junya SUMITA; Karl VERFONDERN

    2001-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), coated fuel particles are employed as fuel to permit high outlet coolant temperature. The essential feature of HTGRs is the role of the coated fuel particles acting as tiny containment and the principal barrier against radionuclide release under any operational and accident condition. For a safe operation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

  16. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  17. URSULA reactor vessel examination system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    A system for ultrasonic inspection of reactor vessel welds is described. The modular system has a robotic arm; when equipped with dual robots, it can perform a vessel examination in four days. Its use at the Catawba and Crystal River-3 nuclear power plants, both pressurized water reactors, is briefly described. A comparison is made to the Automated Reactor Inspection System (ARIS) robot, and the inspection sequence is outlined.

  18. Identification of different species of Bacillus isolated from Nisargruna Biogas Plant by FTIR, UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S B; Bhattacharya, K; Nayak, S; Mukherjee, P; Salaskar, D; Kale, S P

    2015-09-01

    Definitive identification of microorganisms, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, is extremely important for a wide variety of applications including food safety, environmental studies, bio-terrorism threats, microbial forensics, criminal investigations and above all disease diagnosis. Although extremely powerful techniques such as those based on PCR and microarrays exist, they require sophisticated laboratory facilities along with elaborate sample preparation by trained researchers. Among different spectroscopic techniques, FTIR was used in the 1980s and 90s for bacterial identification. In the present study five species of Bacillus were isolated from the aerobic predigester chamber of Nisargruna Biogas Plant (NBP) and were identified to the species level by biochemical and molecular biological (16S ribosomal DNA sequence) methods. Those organisms were further checked by solid state spectroscopic absorbance measurements using a wide range of electromagnetic radiation (wavelength 200nm to 25,000nm) encompassing UV, visible, near Infrared and Infrared regions. UV-Vis and NIR spectroscopy was performed on dried bacterial cell suspension on silicon wafer in specular mode while FTIR was performed on KBr pellets containing the bacterial cells. Consistent and reproducible species specific spectra were obtained and sensitivity up to a level of 1000 cells was observed in FTIR with a DTGS detector. This clearly shows the potential of solid state spectroscopic techniques for simple, easy to implement, reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria from environmental samples. PMID:25930088

  19. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Quantifying physical structure changes and non-uniform water flow in cattle manure during dry anaerobic digestion process at lab scale: Implication for biogas production.

    PubMed

    André, L; Durante, M; Pauss, A; Lespinard, O; Ribeiro, T; Lamy, E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify non-uniform water flow during dry AD and its implication for biogas production. Laboratory tracer experiments were performed on cattle manure over the course of AD. The evolution of the permeability, the dry bulk density, the dry porosity, the total and volatile solid contents of cattle manure at different stages of AD, revealed waste structure changes, impacting water flow and methane production. Tracer experiments and numerical modeling performed by using a physical non-equilibrium model indicated non-uniform preferential flow patterns during degradation. According to literature, the increase of inoculum recirculation frequency improved methane production rate. However, these results demonstrated that this improvement occurs only at the beginning of manure degradation. After 19days of degradation the inoculum recirculation and the flow patterns modification had no effect on methane production rate. PMID:26094191