Science.gov

Sample records for biological materials final

  1. Biological materials by design.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Dimas, Leon; Adler, David; Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-02-19

    In this topical review we discuss recent advances in the use of physical insight into the way biological materials function, to design novel engineered materials 'from scratch', or from the level of fundamental building blocks upwards and by using computational multiscale methods that link chemistry to material function. We present studies that connect advances in multiscale hierarchical material structuring with material synthesis and testing, review case studies of wood and other biological materials, and illustrate how engineered fiber composites and bulk materials are designed, modeled, and then synthesized and tested experimentally. The integration of experiment and simulation in multiscale design opens new avenues to explore the physics of materials from a fundamental perspective, and using complementary strengths from models and empirical techniques. Recent developments in this field illustrate a new paradigm by which complex material functionality is achieved through hierarchical structuring in spite of simple material constituents. PMID:24451343

  2. Active Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2011-01-01

    Cells make use of dynamic internal structures to control shape and create movement. By consuming energy to assemble into highly organized systems of interacting parts, these structures can generate force and resist compression, as well as adaptively change in response to their environment. Recent progress in reconstituting cytoskeletal structures in vitro has provided an opportunity to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of filament networks formed from purified proteins. Results indicate that a complex interplay between length scales and timescales underlies the mechanical responses of these systems and that energy consumption, as manifested in molecular motor activity and cytoskeletal filament growth, can drive transitions between distinct material states. This review discusses the basic characteristics of these active biological materials that set them apart from conventional materials and that create a rich array of unique behaviors. PMID:18999991

  3. Electrophoresis of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of biological products was studied for electrophoresis in space. Free flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and isotachophoresis are described. The candidates discussed include: immunoglobulins and gamma globulins; isolated islet of langerhans from pancreas; bone marrow; tumor cells; kidney cells, cryoprecipitate; and column separated cultures.

  4. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Freshwater <span class=Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  5. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801... Biological Material § 1.801 Biological material. For the purposes of these regulations pertaining to the deposit of biological material for purposes of patents for inventions under 35 U.S.C. 101, the...

  6. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801... Biological Material § 1.801 Biological material. For the purposes of these regulations pertaining to the deposit of biological material for purposes of patents for inventions under 35 U.S.C. 101, the...

  7. Biologically inspired dynamic material systems.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of material systems that dynamically interact with and adapt to the surrounding environment are found in nature, from hair-based mechanoreceptors in animals to self-shaping seed dispersal units in plants to remodeling bone in vertebrates. Inspired by such fascinating biological structures, a wide range of synthetic material systems have been created to replicate the design concepts of dynamic natural architectures. Examples of biological structures and their man-made counterparts are herein revisited to illustrate how dynamic and adaptive responses emerge from the intimate microscale combination of building blocks with intrinsic nanoscale properties. By using top-down photolithographic methods and bottom-up assembly approaches, biologically inspired dynamic material systems have been created 1) to sense liquid flow with hair-inspired microelectromechanical systems, 2) to autonomously change shape by utilizing plantlike heterogeneous architectures, 3) to homeostatically influence the surrounding environment through self-regulating adaptive surfaces, and 4) to spatially concentrate chemical species by using synthetic microcompartments. The ever-increasing complexity and remarkable functionalities of such synthetic systems offer an encouraging perspective to the rich set of dynamic and adaptive properties that can potentially be implemented in future man-made material systems. PMID:25583299

  8. Biological materials for dynamic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, Nikolai M.

    1997-02-01

    Intrinsic properties of biological materials making them outstanding candidates for technical applications are briefly summarized in the paper. The origin of the light- driven optical non-linearity of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is demonstrated. The fields of the most effective application of BR are analyzed on the basis of the last year's scientific publications. Attention is attracted to adaptive measuring interferometers with dynamic holographic beamscouplers based on BR. Several examples of such interferometers are discussed introducing one of the most promising BR application.

  9. 78 FR 16472 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part of a patent application is... use the invention as specified by 35 U.S.C. 112. The term ``biological material'' is defined by 37...

  10. 75 FR 6348 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request....Fawcett@uspto.gov . Include ``0651-0022 Deposit of Biological Materials comment'' in the subject line of....Hanlon@uspto.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part...

  11. Final Report of “Collaborative research: Fundamental science of low temperature plasma-biological material interactions” (Award# DE-SC0005105)

    SciTech Connect

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Seog, Joonil; Graves, David; Chu, J. -W.

    2014-09-24

    temperature plasma sources with modified geometry where radical induced interactions generally dominate due to short mean free paths of ions and VUV photons. In these conditions we demonstrated the importance of environmental interactions of plasma species when APP sources are used to modify biomolecules. This is evident from both gas phase characterization data and in-situ surface characterization of treated biomolecules. Environmental interactions can produce unexpected outcomes due to the complex reactions of reactive species with the atmosphere which determine the composition of reactive fluxes and atomistic changes in biomolecules. Overall, this work elucidated a richer spectrum of scientific opportunities and challenges for the field of low temperature plasma-biomolecule surface interactions than initially anticipated, in particular, for plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure. The insights produced in this work, e.g. demonstration of the importance of environmental interactions, are generally important for applications of APP to materials modifications. Thus one major contributions of this research has been the establishment of methodologies to study the interaction of plasma with bio-molecules in a systemic and rigorous manner. In particular, our studies of atmospheric pressure plasma sources using very well-defined experimental conditions enabled us to correlate atomistic surface modifications of biomolecules with changes in their biological function. The clarification of the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in deactivation of biomolecules during low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-biomolecule interaction has broad implications, e.g. for the emerging field of plasma medicine. The development of methods to detect the effects of plasma treatment on immune-active biomolecules will lay a fundamental foundation to enhance our understanding of the effect of plasma on biological systems. be helpful in many future studies.

  12. Bioinspired materials: Boosting plant biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-04-01

    Chloroplasts with extended photosynthetic activity beyond the visible absorption spectrum, and living leaves that perform non-biological functions, are made possible by localizing nanoparticles within plant organelles.

  13. UC Merced Center for Computational Biology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Michael; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2010-11-30

    Final report for the UC Merced Center for Computational Biology. The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) was established to support multidisciplinary scientific research and academic programs in computational biology at the new University of California campus in Merced. In 2003, the growing gap between biology research and education was documented in a report from the National Academy of Sciences, Bio2010 Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. We believed that a new type of biological sciences undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasized biological concepts and considered biology as an information science would have a dramatic impact in enabling the transformation of biology. UC Merced as newest UC campus and the first new U.S. research university of the 21st century was ideally suited to adopt an alternate strategy - to create a new Biological Sciences majors and graduate group that incorporated the strong computational and mathematical vision articulated in the Bio2010 report. CCB aimed to leverage this strong commitment at UC Merced to develop a new educational program based on the principle of biology as a quantitative, model-driven science. Also we expected that the center would be enable the dissemination of computational biology course materials to other university and feeder institutions, and foster research projects that exemplify a mathematical and computations-based approach to the life sciences. As this report describes, the CCB has been successful in achieving these goals, and multidisciplinary computational biology is now an integral part of UC Merced undergraduate, graduate and research programs in the life sciences. The CCB began in fall 2004 with the aid of an award from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Genomes to Life program of support for the development of research and educational infrastructure in the modern biological sciences. This report to DOE describes the research and academic programs

  14. Thermoelectric materials development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1998-09-01

    A systematic search for advanced thermoelectric materials was initiated at JPL several years ago to evaluate candidate materials which includes consideration of the following property attributes: (1) semiconducting properties; (2) large Seebeck coefficient; (3) high carrier mobility and high electrical conductivity; (4) low lattice thermal conductivity; and (5) chemical stability and low vapor pressure. Through this candidate screening process, JPL identified several families of materials as promising candidates for improved thermoelectric materials including the skutterudite family. There are several programs supporting various phases of the effort on these materials. As part of an ongoing effort to develop skutterudite materials with lower thermal conductivity values, several solid solutions and filled skutterudite materials were investigated under the effort sponsored by DOE. The efforts have primarily focused on: (1) study of existence and properties of solid solutions between the binary compounds CoSb{sub 3} and IrSb{sub 3}, and RuSb{sub 2}Te, and (2) CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} filled compositions, the reduction would be caused by the rattling of Ce atoms located in the empty voids of the skutterudite structure and the substitution of Fe for Ru. The details of the sample preparation and characterization of their thermoelectric properties are reported in this report.

  15. Hazardous material replacement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guttridge, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Methyl dianiline (MDA) is one of the components used in potting of electronic assemblies at Allied Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). MDA is a liver toxin and a suspected carcinogen. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of hazardous materials as much as technically feasible. This project was initiated to find alternatives to the MDA foam system. The project plan was to verify that the new materials developed by expert groups within the DOE nuclear weapons complex, such as the Organic Materials Group, would meet the unique requirements of the assemblies fabricated in the Electronic Products Manufacturing Building (EPMB) at KCD. The work was discontinued when associates assigned to the project were transferred to higher priority projects.

  16. Immune Response to Biologic Scaffold Materials

    PubMed Central

    Badylak, Stephen F.; Gilbert, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of mammalian extracellular matrix are commonly used in regenerative medicine and in surgical procedures for the reconstruction of numerous tissue and organs. These biologic materials are typically allogeneic or xenogeneic in origin and are derived from tissues such as small intestine, urinary bladder, dermis, and pericardium. The innate and acquired host immune response to these biologic materials and the effect of the immune response upon downstream remodeling events has been largely unexplored. Variables that affect the host response include manufacturing processes, the rate of scaffold degradation, and the presence of cross species antigens. This manuscript provides an overview of studies that have evaluated the immune response to biologic scaffold materials and variables that affect this response. PMID:18083531

  17. Dielectric constant microscopy for biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valavade, A. V.; Kothari, D. C.; Löbbe, C.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the work on the development of Dielectric Constant Microscopy for biological materials using double pass amplitude modulation method. The dielectric constant information can be obtained at nanometer scales using this technique. Electrostatic force microscopy images of biological materials are presented. The images obtained from the EFM technique mode clearly show inversion contrast and gives the spatial variation of tip-sample capacitance. The EFM images are further processed to obtain dielectric constant information at nanometer scales.

  18. Liquid Crystalline Materials for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Aaron M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystals have a long history of use as materials that respond to external stimuli (e.g., electrical and optical fields). More recently, a series of investigations have reported the design of liquid crystalline materials that undergo ordering transitions in response to a range of biological interactions, including interactions involving proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria and mammalian cells. A central challenge underlying the design of liquid crystalline materials for such applications is the tailoring of the interface of the materials so as to couple targeted biological interactions to ordering transitions. This review describes recent progress toward design of interfaces of liquid crystalline materials that are suitable for biological applications. Approaches addressed in this review include the use of lipid assemblies, polymeric membranes containing oligopeptides, cationic surfactant-DNA complexes, peptide-amphiphiles, interfacial protein assemblies and multi-layer polymeric films. PMID:22563142

  19. New laser materials: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In the Interim Report No. 1, it was reported that the fluorescence lifetime (greater than or equal to 750..mu..s) in Nd doped Y(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ was longer by a factor of three as compared to YAG. This means potentially three times as much energy storage and consequently more efficient for flashlamp pumping. It also makes diode pumping easier. In addition, since the Y site is octahedrally coordinated, there is a possibility of energy transfer using Cr as the sensitizing element. As suggested by W. Krupke, we decided to explore the trivalent cation metaphosphates systematically. The compounds investigated can be represented by the general formula A(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ where A = Y, Lu, In, Sc, GA and Al. The object is to study the fluorescence characteristics of Nd and Cr as well as the effectiveness of energy transfer from Cr to Nd. In addition, we also investigated other possible laser host crystals, notably CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (diopside), LaBO/sub 3/ and La(BO/sub 2/)/sub 3/. Results on these materials will also be discussed.

  20. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities. PMID:26750617

  1. Biological Potential of Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.; Conner, Anthony J.; Killham, Kenneth; Deamer, David W.

    1997-09-01

    Meteoritic materials are investigated as potential early planetary nutrients. Aqueous extracts of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous meteorite are utilized as a sole carbon source by microorganisms, as demonstrated by the genetically modifiedPseudomonas fluorescenceequipped with theluxgene. Nutrient effects are observed also with the soil microorganismsNocardia asteroidesandArthrobacter pascensthat reach populations up to 5 × 107CFU/ml in meteorite extracts, similar to populations in terrestrial soil extracts. Plant tissue cultures ofAsparagus officinalisandSolanum tuberosum(potato) exhibit enhanced pigmentation and some enhanced growth when meteorite extracts are added to partial nutrient media, but inhibited growth when added to full nutrient solution. The meteorite extracts lead to large increases in S, Ca, Mg, and Fe plant tissue contents as shown by X-ray fluorescence, while P, K, and Cl contents show mixed effects. In both microbiological and plant tissue experiments, the nutrient and inhibitory effects appear to be best balanced for growth at about 1:20 (extracted solid:H2O) ratios. The results suggest that solutions in cavities in meteorites can provide efficient concentrated biogenic and early nutrient environments, including high phosphate levels, which may be the limiting nutrient. The results also suggest that carbonaceous asteroid resources can sustain soil microbial activity and provide essential macronutrients for future space-based eco- systems.

  2. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge,…

  3. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  4. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Special Materials Approach to Teaching Biology to the Slow Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welford, John Mack

    Students (comparable in intelligence and ability) in slow-learning classes using either "Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Special Materials" or some other slow-learner biology materials, were compared on the basis of scores on the "Nelson Biology Test", the "Biological Sciences; Patterns and Processes Final Examination", and two short…

  5. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  6. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  7. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  8. Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials.

    PubMed

    Butler, Holly J; Ashton, Lorna; Bird, Benjamin; Cinque, Gianfelice; Curtis, Kelly; Dorney, Jennifer; Esmonde-White, Karen; Fullwood, Nigel J; Gardner, Benjamin; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Walsh, Michael J; McAinsh, Martin R; Stone, Nicholas; Martin, Francis L

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the chemical composition of a sample, which can in turn be used to extract biological information. Many materials have characteristic Raman spectra, which means that Raman spectroscopy has proven to be an effective analytical approach in geology, semiconductor, materials and polymer science fields. The application of Raman spectroscopy and microscopy within biology is rapidly increasing because it can provide chemical and compositional information, but it does not typically suffer from interference from water molecules. Analysis does not conventionally require extensive sample preparation; biochemical and structural information can usually be obtained without labeling. In this protocol, we aim to standardize and bring together multiple experimental approaches from key leaders in the field for obtaining Raman spectra using a microspectrometer. As examples of the range of biological samples that can be analyzed, we provide instructions for acquiring Raman spectra, maps and images for fresh plant tissue, formalin-fixed and fresh frozen mammalian tissue, fixed cells and biofluids. We explore a robust approach for sample preparation, instrumentation, acquisition parameters and data processing. By using this approach, we expect that a typical Raman experiment can be performed by a nonspecialist user to generate high-quality data for biological materials analysis. PMID:26963630

  9. Structure and mechanics of interfaces in biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelat, Francois; Yin, Zhen; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-04-01

    Hard biological materials — for example, seashells, bone or wood — fulfil critical structural functions and display unique and attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, owing to their intricate architectures, which are organized over several length scales. The size, shape and arrangement of the ‘building blocks’ of which these materials are made are essential for defining their properties and their exceptional performance, but there is growing evidence that their deformation and toughness are also largely governed by the interfaces that join these building blocks. These interfaces channel nonlinear deformations and deflect cracks into configurations in which propagation is more difficult. In this Review, we discuss comparatively the composition, structure and mechanics of a set of representative biological interfaces in nacre, bone and wood, and show that these interfaces possess unusual mechanical characteristics, which can encourage the development of advanced bioinspired composites. Finally, we highlight recent examples of synthetic materials inspired from the mechanics and architecture of natural interfaces.

  10. Structural biological materials: Overview of current research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.-Y.; Lin, A. Y.-M.; Stokes, A. G.; Seki, Y.; Bodde, S. G.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Through specific biological examples this article illustrates the complex designs that have evolved in nature to address strength, toughness, and weight optimization. Current research is reviewed, and the structure of some shells, bones, antlers, crab exoskeletons, and avian feathers and beaks is described using the principles of materials science and engineering by correlating the structure with mechanical properties. In addition, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed.

  11. Quantification of DNA in Biologic Scaffold Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Thomas W.; Freund, John; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are routinely used for a variety of clinical applications ranging from the treatment of chronic skin ulcers to hernia repair and orthopaedic soft tissue reconstruction. The tissues and species from which the ECM is harvested vary widely as do the methods used to remove the cellular component of the source tissues. The efficacy of decellularization procedures can be quantified by examination of the DNA that remains in the ECM. The objective of the present study was to determine the DNA content and fragment length in both laboratory produced and commercially available ECM scaffold materials. Results showed that the majority of DNA is removed from ECM devices but that small amounts remained in most tested materials. PMID:18619621

  12. Learning from systems biology: An ``Omics'' approach to materials design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Krishna

    2008-03-01

    An understanding of systems biology provides an excellent paradigm for the materials scientist. Ultimately one would like to take an “atoms-applications” approach to materials design. This paper describes how the concepts of genomics, proteomics, and other biological behavior which form the foundations of modern biology can be applied to materials design through materials informatics.

  13. Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, Vinod Timothy

    Progressive and irreversible retinal diseases are among the primary causes of blindness in the United States, attacking the cells in the eye that transform environmental light into neural signals for the optic pathway. Medical implants designed to restore visual function to afflicted patients can cause mechanical stress and ultimately damage to the host tissues. Research shows that an accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of the biological tissues can reduce damage and lead to designs with improved safety and efficacy. Prior studies on the mechanical properties of biological tissues show characterization of these materials can be affected by environmental, length-scale, time, mounting, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions. Using porcine sclera tissue, the effects of environmental, time, and mounting conditions are evaluated when using nanoindentation. Quasi-static tests are used to measure reduced modulus during extended exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as the chemical and mechanical analysis of mounting the sample to a solid substrate using cyanoacrylate. The less destructive nature of nanoindentation tests allows for variance of tests within a single sample to be compared to the variance between samples. The results indicate that the environmental, time, and mounting conditions can be controlled for using modified nanoindentation procedures for biological samples and are in line with averages modulus values from previous studies but with increased precision. By using the quasi-static and dynamic characterization capabilities of the nanoindentation setup, the additional stiffness and viscoelastic variables are measured. Different quasi-static control methods were evaluated along with maximum load parameters and produced no significant difference in reported reduced modulus values. Dynamic characterization tests varied frequency and quasi-static load, showing that the agar could be modeled as a linearly

  14. The cutting edge: Sharp biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, M. A.; Lin, A. Y. M.; Lin, Y. S.; Olevsky, E. A.; Georgalis, S.

    2008-03-01

    Through hundreds of millions of years of evolution, organisms have developed a myriad of ingenious solutions to ensure and optimize survival and success. Biological materials that comprise organisms are synthesized at ambient temperature and pressure and mostly in aqueous environments. This process, mediated by proteins, limits the range of materials at the disposal of nature and therefore the design plays a pivotal role. This article focuses on sharp edges and serrations as important survival and predating mechanisms in a number of plants, insects, fishes, and mammals. Some plants have sharp edges covered with serrations. The proboscis of mosquitoes and stinger of bees are examples in insects. Serrations are a prominent feature in many fish teeth, and rodents have teeth that are sharpened continuously, ensuring their sharpness and efficacy. Some current bioinspired applications will also be reviewed.

  15. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  16. Final recommendations for reference materials in black carbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Skjemstad, Jan O.

    Last summer, a symposium was held to discuss aspects of global biogeochemical cycles, including organic matter cycling in soils, rivers, and marine environments; black carbon particle fluxes and the biological pump; dissolved organic matter; and organic matter preservation. Seventy scientists from various disciplines, including oceanography, soil science, geology, and chemistry attended the 3-day meeting at the Friday Harbor Laboratories, a research station of the University of Washington.“New Approaches in Marine Organic Biogeochemistry” commemorated the life and science of a colleague and friend, John I. Hedges, who was also involved in several groups developing chemical reference materials. Part of this symposium included a workshop on chemical reference materials, where final recommendations of the Steering Committee for Black Carbon Reference Materials were presented.

  17. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  18. Femtosecond laser patterning of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Jeon, Hojeong; Hidai, Hirofumi; Hwang, David J.

    2011-03-01

    This paper aims at presenting a review of work at the Laser Thermal Laboratory on the microscopic laser modification of biological materials using ultrafast laser pulses. We have devised a new method for fabricating high aspect ratio patterns of varying height by using two-photon polymerization process in order to study contact guidance and directed growth of biological cells. Studies using NIH-3T3 and MDCK cells indicate that cell morphology on fiber scaffolds is influenced by the pattern of actin microfilament bundles. Cells experienced different strength of contact guidance depending on the ridge height. Cell morphology and motility was investigated on micronscale anisotropic cross patterns and parallel line patterns having different aspect ratios. A significant effect on cell alignment and directionality of migration was observed. Cell morphology and motility were influenced by the aspect ratio of the cross pattern, the grid size, and the ridge height. Cell contractility was examined microscopically in order to measure contractile forces generated by individual cells on self-standing fiber scaffolds.

  19. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  20. Mesoporous silicates: Materials science and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggers, Robert Anthony

    concentrations of particles. The lipid bilayer allowed the particle to interface with particle without resulting in haemolysis. It was observed however, that spiculation (damage) of the RBCs still occurred despite the lack of cell lysis. During the course of the study, the composition of the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer was altered to more closely match that of the outer leaflet of RBCs. This alteration proved to make the LB-l-MSN particle extremely compatible with RBCs in that spiculation of the cells was reduced by more than 50 % according to observations by scanning electron microscopy. A new synthetic route to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed using water in oil (W/O) emulsions was developed. This method relies on the presence of an amphiphilic stabilizer molecule to control the size and quality of the spherical morphology of the particles. Partitioning of the oil phase into cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant molecules is implicated in expanding the size of the mesopores from the standard 3 nm pore to 7 nm. This material is extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction techniques and TEM microscopy. Chapter 3 also outlines the synthesis of a new periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) in which the bridging organic group is a benzobisoxazole molecule synthesized in the research group of Dr. Malika Jeffries-EL. While no immediate application of this new particle was proven, we propose this structure as the basis for a new class of light harvesting or light emitting diode material based on the performance of the polymers containing these benzobisoxazole moieties and functionalized dyes. The final project was the initial development of an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand based on an imidazole framework. This project represents significant synthetic challenges in that the pattern of substitution on the imidazole framework has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Despite the synthetic challenges, significant progress has

  1. Method and apparatus for biological material separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Donna L.

    2005-05-10

    There has been invented an apparatus comprising a separation barrier for excluding denser cell materials from less dense cell materials after centrifuging of the cells so that selected materials can be withdrawn from the less dense cell materials without inclusion of the denser cell materials or clogging of sampling equipment with denser cell materials. Cells from which selected material is to be withdrawn are centrifuged, either as cells or cells in media. Once the denser cell materials are isolated in a layer by centrifugal force, an invention screen or seive is submerged in the less dense cell material to a level above the layer of denser cell materials to isolate the denser cell materials from the less dense cell materials, preventing mixing of the denser cell materials back into the less dense cell materials when the cells or the cells in media are no longer being centrifuged and to prevent clogging of sampling equipment with denser cell materials. In a particularly useful application of the invention method and apparatus, plasmid DNA can be withdrawn from less dense cell materials without contamination or interference with denser cell materials.

  2. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  3. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  4. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  5. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  6. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  7. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1993-05-04

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  8. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.; Frank, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  9. Mesoporous silicates: Materials science and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggers, Robert Anthony

    concentrations of particles. The lipid bilayer allowed the particle to interface with particle without resulting in haemolysis. It was observed however, that spiculation (damage) of the RBCs still occurred despite the lack of cell lysis. During the course of the study, the composition of the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer was altered to more closely match that of the outer leaflet of RBCs. This alteration proved to make the LB-l-MSN particle extremely compatible with RBCs in that spiculation of the cells was reduced by more than 50 % according to observations by scanning electron microscopy. A new synthetic route to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed using water in oil (W/O) emulsions was developed. This method relies on the presence of an amphiphilic stabilizer molecule to control the size and quality of the spherical morphology of the particles. Partitioning of the oil phase into cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant molecules is implicated in expanding the size of the mesopores from the standard 3 nm pore to 7 nm. This material is extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction techniques and TEM microscopy. Chapter 3 also outlines the synthesis of a new periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) in which the bridging organic group is a benzobisoxazole molecule synthesized in the research group of Dr. Malika Jeffries-EL. While no immediate application of this new particle was proven, we propose this structure as the basis for a new class of light harvesting or light emitting diode material based on the performance of the polymers containing these benzobisoxazole moieties and functionalized dyes. The final project was the initial development of an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand based on an imidazole framework. This project represents significant synthetic challenges in that the pattern of substitution on the imidazole framework has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Despite the synthetic challenges, significant progress has

  10. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  11. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  12. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  13. Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

  14. LDRD final report on nonflammable deterrent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Rand, P.B.; Shepodd, T.

    1997-05-01

    Dispensable materials, such as sticky foams and rigid polyurethane foams, have been used as access deterrent systems by DOE security since the 1970`s. While these have been very effective systems, they also have some intrinsic problems such as toxicity, flammability and a limited range of temperature in which they remain functional. Current trends to use less-than-lethal methods to gain advantage in military and civilian conflict scenarios demand that new and better deterrent materials be designed. The most effective sticky foam is a hydrocarbon-based material which is composed of high molecular weight polymers, low molecular weight tackifying agents, fire retardants and foam stabilizing surfactants. In order to expand and fully utilize sticky foam technology, a truly nonflammable analog is required. To this end, this work involves first generation development of silicone-based deterrent systems. Two basic types of silicone systems were evaluated. First, systems based on commercial resins were prepared using a variety of thixotropic materials, plasticizers and formulation strategies. Second, systems were prepared using in situ sol-gel techniques to rapidly promote gelation in blends of functionalized silicone polymers. The resulting materials were evaluated for their foamability using non-CFC foaming agents and found to be suitable for foam formation. The properties of these sticky materials can be tailored by virtue of the formulation flexibility; thus, they represent a new class of nontoxic, nonflammable deterrents with a wide temperature range of use.

  15. Energy Materials Center at Cornell: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Abruña, Héctor; Mutolo, Paul F

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2) was to achieve a detailed understanding, via a combination of synthesis of new materials, experimental and computational approaches, of how the nature, structure, and dynamics of nanostructured interfaces affect energy conversion and storage with emphasis on fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors. Our research on these systems was organized around a full system strategy for; the development and improved performance of materials for both electrodes at which storage or conversion occurs; understanding their internal interfaces, such as SEI layers in batteries and electrocatalyst supports in fuel cells, and methods for structuring them to enable high mass transport as well as high ionic and electronic conductivity; development of ion-conducting electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells (separately) and other separator components, as needed; and development of methods for the characterization of these systems under operating conditions (operando methods) Generally, our work took industry and DOE report findings of current materials as a point of departure to focus on novel material sets for improved performance. In addition, some of our work focused on studying existing materials, for example observing battery solvent degradation, fuel cell catalyst coarsening or monitoring lithium dendrite growth, employing in operando methods developed within the center.

  16. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  17. Cryocycling of energetic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, S.; Nilson, R.; Handrock, J.; Revelli, V.; Weingarten, L.

    1997-08-01

    The Cryocycling of Energetic Materials Project was executed in the period FY`94-96 as a Life Cycle Engineering activity in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on advanced conventional munitions. This MOU is an agreement between the Departments of Energy and Defense (Office of Munitions) that facilitates the development of technologies of mutual interest to the two Departments. The cryocycling process is a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost effective means of rubblizing bulk energetic materials so that they can be easily reused in a variety of new products. For this reason, cryocycling of excess solid energetic materials is one of the recycle/reuse strategies under study for demilitarized munitions in the Departments of Energy and Defense. These strategies seek to minimize the environmental damage associated with disposal of decommissioned energetic materials. In addition, they encourage technologies that can be used to derive economic benefit from reuse/reapplication of materials that would otherwise be treated as hazardous wastes. 45 refs., 38 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Materiomics: biological protein materials, from nano to macro

    PubMed Central

    Cranford, Steven; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Materiomics is an emerging field of science that provides a basis for multiscale material system characterization, inspired in part by natural, for example, protein-based materials. Here we outline the scope and explain the motivation of the field of materiomics, as well as demonstrate the benefits of a materiomic approach in the understanding of biological and natural materials as well as in the design of de novo materials. We discuss recent studies that exemplify the impact of materiomics – discovering Nature’s complexity through a materials science approach that merges concepts of material and structure throughout all scales and incorporates feedback loops that facilitate sensing and resulting structural changes at multiple scales. The development and application of materiomics is illustrated for the specific case of protein-based materials, which constitute the building blocks of a variety of biological systems such as tendon, bone, skin, spider silk, cells, and tissue, as well as natural composite material systems (a combination of protein-based and inorganic constituents) such as nacre and mollusk shells, and other natural multiscale systems such as cellulose-based plant and wood materials. An important trait of these materials is that they display distinctive hierarchical structures across multiple scales, where molecular details are exhibited in macroscale mechanical responses. Protein materials are intriguing examples of materials that balance multiple tasks, representing some of the most sustainable material solutions that integrate structure and function despite severe limitations in the quality and quantity of material building blocks. However, up until now, our attempts to analyze and replicate Nature’s materials have been hindered by our lack of fundamental understanding of these materials’ intricate hierarchical structures, scale-bridging mechanisms, and complex material components that bestow protein-based materials their unique properties

  19. Cadmium (materials flow). Information circular/1994 (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, T.O.

    1994-01-01

    This U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) report presents a concise review on sources, processes, supply, and historical use patterns of domestic cadmium. It also covers a preliminary estimated cadmium material flow for the year 1989. This preliminary study contains information on cadmium and cadmium-bearing products in the United States. The data in this report were obtained from both published and/or unpublished sources of information. However, in order to estimate the fate of cadmium in each operation or application stage, some assumptions, judgments, and correlations were made by the USBM in an attempt to determine the material flows and losses.

  20. Interim storage of recyclable materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term, economical, outdoor storage of a variety of postconsumer recyclable materials. Field investigations and laboratory analysis were performed to examine how protected and unprotected storage would affect marketability and product quality of baled plastics, papers, and other miscellaneous potentially recyclable materials. Baled materials were stored and evaluated over a period of approximately two years. Evaluation of the stored paper products was undertaken using handsheets to perform tests as published by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). A beater curve analysis of selected stored papers, a pilot-scale papermaking run on a Number 2 Fourdrinier Paper machine, and two microbial analysis of the paper materials were also undertaken. Plastic samples obtained from the field were evaluated for oxidation using an Infrared Spectrophotometer (IR), and a controlled `blackbox` IR study was completed. Liquid run-off from bales was analyzed on a quarterly basis. The authors` investigations show that inexpensive outdoor storage for some paper and plastic products is potentially viable as some postconsumer paper and plastic products can be stored outdoors for long periods of time, 300 days or more, without protection. Few potential negative environmental impacts of such storage were found.

  1. Evaluation of advanced materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Clauer, A.H.; Shetty, D.K.; Tucker, T.R.; Stropki, J.T.

    1982-11-18

    Cemented tungsten carbides with a binder level in the range of 5 to 6 percent exhibited the best resistance to erosion for this class of materials. Other practical cermet meterials were diamond - Si/SiC, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C-Cr, and B/sub 4/C-Co. SiAlON exhibited erosion resistance equivalent to the best WC-cermet. The only coating system to show promise of improved erosion resistance was CVD TiB/sub 2/ on cemented TiB/sub 2/-Ni. Cracking and/or spalling of a TiC coating and a proprietary TMT coating occurred in the standard slurry erosion test. Ranking of cemented tungsten carbide materials in the laboratory erosion test was the same as that found in service in the Wilsonville pilot plant. Specimens from the Fort Lewis pilot plant which performed well in service exhibited low erosion in the laboratory test. A substitute slurry, was found to be 2 to 4 times more erosive than the coal-derived slurry 8 wt% solids. Ranking of materials in the substitute slurry was nearly identical to that in the coal-derived slurry. Three modes of erosion were: ductile cutting; elastic-plastic indentation and fracture; and intergranular fracture. Erosion of a given material was closely related to its microstructure. In the substitute slurry, the angle-dependence of erosion of two forms of SiC, hot-pressed and sintered, were similar, but the sintered material eroded slower. Laser fusing of preplaced powder mixtures can produce cermet-like structures with potential for erosive and sliding wear resistance. TiC particles in Stellite 6 matrix proved less prone to cracking than WC particles in the same matrix. 74 figures, 14 tables.

  2. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  3. Biological issues in materials science and engineering: Interdisciplinarity and the bio-materials paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murr, L. E.

    2006-07-01

    Biological systems and processes have had, and continue to have, important implications and applications in materials extraction, processing, and performance. This paper illustrates some interdisciplinary, biological issues in materials science and engineering. These include metal extraction involving bacterial catalysis, galvanic couples, bacterial-assisted corrosion and degradation of materials, biosorption and bioremediation of toxic and other heavy metals, metal and material implants and prostheses and related dental and medical biomaterials developments and applications, nanomaterials health benefits and toxicity issue, and biomimetics and biologically inspired materials developments. These and other examples provide compelling evidence and arguments for emphasizing biological sicences in materials science and engineering curricula and the implementation of a bio-materials paradigm to facilitate the emergence of innovative interdisciplinarity involving the biological sciences and materials sciences and engineering.

  4. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  5. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  6. Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

  7. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  8. [Constitution of a bank of biological material. Practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Henny, J

    2003-02-01

    A bank of biological materials (Biorepositories) aims to collect and preserve in a variable time period (from few days to several years) various biological samples (serum, plasma, cells, DNA, etc) with a view to make subsequent analysis associated with a powerful information management system, enabling the storage of data related to the biological specimens. The bioprocessing of Biorepositories is complex and include: specimen collection, processing issues, identification process, design equipment: liquid nitrogen and mechanical freezers, storage techniques, bioclinical information and biological specimens inventory management systems, quality assurance programs, ethical and legal problems. PMID:12684569

  9. Support of the IMA summer program molecular biology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1995-08-01

    The revolutionary progress in molecular biology within the last 30 years opens the way to full understanding of the molecular structures and mechanisms of living organisms. The mathematical sciences accompany and support much of the progress achieved by experiment and computation, as well as provide insight into geometric and topological properties of biomolecular structure and processes. The 4 week program at the IMA brought together biologists and mathematicians leading researchers, postdocs, and graduate students. It focused on genetic mapping and DNA sequencing, followed by biomolecular structure and dynamics. High-resolution linkage maps of genetic marker were discussed extensively in relation to the human genome project. The next level of DNA mapping is physical mapping, consisting of overlapping clones spanning the genome. These maps are extremely useful for genetic analysis. They provide the material for less redundant sequencing and for detailed searches for a gene among other things. This topic was also extensively studied by the participants. From there, the program moved to consider protein structure and dynamics; this is a broad field with a large array of interesting topics. It is of key importance in answering basic scientific questions about the nature of all living organisms, and has practical biomedical applications. The major subareas of structure prediction and classification, techniques and heuristics for the simulation of protein folding, and molecular dynamics provide a rich problem domain where mathematics can be helpful in analysis, modeling, and simulation. One of the important problems in molecular biology is the three-dimensional structure of proteins, DNA and RNA in the cell, and the relationship between structure and function. The program helped increased the understanding of the topology of cellular DNA, RNA and proteins and the various life-sustaining mechanisms used by the cell which modify this molecular topology.

