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1

Diagnosis of dissolved organic matter removal by GAC treatment in biologically treated papermill effluents using advanced organic characterisation techniques.  

PubMed

Granular activated carbon (GAC) exhaustion rates on pulp and paper effluent from South East Australia were found to be a factor of three higher (3.62cf. 1.47kgm(-3)) on Kraft mills compared to mills using Thermomechanical pulping supplemented by Recycled Fibre (TMP/RCF). Biological waste treatment at both mills resulted in a final effluent COD of 240mgL(-1). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was only 1.2 times higher in the Kraft effluent (70 vs. 58mgL(-1)), however, GAC treatment of Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent was largely different on the DOC persisted after biological treatment. The molecular mass (636 vs. 534gmol(-1)) and aromaticity (5.35 vs. 4.67Lmg(-1)m(-1)) of humic substances (HS) were slightly higher in the Kraft effluent. The HS aromaticity was decreased by a factor of 1.0Lmg(-1)m(-1) in both Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent. The molecular mass of the Kraft effluent increased by 50gmol(-1) while the molecular mass of the TMP/RCF effluent was essentially unchanged after GAC treatment; the DOC removal efficiency of the GAC on Kraft effluent was biased towards the low molecular weight humic compounds. The rapid adsorption of this fraction, coupled with the slightly higher aromaticity of the humic components resulted in early breakthrough on the Kraft effluent. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis of the each GAC treated effluent indicated that the refractory components were higher molecular weight humics on the Kraft effluent and protein-like compounds on the TMP/RCF effluent. Although the GAC exhaustion rates are too high for an effective DOC removal option for biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents, the study indicates that advanced organic characterisation techniques can be used to diagnose GAC performance on complex effluents with comparable bulk DOC and COD loads. PMID:22209320

Antony, Alice; Bassendeh, Mojgan; Richardson, Desmond; Aquilina, Simon; Hodgkinson, Andrew; Law, Ian; Leslie, Greg

2012-02-01

2

Removal of residual COD in biologically treated paper-mill effluent and degradation of lignin using nonthermal plasma unit.  

PubMed

This manuscript focused on the degradation behavior of lignin and the reduction of residual COD in the biologically treated paper-mill effluent by means of ionized gas from nonthermal plasma unit. The removal efficiencies of COD, lignin, and color after treated with ionized gas were over 95, 93, and 97%, respectively. It has been found that the degradation of aromatic ring has been proved by FTIR, 1H NMR and UV spectra. The degradation of lignin through ionized gas was accompanied with the increase of SO4(2-) and the decrease in pH. The results show that the residual COD in the biologically treated paper-mill effluent contains NBD matter with aromatic ring compounds. Also NBD organic matter such as aromatic ring in effluent treated with ionized gas was degraded. The residual COD declined by 60% at the ionized gas flow rate 5 L/min and HRT 30 min. PMID:15242132

Kwon, Ji-Young; Chung, Paul-Gene; Lim, Ik-Hyoun

2004-01-01

3

Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.  

PubMed

Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 ?m polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. PMID:25000197

Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

2014-10-15

4

Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water. PMID:18575108

Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

2008-01-01

5

Evaluation of ion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic matter from biologically treated paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken while employing LC-OCND for characterising resin-treated effluents, as the resin degradation is expected to contribute some organic carbon moieties misleading the actual performance of resin. PMID:23116827

Bassandeh, Mojgan; Antony, Alice; Le-Clech, Pierre; Richardson, Desmond; Leslie, Greg

2013-01-01

6

RO filtration of biologically treated textile and dyeing effluents using ozonation as a pre-treatment.  