  10. Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

  11. Wear and abrasion resistance selection maps of biological materials.

    PubMed

    Amini, Shahrouz; Miserez, Ali

    2013-08-01

    The mechanical design of biological materials has generated widespread interest in recent years, providing many insights into their intriguing structure-property relationships. A critical characteristic of load-bearing materials, which is central to the survival of many species, is their wear and abrasion tolerance. In order to be fully functional, protective armors, dentitious structures and dynamic appendages must be able to tolerate repetitive contact loads without significant loss of materials or internal damage. However, very little is known about this tribological performance. Using a contact mechanics framework, we have constructed materials selection charts that provide general predictions about the wear performance of biological materials as a function of their fundamental mechanical properties. One key assumption in constructing these selection charts is that abrasion tolerance is governed by the first irreversible damage at the contact point. The maps were generated using comprehensive data from the literature and encompass a wide range of materials, from heavily mineralized to fully organic materials. Our analysis shows that the tolerance of biological materials against abrasion depends on contact geometry, which is ultimately correlated to environmental and selective pressures. Comparisons with experimental data from nanoindentation experiments are also drawn in order to verify our predictions. With the increasing amount of data available for biological materials also comes the challenge of selecting relevant model systems for bioinspired materials engineering. We suggest that these maps will be able to guide this selection by providing an overview of biological materials that are predicted to exhibit the best abrasion tolerance, which is of fundamental interest for a wide range of applications, for instance in restorative implants and protective devices. PMID:23643608

  12. [Species and group classification of putrefied biological material].

    PubMed

    Kulhányová, V

    1994-05-01

    The author analyzes some experience in serological examinations of biological material which undergoes putrefaction. The aim of the examinations was to evaluate how long is it possible to assess species and group specific properties in material altered by putrefaction. PMID:8023197

  13. Benefit evaluation of space processing of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A rational analytical basis for the evaluation of potential benefits of space processing of biological materials is described. A preliminary evaluation of three candidate space processed biological materials was accomplished. Materials investigated were human lymphocytes, urokinase, and Beta cells. Separation of lymphocyte groups was considered in order to improve the matching of donors and recipients for kidney transplantation, while urokinase was examined in regard to treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Separation of Beta cells was studied since it could provide a highly effective means for the treatment of juvenile-onset diabetes.

  14. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  15. FY05 LDRD Final Report, A Revolution in Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Balhorn, R; Barty, A; Barsky, D; Bogan, M; Chung, S; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; Ishii, H; London, R; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Segelke, B; Szoke, A; Szoke, H; Trebes, J; Wootton, A; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Lejon, S; der Spoel, D v; Howells, M; He, H; Spence, J; Nugent, K; Ingerman, E

    2006-01-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are currently under development and will provide a peak brightness more than 10 orders of magnitude higher than modern synchrotrons. The goal of this project was to perform the fundamental research to evaluate the possibility of harnessing these unique x-ray sources to image single biological particles and molecules at atomic resolution. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental verification where possible, they showed that it should indeed be possible to record coherent scattering patterns from single molecules with pulses that are shorter than the timescales for the degradation of the structure due to the interaction with those pulses. They used these models to determine the effectiveness of strategies to allow imaging using longer XFEL pulses and to design validation experiments to be carried out at interim ultrafast sources. They also developed and demonstrated methods to recover three-dimensional (3D) images from coherent diffraction patterns, similar to those expected from XFELs. The images of micron-sized test objects are the highest-resolution 3D images of any noncrystalline material ever formed with x-rays. The project resulted in 14 publications in peer-reviewed journals and four records of invention.

  16. Nanomechanical strength mechanisms of hierarchical biological materials and tissues.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Markus J; Ackbarow, Theodor

    2008-12-01

    Biological protein materials (BPMs), intriguing hierarchical structures formed by assembly of chemical building blocks, are crucial for critical functions of life. The structural details of BPMs are fascinating: They represent a combination of universally found motifs such as alpha-helices or beta-sheets with highly adapted protein structures such as cytoskeletal networks or spider silk nanocomposites. BPMs combine properties like strength and robustness, self-healing ability, adaptability, changeability, evolvability and others into multi-functional materials at a level unmatched in synthetic materials. The ability to achieve these properties depends critically on the particular traits of these materials, first and foremost their hierarchical architecture and seamless integration of material and structure, from nano to macro. Here, we provide a brief review of this field and outline new research directions, along with a review of recent research results in the development of structure-property relationships of biological protein materials exemplified in a study of vimentin intermediate filaments. PMID:18803059

  17. The host response to allogeneic and xenogeneic biological scaffold materials.

    PubMed

    Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-05-01

    The clinical use of biological scaffold materials has become commonplace. Such scaffolds are composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), or components of ECM, derived from allogeneic or xenogeneic tissues. Such scaffold materials vary widely in their source tissue, processing methods and sterilization methods. The success or failure of an ECM scaffold for a given application is dependent on the host response following implantation; a response that is largely mediated by the innate immune system and which is influenced by a numerous factors, including the processing methods used in the preparation of biological scaffolds. The present paper reviews various aspects of the host response to biological scaffolds and factors that affect this response. In addition, some of the logistical, regulatory and reconstructive implications associated with the use of biological scaffolds are discussed. PMID:24668694

  18. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-01

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. PMID:25393596

  19. Materials Manufactured from 3D Printed Synthetic Biology Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Many complex, biologically-derived materials have extremely useful properties (think wood or silk), but are unsuitable for space-related applications due to production, manufacturing, or processing limitations. Large-scale ecosystem-based production, such as raising and harvesting trees for wood, is impractical in a self-contained habitat such as a space station or potential Mars colony. Manufacturing requirements, such as the specialized equipment needed to harvest and process cotton, add too much upmass for current launch technology. Cells in nature are already highly specialized for making complex biological materials on a micro scale. We envision combining these strengths with the recently emergent technologies of synthetic biology and 3D printing to create 3D-structured arrays of cells that are bioengineered to secrete different materials in a specified three-dimensional pattern.

  20. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Carrie L.; Xu, Shuping; Liang, Song; Pan, Lingyun; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) materials are promising labeling reagents for sensitive determination and imaging of biological targets. In the near-infrared region biological samples have low background fluorescence signals, providing high signal to noise ratio. Meanwhile, near-infrared radiation can penetrate into sample matrices deeply due to low light scattering. Thus, in vivo and in vitro imaging of biological samples can be achieved by employing the NIRF probes. To take full advantage of NIRF materials in the biological and biomedical field, one of the key issues is to develop intense and biocompatible NIRF probes. In this review, a number of NIRF materials are discussed including traditional NIRF dye molecules, newly developed NIRF quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes, as well as rare earth metal compounds. The use of some NIRF materials in various nanostructures is illustrated. The enhancement of NIRF using metal nanostructures is covered as well. The fluorescence mechanism and bioapplications of each type of the NIRF materials are discussed in details.

  1. Finite element simulation for the mechanical characterization of soft biological materials by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valero, C; Navarro, B; Navajas, D; García-Aznar, J M

    2016-09-01

    The characterization of the mechanical properties of soft materials has been traditionally performed through uniaxial tensile tests. Nevertheless, this method cannot be applied to certain extremely soft materials, such as biological tissues or cells that cannot be properly subjected to these tests. Alternative non-destructive tests have been designed in recent years to determine the mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. One of these techniques is based on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform nanoindentation tests. In this work, we investigated the mechanical response of soft biological materials to nanoindentation with spherical indenters using finite element simulations. We studied the responses of three different material constitutive laws (elastic, isotropic hyperelastic and anisotropic hyperelastic) under the same process and analyzed the differences thereof. Whereas linear elastic and isotropic hyperelastic materials can be studied using an axisymmetric simplification, anisotropic hyperelastic materials require three-dimensional analyses. Moreover, we established the limiting sample size required to determine the mechanical properties of soft materials while avoiding boundary effects. Finally, we compared the results obtained by simulation with an estimate obtained from Hertz theory. Hertz theory does not distinguish between the different material constitutive laws, and thus, we proposed corrections to improve the quantitative measurement of specific material properties by nanoindentation experiments. PMID:27214690

  2. Electron Microscopy of Biological Materials at the Nanometer Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    Electron microscopy of biological matter uses three different imaging modalities: (a) electron crystallography, (b) single-particle analysis, and (c) electron tomography. Ideally, these imaging modalities are applied to frozen-hydrated samples to ensure an optimal preservation of the structures under scrutiny. Cryo-electron microscopy of biological matter has made important advances in the past decades. It has become a research tool that further expands the scope of structural research into unique areas of cell and molecular biology, and it could augment the materials research portfolio in the study of soft and hybrid materials. This review addresses how researchers using transmission electron microscopy can derive structural information at high spatial resolution from fully hydrated specimens, despite their sensitivity to ionizing radiation, despite the adverse conditions of high vacuum for samples that have to be kept in aqueous environments, and despite their low contrast resulting from weakly scattering building blocks.

  3. Occupational Orientation: Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These experimental curriculum materials, from one of five clusters developed for the occupational orientation program in Illinois, include a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the applied biological and agricultural occupations. The 30 LAPs, each…

  4. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1991-04-08

    A method is provided for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The method comprises treating (e.g., derivatizing) the electrode surface with an electrochemically active material; connecting the electrode to an electrical potential; and exposing the fluid medium to the electrode surface in a manner such that the charged particles become adsorbed on the electrode surface.

  5. Overview of light interaction with food and biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the basic phenomena occurring during the interaction of light with biological and food materials, which form the foundation for different light scattering techniques that have been developed for property, quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products. We first...

  6. Theory of light transfer in food and biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, we first define the basic radiometric quantities that are needed for describing light propagation in food and biological materials. Radiative transfer theory is then derived, according to the principle of the conservation of energy. Because the radiative transfer theory equation is ...

  7. Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

  8. Potential for composting energetic material production wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, N.R.; Stratta, J.M.; Donahue, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Army installations that manufacture munitions generate large quantities of energetic material (EM) and solid waste contaminated with energetic material (energetic material-contaminated waste, or EMCW). Disposal of EM and EMCW by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD) has been the practice for many years, but increasingly stringent environmental regulations are curtailing OB/OD operations. Although composting has been used in some instances for explosive-contaminated soils, it has not been examined for use with munitions production wastes. A literature search showed that many explosives are biodegradable and that some explosive-contaminated soils can also be treated by composting. A potential exists to treat munition production wastes by composting or other biological treatment processes. This study concluded that further investigation is needed to determine and test: (1) the energetic compounds that can be biodegraded, and (2) the conditions under which biological treatment processes can occur.

  9. On optimal hierarchy of load-bearing biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zuoqi; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Gao, Huajian

    2011-01-01

    Load-bearing biological materials such as shell, mineralized tendon and bone exhibit two to seven levels of structural hierarchy based on constituent materials (biominerals and proteins) of relatively poor mechanical properties. A key question that remains unanswered is what determines the number of hierarchical levels in these materials. Here we develop a quasi-self-similar hierarchical model to show that, depending on the mineral content, there exists an optimal level of structural hierarchy for maximal toughness of biocomposites. The predicted optimal levels of hierarchy and cooperative deformation across multiple structural levels are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. PMID:20810437

  10. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  11. Synthetic Self-Assembled Materials in Biological Environments.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Frank; van Esch, Jan H; Eelkema, Rienk

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic self-assembly has long been recognized as an excellent approach for the formation of ordered structures on the nanoscale. Although the development of synthetic self-assembling materials has often been inspired by principles observed in nature (e.g., the assembly of lipids, DNA, proteins), until recently the self-assembly of synthetic molecules has mainly been investigated ex vivo. The past few years however, have witnessed the emergence of a research field in which synthetic, self-assembling systems are used that are capable of operating as bioactive materials in biological environments. Here, this up-and-coming field, which has the potential of becoming a key area in chemical biology and medicine, is reviewed. Two main categories of applications of self-assembly in biological environments are identified and discussed, namely therapeutic and imaging agents. Within these categories key concepts, such as triggers and molecular constraints for in vitro/in vivo self-assembly and the mode of interaction between the assemblies and the biological materials will be discussed. PMID:27042774

  12. Biologically-Derived Photonic Materials for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.; Squire, Thomas H.; Lawson, John W.; Gusman, Michael; Lau, K.-H.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Space vehicles entering a planetary atmosphere at high velocity can be subject to substantial radiative heating from the shock layer in addition to the convective heating caused by the flow of hot gas past the vehicle surface. The radiative component can be very high but of a short duration. Approaches to combat this effect include investigation of various materials to reflect the radiation. Photonic materials can be used to reflect radiation. The wavelengths reflected depend on the length scale of the ordered microstructure. Fabricating photonic structures, such as layers, can be time consuming and expensive. We have used a biologically-derived material as the template for forming a high temperature photonic material that could be incorporated into a heatshield thermal protection material.

  13. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes a five year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective dosimetry methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities. This research program has focused on validation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a dosimetry tool and on optimization of the technique by reducing the lower limits of detection, simplifying the process of sample preparation and analysis and speeding analysis to allow greater throughput in routine measurement situations. The authors have investigated the dosimetric signal of hard tissues in enamel, deorganified dentin, synthetic carbonated apatites and synthetic hydroxyapatite. This research has resulted in a total of 27 manuscripts which have been published, are in press, or have been submitted for publication. Of these manuscripts, 14 are included in this report and were indexed separately for inclusion in the data base.

  14. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1996-09-01

    Although theoretical models have been the traditional tool for assessment of doses delivered by nuclear accidents, their use is now accompanied by increasing political and scientific demand for physical measurements which provide site specific dose information related directly to the original events, can be used to verify and augment the theoretical models, and can be performed and reflicated by independent laboratories. This report details a four year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research, and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities.

  15. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  16. Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole. PMID:24591042

  17. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  18. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  19. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  20. Accurate determination of cobalt traces in several biological reference materials.

    PubMed

    Dybczyński, R; Danko, B

    1994-01-01

    A newly devised, very accurate ("definitive") method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials was validated by the analysis of several certified reference materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation and selective and quantitative postirradiation isolation of radiocobalt from practically all other radionuclides by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurement. The significance of criteria that should be fulfilled in order to accept a given result as obtained by the "definitive method" is emphasized. In view of the demonstrated very good accuracy of the method, it is suggested that our values for cobalt content in those reference materials in which it was originally not certified (SRM 1570 spinach, SRM 1571 orchard leaves, SRM 1577 bovine liver, and Czechoslovak bovine liver 12-02-01) might be used as provisional certified values. PMID:7710879

  1. Microdosimetry of fast neutrons in selected biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Microdosimetric quantities for selected neutron beams have been determined in muscle, brain, bone, and fat tissue equivalent materials. The quantities of interest were the dose distribution in lineal energy, frequency average lineal energy, dose average lineal energy, and dose average quality factor. A dose response factor was defined to combine the lineal energy dose spectrum with a response function per unit KERMA for an acute biological endpoint in prototype cells in vitro. The dependence of each quantity on material composition and neutron energy was investigated by theoretical calculation and separated into primary and scatter neutron fluence components. Neutron fluences in phantoms were calculated using a standard Monte Carlo code (MCNP). The charged particle fluences and lineal energy dose spectra were obtained using the continuous slowing-down approximation. Calculated microdosimetric spectra agreed with those measured in muscle-equivalent materials. The microdosimetry of primary and scattered neutrons in a large tissue phantom was calculated for three representative uncollimated neutron sources.

  2. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    PubMed Central

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) questions (66.4% [n = 160] and 62% [n = 285], respectively; p < 0.001);. The higher-achieving students performed better on MCAT questions in all topic categories tested; the greatest gain occurred on the topic of cellular respiration. Because the VF focused on a conceptually parallel topic, photosynthesis, there may have been authentic knowledge transfer. In longitudinal tracking studies, passing the VF also correlated with higher performance in a range of upper-level science courses, with greatest significance in physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry. Participation had a wide range but not equal representation in academic standing, gender, and ethnicity. Yet students nearly unanimously (92%) valued the option. Our findings suggest oral exams at the introductory level may allow instructors to assess and aid students striving to achieve higher-level learning. PMID:24006399

  3. Biological potential of methane generation from poultry wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1981-06-20

    Anaerobic digestion of animal waste is an attractive process because it degrades organic matter for pollution control and simultaneously produces methane gas for an alternate energy source. The biological potentials of methane generation from the two major kinds of poultry wastes, the litter of broiler chickens and the manure of laying hens have been systematically investigated. Using these wastes to prepare media for bacterial growth, thermophilic anaerobic cultures were initiated by inoculations of bacteria from different natural environments. After a period of acclimation, they were then challenged with various combinations of operational variables such as retention times, volatile solid concentrations, temperatures, and pH values. The most efficient culture and conditions were selected based on the highest gas rate. The results have demonstrated that the broiler litter is a substrate of very low potential. This seems due to the high content of wood shavings resistant to bacterial degradation. On the other hand, the layer manure is a high-potential substrate, which supported both a high methane rate (3.5 1/1/day) and a high methane yield (250 1/kg VS) under the selected conditions. Compared with other types of animal wastes, the manure of laying hens is one of the best substrates for methane production. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory, an anaerobic digester is under construction on the University research farm. A large digester will help answer other questions such as energy balance, economic evaluation and engineering design.

  4. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N.; Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  5. Classification of organic and biological materials with deep ultraviolet excitation.

    PubMed

    Bhartia, Rohit; Hug, Willam F; Salas, Everett C; Reid, Ray D; Sijapati, Kripa K; Tsapin, Alexandre; Abbey, William; Nealson, Kenneth H; Lane, Arthur L; Conrad, Pamela G

    2008-10-01

    We show that native fluorescence can be used to differentiate classes or groups of organic molecules and biological materials when excitation occurs at specific excitation wavelengths in the deep ultraviolet (UV) region. Native fluorescence excitation-emission maps (EEMs) of pure organic materials, microbiological samples, and environmental background materials were compared using excitation wavelengths between 200-400 nm with emission wavelengths from 270 to 500 nm. These samples included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing organic heterocycles, bacterial spores, and bacterial vegetative whole cells (both Gram positive and Gram negative). Each sample was categorized into ten distinct groups based on fluorescence properties. Emission spectra at each of 40 excitation wavelengths were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). Optimum excitation wavelengths for differentiating groups were determined using two metrics. We show that deep UV excitation at 235 (+/-2) nm optimally separates all organic and biological groups within our dataset with >90% confidence. For the specific case of separation of bacterial spores from all other samples in the database, excitation at wavelengths less than 250 nm provides maximum separation with >6sigma confidence. PMID:18926014

  6. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Catherine Y.; Park, Jin G.; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743–D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease. PMID:24225319

  7. Inverse Algorithm Optimization for Determining Optical Properties of Biological Materials from Spatially-Resolved Diffuse Reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical characterization of biological materials is useful in many scientific and industrial applications like biomedical diagnosis and nondestructive quality evaluation of food and agricultural products. However, accurate determination of the optical properties from intact biological materials base...

  8. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  9. Analytical chemistry at the interface between materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Janese Christine

    This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and other disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry's newest forays into these disciplines. This dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that provides background information pertinent to several key aspects of the work contained in this dissertation. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels derived from the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a vanadium alkoxide. Specifically, this chapter describes our attempts to increase the conductivity of vanadium sol-gels by optimizing the acidic and drying conditions used during synthesis. Chapter 3 reports the construction of novel antigenic immunosensing platforms of increased epitope density using Fab'-SH antibody fragments on gold. Here, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-layer cell (TLC) and confocal fluorescence spectroscopies, and scanning force microscopy (SFM) are employed to characterize the fragment-substrate interaction, to quantify epitope density, and to demonstrate fragment viability and specificity. Chapter 4 presents a novel method for creating and interrogating double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays suitable for screening protein:dsDNA interactions. Using the restriction enzyme ECoR1, we demonstrate the ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to detect changes in topography that result from the enzymatic cleavage of dsDNA microarrays

  10. NASA Sponsored Research Involving Crystallization of Biological Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2000-01-01

    An overview of NASA's plans for the performing experiments involving the crystallization of biological materials on the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. In addition, a brief overview of past work is provided as background. Descriptions of flight hardware currently available for use on the ISS are given and projections of future developments are discussed. In addition, experiment selection and funding is described. As of the flight of STS-95, these crystallization projects have proven to be some of the most successful in the history of microgravity research. The NASA Microgravity Research Division alone has flown 185 different proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and complexes on 43 different missions. 37 of the 185 have resulted, in, diffraction patterns with higher resolution than was obtained in all previous ground based experiments. This occurred despite the fact that an average of only 41 samples per protein were flown. A number of other samples have shown improved signal to noise characteristics, i.e. relative Wilson plots, when compared to the best ground experiments. In addition, a number of experiments investigating the effects of microgravity conditions on the crystallization of biological material have been conducted.

  11. Biology Teacher and Expert Opinions about Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Materials: A Software Entitled Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Timucin, Melih

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to collect and evaluate opinions of CAI experts and biology teachers about a high school level Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Material presenting computer-made modelling and simulations. It is a case study. A material covering "Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis" topic was developed as the "case". The goal of the…

  12. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  13. The High-Strain Rate Loading of Structural Biological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, W. G.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Bo, C.; Butler, B. J.; Boddy, R. L.; Williams, A.; Masouros, S.; Brown, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The human body can be subjected to violent acceleration as a result of explosion caused by military ordinance or accident. Blast waves cause injury and blunt trauma can be produced by violent impact of objects against the human body. The long-term clinical manifestations of blast injury can be significantly different in nature and extent to those suffering less aggressive insult. Similarly, the damage seen in lower limbs from those injured in explosion incidents is in general more severe than those falling from height. These phenomena increase the need for knowledge of the short- and long-term effect of transient mechanical loading to the biological structures of the human body. This paper gives an overview of some of the results of collaborative investigation into blast injury. The requirement for time-resolved data, appropriate mechanical modeling, materials characterization and biological effects is presented. The use of a range of loading platforms, universal testing machines, drop weights, Hopkinson bars, and bespoke traumatic injury simulators are given.

  14. [Analysis of etofenamate. Particular determination in biological material (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dell, H D; Fiedler, J; Wäsche, B

    1977-01-01

    The determination of 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-ethyl-N-(a,a,a-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-anthranilate (etofenamate, active principle of Rheumon gel) following its isolation from biological material is reported. Depending on the method of extraction etofenamate, free and alkali-labile conjugated flufenamic acid, total conjugates or the sum of CF3-containing compounds (sum of metabolites) are isolated. Separation is achieved by TLC, quantitative determination is made by degradation to flufenamic acid and fluorimetric measurement in CCl4/trichloracetic acid at 372/445 nm. Etofenamate can be identified by TLC, derivatisation, UV- and fluorescence spectroscopy and differentiated from its metabolites. It is demonstrated that etofenamate is the main component of fenamates in inflamed tissue. PMID:579119

  15. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  16. Research and Teaching: Midterm and First-Exam Grades Predict Final Grades in Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Philip A.; Barron, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Students routinely ignore negative feedback regarding their performances early in college science courses. In this study we analyzed the extent to which two standard forms of feedback, midterm and first-exam grades, correlated with final grades in several biology courses. The courses ranged from an introductory course for nonmajors to upper…

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON STREAM AND RIVER BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report is a preliminary assessment that describes how biological indicators are likely to respond to climate change, how well current sampling schemes may detect climate-driven changes, and how likely it is that these sampling schemes will continue to detect impairmen...

  18. Federal program for regulating highly hazardous materials finally takes off

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, P.C.

    1996-11-01

    The Risk Management Program (RMP) rule, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), was signed on May 24 and finalized on June 20. RMP is one of the most comprehensive, technically based regulatory programs for preventing, detecting and responding to accidental hazardous materials releases to have been issued in recent times. Although facilities have three years to comply, EPA estimates that the rule will affect an estimated 66,000 facilities that store highly hazardous or acutely toxic materials. The 1990 CAA Amendments are designed to prevent accidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals from stationary sources. Two significant regulatory programs that have emerged from the revised CAA are the Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and RMP. PSM is designed to protect employees and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. RMP`s purpose is to protect the public and the environment from highly hazardous chemicals. It authorizes EPA to create a list of substances (distinct from the list generated under PSM) known to cause serious adverse effects and to implement a program for accidental chemical release prevention.

  19. New Method for Monitoring the Process of Freeze Drying of Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    Alkeev, Nikolay; Averin, Stanislav; von Gratowski, Svetlana

    2015-12-01

    A capacitive sensor was proposed and tested for the monitoring and control of a freeze drying process of a vaccine against the Newcastle disease of birds. The residual moisture of the vaccine was measured by the thermogravimetric method. The vaccine activity was determined by titration in chicken embryos. It was shown that, at the stages of freezing and primary drying, a capacitive sensor measured the fraction of unfrozen liquid phase in a material and allowed one to control the sublimation stage of drying in an optimal way. This prevented the foaming of the material and shortened the total drying time approximately twice. The control range at the sublimation stage of drying expanded up to -70°C. It was found at the final stage of drying that the signal of a capacitive sensor passed through a maximum value. We supposed that this maximum corresponds to the minimum of intramolecular mobility of biological macromolecules and hence to the optimal residual moisture of the material, which ensures long-term preservation of its activity. We also suppose that using the capacitive sensor at the final stage of drying allows one to more precisely detect the time when the residual moisture of dried material reaches the optimal value. PMID:26022547

  20. Imaging of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism: biological materials, nonbiological materials, and foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Abbas, Jasmin; Villanueva, Alberto; Lorenzo Dus, María José; Schöpf, Reinhard; Imanaka, Hideaki; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Tsang, Flora Hau Fung; Saad, Fathinul Fikri Ahmad; Lau, Eddie; Rubio Alvarez, Jose; Battal, Bilal; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Surov, Alexey

    2013-03-01

    Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism is defined as embolization to the pulmonary circulation caused by a wide range of substances of endogenous and exogenous biological and nonbiological origin and foreign bodies. It is an underestimated cause of acute and chronic embolism. Symptoms cover the entire spectrum from asymptomatic patients to sudden death. In addition to obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature there may be an inflammatory cascade that deteriorates vascular, pulmonary and cardiac function. In most cases the patient history and radiological imaging reveals the true nature of the patient's condition. The purpose of this article is to give the reader a survey on pathophysiology, typical clinical and radiological findings in different forms of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. The spectrum of forms presented here includes pulmonary embolism with biological materials (amniotic fluid, trophoblast material, endogenous tissue like bone and brain, fat, Echinococcus granulosus, septic emboli and tumor cells); nonbiological materials (cement, gas, iodinated oil, glue, metallic mercury, radiotracer, silicone, talc, cotton, and hyaluronic acid); and foreign bodies (lost intravascular objects, bullets, catheter fragments, intraoperative material, radioactive seeds, and ventriculoperitoneal shunts). PMID:23102488

  1. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sumption, Mike D.; Collings, Edward W.

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  2. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling—the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field—is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams—which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics—we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  3. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling-the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field-is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams-which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics-we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism. PMID:24229099

  4. Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences News, CUEBS, 1963-1972: Its History and Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormondy, Edward J.

    This publication of the Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences contains the final report of activities of the Commission during the years 1963-1972. The Commission was established to narrow the gap between current biological research and undergraduate biology teaching. In keeping with this objective, the report is divided…

  5. 45 CFR 1606.7 - Corrective action, informal conference, review of written materials, and final decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... final decision need not engage in a detailed analysis of the failure to resolve the substantial... presented in any written materials. The draft final decision need not engage in a detailed analysis of all... written materials, and final decision. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to...

  6. 45 CFR 1606.7 - Corrective action, informal conference, review of written materials, and final decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... final decision need not engage in a detailed analysis of the failure to resolve the substantial... presented in any written materials. The draft final decision need not engage in a detailed analysis of all... written materials, and final decision. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to...

  7. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal. PMID:7382928

  8. Organization and diffusion in biological and material fabrication problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, Niall Mari

    This thesis is composed of two problems. The first is a systems level analysis of the carbon concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. The second presents a theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser melting for the purpose of hyperdoping silicon with sulfur. While these systems are very distant, they are both relevant to the development of alternative energy (production of biofuels and methods for fabricating photovoltaics respectively). Both problems are approached through analysis of the underlying diffusion equations. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria with a unique carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) which enhances carbon fixation. A greater understanding of this mechanism would offer new insights into the basic biology and methods for bioengineering more efficient biochemical reactions. The molecular components of the CCM have been well characterized in the last decade, with genetic analysis uncovering both variation and commonalities in CCMs across cyanobacteria strains. Analysis of CCMs on a systems level, however, is based on models formulated prior to the molecular characterization. We present an updated model of the cyanobacteria CCM, and analytic solutions in terms of the various molecular components. The solutions allow us to find the parameter regime (expression levels, catalytic rates, permeability of carboxysome shell) where carbon fixation is maximized and oxygenation is minimized. Saturation of RuBisCO, maximization of the ratio of CO2 to O2, and staying below or at the saturation level for carbonic anhydrase are all needed for maximum efficacy. These constraints limit the parameter regime where the most effective carbon fixation can occur. There is an optimal non-specific carboxysome shell permeability, where trapping of CO2 is maximized, but HCO3 - is not detrimentally restricted. The shell also shields carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 → HCO3- conversion at the thylakoid and cell membrane from one another. Co-localization of carbonic

  9. Digital Learning Material for Model Building in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    Building models to describe processes forms an essential part of molecular biology research. However, in molecular biology curricula little attention is generally being paid to the development of this skill. In order to provide students the opportunity to improve their model building skills, we decided to develop a number of digital cases about…

  10. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  11. Evolutionary Design in Biological Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Park, J.-M.; Deem, M. W.

    In this chapter we provide a thorough discussion of the theoretical description of the multi-site approach to cancer vaccination. The discussion is somewhat demanding from a biological point of view. References to primary biological publications are given. A general reference on immunology is [1].

  12. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  13. Preparing Instructional Materials for Educational Developers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    The report describes the development of a package of training materials to enable instructional product developers to prepare first-draft materials. Five instructional techniques, derived from laboratory research and selected through a survey of eminent instructional psychologists, comprised the substance of the materials. The techniques were…

  14. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2003-05-06

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. A low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively.

  15. Trends in United States Biological Materials Oversight and Institutional Biosafety Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Biological materials oversight in life sciences research in the United States is a challenging endeavor for institutions and the scientific, regulatory compliance, and federal communities. In order to assess biological materials oversight at Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) registered with the United States National Institutes of Health,…

  16. Patients’ Attitudes toward the Donation of Biological Materials for the Derivation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Ishan; Bollinger, Juli; Mathews, Debra J.H.; Neumann, Neil M.; Rattani, Abbas; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Although academics have raised ethical issues with iPSCs, patients’ perspectives on them and their attitudes toward donating biological materials for iPSC research are unclear. Here, we provide such information to aid in developing policies for consent, collection, and use of biological materials for deriving iPSCs based on patient focus groups. PMID:24388172

  17. Demonstration of packaging materials alternatives to expanded polystyrene. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, D.M.

    1998-04-01

    The report presents information on the environmental, economical, and performance characteristics of alternative packaging materials. Three alternative cushioning materials were identified for evaluation within this research; starch-based foam planks, layered corrugated pads, and recycled polyethylene foam. Through some have been used as cushioning materials for some time, these materials are termed alternative because each offers unique features beyond their cushioning capabilities. These unique features include their manufacture from recycled materials, biodegradability, water solubility, recyclability, and reusability. The properties and cushioning characteristics of expanded polystyrene (EPS) represent the baseline for this research; evaluation results for each material are compared against those of EPS. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluations were completed to assess various characteristics and parameters concerning the cushioning materials.

  18. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECORDS COMMISSION Grant Administration § 1206.86 What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  19. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RECORDS COMMISSION Grant Administration § 1206.86 What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  20. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECORDS COMMISSION Grant Administration § 1206.86 What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  1. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECORDS COMMISSION Grant Administration § 1206.86 What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? You must submit the materials required in the NHPRC grant announcements and in the...

  2. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  3. Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twieg, R.J.

    1985-03-31

    Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)

  4. Standard Preparations, Limits of Potency, and Dating Period Limitations for Biological Products. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency or we) is amending the general biological products standards relating to dating periods and also removing certain standards relating to standard preparations and limits of potency. FDA is taking this action to update outdated requirements, and accommodate new and evolving technology and testing capabilities, without diminishing public health protections. This action is part of FDA's retrospective review of its regulations in response to an Executive order. FDA is issuing these amendments directly as a final rule because the Agency believes they are noncontroversial and FDA anticipates no significant adverse comments. PMID:27192727

  5. Instructional Materials in Spanish for Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.

    A federally funded project to develop Spanish for Agricultural Purposes, a set of instructional materials for agricultural specialists planning to work in Latin America, is reported. The materials are intended for use by individuals with at least a year's college-level study of Spanish. They include: a series of authentic readings, each with an…

  6. Thermal expansion of several materials for superconducting magnets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.F.; Fujii, G.; Ranney, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    The thermal expansion of several materials used in the construction of high field superconducting magnets has been measured from 4 K to room temperature. The materials were a NbTi and two A15 multifilamentary conductors and several nonmetallic composites made from linen/phenolic, fiberglass/epoxy and superconducting wire/epoxy.

  7. Use of recycled materials in highway construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, D.L.; Jackson, N.C.; Anderson, K.W.

    1992-02-01

    The major objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the types of recycled materials that are appropriate and feasible as alternative paving materials, such as glass and tires; and (2) the types of recycled materials, such as mixed-plastics and compost, that can be utilized in all types of transportation applications other than pavements. Seven key products are investigated: (1) tires, (2) glass, (3) asphalt concrete, (4) fly ash, (5) compost, (6) mixed plastics, and (7) aluminum sign stock. Performance and cost data for rubber-asphalt pavements is documented for both in-state and nationwide applications. The national experience with the use of waste glass as an additive to asphalt concrete and its use in unbound base materials is also highlighted. Programs for experimental use of recycled materials are outlined. Recommendations for staffing and program changes to deal with recycling issues are also discussed.

  8. Using near infrared measurement of water content as a cue for detecting biological materials.

    PubMed

    McGunnigle, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    This paper uses the spectral characteristics of water as a cue to detect biological materials in a scene. The spectra of a wide variety of materials were measured; most of the biological materials showed a spectral feature corresponding to the absorption peak of water at 962 nm. A machine vision system that used two narrowband near infrared light sources and a conventional CCD camera is described. The ability of the system to detect biological material is demonstrated in a series of examples. Water content is not an infallible indicator that a material is biological-wet inanimate surfaces will give a false positive, and some tissues are surrounded by highly scattering, impermeable layers that conceal internal water. Nonetheless, in this paper, we will show that many tissues do give a strong response to this feature and dry, nonbiological materials do not. PMID:22945156

  9. EFFECT OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS ON BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of over 250 chemical substances on biological treatment processes are presented in a format which permits its use as an operations handbook. The information, arranged in a matrix form with the chemical substances presented in alphabetical order, includes descriptions ...

  10. A paradigm for the integration of biology in materials science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-07-01

    The integration of biology in materials science and engineering can be complicated by the lack of a common framework and common language between otherwise disparate disciplines. History may offer a valuable lesson as modern materials science and engineering itself resulted from the integration of traditionally disparate disciplines that were delineated by classes of materials. The integration of metallurgy, ceramics, and polymers into materials science and engineering was facilitated, in large part, by a unifying paradigm based upon processing-structure-property relationships that is now well-accepted. Therefore, a common paradigm might also help unify the vast array of perspectives and challenges present in the interdisciplinary study of biomaterials, biological materials, and biomimetic materials. The traditional materials science and engineering paradigm was modified to account for the adaptive and hierarchical nature of biological materials. Various examples of application to research and education are considered.

  11. The BIOSCI electronic newsgroup network for the biological sciences. Final report, October 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, D.; Mack, D.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report for a DOE funded project on BIOSCI Electronic Newsgroup Network for the biological sciences. A usable network for scientific discussion, major announcements, problem solving, etc. has been created.

  12. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  13. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  14. Targeting the finite-deformation response of wavy biological tissues with bio-inspired material architectures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqiong; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm driven by a homogenized-based model is employed to target the response of three types of heart-valve chordae tendineae with different stiffening characteristics due to different degrees of waviness of collagen fibril/fiber bundles. First, geometric and material parameters are identified through an extensive parametric study that produce excellent agreement of the simulated response based on simplified unit cell architectures with the actual response of the complex biological tissue. These include amplitude and wavelength of the crimped chordae microstructure, elastic moduli of the constituent phases, and degree of microstructural refinement of the stiff phase at fixed volume fraction whose role in the stiffening response is elucidated. The study also reveals potential non-uniqueness of bio-inspired wavy microstructures in attaining the targeted response of certain chordae tendineae crimp configurations. The homogenization-based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, whose predictions are validated through the parametric study, is then shown to be an excellent tool in identifying optimal unit cell architectures in the design space that exhibits very steep gradients. Finally, defect criticality of optimal unit cell architectures is investigated in order to assess their feasibility in replacing actual biological tendons with stiffening characteristics. PMID:24018396

  15. Nanostructured materials: A novel approach to enhanced performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G.E.; Froes, F.H.; Suryanarayana, C.