PubMed

Bench-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the application of ozonation pre-treatment for biologically treated textile and dyeing wastewater to improve performance of the RO process. Based on ozonation experiments, four specific ozone consumptions (SOC), 0, 0.3, 0.6, 4.0 mg O?/mg DOC? were chosen for study of the effects of ozonation on the reverse osmosis (RO) process. Membrane flux was recorded. Also, the permeate water quality parameters such as TOC, conductivity were analyzed. In addition, fouled membrane cleaning was studied. The study further examined the nature and mechanisms of membrane fouling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The effect of ozonation on RO filtration was found to depend on SOC. The study revealed that significant improvement can be achieved in the efficiency of RO filtration by employing ozonation with 0.6 mg O?/mg DOC? SOC. Although the product water purity slightly decreased, the ozonation pre-treatment showed advantages at 0.6 mg O?/mg DOC? SOC for the following: (i) mitigation of flux decline due to membrane fouling; (ii) improvement in foulants cleanability. In addition, hypotheses were put forward to explain the reasons from the aspect of organic matter characteristics changed by ozonation, such as changing on functional groups and molecular weight of organic matter. PMID:20729575

Wang, H Y; Guan, Y T; Mizuno, T; Tsuno, H

2010-01-01

7

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti\\/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to

S. M. Swanson; R. Schryer; R. Shelast; P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens

1994-01-01

8

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species  

SciTech Connect

Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni exhibited marked induction of P4501A compared to reference whitefish (rw), as measured by both catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein content. Similar P4501A induction was observed 4 d after rw were treated with 20 mg/kg [beta]-naphthoflavone. Whitefish P4501A levels have declined from a peak in spring 1991, following mill process modifications and concurrent with reductions in body burdens of hydrophobic compounds. Whitefish collected near the mill, moved upstream of effluent discharges, and held for 8 d showed no significant loss of hepatic P4501A-related (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) enzyme activity or P4501A protein levels. For spring 1991, correlations were found between EROD activity and measures of chronic exposure to BKME, but not between EROD and measures of acute exposure. These and other lines of evidence indicate that the P4501A-inducing agent(s) at this site may be neither waterborne nor rapidly eliminated. A second species, longnose sucker, collected near the mill exhibited modest P4501A induction. For both species, no significant correlations between P4501A induction and trends in other biological responses were found. Burbot (Lota lota) had hepatic EROD activities generally in the range of reference values, despite substantial exposure to mill-related compounds. In contrast to studies at historically degraded pulpmill sites, P4501A induction is the only major biological response observed to date at this site. As P4501A induction is not related to adverse effects, it is classified as an indicator of exposure to BKME.

Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Benton, E. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Environmental Science Dept.)

1994-09-01

9

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment  

SciTech Connect

Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to habitat quality. There was no evidence that fish were avoiding the effluent plume area; relative abundance was often highest near the effluent discharge due to use of this area for overwintering and rearing. Radiotelemetry and recapture studies indicated that fish movements could be both rapid and extensive, occurring during spawning periods and at other times of the year. Thus, exposure could not be assumed to be related to capture location alone; separate exposure measures were necessary. Populations of exposed mountain whitefish and longnose sucker were growing and reproducing successfully. Higher condition factors in exposed longnose suckers and greater mesenteric fat stores in exposed individuals of both species were not accompanied by any apparent disruption in allocation of energy to reproduction or growth. The age structure of the populations showed that there had been no losses of age classes through reproductive or recruitment failures, and growth curves were indistinguishable from reference curves. There were no correlations between indicators of exposure and population-level effects. Important natural phenomena, including a one-hundred-year flood and natural upstream/downstream habitat gradients, affected species distribution and were correlated with some population parameters such as condition factors and relative gonad size.

Swanson, S.M. (Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)); Shelast, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Products, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1994-09-01

10

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

11

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

1997-11-25

12

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)  

SciTech Connect

A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Swanson, S.M. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Marchant, T. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada))

1994-09-01

13

Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment of tannery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

During leather processing in tanneries, considerable amount of wastes with organic and inorganic pollutants are generated.\\u000a For removal of these pollutants and recovery of water, biological treatment methods and reverse osmosis (RO) based membrane\\u000a technologies are adopted. While recovering water from treated tannery effluent using RO membranes, presence of residual organics,\\u000a dye molecules, and other impurities in the effluent have

S. V. Srinivasan; G. Prea Samita Mary; Chitra Kalyanaraman; P. S. Sureshkumar; K. Sri Balakameswari; Rangasamy Suthanthararajan; Ethirajulu Ravindranath

14

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

15

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

E-print Network

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient H. L. Schoenfuss Æ 2008 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Many toxic effects of treated wastewater environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs consider- ably from that of its receiving waters

Julius, Matthew L.

16

Analysis of Bacteria, Parasites, and Heavy Metals in Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) and Rocket Salad ( Eruca sativa L.) Irrigated with Treated Effluent from a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant\\u000a of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals.\\u000a Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated\\/chlorinated (0.2 mg L?1) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third

Meire Nikaido; Karina A. A. Tonani; Fabiana C. Julião; Tânia M. B. Trevilato; Angela M. M. Takayanagui; Sérgio M. Sanches; José L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz

2010-01-01

17

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

18

Forage subsurface drip irrigation using treated swine effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

19

FORAGE SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION USING TREATED SWINE EFFLUENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

20

300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

CAMPBELL, L.R.

1999-01-15

21

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium

P. J. Kloepper-Sams; E. Benton

1994-01-01

22

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti\\/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between

P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens; S. M. Swanson; T. Marchant; R. Schryer

1994-01-01

23

Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical company: a comparison of the sensitivities of different standardized tests.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical effluents have recently been recognized as an important contamination source to aquatic environments and the toxicity related to the presence of antibiotics in effluents has attracted great attention. Conventionally, these effluents have been treated using physico-chemical and aerobic biological processes, usually with low rates of pharmaceuticals removal. Due to the complexity of effluents, it is impossible to determine all pharmaceuticals and their degradation products using analytical methods. Ecotoxicity tests with different organisms may be used to determine the effect level of effluents and thus their environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to compare the sensitivities of five ecotoxicity tests using aquatic and terrestrial organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from the production of veterinary medicines before and after treatment. Raw and chemically treated effluent samples were highly toxic to aquatic organisms, achieving 100,000 toxic units, but only few of those samples presented phytotoxicity. We observed a reduction in the toxicity in the biologically treated effluent samples, which were previously chemically pre-treated, however the toxicity was not eliminated. The rank of test organisms' reactions levels was: Daphnia similis > Raphidocelis subcapitata > Aliivibrio fischeri > Allium cepa ~ Lactuca sativa. Effluent treatment employed by the evaluated company was only partially efficient at removing the effluent toxicity, suggesting potential risks to biota. The acute toxicity test with D. similis proved to be the most sensitive for both raw and treated effluents and is a suitable option for further characterization and monitoring of pharmaceutical effluents. PMID:25682103

Maselli, Bianca de S; Luna, Luis A V; Palmeira, Joice de O; Tavares, Karla P; Barbosa, Sandro; Beijo, Luiz A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Kummrow, Fábio

2015-05-01

24

Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 ?g/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

2013-12-15

25

Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

Not Available

1991-06-01

26

Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

27

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

28

Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

2004-09-01

29

POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

30

Behavior of Metals, Pathogen Parasites, and Indicator Bacteria in Sewage Effluents During Biological Treatment by Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents\\u000a during biological treatment by activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant in Ribeirão Preto (WTP-RP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.\\u000a The evaluation was done during a period of 1 year. Results showed that metal concentrations in treated effluents decreased,\\u000a reaching concentrations according to

K. A. A. Tonani; F. C. Julião; T. M. B. Trevilato; A. M. M. Takayanagui; Ana Bocio; Jose L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz

31

Treated mine drainage effluent benefits Maryland and West Virginia fisherman  

SciTech Connect

In January of 1994, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Freshwater Fisheries Division and Mettiki Coal Corporation of Oakland, Maryland entered into a cooperative agreement to construct a trout rearing facility within Mettiki`s 10 million gallons per day acid mine drainage treatment system to supplement the DNR stockings in the newly revitalized North Branch of the Potomac River. Due to pyrite oxidation and a lack of alkaline buffering capacity in the Freeport coal strata, seven thousand gallons per minute of acidic water containing oxidized sulfide minerals must be pumped through Mettiki`s AMD treatment systems and elevated to Federal standards prior to discharge into the Upper North Branch of the Potomac River. Utilizing hydrated lime, aeration, flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge recirculation, Mettiki`s treatment imparts superior trout propagation qualities to the discharge (pH of 8.1, dissolved oxygen of 8.0 ppm, temperature ranges of from 52 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and has allowed for weight gain throughout the typically dormant winter months. Presently, 30,000 brown, rainbow, and cutthroat trout are suspended in floating net pens within the systems` discharge collection pond where pH, flow, temperature, feed assimilation, and growth rates were compared with typical stream diversion hatcheries. Growth rates, lack of significant disease, and quality parameters coupled with ideal temperatures suggests treated acidic mine effluent can offer successful fish propagation opportunities.