    1996-05-01

    Nanostuctured materials are an emerging class of materials that can exhibit physical and mechanical characteristics often exceeding those exhibited by conventional course grained materials. A number of different techniques can be employed to produce these materials. In this program, the synthesis methods were (a) mechanical alloying , (b) physical vapor deposition, and (c) plasma processing. The physical vapor deposition and plasma processing were discontinued after initial testing with subsequent efforts focused on mechanical alloying. The major emphasis of the program was on the synthesis, consolidation, and characterization of nanostructured Al-Fe, Ti-Al, Ti-Al-Nb, and Fe-Al by alloying intermetallics with a view to increase their ductilities. The major findings of this project are reported.

  16. Sources of plant materials for land rehabilitation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.D.; Howard, G.L.; White, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Military land managers and trainers are charged with planning and implementing land rehabilitation and maintenance to minimize environmental degradation and improve the safety and realism of the training mission. One step in the rehabilitation and maintenance process is to purchase appropriate plant materials, particularly locally endemic or adapted species. This report contains a list of plant material vendors in each state. Managers and trainers can contact these vendors for solicitation of bids.

  17. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Kramer; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2008-10-07

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules.

  18. Conscious Knowledge of Learning: Accessing Learning Strategies in a Final Year High School Biology Class. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A…

  19. An outlook review: mechanochromic materials and their potential for biological and healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Macroscopic mechanical perturbations have been observed to result in optical changes for certain compounds and composite materials. This phenomenon could originate from chemical and physical changes across various length scales, from the rearrangement of chemical bonds to alteration of molecular domains on the order of several hundred nanometers. This review classifies the mechanisms and surveys of how each class of mechanochromic materials has been, and can potentially be applied in biological and healthcare innovations. The study of cellular and molecular responses to mechanical forces in biological systems is an emerging field; there is potential in applying mechanochromic principles and material systems for probing biological systems. On the other hand, application of mechanochromic materials for medical and healthcare consumer products has been described in a wide variety of concepts and inventions. It is hopeful that further understanding of mechanochromism and material innovations would initiate concrete, impactful studies in biological systems soon. PMID:25491877

  20. Hazardous material analysis and coding system (HAZMZCS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    A new hazardous material classification system is being implemented. It consists of 55 Hazardous Characteristic Codes (HCC). The HCC will provide critical information needed to effectively manage, store and ship hazardous materials such as poisons, pesticides, radioactive materials, oxidizers, corrosive liquids and explosives. With implementation of new automated Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Warehousing and Shipping Procedures (DWASP), DLA depot receiving personnel will be required to assign the HCC if it it missing from pertinent documents. Without the HCC, the DWASP system will not assign a depot storage location. Because the new HCC must be assigned quickly and accurately, an expert systems approach offers a feasible and practical means for providing this support. Accordingly, the Hazardous Material Analysis and Coding System (HAZMACS) was developed. HAZMACS is a PC-based expert system which queries the user about the known characteristics of suspected hazardous material and assigns an HCC based on the user's responses. HAZMACS consists of a main knowledge base file which chains to any of 13 other hazard-specific knowledge base files.

  1. Third international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology (ISMB-95): Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The specific aims of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB-95) were to: convene a critical mass of researchers applying advanced computational techniques to problems in molecular biology; promote interchange of problems and solutions between computer scientists and molecular biologists; create education opportunities in this cross-disciplinary field for students and senior researchers wishing to either apply or benefit from these techniques; produce an archival proceedings as a forum for rapid dissemination of new results in a peer-reviewed manner; produce a set of tutorial materials for education and training of researchers interested in this field; maintain the momentum generated by the highly successful previous conferences in the series, and establish a regular event that will help to solidify the field; and foster the involvement of women and minorities in the field.

  2. Processing and characterization of functionally gradient ceramic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, M.E.; Sengupta, L.C.; Ngo, E.; Stowell, S.; Lancto, R.

    1994-02-01

    Tape casting of ceramic materials offers the flexibility of gradually altering the electronic or structural properties of two dissimilar systems in order to improve their compatibility. This research outlines the processing and fabrication of two systems-of functionally gradient materials. The systems are both electronic ceramic composites consisting Ba(1-x)Sr(x)TiO3 (BSTO) and alumina or a second oxide additive. These composites would be used in phased array antenna systems, therefore, the electronic properties of the material have specific requirements in the microwave frequency regions. The composition of the tapes are varied to provide a graded dielectric constant, which gradually increases from that of air (dielectric constant = 1) to that of the ceramic (dielectric constant = 1500). This allows maximum penetration of incident microwave radiation as well as minimum energy dissipation and insertion loss into the entire phase shifting device.

  3. The Review of Nuclear Microscopy Techniques: An Approach for Nondestructive Trace Elemental Analysis and Mapping of Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    2015-01-01

    The properties of many biological materials often depend on the spatial distribution and concentration of the trace elements present in a matrix. Scientists have over the years tried various techniques including classical physical and chemical analyzing techniques each with relative level of accuracy. However, with the development of spatially sensitive submicron beams, the nuclear microprobe techniques using focused proton beams for the elemental analysis of biological materials have yielded significant success. In this paper, the basic principles of the commonly used microprobe techniques of STIM, RBS, and PIXE for trace elemental analysis are discussed. The details for sample preparation, the detection, and data collection and analysis are discussed. Finally, an application of the techniques to analysis of corn roots for elemental distribution and concentration is presented. PMID:26664356

  4. The Review of Nuclear Microscopy Techniques: An Approach for Nondestructive Trace Elemental Analysis and Mapping of Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    2015-01-01

    The properties of many biological materials often depend on the spatial distribution and concentration of the trace elements present in a matrix. Scientists have over the years tried various techniques including classical physical and chemical analyzing techniques each with relative level of accuracy. However, with the development of spatially sensitive submicron beams, the nuclear microprobe techniques using focused proton beams for the elemental analysis of biological materials have yielded significant success. In this paper, the basic principles of the commonly used microprobe techniques of STIM, RBS, and PIXE for trace elemental analysis are discussed. The details for sample preparation, the detection, and data collection and analysis are discussed. Finally, an application of the techniques to analysis of corn roots for elemental distribution and concentration is presented. PMID:26664356

  5. Materials Degradation and Detection (MD2): Deep Dive Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Henager, Charles H.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2013-02-01

    An effort is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a fundamental and general framework to foster the science and technology needed to support real-time monitoring of early degradation in materials used in the production of nuclear power. The development of such a capability would represent a timely solution to the mounting issues operators face with materials degradation in nuclear power plants. The envisioned framework consists of three primary and interconnected “thrust” areas including 1) microstructural science, 2) behavior assessment, and 3) monitoring and predictive capabilities. A brief state-of-the-art assessment for each of these core technology areas is discussed in the paper.

  6. Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth.

    PubMed

    Manso, Sandra; De Muynck, Willem; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio; Steppe, Kathy; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2014-05-15

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious construction materials constituting the wall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. This work aims at assessing the suitability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) materials to allow a rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, the w/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binders were modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material. MPC mortar with moderate porosity and roughness appears to be the most feasible material to be used for the development of green concrete walls. PMID:24602907

  7. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  8. Materials support for HITAF. Final report for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Tennery, V.J.

    1995-03-01

    Improvements in coal-fired systems will require a change from steam turbines to gas turbines using air as working fluid; pressurized ceramic heat exchangers operating up to 1600 C will be needed. Leading candidate materials are SiC-based ceramics. Mechanical properties of 3 materials are compared in this work: NT230 Si/SiC from Saint Gobain Norton, {beta}-SiC from Coors Ceramics Co., and Lanxide DIMOX SiCp/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from Du Pont Lanxide Composites Inc. The first material is siliconized Si carbide, the second is sintered. They all were tested in 4-point flexure at RT and 1100 and 1400 C. Fast-fracture tests were carried out. Slow crack growth was investigated. Failure modes were studied using optical microscopy and SEM. Four materials were exposed to two coal ashes at two different temperatures. In the comparison, Coors {beta}-SiC stands out from a strength and reliability standpoint when exposed to air at high temperatures. Lanxide DIMOX withstood coal ash exposure well.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate waste container materials; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Maiya, P.S.; Soppet, W.K.; Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.

    1992-06-01

    Six alloys have been selected as candidate container materials for the storage of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca mountain site in Nevada. These materials are Type 304L stainless steel (SS). Type 316L SS, Incoloy 825, phosphorus-deoxidized Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al. The present program has been initiated to determine whether any of these materials can survive for 300 years in the site environment without developing through-wall stress corrosion cracks. and to assess the relative resistance of these materials to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)- A series of slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) and fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests was performed at 93{degree}C and 1 atm of pressure in simulated J-13 well water. This water is representative, prior to the widespread availability of unsaturated-zone water, of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. Slow-strain-rate tests were conducted on 6.35-mm-diameter cylindrical specimens at strain rates of 10-{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}8} s{sup {minus}1} under crevice and noncrevice conditions. All tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strain of 1--4%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed some crack initiation in virtually all the materials, as well as weldments made from these materials. A stress- or strain-ratio cracking index ranks these materials, in order of increasing resistance to SCC, as follows: Type 304 SS < Type 316L SS < Incoloy 825 < Cu-30%Ni < Cu and Cu-7%Al. Fracture-mechanics CGR tests were conducted on 25.4-mm-thick compact tension specimens of Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS) and Incoloy 825. Crack-growth rates were measured under various load conditions: load ratios M of 0.5--1.0, frequencies of 10{sup {minus}3}-1 Hz, rise nines of 1--1000s, and peak stress intensities of 25--40 MPa{center_dot}m {sup l/2}.

  10. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  11. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  12. Modulating material interfaces through biologically-inspired intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Melis; Steward, Robert L.; Chang, Chia-Jung; Orndoff, Cynthia J.; Zeng, Yukai; Ho, Mon-Shu; LeDuc, Philip R.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2011-12-01

    This letter describes the control of molecular filament organization through biologically inspired intermediates, enabling us to obtain large-area regular nanopatterns. We first studied cultured single filamentous actins on an unmodified glass surface (hydrophilic surface) and introduced myosin-II to modify the control. We then utilized an inorganic salt crystallization approach on the response of these two proteins, actin filament and myosin-II, to analyze the resultant spatially localized patterns. Through the utilization of myosin-II and the salt crystallization approach, we were able to induce the filament orientation of 63°; while without myosin-II, we induced an orientation of 90°.

  13. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  14. Water regime of mechanical-biological pretreated waste materials under fast-growing trees.

    PubMed

    Rüth, Björn; Lennartz, Bernd; Kahle, Petra

    2007-10-01

    In this study mechanical-biological pre-treated waste material (MBP) was tested for suitability to serve as an alternative surface layer in combination with fast-growing and water-consumptive trees for final covers at landfill sites. The aim was to quantify evapotranspiration and seepage losses by numerical model simulations for two sites in Germany. In addition, the leaf area index (LAI) of six tree species over the growing season as the driving parameter for transpiration calculations was determined experimentally. The maximum LAI varied between 3.8 and 6.1 m2 m(-2) for poplar and willow clones, respectively. The evapotranspiration calculations revealed that the use of MBP waste material for re-cultivation enhanced evapotranspiration by 40 mm year(-1) (10%) over an 11 year calculation period compared to a standard mineral soil. Between 82% (for LAI(max) = 3.8) and 87% (for LAI(max) = 6.1) of the average annual precipitation (506 mm) could be retained from the surface layer assuming eastern German climate conditions, compared with a retention efficiency between 79 and 82% for a mineral soil. Although a MBP layer in conjunction with water-consumptive trees can reduce vertical water losses as compared to mineral substrates, the effect is not sufficient to meet legal regulations. PMID:17985666

  15. Utilization of waste tires in asphaltic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amirkhanian, S.N.; Burati, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The research project was divided into two sections: laboratory phase and field phase. In the laboratory phase the use of crumb rubber utilizing the `wet` method was investigated. A total of 360 laboratory-prepared Marshall specimens were made and tested. The materials used to prepare the specimens were typical of those used for Type 1A Surve mixtures used by SC DOT. The experimental design consisted of using three aggregate sources, three antistrip additives, and four rubber percentages (i.e., 0%, 12%, 15%, and 18% by weight of asphalt cement). The indirect tensile strengths, tensile strength ratio, visual strip rating, percent air voids, and bulk specific gravities were determined and statistically analyzed. The results indicated that, in general, as the rubber percentage increased, the strength decreased. However, the specimens containing antistrip additives had a higher increase in strength compared to that of the virgin materials. In addition, the optimum asphalt content generally increased as the rubber percentage increased.

  16. Materials compatibility with the volcanic environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Htun, K.M.

    1984-03-08

    Attempts were made to run materials compatibility, volcanic gas collection, and heat transfer experiments during the 1977 Kilauea eruption. Preliminary results from the recovered samples showed that Fe, Ni, and Fe-Ni alloys were the most heavily oxidized. The Mo and W alloys showed some attack and only neglible reaction was seen on 310 stainless, Hastelloy C, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Rene 41, and Nichrome. Results are qualitative only. (DLC)

  17. Fracture behavior of W based materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, J.E.

    1991-09-30

    This report describes the results of a program to investigate the fracture properties of tungsten based materials. In particular, the role of crack velocity on crack instability was determined in a W-Fe-Ni-Co ``heavy alloy`` and pure polycrystalline tungsten. A considerable effort was expended on the development of an appropriate crack velocity gage for use on these materials. Having succeeded in that, the gage technology was employed to determine the crack velocity response to the applied level of stress intensity factor at the onset of crack instability in pre-cracked specimens. The results were also correlated to the failure mode observed in two material systems of interest. Major results include: (1) unstable crack velocity measurements on metallic specimens which require high spatial resolution require the use of brittle, insulating substrates, as opposed to the ductile, polymer based substrates employed in low spatial resolution measurements; and (2) brittle failure modes, such as cleavage, are characterized by relatively slow unstable crack velocities while evidence of high degrees of deformation are associated with failures which proceed at high unstable crack velocities. This latter behavior is consistent with the predictions of the modeling of Hack et al and may have a significant impact on the interpretation of fractographs in general.

  18. Educational Modules for Materials Science and Engineering. Final Report, December 1, 1977-November 30, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Rustum; Knox, Bruce E.

    The major goal of the Educational Modules for Materials Science and Engineering (EMMSE) project is to experiment with a means for developing, indexing, and disseminating instructional materials in materials science and engineering. This document is the updated final report of the project. Key accomplishments discussed (presented in order of…

  19. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2000-11-21

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

  20. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  1. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials - 1. Nutrients in carbonaceous meteorites, and effects on biological growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    1997-06-01

    Soil nutrient analysis of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous chondrite shows biologically available S, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at levels comparable with terrestrial agricultural soils. Weathering, and aqueous, hydrothermal (121°C, 15 min) and high-temperature (550°C, 3 h) processing increase the extractable nutrients. Extractable phosphorus (by 0.3 M NH 4F + 0.1 M HCl) content, which may be growth-limiting, is 6.3 μg g -1 in the unprocessed meteorite, but increases to 81 μg g -1 by hydrothermal processing and weathering, and to 130 μg g -1 by high temperature processing. The cation exchange capacity (CEC), attributed mainly to the organic fraction, corresponds responds to 345 meq per 100 g of the polymer, suggesting one ionizable COOH or OH group per 3-4 aromatic rings. The Allende C3(V) meteorite has low extractable Ca, Mg and K, in parallel to its low organic content and CEC, but high extractable P levels (160 μg g -1). Biological effects are observed on growth of the soil microorganisms Flavobacterium oryzihabitans and Nocardia asteroides in meteorite extracts, and the population levels suggest that P is the limiting nutrient. Effects on plant growth are examined on Solanum tuberosum (potato), where extracts of the Murchison meteorite lead to enhanced growth and pigmentation. The biologically available organic and inorganic nutrients in carbonaceous chondrites can provide concentrated solutions for prebiotic and early life processes, and serve as soils and fertilizers for future space-based biological expansion.

  2. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  3. Fissile material disposition program final immobilization form assessment and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, S.G.; Dunlop, W.H.; Edmunds, T.A.; MacLean, L.M.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-10-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in its role as the lead laboratory for the development of plutonium immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), has been requested by MD to recommend an immobilization technology for the disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The recommendation and supporting documentation was requested to be provided by September 1, 1997. This report addresses the choice between glass and ceramic technologies for immobilizing plutonium using the can-in-canister approach. Its purpose is to provide a comparative evaluation of the two candidate technologies and to recommend a form based on technical considerations.

  4. Hazardous material minimization for radar assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendment, enacted in November 1990, empowered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to completely eliminate the production and usage of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by January 2000. A reduction schedule for methyl chloroform beginning in 1993 with complete elimination by January 2002 was also mandated. In order to meet the mandates, the processes, equipment, and materials used to solder and clean electronic assemblies were investigated. A vapor-containing cleaning system was developed. The system can be used with trichloroethylene or d-Limonene. The solvent can be collected for recycling if desired. Fluxless and no-clean soldering were investigated, and the variables for a laser soldering process were identified.

  5. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in this unit of work to help students use metacognitive strategies since students did not generally use metacognitive strategies spontaneously. Scaffolding was mediated through the teacher modelling, questioning, cueing or prompting students to evaluate their learning. The research reported here illustrates how teachers can cue students to be more self-directed in their learning. Three case studies illustrate how learning strategies were used differentially. Most students were aware of strategies that could help them to learn more effectively. It was found that those students who were not only aware of but also used strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate their work, produced essays of higher quality.

  6. Linking Biological Responses of Terrestrial N Eutrophication to the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. D.; Clark, C.; Blett, T.

    2015-12-01

    The response of a biological indicator to N deposition can indicate that an ecosystem has surpassed a critical load and is at risk of significant change. The importance of this exceedance is often difficult to digest by policy makers and public audiences if the change is not linked to a familiar ecosystem endpoint. A workshop was held to bring together scientists, resource managers, and policy makers with expertise in ecosystem functioning, critical loads, and economics in an effort to identify the ecosystem services impacted by air pollution. This was completed within the framework of the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) Classification System to produce a product that identified distinct interactions between society and the effects of nitrogen pollution. From each change in a biological indicator, we created multiple ecological production functions to identify the cascading effects of the change to a measureable ecosystem service that a user interacts with either by enjoying, consuming, or appreciating the good or service, or using it as an input in the human economy. This FEGS metric was then linked to a beneficiary group that interacts with the service. Chains detailing the links from the biological indicator to the beneficiary group were created for aquatic and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication at the workshop, and here we present a subset of the workshop results by highlighting for 9 different ecosystems affected by terrestrial eutrophication. A total of 213 chains that linked to 37 unique FEGS metrics and impacted 15 beneficiary groups were identified based on nitrogen deposition mediated changes to biological indicators. The chains within each ecosystem were combined in flow charts to show the complex, overlapping relationships among biological indicators, ecosystem services, and beneficiary groups. Strength of relationship values were calculated for each chain based on support for the link in the scientific literature. We produced the

  7. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  8. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-05

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  9. Effects of acid fog and dew on materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, F.; Henry, R.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1989-10-01

    Field exposure tests have been carried out in order to separate the effects of acidic fog on materials damage from those caused by rain, dew and natural weathering. The test sites were McKittrick and Visalia in the Central Valley and West Casitas Pass in Ventura County. The field tests have been supported by laboratory tests in which materials damage has been determined during exposure to carefully controlled fog water chemistry. Analysis of the field exposure results for galvanized steel and the paint samples shows that the corrosivity of the atmosphere at the three test sites have been very low. The result is confirmed by the ACRM data which show very low corrosion activity. Since corrosion rates were so low approaching those for natural weathering, it was not possible to determine the effects of acidic fog. Based on the aerometric data and the observed corrosion behavior, it is doubtful that acidic fog conditions prevailed for significant times during the exposure period of 1/87 - 3/88 at Visalia and McKittrick. The results of the laboratory tests show that exposure to HNO3 at low pH and to high pollutant concentration increased the corrosion rate of galvanized steel to over 10 micro m/year. Exposure to HNO3 caused serious corrosion damage to anodized aluminum and the paint.

  10. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Zhujie; Was, Gary; Bartels, David

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  11. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of two-phase materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, K.

    1987-01-01

    The development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of two phase engineering materials are described. The primary goal was to establish relationships between the nonlinearity parameter and the percentage of solid solution phase in two phase systems such as heat treatable aluminum alloys. The acoustoelastic constant was also measured on these alloys. A major advantage of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes the method more applicable to inservice nondestructive characterization. The results obtained on the heat treatable 7075 and the work hardenable 5086 and 5456 aluminum alloys show that both the acoustoelastic constant and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter change considerable with the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in these aluminum alloys. A mathematical model was also developed to relate the effective acoustic nonlinearity parameter to volume fraction of second phase precipitates in an alloy. The equation is approximated to within experimental error by a linear expression for volume fractions up to approx. 10%.

  12. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  13. Fullerene-based materials research and development. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, P A; Henderson, C C; Rohlfing, C M; Loy, D A; Assink, R A; Gillen, K T; Jacobs, S J; Dugger, M T

    1995-05-01

    The chemistry and physical properties of fullerenes, the third, molecular allotrope of carbon, have been studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Early computational work investigated the stability of fullerene isomers and oxides, which was followed by extensive work on hydrogenated fullerenes. Our work led to the first synthesis of a polymer containing C{sub 60} and the synthesis of the simplest hydrocarbon derivatives of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment ({plus_minus} 0.1 kcal/mol in the relative stability of isomers) has provided insight into the chemical nature of fullerenes and has yielded a sound basis for prediction of the structure of derivatized fullerenes. Such derivatives are the key to the preparation of fullerene-based materials.

  14. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  15. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  16. A New Biology for the 21st Century; Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution. Final committee report

    SciTech Connect

    None None

    2012-05-10

    In July, 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), and Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council’s Board on Life Sciences to convene a committee to examine the current state of biological research in the United States and recommend how best to capitalize on recent technological and scientific advances that have allowed biologists to integrate biological research findings, collect and interpret vastly increased amounts of data, and predict the behavior of complex biological systems. From September 2008 through July of 2009, a committee of 16 experts from the fields of biology, engineering and computational science undertook to delineate those scientific and technological advances and come to a consensus on how the U.S. might best capitalize on them. This report, authored by the Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century, describes the committee’s work and conclusions.

  17. Microchip electrophoresis for the analysis of biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.C.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Development of instrumentation for biological and chemical analyses is geared toward extracting more information in a shorter time period at a lower cost. One avenue to achieve these ends is the miniaturization of instrumentation using microfabrication techniques. The primary advantage of such miniaturized devices is the integration of multiple functions required for a complete analysis into a single monolithic unit. Also, by using microfabrication techniques, planar devices with compact geometries enable design of parallel architectures which would handle multiple samples and necessary redundancies. Microfabricated devices that have been demonstrated primarily involve electrically driven separation techniques including capillary electrophoresis, open channel electrochromatography, and capillary gel electrophoresis. Devices that integrate chemical reactions with analysis include capillary electrophoresis with pre- and postseparation derivatization, and restriction digestions of plasmid DNA followed by size analysis of the fragments. The most notable feature of these miniaturized chemical separation devices is the speed with which analyses are performed. These devices have precise fluid control of picoliter volumes simply by proper selection of applied potentials and without the use of mechanical valves. Further motivations for miniaturization and integration of chemical analysis procedures include low void volume connections, reduction of sample and reagent volumes, and rapid diffusional mixing of reagents.

  18. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  19. Cellular responses to implant materials: biological, physical and chemical factors.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, H

    1983-12-01

    Adhesion of bone and epithelial cells to the dental implant are vital to its retention in alveolar bone and to the prevention of infection via its 'gingival' margin. Studies of cytotoxicity, tissue irritability and carcinogenicity of implantable polymers, metals and ceramics and of tissue adhesion to them have been carried out in tissue culture and in animal experiments. The more similar the polymeric materials are chemically to living tissue the more easily are they dissolved and digested in the host. Therefore, implant materials having a molecular structure similar to protein or polysaccharide, e.g. Nylon, cannot be expected to function. On the other hand, silicones, polyethylene and Teflon (polytetrafluroethylene), which have molecular structures completely different from living substances, are generally more stable in the tissues. However, these polymers are hydrophobic and have little adhesion to living cells in spite of their high stability. They are not, therefore, suitable materials for the construction of implants. Studies on antithrombotic polymers have demonstrated the possibility of creating implantable polymers which have high stability as well as strong adhesion to the surrounding tissues. These properties may be conferred by grafting a hydrophilic polymer on to the surface of a hydrophobic polymer. Of the metals, Ti, Zr and Ta are fairly stable in living tissue, and allow cells to adhere strongly. Alloys of Co-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Ti-Al-V, Ti-Mo, Ti-Pd and Ti-Pt deserve to be better evaluated because they are low in density, have high mechanical strength, stability and corrosion resistance in living tissue, and there is direct adhesion to the surrounding tissues. Biodegradable or bioactive ceramics which induce bone formation around the implant do not have sufficient mechanical strength. Implant ceramics have to be stable, e.g. crystal alumina, vitreous carbon, synthetic hydroxypatite and silicon nitrate. These exhibit high biocompatibility and

  20. Comparison of the biological NH3 removal characteristics among four inorganic packing materials.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Kamamoto, M; Yani, M; Shoda, M

    2001-01-01

    Four inorganic packing materials were evaluated in terms of their availability as a packing material of a packed tower deodorization apparatus (biofilter) from the viewpoints of biological NH3 removal characteristics and some physical properties. Porous ceramics (A), calcinated cristobalite (B), calcinated and formed obsidian (C), granulated and calculated soil (D) were used. The superiority of these packing materials determined based on the values of non-biological removal per unit weight or unit volume of packing material, complete removal capacity of NH3 per unit weight of packing material per day or unit volume of packing material per day and pressure drop of the packed bed was in the order of A approximately = C > B > or = D. Packing materials A and C with high porosity, maximum water content, and suitable mean pore diameter showed excellent removal capacity. PMID:16233018

  1. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  2. Model of heterogeneous material dissolution in simulated biological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazeva, A. G.; Gutmanas, E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    In orthopedic research, increasing attention is being paid to bioresorbable/biodegradable implants as an alternative to permanent metallic bone healing devices. Biodegradable metal based implants possessing high strength and ductility potentially can be used in load bearing sites. Biodegradable Mg and Fe are ductile and Fe possess high strength, but Mg degrades too fast and Fe degrades too slow, Ag is a noble metal and should cause galvanic corrosion of the more active metallic iron - thus, corrosion of Fe can be increased. Nanostructuring should results in higher strength and can result in higher rate of dissolution/degradation from grain boundaries. In this work, a simple dissolution model of heterogeneous three phase nanocomposite material is considered - two phases being metal Fe and Ag and the third - nanopores. Analytical solution for the model is presented. Calculations demonstrate that the changes in the relative amount of each phase depend on mass exchange and diffusion coefficients. Theoretical results agree with preliminary experimental results.

  3. The Effects of Linear and Modified Linear Programed Materials on the Achievement of Slow Learners in Tenth Grade BSCS Special Materials Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, John Charles

    Assessed were the effects of linear and modified linear programed materials on the achievement of slow learners in tenth grade Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Special Materials biology. Two hundred and six students were randomly placed into four programed materials formats: linear programed materials, modified linear program with…

  4. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lampson, M. A.; Greathouse, D. V.; Koeppe, R. E., II; Andersen, O. S.

    2006-07-01

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)—Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly—alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  5. A planar transmission-line sensor for measuring microwave permittivity of liquid and semisolid biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate technique for determining the permittivity of biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line is presented. The technique utilizes closed-form approximations that relate the material permittivity to the line propagation constant. A thru-reflect-line calibration procedure i...

  6. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K.

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  7. Nano-FTIR chemical mapping of minerals in biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Amarie, Sergiu; Zaslansky, Paul; Kajihara, Yusuke; Griesshaber, Erika; Schmahl, Wolfgang W

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methods for imaging of nanocomposites based on X-ray, electron, tunneling or force microscopy provide information about the shapes of nanoparticles; however, all of these methods fail on chemical recognition. Neither do they allow local identification of mineral type. We demonstrate that infrared near-field microscopy solves these requirements at 20 nm spatial resolution, highlighting, in its first application to natural nanostructures, the mineral particles in shell and bone. "Nano-FTIR" spectral images result from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). On polished sections of Mytilus edulis shells we observe a reproducible vibrational (phonon) resonance within all biocalcite microcrystals, and distinctly different spectra on bioaragonite. Surprisingly, we discover sparse, previously unknown, 20 nm thin nanoparticles with distinctly different spectra that are characteristic of crystalline phosphate. Multicomponent phosphate bands are observed on human tooth sections. These spectra vary characteristically near tubuli in dentin, proving a chemical or structural variation of the apatite nanocrystals. The infrared band strength correlates with the mineral density determined by electron microscopy. Since nano-FTIR sensitively responds to structural disorder it is well suited for the study of biomineral formation and aging. Generally, nano-FTIR is suitable for the analysis and identification of composite materials in any discipline, from testing during nanofabrication to even the clinical investigation of osteopathies. PMID:22563528

  8. Nano-FTIR chemical mapping of minerals in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Amarie, Sergiu; Zaslansky, Paul; Kajihara, Yusuke; Griesshaber, Erika; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Keilmann, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Methods for imaging of nanocomposites based on X-ray, electron, tunneling or force microscopy provide information about the shapes of nanoparticles; however, all of these methods fail on chemical recognition. Neither do they allow local identification of mineral type. We demonstrate that infrared near-field microscopy solves these requirements at 20 nm spatial resolution, highlighting, in its first application to natural nanostructures, the mineral particles in shell and bone. "Nano-FTIR" spectral images result from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). On polished sections of Mytilus edulis shells we observe a reproducible vibrational (phonon) resonance within all biocalcite microcrystals, and distinctly different spectra on bioaragonite. Surprisingly, we discover sparse, previously unknown, 20 nm thin nanoparticles with distinctly different spectra that are characteristic of crystalline phosphate. Multicomponent phosphate bands are observed on human tooth sections. These spectra vary characteristically near tubuli in dentin, proving a chemical or structural variation of the apatite nanocrystals. The infrared band strength correlates with the mineral density determined by electron microscopy. Since nano-FTIR sensitively responds to structural disorder it is well suited for the study of biomineral formation and aging. Generally, nano-FTIR is suitable for the analysis and identification of composite materials in any discipline, from testing during nanofabrication to even the clinical investigation of osteopathies. PMID:22563528

  9. Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material.

    PubMed

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

    2010-04-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

  10. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of trace elements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Versieck, J

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, in both its radiochemical and instrumental forms, is a precious technique for the determination of trace elements in biological materials. Probably its most important advantage is its relative freedom from errors resulting from contamination of the samples. Invaluable characteristics are also its excellent sensitivity, outstanding selectivity, and remarkable multielement capability. It is, however, necessary to warn against uncritical expectations. This is best illustrated by the seriously inconsistent results obtained in several laboratories. Because of the necessity to have access to a nuclear research reactor, the stringent safety rules to be observed, the rather high costs of the analyses, the relatively low sample throughput, and the sometimes long delay between the taking of a sample and the obtaining the final result, the use of neutron activation analysis remained restricted to a few--essentially research--laboratories. It found its main application in solving arduous problems and in paving the way for other analytical techniques better suited to routine applications. PMID:7710855

  11. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  12. Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others) arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed. PMID:22977316

  13. Comparison of the biological H2S removal characteristics among four inorganic packing materials.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Kamamoto, M; Yani, M; Shoda, M

    2001-01-01

    Four inorganic packing materials were evaluated in terms of their availability as packing materials of a packed tower deodorization apparatus (biofilter) from the viewpoints of biological H2S removal characteristics and some physical properties. Among porous ceramics (A), calcinated cristobalite (B), calcinated and formed obsidian (C), granulated and calcinated soil (D), the superiority of these packing materials determined based on the values of non-biological removal per unit weight or unit volume of packing material, complete removal capacity of H2S per unit weight of packing material per day or unit volume of packing material per day and pressure drop of the packed bed was in the order of A approximately equal to C > D approximately equal to B, which is correlated with the maximum water content, porosity, and mean pore diameter. PMID:16233011

  14. Adverse reactions after cosmetic lip augmentation with permanent biologically inert implant materials.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, C; Schuller-Petrovic, S; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H

    1999-01-01

    Augmentation of lips is a common aesthetic procedure that is mostly performed with alloplastic materials or autologous tissue. Various alloplastic injectable implants have been developed for soft tissue augmentation without surgery. Most biologic materials are resorbed within a few months, fluid silicone may migrate, and autologous fat is not ideal for fine contouring of the lips. The search for a biocompatible, permanent, nontoxic, and biologically inert filler material led to the development of some new materials for subdermal or intradermal implantation. Recently Bioplastique, Artecoll, and Gore-Tex have been well established and recommended by many authors. Although these materials meet most of the characteristics that constitute an ideal injectable prosthetic material, we describe 3 examples of adverse reactions after their implantation into lips. PMID:9922021

  15. Ultrafast Spectroscopy in Conjugated Organic and Biological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ming

    The dynamics of two kinds of conjugated materials, the visual pigment rhodopsin and the organic polymer poly(p -phenylene vinylene), have been studied utilizing femtosecond spectroscopy. The 11-cis to all-trans torsional isomerization of the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin for both protonated and deuterated aqueous environments have been studied by time-resolved absorption measurements at room temperature. The kinetic results are well modeled by rate equations based on the scheme which involves the isomerization along the torsional coordinate of the 11-cis bond of the retinal chromophore. A metastable intermediate 90 degree twisted state is formed within 200 fs on the excited state surface by rotation around the C_{11} -C_{12} double bond, and it takes 3 ps to form the fully isomerized all -trans photoproduct known as bathorhodopsin and to repopulate the ground state rhodopsin. These results agree well with the semiempirical energy level and molecular dynamics calculations. The observed dynamics are insensitive to deuteration of the exchangeable protons which suggest that proton translocation is unimportant at physiological temperatures. The conjugated polymer, Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) in a stretch oriented film, has been studied using polarized time-resolved absorption with subpicosecond resolution and transient luminescence measurements. Excitations are generated by photoexcitation near the band edge (500nm -540nm) with a 200 fs pulse and the resulting spectral changes are probed with a white light pulse. Lattice stabilized (singlet) self-trapped excitons are formed within 200 fs which are observed by measuring the stimulated gain in their emission band which decay at 10 ps. The agreement of the photoinduced exciton gain spectrum (<1ps), the transient luminescence spectrum (10 ps) and the steady state luminescence spectrum suggest that the singlet excitons are not further trapped after 200fs of their formation time. Excitation wavelength dependence

  16. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  17. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS COMMISSION Grant Administration § 1206.86 What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? You must submit the materials determined by the Commission as found in the NHPRC grant announcements or specified in the grant award....

  18. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  19. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  20. High-performance liquid chromatographic-fluorescence determination of traces of selenium in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, W C; Kutnink, M A

    1996-10-15

    An improved method for the determination of selenium in biological materials has been developed. This work both extends and validates the procedure of Vézina and Bleau (J. Chromatog. 426, 385-391, 1988) which is based on high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the fluorophore formed by reaction of Se(IV) with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. The mass detection limit is 48 pg selenium (3 sigma) and the concentration detection limits are 48 parts per trillion in biological fluids and 120 to 480 parts per trillion in dried biological materials. The linear dynamic range of the method has been extended up to approximately 800 ng. Relative standard deviations of 9.4 to 2.7% were observed in repeated analyses of standards in the range of 0.5 to 500 ng. The proposed method was validated with respect to 23 biological reference materials spanning an 1800-fold range of selenium concentrations and was found to be free of significant constant or proportional biases despite greatly different matrix compositions. This method offers an unsurpassed combination of sensitivity, accuracy, linear dynamic range, and freedom from matrix interferences and may be considered a reference method for the reliable determination of selenium in biological materials. PMID:8921189

  1. A chirality-based search for extraterrestrial biological and prebiological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, Lioudmila; Sparks, William; Nagdimunov, Lev

    2013-04-01

    Important evidence relevant to extraterrestrial life is the existence in space of organic molecules of prebiological or biological significance. Such molecules are often characterized by a special type of asymmetry called "homochirality" (domination of molecules of a specific handedness). This results in optical activity of the material that contains those molecules. Due to optical activity, the light scattered by such materials is characterized by non-zero circular polarization. We review laboratory measurements of light scattered by biological (e.g. bacteria, leaves) and non-biological (minerals) samples. These have revealed distinctive features in the circular polarization spectra in absorption bands for the biological samples. We present theoretical simulations of light scattering by homochiral materials made with the superposition T-matrix code for clusters of optically-active spheres. This allowed us to simulate light scattering by biological objects, e.g. colonies of bacteria, and by materials of prebiological value, e.g. cometary dust. We explore how circular polarization depends on the porosity and size of aggregates. Based on this, we provide some recommendations for observing signs of life in space, specifically, on exoplanets. This study was supported by the NASA Exobiology and Astrobiology Program.