Ashby, J.C. [Mettiki Coal Corp., Oakland, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

32

Re-use of biologically treated wastewater of a brewery.  

PubMed

Despite excessive rainfalls, Flanders is dealing with a water deficiency. A rational use of water is a necessity. Apart from the prevention principle, the re-use of biologically treated wastewater (bio-effluent) is increasingly considered. From earlier research it is known that reverse osmosis (RO) is necessary for the elimination of salts and low molecular compounds from the bio-effluent. A thorough pretreatment is necessary to remove drastically the suspended solids, which are harmful to the reverse osmosis modules. This case study describes the experiments performed by SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. on the treatment of wastewater effluent from a brewery. A comparative study between sand filtration (SF), in-line coagulation with sand filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) as a pretreatment was made. UF proved to be the best pretreatment for RO for the treatment of brewery bio-effluent. Finally, an economic evaluation of the membrane system (UF followed by RO) was made. The calculated total cost for the system is 0.26 Euros per m3 produced water. Investment costs and operation cost are also discussed. PMID:15954568

Cornelissen, E R; Philips, N; Dewaele, B; Boeren, S; Koning, J

2001-01-01

33

Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.  

PubMed

Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

2012-11-15

34

Use of permeable reactive barriers to treat acid mine effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Canadian Mineral Industry. The AMD results from oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite or pyrrhotite) contained in mine waste or mine tailings. It is characterised by acid effluents rich in heavy metals, which are released into the environment. A new acid remediation technology is presented in

Kostas Fytas

2010-01-01

35

Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

2013-11-15

36

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

37

Biochemical responses in the gills of Meretrix meretrix after exposure to treated municipal effluent.  

PubMed

The biochemical effects in marine bivalves exposed to increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluent (TME), as discharged into receiving marine waters, are investigated. The effluent was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) in Qingdao (China). Meretrix meretrix were exposed to effluent volume ratio (EVR, ratio of effluent volume accounted for tailwater seawater mixture) 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (v/v) TME for 15 days and the following biochemical responses in gills were measured: (1) the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) content, and lipid peroxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress biomarkers; (2) the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and gluthathione S-transferase (GST), as phase I and phase II conjugation enzymes, respectively; (3) acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as a biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins (MTs), as proteins strongly induced by heavy metals. Most of the biochemical indices present high and significant variation frequency (above 50%). There is enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes, EROD, GST, AChE, and MTs, as well as consumption of GSH. The current experimental results suggest that effluent with concentrations less than 20% (v/v) do not cause lipid peroxidation damage. This implies that the activated defense is sufficient to protect the bivalves' gill tissues from cytotoxicity produced by the effluent. Furthermore, GSH, GPx, MTs, and GR are suitable, and sufficiently sensitive, biomarkers to indicate the pollution levels in marine environments receiving such effluent. PMID:25450918

Wan, Ru; Meng, Fanping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Su, Enping

2015-01-01

38

Anguilla anguilla L. stress biomarkers recovery in clean water and secondary-treated pulp mill effluent.  

PubMed

The eels' recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport is improved by the dechlorinated filtered aerated tap water temperature increase and increased water salinity. The eels' 6-hr recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport, at 25 degrees C in 50% secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, as plasma lactate and cortisol uptake, is depressed. However, either farm or wild eels' exposure to the 50% secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, after 188 hr recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport, induces plasma lactate increase and prevents interrenal cortisol release to the blood, decreasing its plasma concentration. PMID:8930510

Santos, M A; Pacheco, M

1996-10-01

39

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

40

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

41

Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).  

PubMed

Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state. PMID:20334971

He, Shengbing; Xue, Gang

2010-06-15

42

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households  

E-print Network

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used

Richner, Heinz

43

Planning and investigations for groundwater recharge using wetland-treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased water requirements due to expanding population coupled with a limited water supply have necessitated innovative methods for reuse of water in southern California. In the San Jacinto valley east of Los Angeles, Eastern Municipal Water District in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is developing a plan for reuse of treated sewage effluent using artificial wetlands for final

JUDITH L. HAMILTON

1994-01-01

44

DEMINERALIZATION OF CARBON-TREATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY SPIRAL-WOUND REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 56.8 cu m/day (15,000 gallons/day) spiral-wound reverse osmosis pilot plant was operated at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility on the carbon-treated secondary effluent. The specific objectives for this study were (a) to establish the effective membrane l...

45

E. coli Regrowth in a Constructed Wetland Receiving Treated Sewage Effluent: A Threat to Human Health?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Constructed wetlands are used throughout the world to filter toxins from treated wastewater and to increase wildlife habitat. Bird and mammal excretions result in background levels of enteric bacteria in any natural wetland, but regrowth of bacteria in wastewater effluent can further increase microb...

46

The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.  

PubMed

This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (K?rka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, An?l

2013-05-15

47

Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004

Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-04-01

48

Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. (Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1991-09-01

49

Effect of hospital laboratory chemical effluents on the efficiency of biological treatment of waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the effect of laboratory chemicals on the efficiency of the biological treatment of hospital wastewater for effluents mixed with laboratory waste and other unmixed with it for three hospital (Ibn seena,Ibn alatheer ,Alkhansaa). Three location has been chosen in each hospital, in order to study characteristics of effluent the pH value is difference and alkalinity mode

Zena Fakhri Ismaeel

50

Advanced Oxidation of Biologically Pretreated Baker's Yeast Industry Effluents for High Recalcitrant COD and Color Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of chemical oxidation by applying ozonation, ozonation with hydrogen peroxide and Fenton's processes for decolorization and residual COD removal of biologically pretreated baker's yeast industry (BYI) effluents. Baker's yeast industry effluents characterizing with high COD, TKN, dark color, and non-biodegradable organic pollutants. The batch tests were performed to determine the

Mahmut Altinbas; Ali Fuat Aydin; Mehmet Faik Sevimli; Izzet Ozturk

2003-01-01

51

Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

Cross, S.P.

1996-08-01

52

Treating wastewater from a pharmaceutical formulation facility by biological process and ozone.  

PubMed

Wastewater from a pharmaceutical formulation facility (TevaKS, Israel) was treated with a biological activated-sludge system followed by ozonation. The goal was to reduce the concentrations of the drugs carbamazepine (CBZ) and venlafaxine (VLX) before discharging the wastewater to the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Both drugs were detected at extremely high concentrations in TevaKS raw wastewater ([VLX]=11.72 ± 2.2mg/L, [CBZ]=0.84 ± 0.19 mg/L), and resisted the biological treatment. Ozone efficiently degraded CBZ: at an O3 dose-to-dissolved organic carbon ratio of 0.55 (O3/DOC), the concentration of CBZ was reduced by >99%. A lower removal rate was observed for VLX, which was decreased by ? 98% at the higher O3/DOC ratio of 0.87. Decreasing the pH of the biologically treated effluent from 7 to 5 significantly increased the ozone degradation rate of CBZ, while decreasing the degradation rate of VLX. Ozone treatment did not alter the concentration of the effluent's DOC and filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf). However, a significant increase was recorded (following ozonation) in the effluent's biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and the BOD5/CODf ratio. This implies an increase in the effluent's biodegradability, which is highly desirable if ozonation is followed by a domestic biological treatment. Different organic byproducts were formed following ozone reaction with the target pharmaceuticals and with the effluent organic matter; however, these byproducts are expected to be removed during biological treatment in the municipal WWTP. PMID:23764586

Lester, Yaal; Mamane, Hadas; Zucker, Ines; Avisar, Dror

2013-09-01

53

Octanol–water partitioning of chemical constituents in river water and treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shake-flask approach has been employed to determine the n-octanol–water partitioning of chemical constituents in various river waters and in treated sewage effluent. The bulk inorganic composition of the water samples (conductivity, pH and the concentrations of major solutes: Ca, K, Mg, Na) was unaffected by the presence of solvent. Boron, however, exhibited increasing partition with decreasing sample pH, because