  2. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  3. The present and future of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces and materials.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Carrie E; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2012-01-31

    The natural world provides many examples of robust, permanent adhesive platforms. Synthetic adhesive interfaces and materials inspired by mussels of genus Mytulis have been extensively applied, and it is expected that characterization and adaptation of several other biological adhesive strategies will follow the Mytilus edulis model. These candidate species will be introduced, along with a discussion of the adhesive behaviors that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. While significant progress has been made in the development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces and materials, persistent questions, current challenges, and emergent areas of research will be also be discussed. PMID:22224862

  4. Final Report: Laser-Material Interactions Relevant to Analytic Spectroscopy of Wide Band Gap Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, J. T.

    2014-04-05

    We summarize our studies aimed at developing an understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry in terms of laser materials interactions relevant to laser-based sampling and chemical analysis of wide bandgap materials. This work focused on the determination of mechanisms for the emission of electrons, ions, atoms, and molecules from laser irradiation of surfaces. We determined the important role of defects on these emissions, the thermal, chemical, and physical interactions responsible for matrix effects and mass-dependent transport/detection. This work supported development of new techniques and technology for the determination of trace elements contained such as nuclear waste materials.

  5. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  6. Invited review liquid crystal models of biological materials and silk spinning.

    PubMed

    Rey, Alejandro D; Herrera-Valencia, Edtson E

    2012-06-01

    A review of thermodynamic, materials science, and rheological liquid crystal models is presented and applied to a wide range of biological liquid crystals, including helicoidal plywoods, biopolymer solutions, and in vivo liquid crystals. The distinguishing characteristics of liquid crystals (self-assembly, packing, defects, functionalities, processability) are discussed in relation to biological materials and the strong correspondence between different synthetic and biological materials is established. Biological polymer processing based on liquid crystalline precursors includes viscoelastic flow to form and shape fibers. Viscoelastic models for nematic and chiral nematics are reviewed and discussed in terms of key parameters that facilitate understanding and quantitative information from optical textures and rheometers. It is shown that viscoelastic modeling the silk spinning process using liquid crystal theories sheds light on textural transitions in the duct of spiders and silk worms as well as on tactoidal drops and interfacial structures. The range and consistency of the predictions demonstrates that the use of mesoscopic liquid crystal models is another tool to develop the science and biomimetic applications of mesogenic biological soft matter. PMID:21994072

  7. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  8. A Rodent Model to Evaluate the Tissue Response to a Biological Scaffold When Adjacent to a Synthetic Material.

    PubMed

    Dearth, Christopher L; Keane, Timothy J; Scott, Jeffrey R; Daly, Kerry A; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    The use of biologic scaffold materials adjacent to synthetic meshes is commonplace. A prevalent clinical example is two-staged breast reconstruction, where biologic scaffolds are used to provide support and coverage for the inferior aspect of the synthetic expander. However, limited data exist regarding either the kinetics of biologic scaffold integration or the host tissue response to the biologic scaffold materials used for this application or other applications in which such scaffold materials are used. The present study evaluated the temporal host response to a biological scaffold when placed adjacent to a synthetic material. Evaluation criteria included quantification of material contracture and characterization of the host cell response and tissue remodeling events. Results show a decreased thickness of the collagenous tissue layer at biologic scaffold/silicone interface compared to the abdominal wall/silicone interface during the 12-week experimental time course. All test materials were readily incorporated into surrounding host tissue. PMID:26176992

  9. Environmental impacts of post-consumer material managements: recycling, biological treatments, incineration.

    PubMed

    Valerio, F

    2010-11-01

    The environmental impacts of recycling, mechanical biological treatments (MBT) and waste-to-energy incineration, the main management strategies to respond to the increasing production of post-consumer materials are reviewed and compared. Several studies carried out according to life-cycle assessment (LCA) confirm that the lowest environmental impact, on a global scale, is obtained by recycling and by biological treatments (composting and anaerobic fermentations) if compost is used in agriculture. The available air emission factors suggest that, on a local scale, mechanical biological treatments with energy recovery of biogas, may be intrinsically safer than waste-to-energy incinerators. Several studies confirm the capability of biological treatments to degrade many toxic xenobiotic contaminating urban wastes such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an important property to be improved, for safe agricultural use of compost. Further LCA studies to compare the environmental impact of MBTs and of waste-to-energy incinerators are recommended. PMID:20573498

  10. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of selenium measurements in biological materials using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials has become increasingly important in view of the essential nature of this element for human nutrition and its possible role as a protective agent against cancer. Unfortunately, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials is often difficult for most analytical techniques for a variety of reasons, including interferences, complicated selenium chemistry due to the presence of this element in multiple oxidation states and in a variety of different organic species, stability and resistance to destruction of some of these organo-selenium species during acid dissolution, volatility of some selenium compounds, and potential for contamination. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be one of the best analytical techniques for selenium determinations in biological materials for a number of reasons. Currently, precision at the 1% level (1s) and overall accuracy at the 1 to 2% level (95% confidence interval) can be attained at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for selenium determinations in biological materials when counting statistics are not limiting (using the {sup 75}Se isotope). An example of this level of precision and accuracy is summarized. Achieving this level of accuracy, however, requires strict attention to all sources of systematic error. Precise and accurate results can also be obtained after radiochemical separations.

  11. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  12. Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Final report, June 1, 1976-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, J T

    1980-02-01

    An experimental methane fermentation system was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the processng requirements and conversion efficiencies associated with production of methane from various organic feed stocks. The fermentation reactors had an operating volume 0.775 m/sup 3/. This permitted operation with an approximate continuous feed of milled organics including beef feedlot manure, corn stover, wheat straw and alfalfa hay. A thermochemical pretreatment was applied to the corn stover and wheat straw in order to increase the biodegradability of these substrates. Working with these large units provided sufficient volumes of fermented slurry for evaluation of the dewatering properties of these slurries. Kinetic data were obtained by operating four reactors at different retention times. These data were used to calculate a first order rate constant and the percent of substrate volatile solids that were biodegradable. These data were obtained on beef feed lot manure at 40/sup 0/C and 60/sup 0/C nominal fermentation temperatures. Data from the fermentation of corn stover showed that the biodegradability of the stover volatile solids was only 36 percent at the thermophilic fermentation temperature. The first order rate constant was found to be 0.25 day/sup -1/. Thermochemical pretreatment increased the biodegradability of stover volatile solids to 71 percent. The final substrate tested was a green crop that was field dried - alfalfa. Significant foaming problems were encountered with this material. The volatile solids were found to be 74 percent biodegradable at a fermentation temperature of 60/sup 0/C. (MHR)

  13. Design finalization and material qualification towards procurement of the ITER vacuum vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Bachmann, C.; Chappuis, P.; Choi, C. H.; Cordier, J.-J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Heitzenroeder, Ph.; Her, N.; Johnson, G.; Jones, L.; Jun, C.; Kim, B. C.; Kuzmin, E.; Loesser, D.; Martin, A.; Merola, M.; Pathak, H.; Readman, P.; Sugihara, M.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu.; Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; ITER Organization; ITER Parties

    2011-10-01

    Procurement arrangements for ITER key components including the vacuum vessel (VV) have been signed and the ITER activities are now fully devoted towards construction. Final design reviews have been carried out for the main vessel and ports. One of the design review topics is the selection of materials, material procurement, and assessment of material performance during operation. The width of the inner shell splice plates was increased from 120 mm to 160 mm to minimize risk during the assembly of the Thermal shields and the VV. Instead of facet shaping, 3D shaping was introduced for the outboard inner shell. The material qualification procedures have been started for VV structural materials such as 316L(N) IG for licensing as a nuclear pressure equipment component. In accordance with the regulatory requirements and quality requirements for operation, common material specifications have been prepared in collaboration with the domestic agencies.

  14. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Synchrotron Studies of Quantum Emergence in Non-Low Dimensional Materials Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Allen

    2011-08-26

    This document is the final report of research performed under U.S. DOE Award Number DE-FG02-07ER46379, entitled Synchrotron Studies of Quantum Emergence in Non-Low Dimensional Materials. It covers the full period of the award, from June 1, 2007 through May 31, 2011.

  16. Mid-Atlantic Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Raymond S.; Carter, Robert

    The final report of the Mid-Atlantic Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center (MAR-SEIMC) describes field services, information services, library services, and research and evaluation activities conducted from 1967 to August 1974. It is explained that 39 affiliate centers were established throughout Pennsylvania, New Jersey,…

  17. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  18. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  19. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  20. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  1. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  2. A Formative Evaluation of Biological Science: Patterns and Processes, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.; And Others

    Reported is a formative evaluation of the Biological Science Curriculum Study "Biological Science: Patterns and Processes", designed for academically unsuccessful students. "Criterion referenced" tests were developed, with items selected to indicate the extent of students' learning rather than to discriminate between students. An alternate form,…

  3. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  4. Remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. L.; Liu, W.; Chin, S. L.

    2006-05-01

    We report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the feasibility of remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FIBS) of biological materials. The fluorescence from egg white and yeast powder, induced by femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in air, was detected in the backward direction with targets located 3.5 m away from the detection system. The remarkably distinct spectra of egg white and yeast allow us to propose that this technique, time-resolved FIBS, could be potentially useful for remote detection and identification of harmful biological agents.

  5. [Constitution of a bank of biological material in the French Gazel cohort: logistical and practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Zins, M; Ozguler, A; Bonenfant, S; Henny, J; Goldberg, M

    2003-02-01

    The Gazel cohort was launched in January 1989 among workers of the French national electricity and gas company to form an open and general purpose epidemiological laboratory. More than 20.000 workers (15.000 men, 5.000 women), aged from 35 to 50 volunteered to participate. One of the objectives of this cohort was the constitution of a bank of biological material aiming to collect and preserve various biological samples (serum, plasma, DNA, etc). This paper details the organisation of the bank and presents a feasability study concerning 2.000 volunteers. PMID:12684571

  6. Nanoscale Imaging of Mineral Crystals inside Biological Composite Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huaidong; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Song, Changyong; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Nishino, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yukio; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Miao, Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    We for the first time applied x-ray diffraction microscopy to the imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials—intramuscular fish bone—at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization. Based on the experimental results and biomineralization analyses, we suggested a dynamic model to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. The results obtained from this study not only further our understanding of the complex structure of bone, but also demonstrate that x-ray diffraction microscopy will become an important tool to study biological materials.

  7. Searching for biological traces on different materials using a forensic light source and infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Panzer, S; Apfelbacher, M; Bohnert, M

    2016-05-01

    Because biological traces often play an important role in the investigation process of criminal acts, their detection is essential. As they are not always visible to the human eye, tools like a forensic light source or infrared photography can be used. The intention of the study presented was to give advice how to visualize biological traces best. Which wavelengths and/or filters give the best results for different traces on different fabrics of different colors? Therefore, blood (undiluted and diluted), semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration have been examined on 29 different materials. PMID:26500091

  8. Indium arsenide as a material for biological applications: Assessment of surface modifications, toxicity, and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, Scott A.

    III-V semiconductors such as InAs have recently been employed in a variety of applications where the electronic and optical characteristics of traditional, silicon-based materials are inadequate. InAs has a narrow band gap and very high electron mobility in the near-surface region, which makes it very attractive for high performance transistors, optical applications, and chemical sensing. However, InAs forms an unstable surface oxide layer in ambient conditions, which can corrode over time and leach toxic indium and arsenic components. Current research has gone into making InAs more attractive for biological applications through passivation of the surface by adlayer adsorption. In particular, wet-chemical methods are current routes of exploration due to their simplicity, low cost, and flexibility in the type of passivating molecule. This dissertation focuses on surface modifications of InAs using wet-chemical methods in order to further its use in biological applications. First, the adsorption of collagen binding peptides and mixed peptide/thiol adlayers onto InAs was assessed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) along with atomic force microscopy (AFM) data suggested that the peptides successfully adsorbed onto InAs, but were only able to block oxide regrowth to a relatively low extent. This low passivation ability is due to the lack of covalent bonds of the peptide to InAs, which are necessary to effectively block oxide regrowth. The addition of a thiol, in the form of mixed peptide/thiol adlayers greatly enhanced passivation of InAs while maintaining peptide presence on the surface. Thiols form tight, covalent bonds with InAs, which prevents oxide regrowth. The presence of the collagen-binding peptide on the surface opens the door to subsequent modification with collagen or polyelectrolyte-based adlayers. Next, the stability and toxicity of modified InAs substrates were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and zebrafish

  9. FINAL REPORT. CONTROL OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE DEGRADATION ZONES BY VERTICAL HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATIONS IN FRACTURED MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key objective of this research was to determine the distribution of biologically active contaminant degradation zones in a fractured, subsurface medium with respect to vertical heterogeneities. Our expectation was that
    hydrogeological properties would determine the size, d...

  10. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Next Generation of Risk Assessment <span class=Final report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> This final report, "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Recent Advances in Molec...

  11. A general framework for application of prestrain to computational models of biological materials.

    PubMed

    Maas, Steve A; Erdemir, Ahmet; Halloran, Jason P; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2016-08-01

    It is often important to include prestress in computational models of biological tissues. The prestress can represent residual stresses (stresses that exist after the tissue is excised from the body) or in situ stresses (stresses that exist in vivo, in the absence of loading). A prestressed reference configuration may also be needed when modeling the reference geometry of biological tissues in vivo. This research developed a general framework for representing prestress in finite element models of biological materials. It is assumed that the material is elastic, allowing the prestress to be represented via a prestrain. For prestrain fields that are not compatible with the reference geometry, the computational framework provides an iterative algorithm for updating the prestrain until equilibrium is satisfied. The iterative framework allows for enforcement of two different constraints: elimination of distortion in order to address the incompatibility issue, and enforcing a specified in situ fiber strain field while allowing for distortion. The framework was implemented as a plugin in FEBio (www.febio.org), making it easy to maintain the software and to extend the framework if needed. Several examples illustrate the application and effectiveness of the approach, including the application of in situ strains to ligaments in the Open Knee model (simtk.org/home/openknee). A novel method for recovering the stress-free configuration from the prestrain deformation gradient is also presented. This general purpose theoretical and computational framework for applying prestrain will allow analysts to overcome the challenges in modeling this important aspect of biological tissue mechanics. PMID:27131609

  12. PSI:Biology-Materials Repository: A Biologist’s Resource for Protein Expression Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Catherine Y.; Park, Jin G.; Fiacco, Michael; Steel, Jason; Hunter, Preston; Kramer, Jason; Singla, Rajeev; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Structure Initiative:Biology-Materials Repository (PSI:Biology-MR; MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) sequence-verifies, annotates, stores, and distributes the protein expression plasmids and vectors created by the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The MR has developed an informatics and sample processing pipeline that manages this process for thousands of samples per month from nearly a dozen PSI centers. DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu), a freely searchable database, stores the plasmid annotations, which include the full-length sequence, vector information, and associated publications for over 130,000 plasmids created by our laboratory, by the PSI and other consortia, and by individual laboratories for distribution to researchers worldwide. Each plasmid links to external resources, including the PSI Structural Biology Knowledgebase (http://sbkb.org), which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to additional protein annotations and experimental data. To expedite and simplify plasmid requests, the MR uses an expedited material transfer agreement (EP-MTA) network, where researchers from network institutions can order and receive PSI plasmids without institutional delays. Currently over 39,000 protein expression plasmids and 78 empty vectors from the PSI are available upon request from DNASU. Overall, the MR’s repository of expression-ready plasmids, its automated pipeline, and the rapid process for receiving and distributing these plasmids more effectively allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been studied by the PSI. PMID:21360289

  13. Classification of the biological material with use of FTIR spectroscopy and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bombalska, Aneta; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Włodarski, Maksymilian; Kaliszewski, Miron; Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Szpakowska, Małgorzata; Trafny, Elżbieta A

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and discrimination of dangerous biological materials such as bacteria and their spores has become a security aim of considerable importance. Various analytical methods, including FTIR spectroscopy combined with statistical analysis have been used to identify vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores and background interferants. The present work discusses the application of FTIR technique performed in reflectance mode using Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance accessory (HATR) to the discrimination of biological materials. In comparison with transmission technique the HATR is more rapid and do not require the sample destruction, simultaneously giving similar absorbance bands. HATR-FTIR results combined with statistical analysis PCA and HCA demonstrate that this combination provides novel and accurate microbial identification technique. PMID:21257340

  14. Classification of the biological material with use of FTIR spectroscopy and statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombalska, Aneta; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Włodarski, Maksymilian; Kaliszewski, Miron; Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Szpakowska, Małgorzata; Trafny, Elżbieta A.

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and discrimination of dangerous biological materials such as bacteria and their spores has become a security aim of considerable importance. Various analytical methods, including FTIR spectroscopy combined with statistical analysis have been used to identify vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores and background interferants. The present work discusses the application of FTIR technique performed in reflectance mode using Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance accessory (HATR) to the discrimination of biological materials. In comparison with transmission technique the HATR is more rapid and do not require the sample destruction, simultaneously giving similar absorbance bands. HATR-FTIR results combined with statistical analysis PCA and HCA demonstrate that this combination provides novel and accurate microbial identification technique.

  15. The spectral applications of Beer-Lambert law for some biological and dosimetric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Içelli, Orhan; Yalçin, Zeynel; Karakaya, Vatan; Ilgaz, Işıl P.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of biological and dosimetric materials which contain organic and inorganic materials and to make the determination by using the spectral theorem Beer-Lambert law. Beer-Lambert law is a system of linear equations for the spectral theory. It is possible to solve linear equations with a non-zero coefficient matrix determinant forming linear equations. Characteristic matrix of the linear equation with zero determinant is called point spectrum at the spectral theory.

  16. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  17. A Strategic Initiative in Applied Biological Simulations 01-SI-012 Final Report for FY01 - FY03

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Venclovas, C; Schwegler, E; Gygi, F; Colvin, M E; Bennion, B J; Barsky, D; Mundy, C; Lightstone, F C; Galli, G; Sawicka, D

    2004-02-16

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative in Applied Computational Biology has been to apply LLNL's expertise in computational simulation to forge a new laboratory core competency in biological simulation. By every measure, this SI has been very successful in this goal. Based on a strong publication record and large number of conference presentations and invited talks, we have built a recognized niche for LLNL in the burgeoning field of computational biology. Further, many of the projects that were previously part of this LDRD are now externally funded based on the research results and expertise developed under this SI. We have created successful collaborations with a number of outside research groups including several joint projects with the new UC Davis/LLNL Comprehensive Cancer Center. In addition to these scientific collaborations, the staff developed on this SI is involved in computational biology program development and advisory roles with other DOE laboratories and DOE Headquarters. Moreover, a number of capabilities and expertise created by this SI are finding use in LLNL programmatic applications. Finally, and most importantly, this SI project has brought to LLNL the human talent on who will be the ensuring the further success of computational biology at this laboratory.

  18. Novel microwave near-field sensors for material characterization, biology, and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, R.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.

    2013-02-01

    The wide range of interesting electromagnetic behavior of contemporary materials requires that experimentalists working in this field master many diverse measurement techniques and have a broad understanding of condensed matter physics and biophysics. Measurement of the electromagnetic response of materials at microwave frequencies is important for both fundamental and practical reasons. In this paper, we propose a novel near-field microwave sensor with application to material characterization, biology, and nanotechnology. The sensor is based on a subwavelength ferrite-disk resonator with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations. Strong energy concentration and unique topological structures of the near fields originated from the MDM resonators allow effective measuring material parameters in microwaves, both for ordinary structures and objects with chiral properties.

  19. Clinical treatment adherence of health care workers and students exposed to potentially infectious biological material.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Cristina Mendes de; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Reis, Renata Karina; Toffano, Silmara Elaine Malaguti; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess adherence to clinical appointments by health care workers (HCW) and students who suffered accidents with potentially infectious biological material. METHOD A retrospective cross-sectional study that assessed clinical records of accidents involving biological material between 2005 and 2010 in a specialized unit. RESULTS A total of 461 individuals exposed to biological material were treated, of which 389 (84.4%) were HCWs and 72 (15.6%) students. Of the 461 exposed individuals, 307 (66.6%) attended a follow-up appointment. Individuals who had suffered an accident with a known source patient were 29 times more likely to show up to their scheduled follow-up appointments (OR: 29.98; CI95%: 16.09-55.83). CONCLUSION The predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses for adherence to clinical follow-up appointment was having a known source patient with nonreactive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B and C. PMID:25992825

  20. Unresolved-issues concerning the final disposal of nuclear material discards

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.W.; Murphey, W.M.

    1994-01-31

    The 1989 International Atomic Energy Agency Consultants` Meetings for Development of Technical Criteria for Termination of Safeguards for Material Categorized as Measured discards did not produce a consensus of opinion on several significant issues. This paper presents summary information form studies performed on two of the issues: recoverability of nuclear material from high activity waste and inert dilution of wastes. Concerns regarding recoverability of nuclear material in the wastes first require resolution of political and technical issues before technical criteria can be finalized. Potential termination criteria based on ratios of fission products to nuclear material content are identified that could be used to resolve the inert dilution concerns associated with high-activity liquid waste.

  1. Detection of biological warfare agents using the polymerase chain reaction. Final report, June-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    The detection of biological warfare agents is an important mission for the U.S. Army. This report explores the feasibility of using the polymerase chain reaction as a means of rapid detection of biological warfare agents. Two levels of detection are proposed. The first level is group specific detection, using primers derived from 16S rDNA sequences, to detect various groups of pathogenic bacteria. The second level is species-specific detection using primers derived from DNA sequences, unique to each pathogenic organism targeted for detection. Specific examples of Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus anthracis are described.

  2. Biological and chemical-physical properties of root-end filling materials: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Colombo, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the biological and chemical-physical properties of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity towards murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) was evaluated using the Transwell insert methodology by Alamar blue test. Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguis, and S. mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion test. Solubility was determined after 24 h and 2 months. pH values were measured after 3 and 24 h. To evaluate radiopacity, all materials were scanned on a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Results: Excellent percentage of vitality were obtained by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials and Biodentine. MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) showed the highest values for the inhibition zones when tested for S. mutans, while Biodentine showed the largest inhibition zone when tested for S. sanguis. All the materials fulfilled the requirements of the International Standard 6876, demonstrating low solubility with a weight loss of less than 3%. No significant reduction in pH value was demonstrated after 24 h. ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus showed the highest values of radiographic density. Conclusions: The differences showed by the root-end filling materials tested do not cover completely the ideal clinical requests. PMID:25829684

  3. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan continental shelf. Final reports of principal investigators, Volume 14. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The contents of the reprint include: the epifauna of three bays (Port Etches, Zaikof Bay and Rocky Bay) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, with notes on feeding biology; and the distribution, abundance, community structure and trophic relationships of the nearshore benthos of Cook Inlet.

  4. Determination of the Biologically Relevant Sampling Depth for Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical paper provides defensible approximations for what the depth of the biologically active zone, or “biotic zone” is within certain environments. The methods used in this study differ somewhat between Part 1 (Terrestrial Biotic Zone) and Part 2 (Aquatic Biotic Zone). ...

  5. CBW - are we prepared to combat the chemical/biological threat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkman, A.

    1994-02-08

    This research paper analyzes the current chemical and biological threat faced by the United States from Third World Countries. It explores the impact this threat brings on military planning and execution and recommends avenues that the United States should take to hedge against it. A historical background of chemical and biological weapons use is presented with emphasis on the magnitude and extent of this problem. The legal and moral frameworks are examined with focus on the capabilities, limitations, intentions, and preparedness of the United States and Third World Countries. The thesis presented is that the United States' posture in combating chemical and biological weapons is severely compromised. A lack of governmental commitment, inadequate technologies, lack of success in arms control negotiations, and an inability to control proliferation, compounds the problem. Although no U.S. forces were exposed to chemical or biological weapons in our latest conflict with Iraq, the future does not hold the promise that we will be as lucky the next time. And there will be a next time.

  6. Final report for Conference Support Grant "From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology - CBSB12"

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.

    2012-07-02

    This report summarizes the outcome of the international workshop From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology (CBSB12) which was held June 3-5, 2012, at the University of Tennessee Conference Center in Knoxville, TN, and supported by DOE through the Conference Support Grant 120174. The purpose of CBSB12 was to provide a forum for the interaction between a data-mining interested systems biology community and a simulation and first-principle oriented computational biophysics/biochemistry community. CBSB12 was the sixth in a series of workshops of the same name organized in recent years, and the second that has been held in the USA. As in previous years, it gave researchers from physics, biology, and computer science an opportunity to acquaint each other with current trends in computational biophysics and systems biology, to explore venues of cooperation, and to establish together a detailed understanding of cells at a molecular level. The conference grant of $10,000 was used to cover registration fees and provide travel fellowships to selected students and postdoctoral scientists. By educating graduate students and providing a forum for young scientists to perform research into the working of cells at a molecular level, the workshop adds to DOE's mission of paving the way to exploit the abilities of living systems to capture, store and utilize energy.

  7. Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems. General technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, D.G.; Bernabo, J.C.; Hood, B.

    1987-11-01

    Guidelines include a large number of specific measures to characterize the existing condition of wilderness resources. Measures involve the atmospheric environment, water chemistry and biology, geology and soils, and flora. Where possible, measures are coordinated with existing long-term monitoring programs. Application of the measures will allow more effective evaluation of proposed new air-pollution sources.

  8. Finalizing host range determination of a weed biological control pathogen with BLUPs and damage assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. (CGS) is a facultative parasitic fungus being evaluated as a classical biological control agent of Russian thistle or tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L.). In initial host range determination tests, Henderson’s mixed model equat...

  9. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schäfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

  10. Fracture analysis for biological materials with an expanded cohesive zone model.

    PubMed

    An, Bingbing; Zhao, Xinluo; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-07-18

    In this study, a theoretical framework for simulation of fracture of bone and bone-like materials is provided. An expanded cohesive zone model with thermodynamically consistent framework has been proposed and used to investigate the crack growth resistance of bone and bone-like materials. The reversible elastic deformation, irreversible plastic deformation caused by large deformation of soft protein matrix, and damage evidenced by the material separation and crack nucleation in the cohesive zone, were all taken into account in the model. Furthermore, the key mechanisms in deformation of biocomposites consisting of mineral platelets and protein interfacial layers were incorporated in the fracture process zone in this model, thereby overcoming the limitations of previous cohesive zone modeling of bone fracture. Finally, applications to fracture of cortical bone and human dentin were presented, which showed good agreement between numerical simulation and reported experiments and substantiated the effectiveness of the model in investigating the fracture behavior of bone-like materials. PMID:24877880

  11. Designing and Developing Online Materials for Molecular Biology: Building Online Programs for Science

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    A well-accepted form of educational training offered in molecular biology is internships in research laboratories. However, the number of available research laboratories severely limits access by most students. Addressing this need, the University of Hawaii launched a project to expand this model to include newly developed online training materials in addition to a hands-on laboratory experience. This paper explores the design and development process of the online learning materials. This case study looks at the roles of the instructional designer, multimedia specialist, and research faculty who were the subject matter experts. The experiences of the design teams are shared in an effort to gain insight on how the collaborative efforts of the project group led to a successful deployment of the online learning materials. PMID:24319699

  12. Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500 μmol g−1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents. PMID:22629157

  13. The Role of Synthetic and Biologic Materials in the Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ramon A.; Ellis, C. Neal

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a significant medical problem that poses a diagnostic and management dilemma. These diseases cause serious morbidity in those affected and treatment is sought for relief of pelvic pain, rectal bleeding, chronic constipation, obstructed defecation, and fecal incontinence. Numerous procedures have been proposed to treat these conditions; however, the search continues as colorectal surgeons attempt to find the procedure that would optimally treat these conditions. The use of prosthetics in the repair of pelvic organ prolapse has become prevalent as the benefits of their use are realized. While advances in biologic mesh and new surgical techniques promise improved functional outcomes with decreased complication rates without de novo symptoms, the debate concerning the best prosthetic material, synthetic or biologic, remains controversial. Furthermore, laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy has emerged as a procedure that could potentially fill this role and is rapidly becoming the procedure of choice for the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:25435827

  14. Observation of the freeze-drying process of biological materials with a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Nei, T; Fujikawa, S

    1976-10-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous studies have been done on the freeze-drying of biological materials from a physical, chemical and biological point of view. Morphological observation of the freeze-drying process of specimens, however, has been tried by only a few investigators. In those studies, thin-layered aqueous specimens, which were sandwiched between two cover slips, were mostly observed with an optical microscope. For ultrastructural and stereoscopic observation, the scanning electron microscope has a great advantage, unlike that of the optical microscope. A specially designed cryo-scanning electron microscope, employed in the present study, made it possible to observe the freezing patterns of the specimens and also the sublimation process of ice in frozen specimens under vacuum. With this specially designed microscope, shrinkage of some specimens due to dehydration during the freeze-drying process was revealed and the extent of such shrinkage was quantitatively determined. PMID:1036327

  15. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Wolf, Sharon G.; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an ‘aloof' electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies <1 eV can be ‘safely' investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C–H, N–H and C=O vibrational signatures with no observable radiation damage. The technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼10 nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope. PMID:26961578

  16. Swabs as DNA collection devices for sampling different biological materials from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there is a variety of swabs for collection of biological evidence from crime scenes, but their comparative efficiency is unknown. Here, we report the results of an investigation into the efficiency of different swab types to collect blood, saliva and touch DNA from a range of substrates. The efficiency of extracting blood and saliva from each swab type was also tested. Some swabs were significantly more effective than others for sampling biological materials from different substrates. Swabs with the highest sampling efficiency, however, often did not have the highest extraction efficiency. Observations were recorded regarding practicality of each swab in a variety of situations. Our study demonstrates that selection of sampling device impacts greatly upon successful collection and extraction of DNA. We present guidelines to assist in evaluation of swab choice. PMID:24502761

  17. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Wolf, Sharon G.; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-03-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an `aloof' electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies <1 eV can be `safely' investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C-H, N-H and C=O vibrational signatures with no observable radiation damage. The technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ~10 nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope.

  19. Gas permeability of biochar-amended clay: potential alternative landfill final cover material.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Tsz Fung; Chen, Zhongkui; Ng, Charles Wang Wai; Wong, Ming Hung

    2016-04-01

    Compacted biochar-amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as an alternative landfill final cover material in this study. Biochar has long been proposed to promote crop growth, mitigate odor emission, and promote methane oxidation in field soils. However, previous studies showed that soil-gas permeability was increased upon biochar application, which will promote landfill gas emission. The objective of the present study is to investigate the possibility of using compacted BAC as an alternative material in landfill final cover by evaluating its gas permeability. BAC samples were prepared by mixing 425-μm-sieved peanut shell biochar with kaolin clay in different ratios (0, 5, 10, and 15 %, w/w) and compacting at different degrees of compactions (DOC) (80, 85, and 90 %) with an optimum water content of 35 %. The gas permeability of the BACs was measured by flexible wall gas permeameter and the microstructure of the BACs was analyzed by SEM with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the effects of biochar content on BAC gas permeability is highly dependent on the DOC. At high DOC (90 %), the gas permeability of BAC decreases with increasing biochar content due to the combined effect of the clay aggregation and the inhibition of biochar in the gas flow. However, at low DOC (80 %), biochar incorporation has no effects on gas permeability because it no longer acts as a filling material to the retard gas flow. The results from the present study imply that compacted BAC can be used as an alternative final cover material with decreased gas permeability when compared with clay. PMID:26092359

  20. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its distribution in

  1. Molecular-level engineering of THz/IR-sensitive materials for future biological sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight; Recine, Gregory; Bykhovski, Alexei; Zhang, Weidong

    2010-08-01

    While the unique spectral information associated with chemical and biological molecules within the terahertz frequency regime (~ 3.0-3.0 millimeters) motivates its use for practical sensing applications, limiting factors at the macroscale (weak spectral absorption, broad line widths and masking geometrical effects introduced by the samples) provides motivation for man-engineered sensing materials that allow for the transduction of the spectral information about target molecules from the nanoscale. This brief letter will overview work being performed by our research group to define molecular-level functionality that will be useful for realizing "THz/IR-sensitive" materials. Here the goal is to define switchable molecular components that when incorporated into larger DNA-based nanoscaffolds lead to THz and/or IR regime electronic and/or photonic material properties that are dictated in a predictable manner by novel functionality paradigms. In particular, theoretical modeling and design studies are being performed to engineer organic and biological switches that can be incorporated into DNA-based architectures that enable the precise extraction of nanoscale information (e.g., composition, dynamics, conformation) through electronic/photonic transformations to the macroscale. Hence, these studies seek to define new spectral-based sensing modalities useful for characterizing bio-molecules

  2. Interpreting atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of hierarchical biological materials using multi-regime analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, M R; Stokes, J R; Gidley, M J; Yakubov, G E

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel Multi-Regime Analysis (MRA) routine for interpreting force indentation measurements of soft materials using atomic force microscopy. The MRA approach combines both well established and semi-empirical theories of contact mechanics within a single framework to deconvolute highly complex and non-linear force-indentation curves. The fundamental assumption in the present form of the model is that each structural contribution to the mechanical response acts in series with other 'mechanical resistors'. This simplification enables interpretation of the micromechanical properties of materials with hierarchical structures and it allows automated processing of large data sets, which is particularly indispensable for biological systems. We validate the algorithm by demonstrating for the first time that the elastic modulus of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films is accurately predicted from both approach and retraction branches of force-indentation curves. For biological systems with complex hierarchical structures, we show the unique capability of MRA to map the micromechanics of live plant cells, revealing an intricate sequence of mechanical deformations resolved with precision that is unattainable using conventional methods of analysis. We recommend the routine use of MRA to interpret AFM force-indentation measurements for other complex soft materials including mammalian cells, bacteria and nanomaterials. PMID:25569139

  3. Biomolecular Interactions and Biological Responses of Emerging Two-Dimensional Materials and Aromatic Amino Acid Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mallineni, Sai Sunil Kumar; Shannahan, Jonathan; Raghavendra, Achyut J; Rao, Apparao M; Brown, Jared M; Podila, Ramakrishna

    2016-07-01

    The present work experimentally investigates the interaction of aromatic amino acids viz., tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalnine with novel two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and boron nitride (BN). Photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to investigate the nature of interactions and possible charge transfer between 2D materials and amino acids. Graphene and GO were found to interact strongly with aromatic amino acids through π-π stacking, charge transfer, and H-bonding. Particularly, it was observed that both physi and chemisorption are prominent in the interactions of GO/graphene with phenylalanine and tryptophan while tyrosine exhibited strong chemisorption on graphene and GO. In contrast, BN exhibited little or no interactions, which could be attributed to localized π-electron clouds around N atoms in BN lattice. Lastly, the adsorption of amino acids on 2D materials was observed to considerably change their biological response in terms of reactive oxygen species generation. More importantly, these changes in the biological response followed the same trends observed in the physi and chemisorption measurements. PMID:27281436

  4. "Rinse and trickle": a protocol for TEM preparation and investigation of inorganic fibers from biological material.

    PubMed

    Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Capella, Silvana; Rinaudo, Caterina; Belluso, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to define a sample preparation protocol that allows inorganic fibers and particulate matter extracted from different biological samples to be characterized morphologically, crystallographically and chemically by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). The method does not damage or create artifacts through chemical attacks of the target material. A fairly rapid specimen preparation is applied with the aim of performing as few steps as possible to transfer the withdrawn inorganic matter onto the TEM grid. The biological sample is previously digested chemically by NaClO. The salt is then removed through a series of centrifugation and rinse cycles in deionized water, thus drastically reducing the digestive power of the NaClO and concentrating the fibers for TEM analysis. The concept of equivalent hydrodynamic diameter is introduced to calculate the settling velocity during the centrifugation cycles. This technique is applicable to lung tissues and can be extended to a wide range of organic materials. The procedure does not appear to cause morphological damage to the fibers or modify their chemistry or degree of crystallinity. The extrapolated data can be used in interdisciplinary studies to understand the pathological effects caused by inorganic materials. PMID:27151190

  5. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 11. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume of final reports includes the following: Toxicity of Oil-Well Drilling Muds to Alaska Larval Shrimp and Crabs; Trophic Relationships Among Ice-Inhabiting Phocid Seals and Functionally Related Marine Mammals in the Chukchi Sea; Trophic Relationships Among Ice-Inhabiting Phocid Seals and Functionally Related Marine Mammals in the Bering Sea; Ecological Studies in the Bering Strait Region; and The Relationships of Marine Mammal Distributions, Densities and Activities to Sea Ice Conditions.

  6. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  7. Health care facility-based decontamination of victims exposed to chemical, biological, and radiological materials.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L; Boatright, Connie J; Hancock, John A; Denny, Frank J; Teeter, David S; Kahn, Christopher A; Schultz, Carl H

    2008-01-01

    Since the US terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, concern regarding use of chemical, biological, or radiological weapons is heightened. Many victims of such an attack would present directly to health care facilities without first undergoing field decontamination. This article reviews basic tenets and recommendations for health care facility-based decontamination, including regulatory concerns, types of contaminants, comprehensive decontamination procedures (including crowd control, triage, removal of contaminated garments, cleaning of body contaminants, and management of contaminated materials and equipment), and a discussion of methods to achieve preparedness. PMID:18082785

  8. Development and application of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, S.M.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1992-05-15

    This report describes progress as of the third year of a 3-year DoE grant for 1/1/92 to 12/31/92. Because this is the last year of a 3- year grant cycle, this report will summarize progress over the entire 3-year period. The overall goals of the grant are to develop novel instrumentation and techniques for the performance of biological and materials research, and especially for the development of x-ray detectors suitable for use at storage ring sources. Research progress has been excellent and the overall goals, as well as most of the specific goals have been successfully met.

  9. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Final report, May 1, 1987--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is of central importance in the earth`s nitrogen economy. Fixation of nitrogen is accomplished by a variety of microorganisms, all of them procaryotic. Some operate independently and some function symbiotically or associatively with photosynthesizing plants. Biological nitrogen fixation is accomplished via the reaction: N{sub 2} + 8H{sup +} + 8e{sup {minus}} {yields} 2NH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}. This reaction requires a minimum of 16 ATP under ideal laboratory conditions, so it is obvious that the energy demand of the reaction is very high. When certain nitrogen-fixing organisms are supplied fixed nitrogen (e.g., ammonium) the organisms use the fixed nitrogen and turn off their nitrogenase system, thus conserving energy. When the fixed nitrogen is exhausted, the organism reactivates its nitrogenase. The system is turned off by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyl transferase (DRAT) and turned back on by dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAG). The authors have investigated the details of how DRAT and DRAG are formed, how they function, and the genetics of their formation and operation.

  10. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  11. Comparison of different sample and target preparation procedures for PIXE analysis of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; De Reu, L.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1984-04-01

    Four different methods for preparing PIXE targets from biological samples were compared. All methods involved doping with an internal standard and preparing target deposits of 1-4 mg/cm 2 on a thin substrate. In method A targets were prepared using powdered freeze-dried material. Methods B and C both included a low temperature ashing preconcentration step and method D involved an acid digestion in a teflon bomb. The procedures were applied to reference materials (e.g. NBS standards) and to "real" samples such as human kidneys and a liver, which had been analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). For most elements good agreement was observed between the results of the four target preparation methods and the reference values or the NAA results. Exceptions, however, were Br, Se and Cd, which were lost in some methods. The detection limits in the different methods are compared.

  12. Simple views on different problems in physics: from drag friction to tough biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Ko

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the dynamics of bubbles and liquid drops in quasi two dimensions, i.e. in the Hele-Shaw cell, confirming different scaling laws for viscous drag friction, together with scaling laws for a number of related phenomena. Motivated by the study on viscous drag friction, we describe an experiment on drag friction in a granular medium, which reveals a length scale that diverges towards the jamming transition. These examples in the dynamics of viscous fluid and granular materials underscore the importance of the scaling concept in understanding physical phenomena, often vindicated by a clear data collapse by virtue of a corresponding scaling law. To demonstrate the universal usefulness of the strategy, we discuss another different example from the strength of biological materials. To stress a wide applicability of the scaling approach, we introduce the robustness of scaling laws and justify frequent emergence of the robustness.

  13. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  14. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  15. Optimization of the Inverse Algorithm for Estimating the Optical Properties of Biological Materials Using Spatially-resolved Diffuse Reflectance Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the optical properties from intact biological materials based on diffusion approximation theory is a complicated inverse problem, and it requires proper implementation of inverse algorithm, instrumentation, and experiment. This work was aimed at optimizing the procedure of estimatin...

  16. Second generation biological signal processor. Final progress report, February 15, 1993--February 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Biological Information Signal Processor (BISP) is a VLSI ASIC implementation of the dynamic programming methods favored for direct sequence-to-sequence comparison in order to discover local as well as global similarities. These methods, based on the local algorithm of Smith and Waterman provide the most mathematically robust solution to the problem of sequence alignment (determination of the optimal character-to-character registration between the two sequence, including relative insertions and deletions, indels). BISP provides a complete implementation of the standard Smith and Waterman algorithm in a systolic array that allows full parameterization and several novel extensions to the algorithm. BISP operates at supercomputer speeds from a VME board on a Sun workstation. Each VME array provides a complete systolic pipeline for comparison and multiple arrays can be combined linearly in order to increase the pipeline length. Overall performance is a function of the IO speed of the pipelined disk-resident data and the length of the array.

  17. Final Report - Phylogenomic tools and web resources for the Systems Biology Knowledgebase

    SciTech Connect

    Sjolander, Kimmen

    2014-11-07

    The major advance during this last reporting period (8/15/12 to present) is our release of data on the PhyloFacts website: phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments and other data for protein families are now available for download from http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/data/. This project as a whole aimed to develop high-throughput functional annotation systems that exploit information from protein 3D structure and evolution to provide highly precise inferences of various aspects of gene function, including molecular function, biological process, pathway association, Pfam domains, cellular localization and so on. We accomplished these aims by developing and testing different systems on a database of protein family trees: the PhyloFacts Phylogenomic Encyclopedia (at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/ ).

  18. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  19. The exoskeleton of the lobster Homarus americanus as an example of a smart anisotropic biological material.

    PubMed

    Romano, Patricia; Fabritius, Helge; Raabe, Dierk

    2007-05-01

    Many biological materials are composed of fibrils arranged according to well-ordered three-dimensional patterns. These materials often show a strong anisotropy in their properties. An essential characteristic of biological structures is their hierarchical organization from the nanometer to the millimeter scale. Lobster cuticle is a good example of this and a suitable model for studying these properties. In this study the structure of untreated as well as chemically and physically treated cuticle from the exoskeleton of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Fresh samples have been chemically decalcified and deproteinated and thermally treated to evaluate their resistance to degradation. Results showed that their structure is more complex than the commonly assumed model for arthropod cuticles. Stacked chitin-protein planes create the characteristic twisted plywood pattern found in arthropod cuticles. However, due to a well-developed pore canal system these planes are not simple arrays of parallel chitin-protein fibers. In lobster cuticle, interconnected fibers bend around the continuous lenticellate cavities of the pore canals to form a planar honeycomb-like structure. The chemically and thermally treated samples showed that the organic matrix retains its shape and structure despite the attack of chemical compounds or heat. It was also possible to study the distribution of the biominerals after the removal of the organic matrix. The observed residual structure gives a good impression of how the minerals (mainly calcite) are distributed inside the polymeric network. PMID:17208527

  20. Material considerations for HRSGs in gas turbine combined cycle plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, H.S.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objectives of this project are to investigate and identify the limitations of current heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) materials, identify potential materials that could be used in future high temperature HRSGs, and develop a research and development plan to address the deficiencies and the future requirements. The project team developed a comprehensive survey which was forwarded to many HRSG manufacturers worldwide. The manufacturers were questioned about cycle experience, failure experience, design practices, materials, research and development, and future designs. The team assembled the responses and other in-house data to identify the key problem areas, probably future operating parameters, and possible material issues. The draft report was circulated to the manufacturers surveyed for comments before the final report was issued. The predominant current problem area for HRSGs relates to insulation; however, it is anticipated that in future designs, tube failures and welds will become most important. Poor water chemistry has already resulted in numerous failure mechanisms. By 2005, HSRGs are expected to operated with the following average conditions: unfired gas temperatures of 1125 F, steam temperatures of 950 F, steam pressures of 1500 psi, and exhaust temperatures of 170 F.

  1. Center for cement composite materials. Final report, 29 October 1986-30 November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Center has produced very strong MDF cements and has made significant progress in enhancing the water resistance of the material. The important factors in controlling water sensitivity have now been identified and studies are in progress to quantify their influences. Cement hydration has been followed by a novel in-situ technique involving nuclear magnetic resonance. Fiber-matrix interactions in MDF laminates were also studied. Characterization of DSP pastes have shown that the matrix is microporous; mesopores are absent unless the material is allowed to dry out. This results in water adsorption at low relative humidities, which adversely impacts on electrical properties. DSP plates are a good insulating, low dielectric material as long as it is kept dry. Hydration under autoclaving conditions may be a way of solving the problem and hydration chemistry at various temperatures have been studied. The Center has also studied a magnesium triphosphate cement, as a precursor to polyphosphate cements and is exploring inorganic-polymer composites at the molecular levels. Finally the Center has investigated the influence of packing and particle interactions on the rheology of suspensions with high solids contents. The Center also established and maintains a facility for the characterization of powders and porous materials.

  2. Femtosecond pulse laser ablation of metallic, semiconducting, ceramic, and biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautek, Wolfgang; Krueger, Joerg

    1994-09-01

    Production of holes and grooves of < 30 micrometers diameter with high aspect ratio value is a delicate task either for mechanical tools, or for conventional nanosecond pulse lasers like e.g. pulsed Nd:YAG or excimer lasers. They later tend to cause microcracks extending from an annular melting zone, or substantial disruption, respectively. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the development of intense ultrashort pulse laser systems (>> 1012 W cm-2, (tau) < 1 ps) opens up possibilities for materials processing by cold plasma generation and ablation of metals, semiconductors, ceramics, composites, and biological materials. A femtosecond and a nanosecond dye laser with pulse durations of 300 fs (< 200 (mu) J) and 7 ns (< 10 mJ), and center wavelengths at 612 and 600 nm, respectively, both focused on an area of the order of 10-5 cm2, have been applied either to absorbing substrates, like polycrystalline gold, silicon (111), aluminum nitride ceramics, or transparent materials, like synthetic and human dental hydroxyapatite composites, bone material, and human cornea transplants. The fs-laser generates its own absorption in transparent materials by a multiphoton absorption process, and thus forces the absorption of visible radiation. Because the time is too short (< ps) for significant transport of mass and energy, the beam interaction generally results in the formation of a thin plasma layer of approximately solid state density. Only after the end of the subpicosecond laser pulse, it expands rapidly away from the surface without any light absorption and further plasma heating. Therefore, energy transfer (heat and impulse) to the target material, and thermal and mechanical disruption are minimized. In contrast to heat- affected zones (HAZ's) generated by conventional nanosecond pulse lasers of the order of 1 - 10 micrometers , HAZ's of less than 0.02 micrometers were observed.

  3. Cell Break: How Cell-Free Biology Is Finally Putting the Engineering Back in Bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the California-based company Genomatica reported its success in rigging Escherichia coli microbes to convert sugar into the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO). It was a feat of metabolic engineering: BDO is a key ingredient in the production of goods like running shoes, solvents, and spandex. At the time of the company?s announcement, 2.8 billion tons of BDO were produced every year in a multistep, fossil fuel-based process. Genomatica?s system neatly reduced all of that into a cheap, sustainable, one-step fermentation process. The company spent another year refining its technique and finally went commercial with the platform in late 2012. From start to commercialization, the process took about five years. PMID:26978845

  4. Assembling new technologies at the interface of materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendahl, John C.

    Molecular self-assembly can be used to construct advanced materials by taking cues from nature and harnessing noncovalent interactions. This bottom-up approach affords molecular level precision that can cultivate pathways to improved materials function. The graduate research presented in this thesis integrates molecular self-assembly with traditional concepts in chemistry and materials science, with the ultimate goal of developing innovative solutions in technology and medicine. In the field of polymer engineering, self-assembly was used to create supramolecular nanoribbons that, when incorporated into polystyrene, modify its microstructure and significantly enhance its toughness and ductility. In medicine, self-assembly was used to create ordered, chemically functional materials to improve interactions with cells and other constituents of the biological environment. One system that was investigated is based on a triblock molecule in which cholesterol is connected to a lysine dendron by a flexible oligo-(L-lactic acid) spacer. These molecules self-assemble into polar surface coatings on fibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds that improve the scaffold's wettability and increase its retention of cells during seeding. Another self-assembling system that was investigated for biomedical applications is a family of molecules referred to as peptide amphiphiles (PA's). PA's consist of hydrophobic alkyl tails connected to short, hydrophilic peptides that incorporate biological signaling epitopes. These molecules spontaneously assemble into networks of well-defined nanofibers in aqueous environments, with the signaling epitopes presented in high density on the nanofiber exteriors. Nanofiber assembly is triggered by charge screening on the peptides and is able to produce self-supporting gels in concentrations of less than 1.0 wt.-%. The assembly process and mechanical properties of PA gels was investigated in detail with vibrational spectroscopy and oscillatory rheology. PA

  5. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-01

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:20188079

  6. Biological determinants of photobioreactor design. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Palsson, B.; Brown, G.G.

    1997-04-01

    Microalgae is being considered for the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from power-plant flue-gases. High productivity of microalgae is necessary to make this process cost effective compared to the conventional methods used for reducing CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. This obviates the need for large-scale cultivation technologies and proper photobioreactor technology. The physical factors that influence the performance of a photoautotrophic microalgal culture are the quality and composition of light, inlet carbon dioxide concentration, nutrients, and secondary metabolites at high cell densities. In developing photobioreactor technology, balancing of biological processes to the physical rate process becomes important. The effect of various light compositions on the culture kinetics was studied. To determine the optimal composition, six wavelengths 470, 555, 560, 570, 580 and 605 nm, each supplemented with 680 nm of red light, were used to cultivate cultures. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that a monochromatic red light of 680 nm is sufficient to obtain maximum capacity.

  7. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  8. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Final report, August 31, 1990--September 3, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Johnson, E.R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H{sub 2}S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H{sub 2} uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H{sub 2} in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H{sub 2}S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  9. Final Report: Biological and Synthetic Nanostructures Controlled at the Atomistic Level

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A; van Buuren, T

    2007-02-21

    Nanotechnology holds great promise for many application fields, ranging from the semiconductor industry to medical research and national security. Novel, nanostructured materials are the fundamental building blocks upon which all these future nanotechnologies will be based. In this Strategic Initiative (SI) we conducted a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the modeling, synthesis, characterization, and design techniques which are required to fabricate semiconducting and metallic nanostructures with enhanced properties. We focused on developing capabilities that have broad applicability to a wide range of materials and can be applied both to nanomaterials that are currently being developed for nanotechnology applications and also to new, yet to be discovered, nanomaterials. During this 3 year SI project we have made excellent scientific progress in each of the components of this project. We have developed first-principles techniques for modeling the structural, electronic, optical, and transport properties of materials at the nanoscale. For the first time, we have simulated nanomaterials both in vacuum and in aqueous solution. These simulation capabilities harness the worldleading computational resources available at LLNL to model, at the quantum mechanical level, systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of electrons. Significant advances in the density functional and quantum Monte Carlo techniques employed in this project were developed to enable these techniques to scale up to simulating realistic size nanostructured materials. We have developed the first successful techniques for chemically synthesizing crystalline silicon and germanium nanoparticles and nanowires. We grew the first macroscopic, faceted superlattice crystals from these nanoparticles. We have also advanced our capabilities to synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles using physical vapor deposition techniques so that we are now able to control of the size, shape and

  10. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  11. Extraction of proteins and membrane lipids during low temperature embedding of biological material for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weibull, C; Christiansson, A

    1986-04-01

    The extraction of proteins and membrane lipids from biological materials during embedding procedures for electron microscopy carried out at temperatures down to 223 K was studied. Glutaraldehyde-fixed cells of Acholeplasma laidlawii mainly served as test material. More than 99% of the protein and 88% of the lipid of these cells were retained after dehydration with ethanol or acetone between 277 and 223 K and infiltration with methacrylate at 223 K. When methanol was used for dehydration, only 54% of the lipid was retained. The amount of extracted lipid was essentially independent of the ratio between volume of extraction liquid and amount of material subjected to extraction. The cytoplasmic membrane of sectioned Acholeplasma-cells dehydrated and infiltrated as described above appeared more diffuse than that of cells fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide in epoxy resin at room temperature. Glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocyte ghosts retained 85% of their phospholipid content when dehydrated with ethanol between 277 and 223 K and infiltrated with methacrylate at 223 K. Spinach chloroplasts and thylakoid vesicles retained 61% and 35%, respectively, of their chlorophyll content. PMID:3712423

  12. Chemical and biological properties of coal conversion solid wastes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, R.D.; Wallach, S.; Erdogan, H.; Bern, J.

    1981-12-31

    Based on the results of leaching data to date, and toxicity and mutagenicity testing on derived leachates prepared to date, it may be concluded that coal derived bottom ash products, slag products, and fly ash products do not exhibit any legislative difficulties vis-a-vis RCRA regulations. Such regulations dictate that primary drinking water heavy metal concentrations in excess of 100 times listed standards, if present in leachates, form the basis for hazardous designations. Daphnia toxicity evaluations to date indicate that potential toxicity exists in an acute form (based on LC-50 48 hour survival tests). The results of such tests should be a basis for caution; Daphnia toxicity tests are not now currently part of RCRA regulations, but have been considered in draft versions of the current regulations. To date, no samples have exhibited any tendency for mutagenicity. This is consistent with other findings in the literature for coal derived ash products. Based on research conducted to date, it appears that the landfill of coal conversion residuals should be viewed with some caution primarily due to the large quantities of materials involved and due to the potential toxicities resulting from leached heavy metals. Although the impacts of RCRA as currently written may be minimal at present, the potential toxicities due to heavy metal leachates, and revised versions of RCRA should give a gasification contractor second thoughts on conventional landfilling of such materials. Work is continuing in the area of modification of the wastewater treatment train to minimize mutagenicity potentials and toxicity potentials of derived sludges. 7 refs.

  13. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Trotter, D.R.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  14. Final Report: Photo-Directed Molecular Assembly of Multifunctional Inorganic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    B.G. Potter, Jr.

    2010-10-15

    This final report details results, conclusions, and opportunities for future effort derived from the study. The work involved combining the molecular engineering of photoactive Ti-alkoxide systems and the optical excitation of hydrolysis and condensation reactions to influence the development of the metal-oxygen-metal network at the onset of material formation. Selective excitation of the heteroleptic alkoxides, coupled with control of alkoxide local chemical environment, enabled network connectivity to be influenced and formed the basis for direct deposition and patterning of Ti-oxide-based materials. The research provided new insights into the intrinsic photoresponse and assembly of these complex, alkoxide molecules. Using a suite of electronic, vibrational, and nuclear spectroscopic probes, coupled with quantum chemical computation, the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of molecular photoresponse and the nature of subsequent hydrolysis and condensation processes were probed in pyridine-carbinol-based Ti-alkoxides with varied counter ligand groups. Several methods for the patterning of oxide material formation were demonstrated, including the integration of this photoprocessing approach with conventional, dip-coating methodologies.

  15. Interaction of Materials and Biology in Total Joint Replacement – Successes, Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T; Yao, Z; Goodman, SB

    2014-01-01

    Total joint replacement (TJR) has revolutionized the treatment of end-stage arthritic disorders. This success is due, in large part, to a clear understanding of the important interaction between the artificial implant and the biology of the host. All surgical procedures in which implants are placed in the body evoke an initial inflammatory reaction, which generally subsides over several weeks. Thereafter, a series of homeostatic events occur leading to progressive integration of the implant within bone and the surrounding musculoskeletal tissues. The eventual outcome of the operation is dependent on the characteristics of the implant, the precision of the surgical technique and operative environment, and the biological milieu of the host. If these factors and events are not optimal, adverse events can occur such as the development of chronic inflammation, progressive bone loss due to increased production of degradation products from the implant (periprosthetic osteolysis), implant loosening or infection. These complications can lead to chronic pain and poor function of the joint reconstruction, and may necessitate revision surgery or removal of the prosthesis entirely. Recent advances in engineering, materials science, and the immunological aspects associated with orthopaedic implants have fostered intense research with the hope that joint replacements will last a lifetime, and facilitate pain-free, normal function. PMID:25541591

  16. Evaluation of analytical methods for fluorine in biological and related materials.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, P

    1990-02-01

    During the past two decades, some major pitfalls in fluorine analysis have been recognized and overcome. Therefore, it is important that facts be separated from fallacies in published literature on levels and forms of fluorine (ionic, bound, covalent, etc.) in biological materials, in order that correct perceptions of physiological, biochemical, and toxicological aspects of inorganic as well as organic fluorine compounds can be formed. Trace amounts of inorganic fluoride in biological samples can now be accurately determined with the fluoride electrode either directly or following diffusion, adsorption, or reverse extraction of fluoride (when necessary). The aluminum monofluoride molecular absorption technique provides an excellent rapid method for determination of trace amounts of inorganic fluoride (in the absence of organic fluorine). Fluorine in most organic fluorine compounds is not available for distillation, diffusion, or reverse-extraction. The sample needs to be ashed (open ashing) or combusted (oxygen flask, oxygen bomb, pyrohydrolysis) for covalently bound fluorine to be converted to fluoride ions. This can now be readily accomplished at room temperature by the reductive cleavage of the C-F bond with the sodium biphenyl reagent. Some recommendations for future research have been made. PMID:2179310

  17. Graphene-based platform for nano-scale infrared near-field spectroscopy of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatib, Omar; Wood, Joshua D.; Doidge, Gregory P.; Damhorst, Gregory L.; Rangarajan, Aniruddh; Bashir, Rashid; Pop, Eric; Lyding, Joseph W.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2014-03-01

    In biological and life sciences, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy serves as a noninvasive probe of vibrational fingerprints used to identify chemical and molecular species. Near-field spectroscopy, based on the illumination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip with an infrared laser, allows for determination of IR properties of a material at nanometer length scales. However, application of near-field IR spectroscopy to most biological systems has thus far been elusive. Physiological conditions required for experimentation are incompatible with typical implementations of nano-FTIR. Recently it became possible to trap water and small biomolecules underneath large-area graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The graphene layer serves as an IR-transparent cover that allows for a near-field interrogation of the underlying layers. We present near-field nano-imaging and spectroscopy data of unencapsulated Tobacco Mosaic Viruses (TMV), compared to those sandwiched between two large-area graphene sheets, and discuss the applicability of near-field IR spectroscopy to trapped biomolecules in aqueous environments.

  18. Chemical imaging of biological materials by NanoSIMS using isotopic and elemental labels

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Fallon, S J; Pett-Ridge, J; Ghosal, S; Hutcheon, I D

    2006-04-10

    The NanoSIMS 50 combines unprecedented spatial resolution (as good as 50 nm) with ultra-high sensitivity (minimum detection limit of {approx}200 atoms). The NanoSIMS 50 incorporates an array of detectors, enabling simultaneous collection of 5 species originating from the same sputtered volume of a sample. The primary ion beam (Cs{sup +} or O{sup -}) can be scanned across the sample to produce quantitative secondary ion images. This capability for multiple isotope imaging with high spatial resolution provides a novel new approach to the study of biological materials. Studies can be made of sub-regions of tissues, mammalian cells, and bacteria. Major, minor and trace element distributions can be mapped on a submicron scale, growth and metabolism can be tracked using stable isotope labels, and biogenic origin can be determined based on composition. We have applied this technique extensively to mammalian and prokaryotic cells and bacterial spores. The NanoSIMS technology enables the researcher to interrogate the fate of molecules of interest within cells and organs through elemental and isotopic labeling. Biological applications at LLNL will be discussed.

  19. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Wolf, Sharon G.; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an ‘aloof’ electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies o1 eV can be ‘safely’ investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C–H, N–H and C=O vibrational signatures with nomore » observable radiation damage. Furthermore, the technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ~10nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope.« less

  20. Collection of biological materials in biodiversity prospecting in India: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, B N

    1996-04-01

    Forests are the chief resource for the collection and exploration of biological materials. The past few decades have witnessed a large scale deforestation in India due to substantial pressures generated by population growth, leading to demand for more land for agriculture, urbanization and industrial activities, in addition to increased demand for fuel wood and timber. This has resulted in the loss of soil cover, habitat destruction, environmental degradation and ecological imbalance. This scenario has created a progressive awareness for the conservation and restoration of habitats and, thus, the declaration of many forest areas into protected zones, such as national parks, biosphere reserves, etc., including the protection of some marine areas, by both the National and State Governments. Normally, permission for biological collecting is not granted in these protected areas. In India, forests are a State subject and grant for collection permission is vested with the State Forest Departments. In the absence of any rules, regulations and guidelines, either from National or State Governments, forest authorities impose their terms and conditions, which are arbitrary and even contradictory at times, in the process of granting collecting permits. A set of new rules to be applied throughout the country is needed. PMID:9213611

  1. Alkaline and ultrasonic dissolution of biological materials for trace silicon determination

    PubMed Central

    Viveros, Robert D.; Liberman, Alexander; Trogler, William C.; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for trace elemental determination in biological tissue has been developed. Novel nanomaterials with biomedical applications necessitate the determination of the in vivo fate of the materials to understand their toxicological profile. Hollow iron-doped calcined silica nanoshells have been used as a model to demonstrate that potassium hydroxide and bath sonication at 50 °C can extract elements from alkaline-soluble nanomaterials. After alkali digestion, nitric acid is used to adjust the pH into a suitable range for analysis using techniques such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry which require neutral or acidic analytes. In chicken liver phantoms injected with the nanoshells, 96% of the expected silicon concentration was detected. This value was in good agreement with the 94% detection efficiency of nanoshells dissolved in aqueous solution as a control for potential sample matrix interference. Nanoshell detection was further confirmed in a mouse 24 h after intravenous administration; the measured silica above baseline was 35 times greater or more than the standard deviations of the measurements. This method provides a simple and accurate means to quantify alkaline-soluble nanomaterials in biological tissue. PMID:25909037

  2. [Use of aluminum foil baths for embedding biological materials in epoxide resins].

    PubMed

    Agaev, Iu M; Merkulov, V A

    1975-11-01

    The baths intended for embedding the biological material into epoxide resins are made of aluminium foil, 0.1 mm thick, cut in the form of rectangles (13 X 18 mm). The rectangular foil plates are placed on a soft microporous rubber separator 30--40 mm thick and by means of a form with the base equal to 5 X 10 mm the baths are pressed down by 4 mm deep. The baths are stuck to the paper stripes by rubber cement to ensure easy handling and numeration. In the process of embedding and polymerization the paper stripes having the baths are placed in the exsiccator with P2O5 and thermostate on special aluminium stands. PMID:775710

  3. Ferromagnetic resonance for the quantification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Gamarra, Lionel F; daCosta-Filho, Antonio J; Mamani, Javier B; de Cassia Ruiz, Rita; Pavon, Lorena F; Sibov, Tatiana T; Vieira, Ernanni D; Silva, André C; Pontuschka, Walter M; Amaro, Edson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is the presentation of a quantification methodology for the control of the amount of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) administered in biological materials by means of the ferromagnetic resonance technique (FMR) applied to studies both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study consisted in the analysis of the elimination and biodistribution kinetics of SPIONs after intravenous administration in Wistar rats. The results were corroborated by X-ray fluorescence. For the in vitro study, a quantitative analysis of the concentration of SPIONs bound to the specific AC133 monoclonal antibodies was carried out in order to detect the expression of the antigenic epitopes (CD133) in stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. In both studies FMR has proven to be an efficient technique for the SPIONs quantification per volume unit (in vivo) or per labeled cell (in vitro). PMID:20463936

  4. Chromium(III) sorption enhancement through NTA - modification of biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.S.; Lee, C.K.; Lee, P.L.

    1997-03-01

    The use of low-cost biological materials for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from solution has been investigated extensively in recent times. To enhance their sorption capacities various chemical modifications on the sorbents were attempted. Freer et al. showed that bark from the Pinus radiata (D. Don) had a greater sorption capacity for metals after treatment with both inorganic acid and formaldehyde. Apple wastes treated with phosphorus oxychloride improved the efficiency of removing metal ions. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-modified groundnut, Arachis hypogea, was reported to improve the sorption of cadmium and lead ions. Modifications with the aid of dyes also enhanced metal sorption. Moss and coconut husk (CH) are readily obtainable in Malaysia. Their sorption potential for metals has been reported. This paper reports on the metal sorption enhancement of these two biosorbents after chemical modification with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Preparation and antibacterial performance testing of Ag nanoparticles embedded biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Gao, Guanhui; Sun, Chengjun; Zhu, Yaoyao; Qu, Lingyun; Jiang, Fenghua; Ding, Haibing

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we developed an environmentally friendly chemistry strategy to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded biological material, powdered mussel shell (PMS). With the PMS as scaffolds and surfactant, Ag nanoparticles of controllable size dispersed uniformly on it via liquid chemical reduction approach. Morphologies and characteristics of synthesized Ag-NPs/PMS hybrids were analyzed with TEM, SEM and XPS. Antibacterial properties were investigated with Gram-positive bacteria (Arthrobacter sulfureus (A. sulfureus) YACS14, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum) MVM425, Escherichia coli (E. coli)). The antimicrobial results illustrated that Ag-NPs/PMS composites have antibacterial effect on both sea water and fresh water bacteria with a better effect on sea water bacteria. The degree of antibacterial effect is directly related to the amount of Ag released from Ag-NPs/PMS.

  6. A controlled rate freeze/thaw system for cryopreservation of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A system which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cc sample volume of an arbitrary biological material was constructed. Steady state and dynamic temperature control was obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container was totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Sample volume thermodynamic property data were obtained by measurements of heater power and heat flux through the container walls. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at -79 C, sample volume was controlled from +40 C to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady state temperature precision was better than 0.2 C while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the thermal mass of the sample and the container.

  7. Measuring Spatially- and Directionally-varying Light Scattering from Biological Material

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S.; Marschner, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple

  8. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy. PMID:27459699

  9. Optics and materials research for controlled radiant energy transfer in buildings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The primary objective of this project was to perform the optics and materials research necessary to identify and solve the technical problems associated with fabricating durable, variable reflectivity electrochromic windows for energy efficient buildings and vehicles. The research performed at the Tufts Electro-Optics Technology Center (EOTC) has identified and solved nearly all the significant problems, as discussed below in this final technical report. There still remains, however, one important problem to be solved--i.e., to better understand the science of deposition processes and thereby develop and optimize one or more production-worthy deposition processes that could be used for the practical production of affordable, variable reflectivity electrochromic windows. Therefore, it is recommended that such studies be carried out with the goals of: (1) determining the probable practical limits of performance; and, very importantly, (2) to develop and optimize deposition processes that could be used for the practical production of affordable electrochromic windows.

  10. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S B

    2006-11-02

    This is final report on NA-22 project LL251DP, where the goal was to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begun to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. Since our funding was cut in FY06, I will discuss where this project can go in the future with this technology.

  11. SIRUS-M: A symmetric illumination, inertially confined direct drive materials test facility: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, B.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Attaya, H.; Engelstad, R.L.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Liang, J.H.; Lovell, E.G.; Moses, G.A.; Musicki, Z.; Peterson, R.R.; Sawan, M.E.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Skupsky, S.; McCrory, R.; McKenty, P.; Verdon, C.

    1988-03-01

    Over the past three years the Fusion Technology Institute of the University of Wisconsin (FTI) and the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), in cooperation with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), have conducted a study of critical issues related to the design of an ICF materials test facility, SIRIUS-M. This report summarizes the results obtained by the FTI and LLE team related to the SIRIUM-M design during 1985, 1986, and 1987. The SIRIUS-M facility uses symmetrically-illuminated targets. It is designed to duplicate the anticipated time-dependent radiation damage structure unique to ICF systems, in order to provide the technology base necessary for an ICF demonstration facility. In order to simplify the design of this first-of-a-kind facility and reduce its capital cost, its ''mission'' has been limited to materials testing. Tritium breeding has been studied in 1987 to determine what it would take to make the facility T/sub 2/ self-sufficient. During the first year of the SIRIUS-M study (1985), attention was focused on several areas unique to an ICF materials test facility including: test module design and damage rates estimation; cavity design and first wall protection; target design; placement and damage to the final mirrors. During the second year of the study (1986), efforts were devoted to resolving the critical issues identified in the first year so that a complete, self-consistent design could be initated. These included: a cost estimate, cavity design optimization, stress analysis, materials testing schedule, testing of unique ICF blanket problems, shield design, and radioactivity. In the last year (1987) the effort was concentrated on four tasks: impact of T/sub 2/ breeding and self-sufficiency; development of a beam cross-over shielding concept; cavity design optimization with enhanced target performance and economic scaling of SIRIUS-M to a demonstration (DEMO) reactor facility.

  12. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  13. Functional Materials for Microsystems: Smart Self-Assembled Photochromic Films: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    BURNS, ALAN R.; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; CARPICK, R.W.; SHELNUTT, JOHN A.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY

    2001-11-01

    This project set out to scientifically-tailor ''smart'' interfacial films and 3-D composite nanostructures to exhibit photochromic responses to specific, highly-localized chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, and to integrate them into optical microsystems. The project involved the design of functionalized chromophoric self-assembled materials that possessed intense and environmentally-sensitive optical properties (absorbance, fluorescence) enabling their use as detectors of specific stimuli and transducers when interfaced with optical probes. The conjugated polymer polydiacetylene (PDA) proved to be the most promising material in many respects, although it had some drawbacks concerning reversibility. Throughout his work we used multi-task scanning probes (AFM, NSOM), offering simultaneous optical and interfacial force capabilities, to actuate and characterize the PDA with localized and specific interactions for detailed characterization of physical mechanisms and parameters. In addition to forming high quality mono-, bi-, and tri-layers of PDA via Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, we were successful in using the diacetylene monomer precursor as a surfactant that directed the self-assembly of an ordered, mesostructured inorganic host matrix. Remarkably, the diacetylene was polymerized in the matrix, thus providing a PDA-silica composite. The inorganic matrix serves as a perm-selective barrier to chemical and biological agents and provides structural support for improved material durability in microsystems. Our original goal was to use the composite films as a direct interface with microscale devices as optical elements (e.g., intracavity mirrors, diffraction gratings), taking advantage of the very high sensitivity of device performance to real-time dielectric changes in the films. However, our optical physics colleagues (M. Crawford and S. Kemme) were unsuccessful in these efforts, mainly due to the poor optical quality of the composite films.

  14. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin W H; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion. PMID:24103844

  15. Evaluation of radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods for determination of arsenic in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) with retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (HMD) has played a key role in the certification of As in biological materials at NIST. Although this method provides very high and reproducible yields and detection limits at low microgram/kilogram levels, counting geometry uncertainties may arise from unequal distribution of As in the HMD, and arsenic detection limits may not be optimal due to significant retention of other elements. An alternate RNAA procedure with separation of arsenic by solvent extraction has been investigated. After digestion of samples in nitric and perchloric acids, As(III) is extracted from 2 M sulfuric acid solution into a solution of zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform. Counting of (76)As allows quantitation of arsenic. Addition of an (77)As tracer solution prior to dissolution allows correction for chemical yield and counting geometries, further improving reproducibility. The HMD and solvent extraction procedures for arsenic were compared through analysis of SRMs 1577c (bovine liver), 1547 (peach leaves), and 1575a (pine needles). Both methods gave As results in agreement with certified values with comparable reproducibility. However, the solvent extraction method yields a factor of 3 improvement in detection limits and is less time-consuming than the HMD method. The new method shows great promise for use in As certification in reference materials. PMID:21133431

  16. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gabi; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill D; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    We report the synthesis of new polymers based on a dimethylacrylamide-methacrylate (DMAA-MA) co-polymer backbone that support both chemical and biological agent decontamination. Polyurethanes containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. New materials combining those biopolymers with a family of N-alkyl 4-pyridinium aldoxime (4-PAM) halide-acrylate co-polymers offer both nucleophilic activity for the detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents and internal sources of halide ions for generation of biocidal activity. Generation of free bromine and iodine was observed in the combined material resulting in bactericidal activity of the enzymatically formed free halogens that caused complete kill of E. coli (>6 log units reduction) within 1 h at 37 degrees C. Detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) by the polyDMAA MA-4-PAM iodide component was dose-dependent reaching 85% within 30 min. A subset of 4-PAM-halide co-polymers was designed to serve as a controlled release reservoir for N-hydroxyethyl 4-PAM (HE 4-PAM) molecules that reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Release rates for HE 4-PAM were consistent with hydrolysis of the HE 4-PAM from the polymer backbone. The HE 4-PAM that was released from the polymer reactivated DFP-inhibited AChE at a similar rate to the oxime antidote 4-PAM. PMID:20199807

  17. FINAL REPORT: DOE CONTRACT NUMBER FG0205ER64026 Biological Neutron Scattering: A Collaboration with the Oak Ridge Center for Structural Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Jill Trewhella

    2011-01-12

    The overarching goal of this project was to promote applications of small-angle scattering in structural molecular biology by providing model examples of cutting edge applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities and potential of the DOE national user facilities at Oak Ridge, especially the newly commissioned BioSANS. The approach taken was three-fold: (1) to engage in high impact collaborative research projects that would benefit from small-angle neutron scattering to both demonstrate the power of the technique while expanding the potential user community; (2) to provide access to scattering facilities established at the University of Utah to as broad a set of researchers as possible to increase the expertise in small-angle scattering generally; and (3) to develop new methods and tools for small-angle scattering. To these ends, three major research collaborations were pursued that resulted in a significant body of published work where neutron scattering and contrast variation played a major role. These major collaborations involved studies of protein complexes involved in (1) bacterial transcription regulation and adaptive response (a DOE/BER priority area); (2) regulation of cardiac muscle; and (3) neuronal disorders. In addition, to broaden the impact of the project, smaller collaborative efforts were supported that used either small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering. Finally, the DOE supported facilities at the University of Utah were made available to researchers on a service basis and a number of independent groups took advantage of this opportunity. In all of this work, there was an emphasis on the training of students and post docs in scattering techniques, and a set of publications (a book chapter, a review, and an encyclopedia article) were produced to guide the non-specialist potential user of scattering techniques in successful applications of the techniques. We also developed a suite of user friendly web-based computational tools currently

  18. Integration of X-ray microanalysis and morphometry of biological material

    SciTech Connect

    de Bruijn, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated how to extract both morphometrical and X-ray elemental information from scanning electron microscopical (SEM) or scanning transmission electron microscopical (STEM)-images and how to integrate these two information streams either on line or off-line after storage. Cytochemical reaction products in cell organelles in ultrathin sections are the biological structures of interest. A new program has been proposed and described, which permits determination of both the area and the mean net-intensity value of chemical elements, inhomogeneously distributed over heteromorph organelles. The value of this integration method is demonstrated by three examples of increasing complexity, starting with two elements which are more or less homogeneously distributed over one lysosome, the establishing of a platinum discontinuity in an acidophilic granule and finally the localization of two chemical elements inhomogeneously distributed over a rather heteromorph phagolysosome. In two examples Chelex ion exchange beads, maximally loaded with the element also present in the structure of interest, are co-embedded with the tissue as internal standards. In such cases the absolute elemental concentration in the structures analysed can be established.

  19. Final Report: Scintillator Materials for Medical Applications, December 1, 1997 - November 30, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Wojtowicz, A.J.; Szupryczynski, P.

    2000-05-01

    From the very beginning of our program we regarded the understanding of the scintillation mechanism as our primary mission. If in addition this understanding could lead to the discovery of a new material, so much the better. When we began this work some nine years ago, the theoretical basis for the scintillation phenomenon was in disarray. The initial and final steps were reasonably well characterized, but there was no consensus on the crucial intermediate, the transfer of energy from the lattice to the emitting center. In the over 40 publications that resulted from this program, we demonstrated that despite the highly insulating nature of the hosts and the great magnitude of the band gap, the primary means of transport is through mobile charge carriers and their sequential capture by the emitting center. Although radical at the time, this picture is now generally accepted throughout the field. Subsequently, we also recognized the critical role that trapping centers localized at lattice defects can play in the process, not merely as passive sources of loss but as active participants in the kinetics. In this sense shallow traps can wreak more havoc than deep ones, impeding the rate by which carriers can reach the emitting centers and seriously slowing the resulting decay. And we established low-temperature thermoluminescence as a comprehensive tool for quantizing these effects. As for new and better materials, our work also had an impact. We were among the first to recognize the potential of LuAlO{sub 3} (lutetium aluminum perovskite, or LuAP) as a detector for PET applications. Although this material has not supplanted LuSiO{sub 5} (lutetium oxysilicate, or LSO) in terms of light output or absence of afterglow, LuAP still exhibits by far the highest figure of merit (light output divided by decay time) of any scintillator material currently known. Our work has also bought into stark view the dismaying realization of just how improbable it is that a material will

  20. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and related techniques in studies of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Thomas; Sebesta, Aleksandar; Stadler, Johannes; Opilik, Lothar; Balabin, Roman M.; Zenobi, Renato

    2010-02-01

    Biological materials can be highly heterogeneous at the nanometer scale. The investigation of nanostructures is often hampered by the low spatial resolution (e.g. spectroscopic techniques) or very little chemical information (e.g. atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)) provided by analytical techniques. Our research focuses on combined instruments, which allow the analysis of the exactly same area of a sample by complementary techniques, such as AFM and Raman spectroscopy. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) combines the high spatial resolution of AFM or STM with the chemical information provided by Raman spectroscopy. The technique is based on enhancement effects known from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In TERS the enhancing metallic nanostructure is brought to the sample by an AFM or STM tip. With a TERS-active tip, enhanced Raman signals can be generated from a sample area as small as 10-50 nm in diameter. AFM analysis of bacterial biofilms has demonstrated their heterogeneity at the nanometer scale, revealing a variety of nanostructures such as pili, flagella, and extracelullar polymers. TERS measurements of the biopolymers alginate and cytochrome c have yielded spectroscopic fingerprints even of such weak Raman scatterers, which in future can allow their localization in complex matrices. Furthermore, biofilms of the bacterium Halomonas meridiana were studied, which was found to be involved in the generation of the mineral dolomite. Only combined AFM-Raman analysis was able to identify the nanoglobules found in laboratory cultures of H. meridiana as dolomite nanoparticles. Our combined setups are and will be applied to the investigation of biofilms, fish spermatozoa as well as biological membranes.

  1. Environmental routes for platinum group elements to biological materials--a review.

    PubMed

    Ek, Kristine H; Morrison, Gregory M; Rauch, Sebastien

    2004-12-01

    The increased use of platinum group elements (PGE) in automobile catalysts has led to concern over potential environmental and biological accumulation. Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations have increased in the environment since the introduction of automobile catalysts. This review summarises current knowledge concerning the environmental mobility, speciation and bioavailability of Pt, Pd and Rh. The greater proportion of PGE emissions is from automobile catalysts, in the form of nanometer-sized catalyst particles, which deposit on roadside surfaces, as evidenced in samples of road dust, grass and soil. In soil, PGE can be transformed into more mobile species through complexation with organic matter and can be solubilised in low pH rainwater. There are indications that environmentally formed Pd species are more soluble and hence more mobile in the environment than Rh and Pt. PGE can reach waterbodies through stormwater transport and deposition in sediments. Besides external contamination of grass close to roads, internal PGE uptake has been observed for plants growing on soil contaminated with automobile catalyst PGE. Fine particles of PGE were also detected on the surface of feathers sampled from passerines and raptors in their natural habitat, and internal organs of these birds also contained PGE. Uptake has been observed in sediment-dwelling invertebrates, and laboratory studies have shown an uptake of PGE in eel and fish exposed to water containing road dust. The available evidence indicates that the PGE, especially Pd, are transported to biological materials through deposition in roots by binding to sulphur-rich low molecular weight species in plants. PGE uptake to exposed animals have uptake rates in the following order: Pd>Pt>Rh. The liver and kidney accumulate the highest levels of PGE, especially Pd. Urinary Pd and Rh, but not Pt, levels are correlated with traffic intensity. Dental alloys may lead to elevated urinary Pt levels

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging: non-destructive analysis of biological materials.

    PubMed

    Manley, Marena

    2014-12-21

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has come of age and is now prominent among major analytical technologies after the NIR region was discovered in 1800, revived and developed in the early 1950s and put into practice in the 1970s. Since its first use in the cereal industry, it has become the quality control method of choice for many more applications due to the advancement in instrumentation, computing power and multivariate data analysis. NIR spectroscopy is also increasingly used during basic research performed to better understand complex biological systems, e.g. by means of studying characteristic water absorption bands. The shorter NIR wavelengths (800-2500 nm), compared to those in the mid-infrared (MIR) range (2500-15 000 nm) enable increased penetration depth and subsequent non-destructive, non-invasive, chemical-free, rapid analysis possibilities for a wide range of biological materials. A disadvantage of NIR spectroscopy is its reliance on reference methods and model development using chemometrics. NIR measurements and predictions are, however, considered more reproducible than the usually more accurate and precise reference methods. The advantages of NIR spectroscopy contribute to it now often being favoured over other spectroscopic (colourimetry and MIR) and analytical methods, using chemicals and producing chemical waste, such as gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This tutorial review intends to provide a brief overview of the basic theoretical principles and most investigated applications of NIR spectroscopy. In addition, it considers the recent development, principles and applications of NIR hyperspectral imaging. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides NIR spectral data as a set of images, each representing a narrow wavelength range or spectral band. The advantage compared to NIR spectroscopy is that, due to the additional spatial dimension provided by this technology, the images can be analysed and visualised as

  3. The Elemental Analysis of Biological and Environmental Materials Using a 2MEV Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshed, Waheed

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A programme has been developed to simulate the proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectra and its uses have been described. The PIXE technique has been applied to the analysis of new biological reference materials which consist of IAEA human diet samples and NIST leaf samples. Homogeneity of these and two existing reference materials, IAEA soil -7 and Bowen's kale, has also been determined at the mug scale. A subsample representative of a material is ascertained by determination of sampling factors for the elements detected in the material. Proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis in conjunction with PIXE has been employed to investigate F and other elemental concentrations found in human teeth samples. The mean F concentration in enamel and dentine parts of teeth followed an age dependent model. Concentrations of Ca and P were found to be higher in the enamel than in the dentine. Analysis of blood and its components in the study of elemental models in sickle cell disease in Nigerians has been carried out. Comparisons revealed that Cl, Ca and Cu were at higher levels whereas K, Fe, Zn and Rb were at lower levels in the whole blood of the sicklers compared to controls. Similar results were obtained for the erythrocytes except that Br was found at higher concentration in erythrocytes of the sicklers. Higher concentrations of Cl, K, Fe and Cu were also observed in plasma of the sicklers compared to controls. PIXE and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in the characterization of the Harmattan dust particulates collected at Kano and Ife. Most of the elements were found to be at higher concentrations as compared to those found in Recife (Brazil) and Toronto (Canada). The value of total suspended particulate was above the relevant national air quality standards. PIXE in conjunction with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed in the

  4. Biological inspiration in optics and photonics: harnessing nature's light manipulation strategies for multifunctional optical materials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolle, Mathias; Sandt, Joseph D.; Nagelberg, Sara N.; Zarzar, Lauren D.; Kreysing, Moritz; Vukusic, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The precise control of light-matter interactions is crucial for the majority of known biological organisms in their struggle to survive. Many species have evolved unique methods to manipulate light in their environment using a variety of physical effects including pigment-induced, spectrally selective absorption or light interference in photonic structures that consist of micro- and nano-periodic material morphologies. In their optical performance, many of the known biological photonic systems are subject to selection criteria not unlike the requirements faced in the development of novel optical technology. For this reason, biological light manipulation strategies provide inspiration for the creation of tunable, stimuli-responsive, adaptive material platforms that will contribute to the development of multifunctional surfaces and innovative optical technology. Biomimetic and bio-inspired approaches for the manufacture of photonic systems rely on self-assembly and bottom-up growth techniques often combined with conventional top-down manufacturing. In this regard, we can benefit in several ways from highly sophisticated material solutions that have convergently evolved in various organisms. We explore design concepts found in biological photonic architectures, seek to understand the mechanisms underlying morphogenesis of bio-optical systems, aim to devise viable manufacturing strategies that can benefit from insight in biological formation processes and the use of established synthetic routines alike, and ultimately strive to realize new photonic materials with tailor-made optical properties. This talk is focused on the identification of biological role model photonic architectures, a brief discussion of recently developed bio-inspired photonic structures, including mechano-sensitive color-tunable photonic fibers and reconfigurable fluid micro-lenses. Potentially, early-stage results in studying and harnessing the structure-forming capabilities of living cells that

  5. Teleost fish scales: a unique biological model for the fabrication of materials for corneal stroma regeneration.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasuaki; Ura, Kazuhiro

    2007-03-01

    The corneal stroma is composed of multiple lamellae, each containing closely packed collagen fibrils. The orientation of fibrils in a lamella is parallel, but those in different lamellae are orthogonal. As a result, the corneal stroma has a characteristic orthogonal plywood-like structure. Such a highly-regulated three-dimensional arrangement of collagen fibrils gives strength and transparency to the corneal stroma, but it also presents a challenge in the fabrication of materials to replace it. A bioinspired technology is required to process such materials, but the regulatory mechanism of collagen-fibril orientation is still unknown. The low regenerating activity of the corneal stroma seems to be a major factor preventing progress in this field of research. A similarly highly-ordered arrangement of collagen fibrils can be seen in the basal plates of teleost fish scales. Moreover, the scales have high regenerating ability. When a scale is mechanically lost, a new scale is rapidly regenerated. The cells that produce the basal plates are extremely activated; thus, production of the highly-ordered collagen fibrils is very rapid. Therefore, the regenerating scales should be a uniquely helpful biological model for studying the regulatory mechanism of collagen-fibril orientation. Fish-scale collagen has another advantage for use as a biomaterial: the low probability of zoonotic infection. Therefore, scale collagen is a most promising biomaterial for fabricating three-dimensionally arranged collagen fibers to substitute for the corneal stroma. Three tasks that must be clarified for the bioinspired production of a corneal substitute from fish scale collagen are proposed. PMID:17450830

  6. Solid phase immobilization of optically responsive liposomes insol-gel materials for chemical and biological sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Stacey A.; Charych, Deborah H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.

    1997-04-01

    Liposomes enhanced with surface recognition groups have previously been found to have high affinity for heavy metal ions and virus particles with unique fluorescent and colorimetric responses, respectively. These lipid aggregate systems have now been successfully immobilized in a silica matrix via the sol-gel method, affording sensor materials that are robust, are easily handled, and offer optical clarity. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of preformed liposomes without modification of the aggregate structure. Lipid extraction studies of immobilized nonpolymerized liposomes showed no lipid leakage in aqueous solution over a period of 3 months. Heavy metal fluorescent sensor materials prepared with 5 percent N-[8-[1-octadecyl-2-(9-(1-pyrenyl)nonyl)-rac-glyceroyl]-3,6-dioxaoctyl]imino acid/distearylphosphatidylcholineliposomes exhibited a 4-50-fold enhancement in sensitivity to various metal ions compared to that of the liposomes in free solution. Through ionic attraction the anionic silicate surface, at the experimental pH of 7.4, may act as a preconcentrator of divalent metal ions, boosting the gel's internal metal concentration. Entrapped sialic acid-coated polydiacetylene liposomes responded with colorimetric signaling to influenza virus X31, although slower than the free liposomes in solution. The successful transport of the virus (50-100 nm diameter) reveals a large pore diameter of the gel connecting the liposome to the bulk solution. The porous and durable silica matrix additionally provides a protective barrier to biological attack (bacterial, fungal) and allows facile recycling of the liposome heavy metal sensor.

  7. Collaborative Research. Fundamental Science of Low Temperature Plasma-Biological Material Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, David Barry; Oehrlein, Gottlieb

    2014-09-01

    atmospheric pressure using several types of low temperature plasma sources, for which radical induced interactions generally dominate due to short mean free paths of ions and VUV photons. For these conditions we demonstrated the importance of environmental interactions when atmospheric pressure plasma sources are used to modify biomolecules. This is evident from both gas phase characterization data and in-situ surface characterization of treated biomolecules. Environmental interactions can produce unexpected outcomes due to the complexity of reactions of reactive species with the atmosphere which determines the composition of reactive fluxes and atomistic changes of biomolecules. Overall, this work clarified a richer spectrum of scientific opportunities and challenges for the field of low temperature plasma-biomolecule surface interactions than initially anticipated, in particular for plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure. The insights produced in this work, e.g. demonstration of the importance of environmental interactions, are generally important for applications of APP to materials modifications. Thus one major contributions of this research has been the establishment of methodologies to more systematically study the interaction of plasma with bio-molecules. In particular, our studies of atmospheric pressure plasma sources using very well-defined experimental conditions enabled to combine atomistic surface modifications of biomolecules with changes in their biological function. The clarification of the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in deactivation of biomolecules during low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-biomolecule interaction has broad implications, e.g. for the emerging field of plasma medicine. The development of methods to detect the effects of plasma treatment on immune-active biomolecules will be helpful in many future studies.

  8. Thresholding for biological material detection in real-time multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, hyperspectral image analysis has proved successful for a target detection problem encountered in remote sensing as well as near sensing utilizing in situ instrumentation. The conventional global bi-level thresholding for target detection, such as the clustering-based Otsu's method, has been inadequate for the detection of biologically harmful material on foods that has a large degree of variability in size, location, color, shape, texture, and occurrence time. This paper presents multistep-like thresholding based on kernel density estimation for the real-time detection of harmful contaminants on a food product presented in multispectral images. We are particularly concerned with the detection of fecal contaminants on poultry carcasses in real-time. In the past, we identified 2 optimal wavelength bands and developed a real-time multispectral imaging system using a common aperture camera and a globally optimized thresholding method from a ratio of the optimal bands. This work extends our previous study by introducing a new decision rule to detect fecal contaminants on a single bird level. The underlying idea is to search for statistical separability along the two directions defined by the global optimal threshold vector and its orthogonal vector. Experimental results with real birds and fecal samples in different amounts are provided.

  9. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  10. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

  11. 3-d Brownian dynamics simulations of the smallest units of an active biological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta; Paudyal, Nabina; Adeli Koudehi, Maral

    Motor proteins generate stress in a cytoskeletal network by walking on one strand of the network while being attached to another one. A protein walker in contact with two elements of the network may be considered the smallest unit of an active biological material. In vitro experiments, mathematical modeling and computer simulations have provided important insights into active matter on large and on very small length and time scales. However, it is still difficult to model the effects of local environment and interactions at intermediate scales. Recently, we developed a coarse-grained, three-dimensional model for a motor protein transporting cargo by walking on a substrate. In this work, we simulate a tethered motor protein pulling a substrate with elastic response. As the walker progresses, the retarding force due to the substrate tension increases until contact fails. We present simulation results for the effect of motor-protein activity on the tension in the substrate and the effect of the retarding force on the processivity of the molecular motor.

  12. MyLabStocks: a web-application to manage molecular biology materials.

    PubMed

    Chuffart, Florent; Yvert, Gaël

    2014-05-01

    Laboratory stocks are the hardware of research. They must be stored and managed with mimimum loss of material and information. Plasmids, oligonucleotides and strains are regularly exchanged between collaborators within and between laboratories. Managing and sharing information about every item is crucial for retrieval of reagents, for planning experiments and for reproducing past experimental results. We have developed a web-based application to manage stocks commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory. Its functionalities include user-defined privileges, visualization of plasmid maps directly from their sequence and the capacity to search items from fields of annotation or directly from a query sequence using BLAST. It is designed to handle records of plasmids, oligonucleotides, yeast strains, antibodies, pipettes and notebooks. Based on PHP/MySQL, it can easily be extended to handle other types of stocks and it can be installed on any server architecture. MyLabStocks is freely available from: https://forge.cbp.ens-lyon.fr/redmine/projects/mylabstocks under an open source licence. PMID:24643870

  13. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  14. The development of peptide-based interfacial biomaterials for generating biological functionality on the surface of bioinert materials

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Steven R.; Khoo, Xiaojuan; Huang, Xin; Walsh, Elisabeth B.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Kenan, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials used in implants have traditionally been selected based on their mechanical properties, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, the durability and clinical efficacy of implantable biomedical devices remains limited in part due to the absence of appropriate biological interactions at the implant interface and the lack of integration into adjacent tissues. Herein, we describe a robust peptide-based coating technology capable of modifying the surface of existing biomaterials and medical devices through the non-covalent binding of modular biofunctional peptides. These peptides contain at least one material binding sequence and at least one biologically active sequence and thus are termed, “Interfacial Biomaterials” (IFBMs). IFBMs can simultaneously bind the biomaterial surface while endowing it with desired biological functionalities at the interface between the material and biological realms. We demonstrate the capabilities of model IFBMs to convert native polystyrene, a bioinert surface, into a bioactive surface that can support a range of cell activities. We further distinguish between simple cell attachment with insufficient integrin interactions, which in some cases can adversely impact downstream biology, versus biologically appropriate adhesion, cell spreading, and cell survival mediated by IFBMs. Moreover, we show that we can use the coating technology to create spatially resolved patterns of fluorophores and cells on substrates and that these patterns retain their borders in culture. PMID:18929406

  15. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Final subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Yokimcus, T.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes results and conclusions of the final phase (III) of a three-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film heterojunction solar cells. The research consisted of the investigation of the relationships between processing, materials properties, and device performance. This relationship was quantified by device modeling and analysis. The analysis of thin-film polycrystalline heterojunction solar cells explains how minority-carrier recombination at the metallurgical interface and at grain boundaries can be greatly reduced by the proper doping of the window and absorber layers. Additional analysis and measurements show that the present solar cells are limited by the magnitude of the diode current, which appears to be caused by recombination in the space charge region. Developing an efficient commercial-scale process for fabricating large-area polycrystalline, thin-film solar cells from a research process requires a detailed understanding of the individual steps in making the solar cell, and their relationship to device performance and reliability. The complexities involved in characterizing a process are demonstrated with results from our research program on CuInSe{sub 2}, and CdTe processes.

  16. Enhanced stability and local structure in biologically relevant amorphous materials containing pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Colin; Laurencin, Danielle; Burnell, Victoria; Smith, Mark E.; Grover, Liam M.; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Wright, Adrian J.

    2012-10-25

    There is increasing evidence that amorphous inorganic materials play a key role in biomineralisation in many organisms, however the inherent instability of synthetic analogues in the absence of the complex in vivo matrix limits their study and clinical exploitation. To address this, we report here an approach that enhances long-term stability to >1 year of biologically relevant amorphous metal phosphates, in the absence of any complex stabilizers, by utilizing pyrophosphates (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-}); species themselves ubiquitous in vivo. Ambient temperature precipitation reactions were employed to synthesise amorphous Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O and Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O (3.8 < n < 4.2) and their stability and structure were investigated. Pair distribution functions (PDF) derived from synchrotron X-ray data indicated a lack of structural order beyond 8 {angstrom} in both phases, with this local order found to resemble crystalline analogues. Further studies, including {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P solid state NMR, suggest the unusually high stability of these purely inorganic amorphous phases is partly due to disorder in the P-O-P bond angles within the P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units, which impede crystallization, and to water molecules, which are involved in H-bonds of various strengths within the structures and hamper the formation of an ordered network. In situ high temperature powder X-ray diffraction data indicated that the amorphous nature of both phases surprisingly persisted to 450 C. Further NMR and TGA studies found that above ambient temperature some water molecules reacted with P{sub 2}O{sub 7} anions, leading to the hydrolysis of some P-O-P linkages and the formation of HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions within the amorphous matrix. The latter anions then recombined into P{sub 2}O{sub 7} ions at higher temperatures prior to crystallization. Together, these findings provide important new materials with unexplored potential for enzyme

  17. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters. PMID:22988627

  18. Micro-processing of polymers and biological materials using high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li

    has been observed in or around the laser-induced refractive index modification regions. These results support the notion that femtosecond laser micro-processing method may be an excellent means of altering the refraction or higher order aberration content of corneal tissue without cell death and short-term tissue damage, and has been named as Intra-tissue Refractive Index Shaping (IRIS). The femtosecond laser micro-processing workstation has also been employed for laser transfection of single defined cells. Some preliminary results suggest that this method can be used to trace individual cells and record their biological and morphological evolution, which is quite promising in many biomedical applications especially in immunology science. In conclusion, high repetition rate femtosecond laser micro-processing has been employed to fabricate microstructures in ophthalmological hydrogels and ocular tissues. Its unique three-dimensional capability over transparent materials and biological media makes it a powerful tool and will greatly impact the future of laser material-processing.

  19. Development and effectiveness of an educational card game as supplementary material in understanding selected topics in biology.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Arnel F

    2014-01-01

    The complex concepts and vocabulary of biology classes discourage many students. In this study, a pretest-posttest model was used to test the effectiveness of an educational card game in reinforcing biological concepts in comparison with traditional teaching methods. The subjects of this study were two biology classes at Bulacan State University-Sarmiento Campus. Both classes received conventional instruction; however, the experimental group's instruction was supplemented with the card game, while the control group's instruction was reinforced with traditional exercises and assignments. The score increases from pretest to posttest showed that both methods effectively reinforced biological concepts, but a t test showed that the card game is more effective than traditional teaching methods. Additionally, students from the experimental group evaluated the card game using five criteria: goals, design, organization, playability, and usefulness. The students rated the material very satisfactory. PMID:24591506

  20. Development and Effectiveness of an Educational Card Game as Supplementary Material in Understanding Selected Topics in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Arnel F.

    2014-01-01

    The complex concepts and vocabulary of biology classes discourage many students. In this study, a pretest–posttest model was used to test the effectiveness of an educational card game in reinforcing biological concepts in comparison with traditional teaching methods. The subjects of this study were two biology classes at Bulacan State University–Sarmiento Campus. Both classes received conventional instruction; however, the experimental group's instruction was supplemented with the card game, while the control group's instruction was reinforced with traditional exercises and assignments. The score increases from pretest to posttest showed that both methods effectively reinforced biological concepts, but a t test showed that the card game is more effective than traditional teaching methods. Additionally, students from the experimental group evaluated the card game using five criteria: goals, design, organization, playability, and usefulness. The students rated the material very satisfactory. PMID:24591506

  1. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 9: General science. [experimental design in Astronomy, Biology, Geophysics, Aeronomy and Materials science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives and planning activities for the Apollo-Soyuz mission are summarized. Aspects of the space flight considered include the docking module and launch configurations, spacecraft orbits, and weightlessness. The 28 NASA experiments conducted onboard the spacecraft are summarized. The contributions of the mission to the fields of astronomy, geoscience, biology, and materials sciences resulting from the experiments are explored.

  2. Applied Biology and Chemistry. Course Materials: Chemistry 111, 112, 113, 114. Seattle Tech Prep Applied Academics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    This publication contains materials for four courses in Applied Biology/Chemistry in the Applied Academics program at South Seattle Community College. It begins with the article, "Community College Applied Academics: The State of the Art?" (George B. Neff), which describes the characteristics, model, courses, and coordination activity that make up…

  3. Optimization of the Hyperspectral Imaging-based Spatially-resolved System for Measuring the Optical Properties of Biological Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the optimization and assessment of a hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved system for determination of the optical properties of biological materials over the wavelengths of 500-1,000 nm. Twelve model samples covering a wide range of absorption and reduced scattering c...

  4. Development of switchable hygroscopic materials. Final technical report FY 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The following are covered: current considerations in desiccant dehumidification materials, switchable desiccant theory, candidate materials, test methods, test results, product design considerations, and future research.

  5. NMR of group 2 element quadrupolar nuclei and some applications in materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua

    1999-11-01

    For many years, NMR has provided an easy access for chemists to perform structural and kinetic studies on a whole variety of systems. To a great extent, these investigations have been restricted to non-quadrupolar nuclei. The study of quadrupolar nuclei (I > 1/2) offers the potential to gain insight into important problems in material science and biology. In addition to the large quadrupole moment associated with the spin active nuclei of interest, several of the most interesting species also possess an extremely low natural abundance. My recent research focuses on 87Sr NMR, which has been cited by earlier workers as being limited to only ionic species. Several strontium-containing compounds have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. 87Sr NMR signals were determined for these compounds in a series of aprotic polar solvents. The chemical shift variation was found to be consistent with linen free energy relationship, which can be very useful in helping to elucidate mechanism, in predicting reaction rates, and the extent of reaction at equilibrium, and in discovering under what conditions a change in mechanism occurs. Control over symmetry of the compound was found to be the key to obtain the good NMR signals. One application of the new technique that has been developed was in the area of material science. An observation relative to sol-gel derived ionic conductors (La0.8Sr0.2Co0.8Fe0.2O 3.2) was that films often formed cracks upon pyrolysis. By careful examination of the sol-gel process by 87Sr NMR, a model for the structure of the sol was developed. Through the relaxation rate study of the strontium sites, the polymerization mechanism was determined to be predominantly bimolecular within the concentration region studied. The kinetic study of the fast cation exchange between two strontium sites indicated that the inhomogeneity of the polymeric network lads to the film cracking during pyrolysis. As a consequence of understanding the

  6. Enhancement in biological response of Ag-nano composite polymer membranes using plasma treatment for fabrication of efficient bio materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Tamanna Kumari; Chauhan, Manish; Agarwal, Ravi; Vijay, Y. K.; Swami, K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials are nonviable material used in medical devices, intended to interact with biological systems, which are becoming necessary for the development of artificial material for biological systems such as artificial skin diaphragm, valves for heart and kidney, lenses for eye etc. Polymers having novel properties like antibacterial, antimicrobial, high adhesion, blood compatibility and wettability are most suitable for synthesis of biomaterial, but all of these properties does not exist in any natural or artificial polymeric material. Nano particles and plasma treatment can offer these properties to the polymers. Hence a new nano-biomaterial has been developed by modifying the surface and chemical properties of Ag nanocomposite polymer membranes (NCPM) by Argon ion plasma treatment. These membranes were characterized using different techniques for surface and chemical modifications occurred. Bacterial adhesion and wettability were also tested for these membranes, to show direct use of this new class of nano-biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  7. Updated Lagrangian finite element formulations of various biological soft tissue non-linear material models: a comprehensive procedure and review.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications. PMID:26611112

  8. The use of a single multielement standard for trace analysis in biological materials by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Islam, M. M.; Khan, A. H.

    1984-04-01

    The validity of the use of a single multielement standard for mass calibration in thick-target external beam PIXE analysis of biological materials has been investigated. In this study, the NBS orchard leaf, SRM 1571, was used as the basic standard for trace element analysis in other biological materials. Using the present procedure, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were determined in several NBS reference materials such as bovine liver, spinach, rice flour, etc., generally in 20 μC irradiations with 2.0 MeV protons. The analytical results are compared with certified values of the NBS as well as with other measurements and the sources of errors are discussed.

  9. Neutron Scattering Studies of Fundamental Processes in Earth Materials, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, K. R.

    2007-06-11

    The aim of this work was to use neutron scattering techniques to explore the dynamics and structure of water in rock samples. The dynamics of water in rock at low (residual) saturation are directly related to the transport properties of fluids within the host rock. The structure of water in rock may be related to the elastic behavior of the rock, which in many cases is nonlinear and hysteretic. Neutron scattering techniques allow us to study water in intact rock samples at both the molecular and microstructural scales. Our samples were Berea sandstone, Calico Hills and Prow Pass tuffs from Yucca Mountain, NV, and pure samples of the tuff constituents, specifically mordenite and clinoptilolite. We chose Berea sandstone because its macroscopic elastic behavior is known to be highly unusual, and the microscopic mechanisms producing this behavior are not understood. We chose Yucca Mountain tuff, because the fluid transport properties of the geologic structure at Yucca Mountain, Nevada could be relevant to the performance of a high level nuclear waste repository at that site. Neutron scattering methods have a number of properties that are extremely useful for the study of earth materials. In contrast to X-rays, neutrons have very low absorption cross-sections for most elements so that entire bulk samples of considerable size can be 'illuminated' by the neutron beam. Similarly, samples that are optically opaque can be readily investigated by inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Neutrons are equally sensitive to light atoms as to heavy atoms, and can, for example, readily distinguish between Al and Si, neighboring atoms in the periodic table that are difficult to tell apart by X-ray diffraction. Finally, neutrons are particularly sensitive to hydrogen and thus can be used to study the motions, both vibrational and diffusive, of H-containing molecules in rocks, most notably of course, water. Our studies were primarily studies of guest molecules (in our case, water) in

  10. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    DOEpatents

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  11. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule and Notice. Part III: Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) to require all local education agencies (LEAs) to identify asbestos-containing materials in their school buildings and take appropriate action to control release of asbestos fibers. The LEAs are required to describe their activities in…

  12. Sequential metal vapor elution analysis for the determination of Cu and Mn in biological materials and waters.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Uegomori, H; Kaneco, S; Mizuno, T

    1999-04-01

    The determination of copper and manganese in biological materials and river waters by sequential metal vapor elution analysis (SMVEA) using an atomic absorption detector (AA) is reported. An improved molybdenum column (open column, i.d. 1.22 mm) with three ring supporters was developed for SMVEA. An optimum flow rate of carrier gas (pure argon) for separation of metal vapors was 4.0 ml min(-1). Copper and manganese peaks separated from Al, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Pb, and Zn peaks at a vaporization temperature of 1950 degrees C and a column temperature of 1900 degrees C. The appearing order of these metals was Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Na and Mn. It was understood by considering the boiling points of these metals or chlorides. The delay of appearing time is due to an interaction between the metal vapors and inside surface of the column. Under the experimental conditions, the number of theoretical plates was 11.3 for Cd, 89.6 for Cu, 160 for Na, and 258 for Mn in the improved column. Under the optimal experimental conditions, NIST biological standards and river waters were analyzed for copper and manganese. The analytical results agreed well with the certified values and the recoveries were in the range of 94 to 109%. By SMVEA, it was found that copper and manganese in biological materials and waters were determined without interference of matrix elements, after only acid digestion for biological materials and no chemical treatment for river water samples. PMID:18967537

  13. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal; McNeill, Fiona E.; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2014-01-01

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some "bystander effects" that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 1010 protons mm-2 s-1. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology at the interface of cell biology, materials science and medicine Nanotechnology at the interface of cell biology, materials science and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Andreas; Miles, Mervyn

    2008-09-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) and related scanning probe microscopes have become resourceful tools to study cells, supramolecular assemblies and single biomolecules, because they allow investigations of such structures in native environments. Quantitative information has been gathered about the surface structure of membrane proteins to lateral and vertical resolutions of 0.5 nm and 0.1 nm, respectively, about the forces that keep protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid assemblies together as well as single proteins in their native conformation, and about the nanomechanical properties of cells in health and disease. Such progress has been achieved mainly because of constant development of AFM instrumentation and sample preparation methods. This special issue of Nanotechnology presents papers from leading laboratories in the field of nanobiology, covering a wide range of topics in the form of original and novel scientific contributions. It addresses achievements in instrumentation, sample preparation, automation and in biological applications. These papers document the creativity and persistence of researchers pursuing the goal to unravel the structure and dynamics of cells, supramolecuar structures and single biomolecules at work. Improved cantilever sensors, novel optical probes, and quantitative data on supports for electrochemical experiments open new avenues for characterizing biological nanomachines down to the single molecule. Comparative measurements of healthy and metastatic cells promise new methods for early detection of tumors, and possible assessments of drug efficacy. High-speed AFMs document possibilities to monitor crystal growth and to observe large structures at video rate. A wealth of information on amyloid-type fibers as well as on membrane proteins has been gathered by single molecule force spectroscopy—a technology now being automated for large-scale data collection. With the progress of basic research and a strong industry supporting

  15. Efficiency Improvement of Nitride-Based Solid State Light Emitting Materials -- CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke

    2010-05-13

    measure the indium distribution with near atomic resolution were developed and applied to test samples and devices that were provided by Lumilids. Further, the optical performance of the device materials was probed by photoluminescence, electroluminescence and time resolved optical measurements. Overall, the programs objective is to provide a physical basis for the development of a simulation program that helps making predictions to improve the growth processes such that the device efficiency can be increased to about 20%. Our study addresses all proposed aspects successfully. Carrier localization, lifetime and recombination as well as the strain-induced generation of electric fields were characterized and modeled. Band gap parameters and their relation to the indium distribution were characterized and modeled. Electron microscopy was developed as a unique tool to measure the formation of indium clusters on a nanometer length scale and it was demonstrated that strain induced atom column displacements can reliably be determined in any materials system with a precision that approaches 2 pm. The relation between the local indium composition x and the strain induced lattice constant c(x) in fully strained In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells was found to be: c(x) = 0.5185 + {alpha}x with {alpha} = 0.111 nm. It was concluded that the local indium concentration in the final product can be modulated by growth procedures in a predictable manner to favorably affect external quantum efficiencies that approached target values and that internal quantum efficiencies exceeded them.

  16. Enhanced surface functionality via plasma modification and plasma deposition techniques to create more biologically relevant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C.

    Functionalizing nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates to create more biologically relevant materials has become central to a wide range of research programs. One of the primary challenges in this field is creating highly functionalized surfaces without modifying the underlying bulk material. Traditional wet chemistry techniques utilize thin film depositions to functionalize nanomaterials with oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, such as --OH and --NHx. These functional groups can serve to create surfaces that are amenable to cell adhesion or can act as reactive groups for further attachment of larger structures, such as macromolecules or antiviral agents. Additional layers, such as SiO2, are often added between the nanomaterial and the functionalized coating to act as a barrier films, adhesion layers, and to increase overall hydrophilicity. However, some wet chemistry techniques can damage the bulk material during processing. This dissertation examines the use of plasma processing as an alternative method for producing these highly functionalized surfaces on nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds through the use of plasma modification and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Specifically, this dissertation will focus on (1) plasma deposition of SiO2 barrier films on nanoparticle substrates; (2) surface functionalization of amine and alcohol groups through (a) plasma co-polymerization and (b) plasma modification; and (3) the design and construction of plasma hardware to facilitate plasma processing of nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds. The body of work presented herein first examines the fabrication of composite nanoparticles by plasma processing. SiOxC y and hexylamine films were coated onto TiO2 nanoparticles to demonstrate enhanced water dispersion properties. Continuous wave and pulsed allyl alcohol plasmas were used to produce highly functionalized Fe2 O3 supported nanoparticles. Specifically, film composition was

  17. The protein and peptide mediated syntheses of non-biologically-produced oxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Matthew B.

    Numerous examples exist in nature of organisms which have evolved the ability to produce sophisticated structures composed of inorganic minerals. Studies of such biomineralizing organisms have suggested that specialized biomolecules are, in part, responsible for the controlled formation of these structures. The research detailed in this dissertation is focused on the use of biomolecules (i.e., peptides and proteins) to form non-biologically produced materials under mild reaction conditions (i.e., neutral pH, aqueous solutions, and room temperature). The peptides utilized in the studies detailed in this dissertation were identified through the screening of single crystal rutile TiO2 substrates or Ge powder with a phagedisplayed peptide library. Twenty-one peptides were identified which possessed an affinity for Ge. Three of these twenty one peptides were tested for germania precipitation activity. Those peptides possessing a basic isoelectric point as well as hydroxyl- and imidazole-containing amino acid residues were found to be the most effective in precipitating amorphous germania from an alkoxide precursor. The phage-displayed peptide library screening of TiO2 substrates yielded twenty peptides. Four of these peptides, which were heavily enriched in histidine and/or basic amino acid residues, were found to possess signficant titania precipitation activity. The activity of these peptides was found to correlate with the number of positive charges they carried. The sequence of the most active of the library-identified peptides was modified to yield two additional peptides. The titania precipitation activity of these designed peptides was higher than the parent peptide, with reduced pH dependence. The titania materials generated by the library-identified and designed peptides were found to be composed of amorphous titania as well as <10 nm anatase and/or monoclinic TiO2 crystallites. The production of titania and zirconia resulting from the interaction of the

  18. Final Report: Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William B

    2012-12-31

    Over the past 20 years, great technical progress has been made in improving power density and durability of fuel cell stacks. Yet, operating durably at high performance levels under very dry conditions, e.g., < 20% RH at 80 °C or above, remains beyond even the best fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. Thus, today it is essential to humidify the gases supplied to the fuel cell inlets. In this work, we have produced a new, inexpensive, composite membrane capable of very high water vapor transport and low air cross-over. The composite structure consists of a very thin ionomer layer (e.g., < 5 m) sandwiched between two microporous polymer layers. The thin ionomer layer facilitates the rapid water transport and provides an impermeable layer to prevent gas cross-over. Such an approach reduces cost, but maintains performance. The microporous layer protects the thin ionomer layer from mechanical damage during handling; confers strength to the thin layer allowing it to be more durable during use; and allows it to withstand higher automotive pressures and temperatures. The composite structure will therefore allow lower total cost while still meeting automotive humidifier water transport and durability targets. Because the transport rates of these new materials are so high, existing planar membrane humidifier module designs available at the start of the program were incapable of efficiently utilizing the high rates. Therefore, the assembled team designed, tested and demonstrated an innovative, low-cost humidifier module with customized channel geometries that can take advantage of the high the water transport rates. Program Results The objectives of the program have been fully met. The optimized membrane produced in the program has very high transport rates, nearly twice that of the closest competitive option, a homogeneous perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membrane. Furthermore, the composite structure imparts significant durability advantages, allowing the membrane to

  19. Fundamentals of Composite Materials for Undergraduate Engineering--A Filmed Presentation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busching, Herbert W.

    Curricula in undergraduate engineering have not adequately reflected present usage and knowledge of composite materials (types of rock and organic matter in which structurally dissimilar materials are combined). Wide usage of composites is expected to increase the importance of this class of materials and the need for more substantive exposure to…

  20. African-American Materials Project Experiment in Regional Cooperation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carol J.

    The African-American Materials Project was a three year venture in bibliographic control of African-American materials. It was a regional project, designed to locate and describe materials in six Southern states. The project was divided into three periods. Phase I was devoted to locating existing collections through the use of a questionnaire,…

  1. "Capping Off" the Development of Graduate Capabilities in the Final Semester Unit for Biological Science Students: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Biology is the most rapidly evolving scientific field of the 21st century. Biology graduates must be able to integrate concepts and collaborate outside their discipline to solve the most pressing questions of our time, e.g. world hunger, malnutrition, climate change, infectious disease and biosecurity. University educators are attempting to…

  2. The Development and Testing of Environmental and Societal-Related College General Biology Laboratory Experiences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucido, Phillip J.

    The purpose of this project was to develop and test the effectiveness of relevant and functional general biology laboratory experiences based on the various media with which the student came in day-to-day contact. The review of the literature pertaining to the development of innovative general biology laboratory procedures for the college level…

  3. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1993-05-01

    This volume contains the abstract, scope, discussion of results, charts of motor material compatibility, test procedures, material identifications, and 84 pages of data summary tables. Compatibility test results for 11 pure refrigerants and 17 refrigerant-lubricant combinations with 24 motor materials are included. The greatest effect on the motor materials was caused by adsorption followed by desorption of refrigerants at higher temperatures. High internal pressure of the adsorbed refrigerants and their tendency to evolve from the materials resulted in blisters, cracks, internal bubbles in the varnish, and delamination or bubbles in the sheet insulations. The second effect was extraction or dissolution of materials that lead to embrittlement of some sheet insulations. HCFC-22 and HCFC- 22/mineral oil had the most deleterious effects; the materials are expected to be reliable when used with most of the new refrigerants and lubricants. Tables.

  4. Development of the technology of designing of nanocomposite materials based on fluorocontaining synthetic latex and biologically active polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, G. A.; Selezneva, I. I.; Knot'ko, A. V.; Savintseva, I. V.; Montrel, M. M.; Gavrilyuk, B. K.

    2008-03-01

    A conceptually novel approach to the formation of composite biosynthetic materials is proposed, which is based on the phenomenon of self-organization of ensembles of nanoparticles of synthetic latex and biologically active polysaccharides into three-dimensional structures. It is shown that, by varying the polysaccharide/latex ratio, the nature of polysaccharide, and the temperature of drying of colloidal suspension, it is possible to control the architecture of ensembles of nanoparticles and the physicochemical characteristics of biosynthetic materials formed on their basis.

  5. The use of an ion-beam source to alter the surface morphology of biological implant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    An electron bombardment, ion thruster was used as a neutralized-ion beam sputtering source to texture the surfaces of biological implant materials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface morphology changes of all materials after ion-texturing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to determine the effects of ion texturing on the surface chemical composition of some polymers. Liquid contact angle data were obtained for ion textured and untextured polymer samples. Results of tensile and fatigue tests of ion-textured metal alloys are presented. Preliminary data of tissue response to ion textured surfaces of some metals, polytetrafluoroethylene, alumina, and segmented polyurethane were obtained.

  6. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  7. Protein viscosity, mineral fraction and staggered architecture cooperatively enable the fastest stress wave decay in load-bearing biological materials.

    PubMed

    Qwamizadeh, Mahan; Zhang, Zuoqi; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2016-07-01

    One of the key functions of load-bearing biological materials, such as bone, dentin and sea shell, is to protect their inside fragile organs by effectively damping dynamic impact. How those materials achieve this remarkable function remains largely unknown. Using systematic finite element analyses, we study the stress wave propagation and attenuation in cortical bone at the nanoscale as a model material to examine the effects of protein viscosity, mineral fraction and staggered architecture on the elastic wave decay. It is found that the staggered arrangement, protein viscosity and mineral fraction work cooperatively to effectively attenuate the stress wave. For a typical mineral volume fraction and protein viscosity, an optimal staggered nanostructure with specific feature sizes and layouts is able to give rise to the fastest stress wave decay, and the optimal aspect ratio and thickness of mineral platelets are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. In contrary, as the mineral volume fraction or the protein viscosity goes much higher, the structural arrangement is seen having trivial effect on the stress wave decay, suggesting that the damping properties of the composites go into the structure-insensitive regime from the structure-sensitive regime. These findings not only significantly add to our understanding of the structure-function relationship of load-bearing biological materials, and but also provide useful guidelines for the design of bio-inspired materials with superior resistance to impact loading. PMID:26925698

  8. New molecular precursors for low-temperature routes to new oxide materials. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, T.D.

    1997-10-01

    In this grant period, the authors have explored the single-source precursor route to silicate materials containing various main group and transition metals. They have also explored the development of polymeric precursors to zinc silicate materials. In addition, they have begun to examine precursors for phosphate materials, based on the di(tert-butyl)phosphate ligand, {minus}O{sub 2}P(O{sup t}Bu){sub 2}. A primary focus of these studies is the development of molecular precursors to homogeneous, ultrapure metal silicates and phosphates. More recently, the authors have attempted to develop template-assisted network-forming reactions that could lead to micro- or mesoporous materials. Findings are summarized below for Zr and HF systems, Al systems, Cr systems, Cu systems, metal phosphate precursors, zinc silicate luminescent materials, and syntheses of inorganic materials using dendrimeric polymers as templates.

  9. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  10. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials. Final report, period ending 31 August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harries, W.L.; Long, S.A.T.; Long, E.R. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  11. Advancing Renewable Materials by Integrated Light and X-ray Scattering - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Akpalu, Yvonne A

    2010-06-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), a group of newly developed, commercially available biopolymers, and their composites have the potential to replace petroleum-based amorphous and semicrystalline polymers currently in use for consumer packaging, adhesives, and coating applications and to have significant advantages in medical applications such as tissue engineering. While the potential of PHAs is recognized in the literature and has even been realized in some cases, knowledge of these systems is decades behind that of synthetic polymers. Composites based on PHAs, furthermore, are just emerging in the research community. We argue that widespread adoption of nano-enhanced PHA materials can only be achieved through a proper characterization of the nanofiller morphology and its impact on the polymer matrix. Our goal is to build a robust understanding of the structure-processing relationships of PHAs to make it possible to achieve fundamental control over the final properties of these biopolymers and their bionanocomposites and to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies for them. With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have performed a systematic study of the influence of cooling rate on the thermal properties and morphology of linear PHAs (PHB Mw = 690,000 g/mol; PHBV Mw = 407,000 g/mol, 8 mol % HV) and branched (PHBHx, Mw = 903, 000 g/mol, 7.2 mol % Hx) copolymers. Structure-property relations for silica/PHBHx nanocomposites were also investigated. Our studies show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the molecular weight dependent enhancement in the modulus. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Since the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites can be affected by many factors

  12. SADMESS. Student Assisted Development of Materials for Environmental and Social Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Karen; And Others

    In June, 1971, the Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC) received a grant for a project--namely, Student Assisted Development of Materials for Environmental and Social Studies (SADMESS)--which employed high school students to develop curriculum materials emphasizing the social science aspects of environmental education. SADMESS personnel…

  13. Training Materials for Research, Development and Diffusion Training Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.; Gephart, William J.

    The first 80 pages of this report describe procedures used in assembling, cataloging, and annotating a large group of instructional materials used in educational research, development, and diffusion training programs. This section also compares the characteristics of the materials and outlines procedures used in improving four of them which were…

  14. Industry to Education Technology Transfer Program. Composite Materials--Personnel Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomezsko, Edward S. J.

    A composite materials education program was established to train Boeing Helicopter Company employees in the special processing of new filament-reinforced polymer composite materials. During the personnel development phase of the joint Boeing-Penn State University project, an engineering instructor from Penn State completed a 5-month, full-time…

  15. Audio Visual Instructional Materials for Distributive Education; a Classified Bibliography. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendowski, Jerry C.

    The bibliography contains a list of 90 names and addresses of sources of audiovisual instructional materials. For each title a brief description of content, the source, purchase price, rental fee or free use for 16MM films, sound-slidefilms, tapes-records, and transparencies is given. Materials are listed separately by topics: (1) advertising and…

  16. FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

  17. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  18. Development of a Curriculum and Materials for Teaching Basic Vocational Talents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, John T., Jr.; Neyman, Clinton A.

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate special instructional materials covering abstract reasoning, mechanical comprehension, and spatial visualization as related to basic vocational talents for eighth and ninth grade students who had a high probability of entering vocational education. The materials: paper and pencil aptitude…

  19. The Appropriateness of Inquiry Development Materials for Gifted Seventh Grade Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Richard C.; Jones, William W.

    To test the efficacy of inquiry development materials with the gifted, six 7th-graders with IQ's in the top 3% participated in an inquiry science class with specially selected materials twice a week for 40 minutes over 6 months; six children with like IQ's worked on science activities in another room. Pre- and posttests in critical thinking and…

  20. The Development of Environmental Education Materials for Investigating Fire-Environment-Man Relationships: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, David L.; Reider, David A.

    This publication details the development and use of environmental education materials based on the United States Forest Service "Process Approach." This publication focuses on materials that teach the ecology and management of natural and man-made forest and brush fires. The main body of the contents develop and document a rationale for…

  1. Dental devices; reclassification of tricalcium phosphate granules and classification of other bone grafting material for dental bone repair. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-04-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying tricalcium phosphate (TCP) granules for dental bone repair from class III to class II (special controls), classifying into class II (special controls) other bone grafting material for dental indications, and revising the classification name and identification of the device type. Bone grafting materials that contain a drug that is a therapeutic biologic will remain in class III and continue to require a premarket approval application. The classification identification includes materials such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, polylactic and polyglycolic acids, or collagen. This action is being taken to establish sufficient regulatory controls that will provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of these devices. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of the guidance document that will serve as the special control for the class II devices. PMID:15858911

  2. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  3. Digital Learning Material for Student-Directed Model Building in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Coppens, Marjolijn; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    The building of models to explain data and make predictions constitutes an important goal in molecular biology research. To give students the opportunity to practice such model building, two digital cases had previously been developed in which students are guided to build a model step by step. In this article, the development and initial…

  4. Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and improve appropriate experimental techniques to the point where they could be applied to specific classes of biological problems. Progress is reported in the following areas: (1) area detectors; (2) x-ray diffraction studies of membranes; (3) electron transfer in loosely coupled systems; (4) bioluminescence and fluorescence; and (5) sonoluminescence. (ACR)

  5. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials: Final report for period September 29, 1983-June 1, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this research has been to develop integrated methods of chemical and biological analyses for use in the evaluation of potential biohazards associated with coal conversion. Five vacuum bottom samples were obtained for testing: H-coal PDU Run 9; H-coal PDU Run 10; Wilsonville ITSL Run 242 (V1067); Lummus ITSL Run 3LCF9 (Lum Feed); Lummus ITSL (Lum Product). These samples were assayed and found to be mutagenic for Salmonella strains TA97 and TA98. PDU-9 was the most mutagenic coal-derived material. Organic solvent fractions of these materials were variably mutagenic. One material (Lum Feed) gas evidence of synergistic interactions among the fractional components in the standard reverse assay. Results of forward assays and tests of the Lum. Feed and Lum. Prod. materials were suggestive of both loss of mutagenicity in the fractionation process and of interactions among fraction components contributing to enhanced mutagenicity. Results of forward mutation assays of samples of Lummus Product and Lummus Feed contrasted with those obtained from reverse mutation assays. Data from assay of both materials gave indications of the likelihood of interaction among fractions contributing to increased mutagenicity. The ability of sample fractions to influence biological activities of individual compounds known to be associated with synthetic fuels was also studied. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), was tested in the presence of the hexane fraction of PDU-9 in a forward assay incorporating 1% S9 from PCB-treated rats. Data suggest that the hexane fraction decreases BaP mutagenicity by interference with its metabolism by S9. In other mutagenicity assays 2-aminoanthracene (2AA), was tested in the presence of the hexane fraction of PDU-9. Data show an enhanced mutagenic response as a result of mixing these two materials. 31 refs., 57 figs., 47 tabs.

  6. Swaziland Curriculum and Educational Materials Development: Final Report, April 1973 through August 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Paul F.

    This is the final report of a technical assistance project conducted in Swaziland by the American Institutes for Research (AIR) to implement a Project Agreement between the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of Swaziland. The purpose of the Project Agreement was to provide assistance in meeting a priority…

  7. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...). OSHA published its final rule on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17574-17896) and will begin to accept SDS's that... HCS (77 FR 17574-17896). Before submitting such a revision to OMB for review and approval, EPA is... Sheet or SDS), required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It explains...

  8. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  9. Sensitivity tests on leaded glove material, EMRTC Report FR-95-15: Final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.; Davis, L.; Block-Bolten, A.

    1995-06-01

    Small-scale safety and characterization tests were performed on stored radioactive wastes. The materials tested were formed when leaded dry box gloves were exposed to nitric acid. The nitration products exhibited thermal and impact sensitivity which could lead to ignition of explosion. Water was used to separate the nitrated glove material into several fractions; only the insoluble fraction exhibited significant sensitivity to impact. Both the separated and mixed materials were thermally unstable. Self-heating occurred at about 80C or lower, depending on the quantity of material tested. The drop weight impact sensitivity of one sample was greater than that of trinitrotoluene. The electrostatic spark discharge sensitivity of the nitration products was measured to be less than for typical secondary explosives. No sensitivity to friction was measured. These results indicate that the nitrated gloves can probably be handled without extreme risk of ignition. Washing the nitrated materials was found to desensitize the materials, indicating that water could be used as a solvent when storing the materials.

  10. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Giulia; Bai, Zhaojun; Ceperley, David; Cai, Wei; Gygi, Francois; Marzari, Nicola; Pickett, Warren; Spaldin, Nicola; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Schwegler, Eric

    2015-09-16

    The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word ‘materials’ is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.

  11. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume IV - pictures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  12. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel.

  13. The use of an ion-beam source to alter the surface morphology of biological implant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    An electron-bombardment ion-thruster was used as a neutralized-ion-beam sputtering source to texture the surfaces of biological implant materials. The materials investigated included 316 stainless steel; titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium; cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten; cobalt-35% nickel, 20% chromium, 10% molybdenum; polytetrafluoroethylene; polyoxymethylene; silicone and polyurethane copolymer; 32%-carbon-impregnated polyolefin; segmented polyurethane; silicone rubber; and alumina. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface morphology changes of all materials after ion-texturing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to determine the effects of ion-texturing on the surface chemical composition of some polymers. Liquid contact angle data were obtained for ion-textured and untextured polymer samples. Results of tensile and fatigue tests of ion-textured metal alloys are presented. Preliminary data of tissue response to ion-textured surfaces of some metals, polytetrafluoroethylene, alumina, and segmented polyurethane have been obtained.

  14. Portable magnetic tweezers device enables visualization of the three-dimensional microscale deformation of soft biological materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yali; Lin, Jun; Meschewski, Ryan; Watson, Erin; Valentine, Megan T

    2011-07-01

    We have designed and built a magnetic tweezers device that enables the application of calibrated stresses to soft materials while simultaneously measuring their microscale deformation using confocal microscopy. Unlike previous magnetic tweezers designs, our device is entirely portable, allowing easy use on microscopes in core imaging facilities or in collaborators' laboratories. The imaging capabilities of the microscope are unimpaired, enabling the 3-D structures of fluorescently labeled materials to be precisely determined under applied load. With this device, we can apply a large range of forces (~1-1200 pN) over micron-scale contact areas to beads that are either embedded within 3-D matrices or attached to the surface of thin slab gels. To demonstrate the usefulness of this instrument, we have studied two important and biologically relevant materials: polyacrylamide-based hydrogel films typical of those used in cell traction force microscopy, and reconstituted networks of microtubules, essential cytoskeletal filaments. PMID:21781050

  15. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  16. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  17. Biological effects of soft denture reline materials on L929 cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Carolina AL; Vergani, Carlos E; Thomas, Dominique; Young, Anne; Costa, Carlos AS; Machado, Ana L

    2014-01-01

    Soft denture reline materials have been developed to help patients when their oral mucosa is damaged or affected due to ill-fitting dentures or post-implant surgery. Although reports have indicated that these materials leach monomers and other components that do affect their biocompatibility, there is little information on what cell molecules may be implicated in these material/tissue interactions. The biocompatibility of six soft liners (Ufi Gel P, Sofreliner S, Durabase Soft, Trusoft, Softone and Coe Comfort) was evaluated using a mouse fibroblast cell line, L929. Within 2 h of material disc preparation, each of the materials was exposed by direct contact to L929 cells for periods of 24 and 48 h. The effect of this interaction was assessed by alamarBlue assay (for cell survival). The expression of integrin α5β1 and transforming growth factor β1 was also assessed using plate assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trusoft, Softone and Coe Comfort showed significantly reduced cell survival compared with the other soft lining materials at each incubation period. Furthermore, there were significant differences with these same materials in the expression of both integrin α5β1 and transforming growth factor β1. Soft liner materials may affect cell viability and cellular proteins that have important roles in wound healing and the preservation of cell viability and function in the presence of environmental challenges and stresses. PMID:25383166

  18. Adaptive Back Sheet Material for Acoustic Liner Applications-ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Farrar, Dawnielle

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed piezo-electric composite film is evaluated for its usefulness in application in acoustic liners. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center Liner Technology Facility developed experiments to measure the electrical response of the material to acoustic excitation and the vibrational response of the material to electrical excitation. The robustness of the piezo-electric film was also assessed. The material's electrical response to acoustic excitation is found to be comparable to a commercial microphone in the range of frequencies from 500 to 3000 Hz. However, the vibrational response to electrical excitation in the frequency range of interest is an order of magnitude less than may be necessary for application to acoustic liners. Nevertheless, experimental results indicate that the potential exists for the material to produce a measurable change in the impedance spectrum of a liner. Work continues to improve the authority of the piezo-electric film.

  19. Solar-collector materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminum substrate, and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminum substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  20. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.F.

    1983-04-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric corrosion of candidate batten and enclosure materials were tested on outdoor racks parallel to the tilted solar-collected panels at nine National Solar Data Network (NSDN) sites, loceated in mild marine, mild industrial, and rural environments. The candidate materials evaluated include galvanized steel (G-90), aluminized steel (Type 2), aluminum (6061), and white polyester painted steel. Data analyses predicted that all the first three materials will last more than 20 years in the nine sites tested. However, repainting of the painted steel is probably needed within five years in a mild marine environment and five to ten years in a mild industrial or rural environment.

  1. Materials and mechanical design analysis of boron carbide reactor safety rods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this task was to analyze the materials and mechanical design bases for the new boron carbide safety rod. These analyses included examination of the irradiation response of the materials, chemical compatibility of component materials, moisture considerations for the boron carbide pellets and susceptibility of the rod to corrosion under reactor environmental conditions. A number of issues concerning the mechanical behavior were also addressed. These included: safety rod dynamic response in scram scenarios, flexibility and mishandling behavior, and response to thermal excursions associated with gamma heating. A surveillance program aimed at evaluating the integrity of the safety rods following actual operating conditions and justifying life extension for the rods was also proposed. Based on the experimental testing and analyses associated with this task, it is concluded that the boron carbide safety rod design meets the materials and mechanical criteria for successful operational performance.

  2. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  3. Final report: Photochromism as a switching mechanism for electronically active organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pollagi, T.P.; Sinclair, M.B.; Jacobs, S.J.

    1997-07-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of conjugated polymers in environmental stability, regiochemical regularity, and electrical conductivity, particularly of polythiophene and polyaniline, have intensified interest in device applications. Present or anticipated applications include development of electrical circuitry on a molecular scale, as well as conducting and semiconducting materials for a variety of applications including thin film transistors and batteries. The authors have investigated a series of compounds comprising conjugated segments coupled to photochromic elements. The photochromic reaction in these compounds reversibly alters the conjugation length and provides a mechanism for switching both the electrical and optical properties of these materials. The authors are currently investigating the nature and scope of this switching mechanism and preparing extended materials that take advantage of this novel form of switching behavior. Preparation and photochromic behavior of several of these materials are described.

  4. Review of laser filter materials. Final report, October 1987-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.A.

    1989-09-26

    This report presents a discussion of laser eye-protection filtering materials. Four classes of filters are evaluated for immediate and future filtering capabilities. Salient features required for near-term multi-wavelength filtering are discussed in general, and the effectiveness of several filter materials as laser protection is assessed. Spectral illuminances for the most promising eye-protection filters are computed for representative day- and night-lighting conditions to approximate visual acuity.

  5. HM-164: radioactive materials; routing and driver training requirements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, S.A.; Welch, M.J.; Welles, B.W.

    1986-03-01

    This report summarizes the history and comments on HM-164 from January 1976 to January 1986. HM-164 was created by the US Department of Transportation in response to proliferating state and local laws prohibiting or restricting highway movement of radioactive materials and establishes a nationally consistent highway routing system for radioactive materials. Upheld by the US Supreme Court in February, 1984, HM-164 has formed the basis for a number of state and local laws to be held inconsistent with federal laws.

  6. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  7. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength

    SciTech Connect

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-10-14

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer.

  8. Mechanical behavior of a ceramic matrix composite material. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosskopf, Paul P.; Duke, John C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic materials have been used in industry for hundreds of years. These materials have proven their usefulness in many applications, yet, their potential for critical structural applications is limited. The existence of an imperfection in a monolithic ceramic on the order of several microns in size may be critical, resulting in catastrophic failure. To overcome this extreme sensitivity to small material imperfections, reinforced ceramic materials were developed. A ceramic matrix which has been reinforced with continuous fibers is not only less sensitive to microscopic flaws, but is also able to sustain significant damage without suffering catastrophic failure. A borosilicate glass reinforced with several layers of plain weave silicon carbide cloth (Nicalon) was studied. The mechanical testing which was performed included both flexural and tensile loading configurations. This testing was done not only to determine the material properties, but also to initiate a controlled amount of damage within each specimen. Several nondestructive testing techniques, including acousto-ultrasonics (AU), were performed on the specimens periodically during testing. The AU signals were monitored through the use of an IBM compatible personal computer with a high speed data acquisition board. Software was written which manipulates the AU signals in both the time and frequency domains, resulting in quantitative measures of the mechanical response of the material. The measured AU parameters are compared to both the mechanical test results and data from other nondestructive methods including ultrasonic C-scans and penetrant enhanced x ray radiography.

  9. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

  10. UV LEDs for fluorescence detection of biological particles: from materials to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherasimova, M.; Han, J.; Song, Y.-K.; Nurmikko, A. V.; Pan, Y.-L.; Chang, R. K.

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate a compact system, incorporating a 32-element linear array of ultraviolet (290 nm and 340 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a multi-anode photomultiplier tube, to the in-flight fluorescence detection of aerosolized particles, here containing the biological molecules tryptophan and NADH. This system illustrates substantial advances in the growth and fabrication of new semiconductor UV light emitting devices and an evolution in packaging details for LEDs tailored to the bio-aerosol warning problem.

  11. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  12. Shuttle Ground Operations Efficiencies/Technologies (SGOE/T) study. Volume 3: Final presentation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Charts used in the Final Phase 1 Oral Briefing at Kennedy Space Center on April 6, 1987, and to the Space Transportation Architecture Study (SPAS) Interim Program Review (IPS-5) held at MSFC on April 8, 1987, are contained. Topics discussed include: identification of existing or new technologies to reduce cost; management approaches; recommendations for research or development of specific technology for future use; and identification of new management techniques.

  13. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  14. Rapid identification of airborne biological particles by flow cytometry, gas chromatography, and genetic probes. Final report, January 1995-January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, C.H.; Carlon, H.R.; Edmonds, R.L.; Robert, L.; Blew, J.

    1997-09-01

    Detection of airborne biological particulates is a primary mission of the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center biological defense program. If biological particles could be characterized according to their unique physical and biochemical profiles, detection and perhaps even identification of the particles might be possible. This study focused upon microbial particles, more specifically upon fungal spores, yeast cells, and bacterial cells. Physical characteristics of the particles, it was proposed, could be detected by flow cytometry, while their biochemical profiles could be determined by gas chromatography, and their genetic identity could be obtained by either a suitable genetic probe or by matching its genetic fingerprint. Genetic techniques were not attempted in the work reported here, but the approach was investigated further. Trial results were encouraging.

  15. Removal of Review and Reclassification Procedures for Biological Products Licensed Prior to July 1, 1972. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is removing two regulations that prescribe procedures for FDA's review and classification of biological products licensed before July 1, 1972. FDA is taking this action because the two regulations are obsolete and no longer necessary in light of other statutory and regulatory authorities established since 1972, which allow FDA to evaluate and monitor the safety and effectiveness of all biological products. In addition, other statutory and regulatory authorities authorize FDA to revoke a license for biological products because they are not safe and effective, or are misbranded. FDA is taking this action as part of its retrospective review of its regulations to promote improvement and innovation. PMID:26878738

  16. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the wide range of creatinine mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, the assigned values for 16 of the 17 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. The excluded material was identified as having a marginally underestimated assigned uncertainty, giving it large and potentially anomalous influence on the KCRF. However, this material's %d of 1.4 +/- 1.5 indicates that it is equivalent with the other materials at the 95% level of confidence. The median |%d| for all 17 of the materials is 0.3 with a median U95(%d) of 1.9. All of these higher-order CRMs for creatinine in human serum are equivalent within their assigned uncertainties. The median |%D| for the participating NMIs is 0.3 with a median U95(%D) of 2.1. These results demonstrate that all participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for creatinine in human serum and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico coastal and marine ecosystem program: Data search and synthesis, annotated bibliography. Appendix E: Biology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This study summarizes environmental and socioeconomic information related to the Florida Panhandle Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). It contains a conceptual model of active processes and identification of information gaps that will be useful in the design of future environmental studies in the geographic area. The annotated bibliography for this study is printer in six volumes, each pertaining to a specific topic. They are as follows: Appendix A--Physical Oceanography; Appendix B--Meteorology; Appendix C--Geology; Appendix D--Chemistry; Appendix E--Biology; and Appendix F--Socioeconomics. This volume contains bibliographic references pertaining to biology.

  18. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours. The original refrigerants and the Alternatives tested for retrofit were as follows: Most motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) were compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant. This was attributed to solution of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) found in Mylar and Melinex sheet and sleeving insulations was initially observed, but subsequent tests under dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was caused by moisture present during the exposure. Compatibility tests of elastomers with R-245ca, retrofitted from R-11 and R-123, showed that the nitrile was compatible with both R-11 and R-245ca, but not with R-123. The neoprene was unsatisfactory because of shrinkage in the R-245ca.

  19. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0001878 [Theory and Simulation of Defects in Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chelikowsky, James R.

    2014-04-14

    We explored a wide variety of oxide materials and related problems, including materials at the nanoscale and generic problems associated with oxide materials such as the development of more efficient computational tools to examine these materials. We developed and implemented methods to understand the optical and structural properties of oxides. For ground state properties, our work is predominantly based on pseudopotentials and density functional theory (DFT), including new functionals and going beyond the local density approximation (LDA): LDA+U. To study excited state properties (quasiparticle and optical excitations), we use time dependent density functional theory, the GW approach, and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) methods based on a many-body Green function approaches. Our work focused on the structural, electronic, optical and magnetic properties of defects (such as oxygen vacancies) in hafnium oxide, titanium oxide (both bulk and clusters) and related materials. We calculated the quasiparticle defect states and charge transition levels of oxygen vacancies in monoclinic hafnia. we presented a milestone G0W0 study of two of the crystalline phases of dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} clusters. We employed hybrid density functional theory to examine the electronic structure of sexithiophene/ZnO interfaces. To identify the possible effect of epitaxial strain on stabilization of the ferromagnetic state of LaCoO{sub 3} (LCO), we compare the total energy of the magnetic and nonmagnetic states of the strained theoretical bulk structure.

  20. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H.; Dahotre, N.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  1. Traction characteristics of chemical agent protective footwear soleing materials. Final technical report, October 1991-January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Static Coefficient of Friction (SCF) values were determined for several footwear soleing materials on different walkway surfaces, and for different surface conditions, to establish which soleing materials provided the best traction performance for shipboard application. The soleing materials evaluated included a standard Navy safety boot with nitrile rubber sole, a Vibram nitrile commercial sole, the Army's prototype nitrile/ neoprene multipurpose overboot (MULO) and vinyl overshoe, and three butyl chemical protective footwear covers. The walkway surfaces employed were stainless steel, aluminum, and new and worn non-skid coated steel. The SCF values were obtained with the surfaces dry, wet, and contaminated with oil. The ASTM Standard Test Method for Static Coefficient of Friction of Shoe Sole and Heel Materials, as measured by the James Machine, was used to determine the SCF values. The standard and MULO nitriles performed best when all walkway surfaces and conditions were considered. The excellent chemical resistance of the nitriles, and their high SCF values for a variety of surfaces and surface conditions evaluated in this study, makes them good candidate soleing materials for chemical agent protective footwear.

  2. LDRD final report on nanocomposite materials based on hydrocarbon-bridged siloxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Bates, S.E.; Loy, D.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Emerson, J.A.; Curro, J.G.

    1997-05-01

    Silicones [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers] are environmentally safe, nonflammable, weather resistant, thermally stable, low T{sub g} materials which are attractive for general elastomer applications because of their safety and their performance over a wide temperature range. However, PDMS is inherently weak due to its low glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and lack of stress crystallization. The major goal of this project was to create a family of reinforced elastomers based on silsesquioxane/PDMS networks. Polydimethylsiloxane-based (PDMS) composite materials containing a variety of alkylene-arylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes were synthesized in order to probe short chain and linkage effects in bimodal polymer networks. Monte Carlo simulations on the alkylene-bridged silsesquioxane/PDMS system predicted that the introduction of the silsesquioxane short chains into the long chain PDMS network would have a significant reinforcing effect on the elastomer. The silsesquioxane-PDMS networks were synthesized and evaluated. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the resulting materials indicated that use of the appropriate silisesquioxane generated materials with greatly enhanced properties. Arylene and activated alkylene systems resulted in materials that showed superior adhesive strength for metal-to-metal adhesion.

  3. Hierarchical fiber bundle model to investigate the complex architectures of biological materials.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola M; Bosia, Federico; Abdalrahman, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fiber bundles has been widely studied in the literature, and fiber bundle models in particular have provided a wealth of useful analytical and numerical results for modeling ordinary materials. These models, however, are inadequate to treat bioinspired nanostructured materials, where hierarchy, multiscale, and complex properties play a decisive role in determining the overall mechanical characteristics. Here, we develop an ad hoc hierarchical theory designed to tackle these complex architectures, thus allowing the determination of the strength of macroscopic hierarchical materials from the properties of their constituents at the nanoscale. The roles of finite size, twisting angle, and friction are also included. Size effects on the statistical distribution of fiber strengths naturally emerge without invoking best-fit or unknown parameters. A comparison between the developed theory and various experimental results on synthetic and natural materials yields considerable agreement. PMID:22400587

  4. Evaluation of Natural Materials as Exogenous Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Low Carbon-to-Nitrogen Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Beltrán-Hernández, Icela; Álvarez-Hernández, Alejandro; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Quezada-Cruz, Maribel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the bacterial processes involved in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, an adequately high carbon-to-nitrogen (C : N) ratio is key to sustain denitrification. We evaluated three natural materials (woodchips, barley grains, and peanut shells) as carbon sources for low C : N wastewater. The amount of organic matter released from these materials to aqueous media was evaluated, as well as their pollution swapping potential by measuring the release of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, N-NH4+, NO2−, and NO3−, and total phosphorous. Barley grains yielded the highest amount of organic matter, which also showed to be the most easily biodegradable. Woodchips and peanut shells released carbon rather steadily and so they would not require frequent replenishment from biological reactors. These materials produced eluates with lower concentrations of nutrients than the leachates from barley grains. However, as woodchips yielded lower amounts of suspended solids, they constitute an adequate exogenous source for the biological treatment of carbon-deficient effluents. PMID:26495313

  5. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2007-09-12

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.

  6. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic bearing materials. Final report for 1995--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Gilde, G.A.; Swab, J.J.

    1999-03-01

    This report discusses the findings from one phase of the ongoing work to evaluate materials for Army bearing systems. The objective of this phase is to determine the response and longevity of various silicon nitride Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) using hybrid and all-ceramic systems. Tests were conducted under regular lubrication and lubrication-starved conditions for extended periods. A correlation between RCF life and the hardness, strength, and microstructure of each silicon nitride is made. The various silicon nitride materials evaluated in these RCF tests were selected on the basis of providing a varied response to the RCF parameters and conditions used.

  7. Laboratory study of acid stimulation of drilling-mud-damaged geothermal-reservoir materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory testing performed to provide site specific information in support of geothermal reservoir acidizing programs. The testing program included laboratory tests performed to determine the effectiveness of acid treatments in restoring permeability of geologic materials infiltrated with hydrothermally altered sepiolite drilling mud. Additionally, autoclave tests were performed to determine the degree of hydrothermal alteration and effects of acid digestion on drilling muds and drill cuttings from two KGRA's. Four laboratory scale permeability/acidizing tests were conducted on specimens prepared from drill cuttings taken from two geothermal formations. Two tests were performed on material from the East Mesa KGRA Well No. 78-30, from a depth of approximately 5500 feet, and two tests were performed on material from the Roosevelt KGRA Well No. 52-21, from depths of approximately 7000 to 7500 feet. Tests were performed at simulated in situ geothermal conditions of temperature and pressure.

  8. Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program nuclear materials measurement data: Phase 1: Final report, 1985 through 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-08-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory has been tasked by the US Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security to assess and evaluate the adequacy of measurement technology as applied to materials accounting in US Department of Energy nuclear facilities. The Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program was developed as a means to monitor and evaluate the quality and effectiveness of accounting measurements by site, material balance area, or unit process. Phase 1 of the Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program, initiated during 1985, involved evaluation of the primary accountability measurement methods at six US Department of Energy Defense Programs facilities. Resulting data are presented and evaluated as indicators of current state-of-the-practice accountability measurement methodology, deficiencies in materials accounting practices, and areas for possible assistance in upgrading measurement capabilities. 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Corrosion and materials selection report update non-proprietary version. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.

    1984-06-01

    The revised Baseline design (dated 22 October, 1982) used most of the available information with regard to the corrosion, erosion and materials of construction. This information was collected through various programs conducted at the major coal liquefaction pilot plants, e.g. SRC-1 and SRC-2, H-Coal and EDS, and at various research laboratories. The selection of materials of construction was also based on certain basic assumptions with regard to the plant life and life of each type of equipment. Other selection criteria included various process considerations and economics. In cases where no data on corrosion and erosion was available, past experience, licensors' knowhow and engineering judgement, were utilized in the selection process. Beyond the date of publication of the revised Baseline document, additional data from various pilot plants and lab programs has been made available. On account of continuous review being performed by DOE and their subcontractors and consultants, a number of comments were forwarded to ICRC. These comments and latest developmental programs suggested several improvements in the design. This report consists of the following major sections: A discussion on corrosion/erosion related research and pilot plant programs; the materials selection criterion, including plant and equipment life, and various process considerations, are discussed in detail; copies of the materials diagrams from the Revised Baseline are attached; ICRC response to unresolved materials-related comments is included in the Appendix A; areas of concern and data gaps, with regard to the materials of construction are identified; and recommended areas of future research and development programs are listed.

  10. Test methods for the dynamic mechanical properties of polymeric materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.K.

    1980-06-01

    Various test geometries and procedures for the dynamic mechanical analysis of polymers employing a mechanical spectrometer have been evaluated. The methods and materials included in this work are forced torsional pendulum testing of Kevlar/epoxy laminates and rigid urethane foams, oscillatory parallel plate testing to determine the kinetics of the cure of VCE with Hylene MP, oscillatory compressive testing of B-3223 cellular silicone, and oscillatory tensile testing of Silastic E and single Kevlar filaments. Fundamental dynamic mechanical properties, including the storage and loss moduli and loss tangent of the materials tested, were determined as a function of temperature and sometimes of frequency.

  11. Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO). Final report, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, B.

    1985-11-19

    This document summarizes the first two weeks of the transition plan for Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO) to transition into management of the Feed Materials Production Center. The report presents accomplishments, planned activities, and percieved problems for the process, organized into 15 general areas: operations and maintenance; human resources; community involvement; environmental, safety and health; security and safeguards; finance; legal and contracts management; engineering and construction; management control systems; quality assurance; waste management; productivity retention program; purchasing; liaison with customers of FMPC (Users) and DOE; development of 9-month program plan.

  12. A New Approach to Studying Biological and Soft Materials Using Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB SEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, D. J.; Morrissey, F.; Lich, B. H.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last decade techniques such as confocal light microscopy, in combination with fluorescent labelling, have helped biologists and life scientists to study biological architectures at tissue and cell level in great detail. Meanwhile, obtaining information at very small length scales is possible with the combination of sample preparation techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is well known for the determination of surface characteristics and morphology. However, the desire to understand the three dimensional relationships of meso-scale hierarchies has led to the development of advanced microscopy techniques, to give a further complementary approach. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used as a nano-scalpel and hence allows us to reveal internal microstructure in a site-specific manner. Whilst FIB instruments have been used to study and verify the three-dimensional architecture of man made materials, SEM and FIB technologies have now been brought together in a single instrument representing a powerful combination for the study of biological specimens and soft materials. We demonstrate the use of FIB SEM to study three-dimensional relationships for a range of length scales and materials, from small-scale cellular structures to the larger scale interactions between biomedical materials and tissues. FIB cutting of heterogeneous mixtures of hard and soft materials, resulting in a uniform cross-section, has proved to be of particular value since classical preparation methods tend to introduce artefacts. Furthermore, by appropriate selection, we can sequentially cross-section to create a series of 'slices' at specific intervals. 3D reconstruction software can then be used to volume-render information from the 2D slices, enabling us to immediately see the spatial relationships between microstructural components.

  13. Accidental exposure to biological material in healthcare workers at a university hospital: Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia; Lopes, Marta Heloísa; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai

    2005-01-01

    The care and follow-up provided to healthcare workers (HCWs) from a large teaching hospital who were exposed to biological material between 1 August 1998 and 31 January 2002 is described here. After exposure, the HCW is evaluated by a nurse and doctor in an emergency consultation and receives follow-up counselling. The collection of 10 ml of blood sample from each HCW and its source patient, when known, is made for immunoenzymatic testing for HIV, HBV and HCV. Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases revealed that the exposures were concentrated in only a few areas of the hospital; 83% of the HCWs exposed were seen by a doctor responsible for the prophylaxis up to 3 h after exposure. Blood was involved in 76.7% (309) of the exposures. The patient source of the biological material was known in 80.7% (326) of the exposed individuals studied; 80 (24.5%) sources had serological evidence of infection with 1 or more agents: 16.2% were anti-HCV positive, 3.8% were HAgBs positive and 10.9% were anti-HIV positive. 67% (273) of the study population completed the proposed follow-up. No confirmed seroconversion occurred. In conclusion, the observed adherence to the follow-up was quite low, and measures to improve it must be taken. Surprisingly, no difference in adherence to the follow-up was observed among those exposed HCW at risk, i.e. those with an infected or unknown source patient. Analysis of post-exposure management revealed excess prescription of antiretroviral drugs, vaccine and immunoglobulin. Infection by HCV is the most important risk of concern, in our hospital, in accidents with biological material. PMID:15804666

  14. The use of Compton suppression spectrometers for trace element studies in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Zeisler, R; Woittiez, J R

    1990-01-01

    A straightforward method for demonstrating the powerful background reduction of Compton suppression spectrometers for neutron activation purposes is presented. The shorter acquisition time needed in Anti-Compton mode (A/C on) for peaks of appropriate counting statistics, compared to normal gamma counting (A/C off), allows a much higher sample throughput, thus compensating for the higher cost of the instrument. Two examples of artificial mixtures of radionuclides demonstrate the drastic time saving for measurement of monoenergetic decaying isotopes. The comparison of results from three different instruments proves the general usefulness of Compton suppression spectrometers for Neutron Activation Analysis of biological samples. PMID:1704771

  15. Final report on CCQM-K79: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Ethanol in aqueous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Sebastian; Philipp, Rosemarie; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    -weighted generalized distance regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, all of the assigned values for all 27 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the very wide range of ethanol mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). The median of the absolute values of the %D for the participating NMIs is less than 0.05% with a median U95(%D) of less than 1%. These results demonstrate that the participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for ethanol in aqueous media and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Revision and Updating of Listings of Vocational Instructional Materials Available from Federal Agencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carol L.

    This document reports a survey of curriculum and instructional materials readily available from over ninety-two federal organizations which could be utilized by vocational educators. Chapters 1 and 2 (Executive Summary and Introduction) summarize this survey conducted by Human Resources Management, Inc., from 1979-80, which resulted in listings of…

  17. A Study of Two Methods for Adapting Self-Instructional Materials to Individual Differences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaragno, Ralph J.

    The two-phase study compared two methods of adapting self-instructional materials to individual differences among learners. The methods were compared with each other and with a control condition involving only minimal adaptation. The first adaptation procedure was based on subjects' performances on a learning task in Phase I of the study; the…

  18. Supplemental Driver Safety Program Development Volume II--Pilot and Field Test Module Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Kenard; Weidman, James R.

    This volume contains materials to supplement existing driver education programming offered by high schools to youthful (16- to 18-year old) drivers. Section I contains three drinking/driving modules: an information-only module, a self-image module, and a three-unit peer intervention module. An instructor's guide provided for each module includes…

  19. Bilingual Education Instructional and Training Materials. Field Test Results and Final Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, Alicia

    The report describes a federally funded project for the development of an innovative approach to bilingual curriculum and instruction and inservice teacher training. A needs assessment and research process resulted in development and field testing of a set of bilingual Spanish-English instructional materials for limited-English-speaking urban…

  20. The Development and Experimental Application of Self-Instructional Practice Materials for Beginning Instrumentalists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puopolo, Vito

    This study investigated the feasibility of structured, programmed practice with tape-recorded materials and its effect upon the performance achievement of beginning elementary cornet and trumpet students. The main purpose of the study was to facilitate the teaching and learning in instrumental performance through the application of programmed…

  1. A Model for Producing and Sharing Instructional Materials in Veterinary Medicine. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy C.; Niec, Alphonsus P.

    This report describes a study of factors which appear to influence the "shareability" of audiovisual materials in the field of veterinary medicine. Specific factors addressed are content quality, instructional effectiveness, technical quality, institutional support, organization, logistics, and personal attitudes toward audiovisuals. (Author/CO)

  2. Development of Curriculum and Instructional Materials for Young Farm Wives Chapters. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Richard F.

    The major purpose of this project was to determine the need for and the development of curriculum and instructional materials for members of young farm wives chapters. Young farm wives advisors, young farm wives officers, and young farm wives members were surveyed using a needs assessment questionnaire. The list of instructional areas identified…

  3. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, K.E.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of these materials to a simulated coal combustion environment for relatively short periods of time (10-50 hours). Heat exchanger tubes from DuPont Lanxide Composite Inc. were cut and infiltrated with Cr by heating in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed. This resulted in continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. The Cr-free and the Cr-infiltrated specimens were reacted with the molten Illinois No. 6 slag for 2 and 20 h at 1260{degrees}C, and the reaction layers examined with SEM and EDX. In the Cr-free specimens, the segregation of Fe and the precipitation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were detected near the liquid/gas interface, but no evidence of corrosion was present. In the Cr-infiltrate specimens, corrosion was evident, since a rearrangement and segregation of the Cr-rich grains occurred toward the surface of the molten slag. In addition, evidence of the diffusion of major quantities of Fe was observed from the liquid slag into the Cr-rich layer formed by infiltration.

  4. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  5. Developing and Validating Task-Oriented Materials for Adult Basic Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Dept. of Education.

    A project was undertaken to develop and validate English-as-a-second-language (ESL) materials for use with the occupational knowledge section of the Indiana adult basic education (ABE) curriculum guide, "Learning for Everyday Living." Developed during the project were 10 units designed to develop the ESL skills necessary to understand procedures…

  6. Development of Occupational Investigation Resource Materials. Final Report: Research Project in Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    In response to a need for quality resource materials for the Occupational Investigation component of Occupational Orientation, a project developed guides that addressed the needs of the four program components: self-appraisal, economic and societal factors, occupational clusters, and educational planning. A teacher's handbook was developed to…

  7. Mechanical alloying processing with applications to structural materials. Final report, August 1994--March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, T.H.

    1998-06-01

    Relationships among the synthesis, processing, structure and properties of materials generated through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechanosynthesis are described. Several materials classes: cermets, particulate metal matrix composites (MMC), and tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) have been produced, and their properties and structures evaluated. Niobium carbide and tungsten, carbide cermets can be conveniently generated either through room temperature synthesis (NbC cermets) or by room temperature milling followed by elevated temperature exposure (WC cermets). Cermet microstructures following consolidation are fine, and the materials demonstrate exceptional hardnesses albeit their fracture toughnesses are generally low. Al based MMC can be synthesized similarly. The composites they have studied utilize aluminum carbide as a reinforcement. The yield strengths of these MMC are approximately twice those of high strength aerospace Al alloys. Noncrystalline WHA can be generated via MA. During consolidation, these alloys are prone to crystallization. Nonetheless, because of their fine structure the crystalline products manifest high hardnesses relative to conventional WHA. Current efforts are focusing on retaining the noncrystalline phase during consolidation so as to produce materials having particularly desirable mechanical properties.

  8. Communicative Competence in Foreign Language Learning with Authentic Materials. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienbaum, Barbara E.; And Others

    A college second language program compared the effectiveness of traditional second language instruction and a communicative approach in second year French, German, and Spanish courses. The communicative classes used only authentic materials, thematically organized and prepared for classroom use by the instructors. Similar topics were addressed in…

  9. Child Development and Material Survey. Part I, Technical Report. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENKI Corp., San Fernando, CA.

    This document is Part I of a two-part project whose goal was to identify the sequential development of child behavior from birth through age seven and to identify the materials which could be used to strengthen or initiate a behavioral facet. Research on child development was collected, organized, and analyzed for correlative events pertinent to…

  10. Reclamation, reconstruction, and reuse of phosphogypsum for building materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphogypsum, a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, is a material that has potential for use in road building and other construction uses. Engineering properties of a number of phosphogypsum containing products are described and experimental programs to demonstrate applications are reported.

  11. The Alternatives for Delivery of Materials between Pennsylvania Libraries. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael B.; And Others

    Problems encountered in the first seven years of operation of the Interlibrary Delivery System (IDS) for the transport of interlibrary loan materials among libraries in Pennsylvania prompted this study of present delivery at the local and state levels, with the objectives of evaluating benefits, costs, routing, funding, and governance of delivery…

  12. Studies on the Use of Extramural Videopublished Materials in Continuing Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Douglas; And Others

    The Engineering Renewal and Growth (ERG) program at Colorado State University (CSU) was designed for continuing education of engineers. The program used videotapes and coordinated written materials to deliver instruction to the practicing engineer. Courses were leased to individual students or industries in which students worked. The courses were…

  13. A Developmental Study of the Retention of Narrative Material. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimiles, Herbert; Kuhns, Margaret

    A Sample of 576 children participated in a study to determine the manner in which children retain narrative material, what information they retain, and the effects of sex and age upon these aspects of memory. The children, ranging in age from six to eight years, listened to a tape recorded story in individual sessions. Half of them were asked to…

  14. FINAL REPORT. NEW ANION-EXCHANGE RESINS FOR IMPROVED SEPARATIONS OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a predictive capability that would enable us to design and implement new anion-exchange materials that selectively sorb metal complexes. Our approach was to extend the principles applied to optimization of chelating ligands (i....

  15. 2012 best practices for repositories collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of biological materials for research international society for biological and environmental repositories.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Third Edition [Formula: see text] [Box: see text] Printed with permission from the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) © 2011 ISBER All Rights Reserved Editor-in-Chief Lori D. Campbell, PhD Associate Editors Fay Betsou, PhD Debra Leiolani Garcia, MPA Judith G. Giri, PhD Karen E. Pitt, PhD Rebecca S. Pugh, MS Katherine C. Sexton, MBA Amy P.N. Skubitz, PhD Stella B. Somiari, PhD Individual Contributors to the Third Edition Jonas Astrin, Susan Baker, Thomas J. Barr, Erica Benson, Mark Cada, Lori Campbell, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques Campos, David Carpentieri, Omoshile Clement, Domenico Coppola, Yvonne De Souza, Paul Fearn, Kelly Feil, Debra Garcia, Judith Giri, William E. Grizzle, Kathleen Groover, Keith Harding, Edward Kaercher, Joseph Kessler, Sarah Loud, Hannah Maynor, Kevin McCluskey, Kevin Meagher, Cheryl Michels, Lisa Miranda, Judy Muller-Cohn, Rolf Muller, James O'Sullivan, Karen Pitt, Rebecca Pugh, Rivka Ravid, Katherine Sexton, Ricardo Luis A. Silva, Frank Simione, Amy Skubitz, Stella Somiari, Frans van der Horst, Gavin Welch, Andy Zaayenga 2012 Best Practices for Repositories: Collection, Storage, Retrieval and Distribution of Biological Materials for Research INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPOSITORIES (ISBER) INTRODUCTION T he availability of high quality biological and environmental specimens for research purposes requires the development of standardized methods for collection, long-term storage, retrieval and distribution of specimens that will enable their future use. Sharing successful strategies for accomplishing this goal is one of the driving forces for the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER). For more information about ISBER see www.isber.org . ISBER's Best Practices for Repositories (Best Practices) reflect the collective experience of its members and has received broad input from other repository professionals. Throughout this document

  16. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Stephen G.

    2013-11-11

    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  17. Final Report - Assessment of Potential Phosphate Ion-Cementitious Materials Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J; Mattus, Catherine H; Dole, Leslie Robert

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to: (1) review the potential for degradation of cementitious materials due to exposure to high concentrations of phosphate ions; (2) provide an improved understanding of any significant factors that may lead to a requirement to establish exposure limits for concrete structures exposed to soils or ground waters containing high levels of phosphate ions; (3) recommend, as appropriate, whether a limitation on phosphate ion concentration in soils or ground water is required to avoid degradation of concrete structures; and (4) provide a "primer" on factors that can affect the durability of concrete materials and structures in nuclear power plants. An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature, contacts with concrete research personnel, and conduct of a "bench-scale" laboratory investigation. Results of these activities indicate that: no harmful interactions occur between phosphates and cementitious materials unless phosphates are present in the form of phosphoric acid; phosphates have been incorporated into concrete as set retarders, and phosphate cements have been used for infrastructure repair; no standards or guidelines exist pertaining to applications of reinforced concrete structures in high-phosphate environments; interactions of phosphate ions and cementitious materials has not been a concern of the research community; and laboratory results indicate similar performance of specimens cured in phosphate solutions and those cured in a calcium hydroxide solution after exposure periods of up to eighteen months. Relative to the "primer," a separate NUREG report has been prepared that provides a review of pertinent factors that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures.

  18. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy

  20. Fluorescent and Magnetic Mesoporous Hybrid Material: A Chemical and Biological Nanosensor for Hg2+ Ions

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Moorthy; Anand, Chokkalingam; Frith, Jessica E.; Dhawale, Dattatray S.; Subramaniam, Vishnu P.; Strounina, Ekaterina; Sathish, Clastinrusselraj I.; Yamaura, Kazunari; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Vinu, Ajayan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce “sense, track and separate” approach for the removal of Hg2+ ion from aqueous media using highly ordered and magnetic mesoporous ferrosilicate nanocages functionalised with rhodamine fluorophore derivative. These functionalised materials offer both fluorescent and magnetic properties in a single system which help not only to selectively sense the Hg2+ ions with a high precision but also adsorb and separate a significant amount of Hg2+ ion in aqueous media. We demonstrate that the magnetic affinity of these materials, generated from the ultrafine γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles present inside the nanochannels of the support, can efficiently be used as a fluorescent tag to sense the Hg2+ ions present in NIH3T3 fibroblasts live cells and to track the movement of the cells by external magnetic field monitored using confocal fluorescence microscopy. This simple approach of introducing multiple functions in the magnetic mesoporous materials raise the prospect of creating new advanced functional materials by fusing organic, inorganic and biomolecules to create advanced hybrid nanoporous materials which have a potential use not only for sensing and the separation of toxic metal ions but also for cell tracking in bio-separation and the drug delivery. PMID:26911660

  1. Fluorescent and Magnetic Mesoporous Hybrid Material: A Chemical and Biological Nanosensor for Hg2+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Moorthy; Anand, Chokkalingam; Frith, Jessica E.; Dhawale, Dattatray S.; Subramaniam, Vishnu P.; Strounina, Ekaterina; Sathish, Clastinrusselraj I.; Yamaura, Kazunari; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Vinu, Ajayan

    2016-02-01

    We introduce “sense, track and separate” approach for the removal of Hg2+ ion from aqueous media using highly ordered and magnetic mesoporous ferrosilicate nanocages functionalised with rhodamine fluorophore derivative. These functionalised materials offer both fluorescent and magnetic properties in a single system which help not only to selectively sense the Hg2+ ions with a high precision but also adsorb and separate a significant amount of Hg2+ ion in aqueous media. We demonstrate that the magnetic affinity of these materials, generated from the ultrafine γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles present inside the nanochannels of the support, can efficiently be used as a fluorescent tag to sense the Hg2+ ions present in NIH3T3 fibroblasts live cells and to track the movement of the cells by external magnetic field monitored using confocal fluorescence microscopy. This simple approach of introducing multiple functions in the magnetic mesoporous materials raise the prospect of creating new advanced functional materials by fusing organic, inorganic and biomolecules to create advanced hybrid nanoporous materials which have a potential use not only for sensing and the separation of toxic metal ions but also for cell tracking in bio-separation and the drug delivery.

  2. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. )

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  3. Materials balance for dyes and pigments from benzidine and three benzidine derivatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lapp, T.W.; Ferguson, T.L.; Gadberry, H.; Hoffmeister, F.; Hopkins, F.

    1981-05-01

    The processes for and losses resulting from the manufacture of dyes and pigments are presented. Consumption profiles and estimated losses are summarized for bisazobiphenyl (BAB) dyes in the textile, leather, and paper industries and for pigments in the rubber, plastics, printing ink, textile printing, and coatings industries. During dye production, losses occur in by-products, process venting, process losses, product filtration, and transfer and handling of solid dyes. For 1978, about 80% of the total BAB dye used in the textile, paper, and leather industries was incorporated into the final product and 20% was lost to solid waste or wastewater. Losses in wastewater were about 50% greater than in solid waste. During pigment production, losses result from soluble by-products and handling and transfer losses. In 1978, estimated total losses due to handling and transfer of pigments during production were 190,000 to 558,000 lb. The printing ink industry consumed the majority of the total pigment production. In 1978, about 75% of the total pigment used in the five industries was incorporated into the final product and 25% was lost to wastewater or solid waste. Essentially all of the pigment loss was as solid waste with very small quantities in wastewater.

  4. Materials and fabrication methods for the next generation of respiratory protection (RESPO 21). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, H.S.; Agarwal, R.

    1990-11-02

    Although excellent protective items have been developed in the past, it has become very apparent that there is an urgent need for better masks, hoods, and garments that will protect soldiers and civilians from the chemical threats of terrorist groups and countries. There is much room for improvement in performance and cost in order to make the protection more readily available for military personnel and for mass distribution to civilians. We have prepared an overview of currently available materials and fabrication methods, and have recommended materials and methods that should be considered for future ijmprovements in this field. This overview is presented in addition to our report on the four tasks that were given to us in the statement of work for this program.

  5. Strategic partnerships final LDRD report : nanocomposite materials for efficient solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, Erica L.; Miller, James Edward; Walker, Luke S.; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2012-05-01

    This 'campus executive' project sought to advance solar thermochemical technology for producing the chemical fuels. The project advanced the common interest of Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Arizona in creating a sustainable and viable alternative to fossil fuels. The focus of this effort was in developing new methods for creating unique monolithic composite structures and characterizing their performance in thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. The development and processing of the materials was undertaken in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at the University of Arizona; Sandia National Laboratories performed the thermochemical characterization. Ferrite/yttria-stabilized zirconia composite monoliths were fabricated and shown to have exceptionally high utilization of the ferrite for splitting CO{sub 2} to obtain CO (a process analogous to splitting H{sub 2}O to obtain H{sub 2}).

  6. Corrosion behavior of copper-base materials in a gamma-irradiated environment; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yunker, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Specimens of three copper-base materials were corrosion tested with gamma radiation exposure dose rates in the range of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 3} R/h to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 5} R/h. Materials used were pure copper, 7% aluminum bronze and 30% copper-nickel. Exposures were performed in moist air at 95{degree}C and 150{degree}C and liquid Well J-13 water at 95{degree}C, for periods of up to 16 months. Specimens were monitored for uniform weight loss, stress-induced corrosion and crevice corrosion. Specimen surfaces were examined visually at 10X magnification as well as by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and metallography. Corrosion was not severe in any of the cases. In general, the pure copper was corroded most uniformly while the copper-nickel was the least reproducibly corroded. 11 refs, 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.A.; Miron, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  8. Disposal of hazardous materials from TxDOT activities. Final report, September 1992-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, M.; Corapcioglu, M.Y.; Beavers, T.; Beck, B.; Mehevec, A.

    1994-11-01

    The process of purchasing, storing, handling and disposal of hazardous waste is demanding. The Texas Department of Transportation deals with many such compounds every day in performing its duty of maintaining over 70,000 miles of Texas roadway. With the new demands being placed on all users of hazardous materials by the new EPA guidelines, procedures must be enacted to ensure TxDOT`s compliance with these ever-changing regulations. The placement of full-time safety and hazardous materials coordinators in each district office will help to ensure that employees follow reporting procedures and use disposal guidelines. The report will discuss these actions and others that might help TxDOT in this task.

  9. Nuclear materials transportation workshops: USDOE outreach to local governments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-28

    To provide direct outreach to local governments, the Transportation Management Division of the United States Department of Energy asked the Urban Consortium and its Energy Task Force to assemble representatives for two workshops focusing on the transport of nuclear materials. The first session, for jurisdictions east of the Mississippi River, was held in New Orleans on May 5--6, 1988; the second was conducted on June 6--7, 1988 in Denver for jurisdictions to the west. Twenty local government professionals with management or operational responsibility for hazardous materials transportation within their jurisdictions were selected to attend each workshop. The discussions identified five major areas of concern to local government professionals; coordination; training; information resources; marking and placarding; and responder resources. Integrated federal, state, and local levels of government emerged as a priority coordination issue along with the need for expanded availability of training and training resources for first-reponders.

  10. Liners of natural porous materials to minimize pollutant migration. Final report, Oct. 1975 - Sep. 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, W.H.

    1981-07-01

    The use of natural low-cost materials as barriers for minimizing pollution migration out of landfills by retaining contaminants from liquids was investigated. The relative effectiveness of natural low-cost liners of crushed limestone, clayey soil, hydrous oxides of iron, and crushed pecan hulls for minimizing the migration of Be, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and total organic carbon constituents of municipal solid waste landfill leachates was evaluated. Several leachate variables such as aqueous dilution, aeration, pH, and flux were also studied for their effect on movement of metals through 11 representative U.S. soils. Laboratory investigations using soil columns as a first step in screening for potential liners and manipulation practices are described. Limestone and hydrous iron oxide were found to be potentially useful as porous liners for retention of metallic leachate constituents. The amounts of these materials in natural soil were also found to be useful predictors of contaminant removal.

  11. Final Report: Stability and Novel Properties of Magnetic Materials and Ferromagnet / Insulator Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, Paul

    2013-07-24

    We report investigations of the synthesis, structure, and properties of new materials for spintronic applications integrated onto silicon substrates. Our primary focus is materials with very high, negative, intrinsic spin polarization of the density of states at the Fermi level. We have developed a new synthesis method for Fe3O4 thin films through selective oxidation of Fe, resulting in smooth, low-defect density films. We have synthesized Fe4N films and shown that they preferentially oxidize to Fe3O4. When integrated into magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Fe4N / AlOx / Fe, oxidation at the Fe4N / AlOx interface creates Fe3O4, leading to negative tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Oxidation of Fe in nominally symmetric CoFe / AlOx / CoFe also produces Fe3O4 and negative TMR under selected oxidation conditions.

  12. Precision characterization of gyrotron window materials. Final report, September 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, J.M.; Jones, C.R.

    1998-03-03

    An optical resonator has been constructed to measure dielectric properties of materials at millimeter wavelengths. The objectives are the identification and loss measurements of window materials for high power gyrotrons. The source of radiation is from a backward wave oscillator (BWO) with enhanced power, good stability, and spectral purity. The measurement technique is based on the application of a high Q Fabry-Perot resonator which provides a means of determining the difference in the reciprocal Q-factors with high accuracy. Initial loss measurements at 150 GHz at room temperature are performed on sapphire. Preliminary loss tangent results on sapphire is found to be around 10{sup {minus}4} and are reported here. Work is in progress to develop a system which will scan the resonance rapidly to produce a measurement in less than a minute and to measure the loss as a function of temperature.

  13. Graphene-Based Materials as Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Trace Metal Ions, Organic Compounds, and Biological Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Nodeh, Hamid Rashidi; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is a new carbon-based material that is of interest in separation science. Graphene has extraordinary properties including nano size, high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and excellent adsorption affinity to pollutants. Its adsorption mechanisms are through non-covalent interactions (π-π stacking, electrostatic interactions, and H-bonding) for organic compounds and covalent interactions for metal ions. These properties have led to graphene-based material becoming a desirable adsorbent in a popular sample preparation technique known as solid phase extraction (SPE). Numerous studies have been published on graphene applications in recent years, but few review papers have focused on its applications in analytical chemistry. This article focuses on recent preconcentration of trace elements, organic compounds, and biological species using SPE-based graphene, graphene oxide, and their modified forms. Solid phase microextraction and micro SPE (µSPE) methods based on graphene are discussed. PMID:26186420

  14. Final Report on Materials Characterization for the Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2002-10-30

    This report is a summary of materials characterization results on twenty cathode samples that were used in a novel aluminum reduction cell at the Northwest Aluminum Technologies laboratory. Most of these cathodes were based on the TiB2 composition and showed very little corrosion as a result of testing. Most of the samples also showed good wetting by Al metal that formed during cell operation.

  15. Capacity vulnerability indicators for strategic and critical materials. Final report, October 1986-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kusik, C.L.; Mullins, J.W.; Vejins, V.; Bozdogan, K.

    1988-06-30

    A systematic approach was developed for assessing capacity pinchpoints and their vulnerability for strategic critical materials. The approach is grounded on the comparative statics framework of microeconomics coupled with engineering assessment on the capability of the industrial sector to respond in the short term to overseas supply curtailment. Various aspects of the approach are illustrated for selected commodities including chromium, cobalt, manganese, platinum, titanium, and natural rubber.

  16. MATERIALS USED IN TEACHING AND EVALUATING THE CONCEPTS RELATED TO THE BIOLOGICAL CELL IN GRADES 2-6, PRACTICAL PAPER NO. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STAUSS, NYLES G.

    INCLUDED ARE MATERIALS FOR USE IN TEACHING AND EVALUATING 11 SELECTED CONCEPTS RELATED TO THE BIOLOGICAL CELL IN GRADES 2 TO 6. THE CONCEPTS WERE SELECTED AND THEIR ORDER DETERMINED THROUGH AN ANALYSIS OF ELEMENTARY TEXTBOOK SERIES, HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE BIOLOGY TEXTS, CYTOLOGY TEXTS, AND INFORMATION GATHERED THROUGH A PILOT STUDY. THE MATERIALS…

  17. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  18. Evaluation of alternative materials for condensing heat exchangers. Final report, August 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Hindin, B.

    1990-09-24

    Ten different materials have been evaluated for their corrosion performance in a heat exchanger simulator that reproduces the environment encountered in a gas fired condensing furnace. These materials were a sol-gel enamel, thermally sprayed coatings of Alloys 314 and C-276, three thermally conducting polymer cements, two polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) coatings, a fluoropolymer/graphite fiber composite, and an impervious graphite. After the two-month test, only the PPS coatings and the impervious graphite survived, and the other materials failed either due to physical or chemical degradation. The impervious graphite exhibited unacceptable corrosion rates of up to 3 mpy, whereas the PPS coatings experienced some hardening. However, a properly applied PPS coating, on either aluminum or a carbon steel substrate, is considered to be a promising substitute for expensive super stainless steels that are presently used for the heat transfer surfaces in the secondary heat exchanger of condensing furnaces. It is recommended that the PPS coatings be more completely evaluated over extended periods using typical condensing furnaces.

  19. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 1: Benthic characterization. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Maciolek-Blake, N.; Brown, B.

    1985-06-01

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil and gas exploration on the U.S. Continental Slope and Rise led to the initiation of a deep-sea characterization study off North Carolina. The biological communities off North Carolina were poorly known, and prior to any drilling activities, a limited regional data base was required. The program included a seasonal characterization of biological and surficial geological properties at a limited number of slope and rise sites, with special emphasis on areas of high oil industry interest. A rich and highly diverse benthic infauna was discovered, with a large percentage of the 877 species being new to science. Annelids were the dominant taxa both in terms of density, numbers of species, and biomass. Foraminiferan tests comprised most of the sand fraction. Hydrographic data indicated some intrusion of colder water on the upper slope benthos from deeper water.

  20. Yields of biologically significant damage produced in mammalian DNA by irradiation associated with radon decay. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the difference between damage to DNA caused by alpha particles and by low LET radiation. Estimation of the risk posed by exposure to high LET radiation (such as that from radon) relies at present on epidemiological data, and is therefore largely empirical. This empiricism is evident from the concepts of quality factor or RBE that find use for describing the biological effects of high LET radiation. The author argues that some effort should be made to address the mechanisms of DNA damage by high and low LET forms of radiation, and how these mechanisms might relate to the biological endpoints. This report summarizes the results of the author`s investigations and the current understanding of these mechanisms.