Andrew Turner; Ian Williamson

2005-01-01

54

Water balance of Swamp Mahogany and Rhodes grass irrigated with treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water balance of Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta Sm.) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth var. Callide) plantations was studied in large experimental plots, which were irrigated with secondary treated sewage effluent. The tree plots designated as T10, T20, T30 and T40 received four different nitrogen (N) concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40mg\\/l, respectively. The grass plot designated as G30

M. Edraki; H. B. So; E. A. Gardner

2004-01-01

55

Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.  

PubMed

Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman. PMID:24338053

Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

2014-05-01

56

FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

57

What is the relationship between whole effluent toxicity and instream biological condition?  

SciTech Connect

The authors compiled a database of 250 dischargers across the US and examined relationships between standardized Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), whole effluent toxicity (WET) test endpoints, and instream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. Sites were included in the analysis if the effluents were not manipulated before testing (e.g., dechlorination), and standardized biological and physical habitat assessment methods were used upstream and directly downstream of the discharge. Several analyses indicated that fish endpoints were more related to instream biological condition than Ceriodaphnia WET endpoints. Dischargers that failed <25% of their tests had {le}15% chance of exhibiting instream impairment. Effluent dilution was the strongest factor affecting relationships between WET and observed biological conditions. Effluents that comprised >80% of the stream under low-flow conditions exhibited better relationships between WET and instream condition than effluents with greater dilution. Effluents that comprised <20% of the stream had a low probability of exhibiting impairment, even if several WET test failures were observed over a 1-year period. Fish acute and chronic WET information could predict instream biological conditions; however, WET compliance, based on 7Q10 stream flow, was consistently conservative. Their results indicate that WET was more predictive of instream biological condition if several tests were conducted, more than one type of test was conducted, and endpoints within a test were relatively consistent over time.

Diamond, J.; Daley, C.

2000-01-01

58

Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

2014-09-01

59

Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of the WWTP effluent. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

2007-01-01

60

Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.  

PubMed

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

2006-01-01

61

Effect of biological treatment on pulp mill effluent chemical characteristics  

SciTech Connect

In the last 20 years, detailed characterizations of pulping and bleaching wastewaters have been performed identifying a large variety of chemical by-products. However, formation in the process does not translate into discharge into the environment. Pulp and paper mills in the US almost uniformly practice biological treatment. Although initially implemented for BOD removal, biological treatment is also responsible for removing or reducing many classes of compounds. This paper will briefly review the literature related to the characterization of process versus biologically treated wastewaters. Data on specific removal efficiencies for these compounds will be summarized and discussed. mechanisms of removal (such as biological degradation or transformation, sorption or volatilization) for selected compounds will be discussed. Examples of mass emission rates for volatiles, resin and fatty ,acids, plant sterols, mono-terpenes (and related compounds), chlorinated and non-chlorinated phenolics and other cellulose degradation products will be presented. Factors influencing the discharge rates such as pulping and bleaching practices, geographical location of the mills and wood species being pulped will be discussed.

LaFleur, L.E.; Bousquet, T.E.; Cook, D.L. [NCASI, Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

62

Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)  

SciTech Connect

The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

Carter, R.L. Jr.

1994-11-07

63

Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks.  

PubMed

The failure of wastewater treatment plants to produce effluents of a high microbiological quality is a matter of great concern in terms of water resource pollution. A more serious concern is that this water source is used by communities in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae) in the treated effluents of three selected South African Wastewater Treatment Works as well as their receiving water bodies. Culture-based and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect and identify the pathogenic bacteria. The conventional methods revealed that of the 272 water samples collected, 236 samples (86.8%) tested presumptively positive for Salmonella spp., 220 samples (80.9%) for Shigella spp. and 253 samples (93.0%) for V. cholerae. Molecular test results indicated that out of the randomly selected presumptive positive samples (145), zero to 60% of samples were positive for S. typhimurium and S. dysenteriae and 20% to 60% for V. cholerae. For the health risk assessment, the daily combined risk of S. typhimurium, S. dysenteriae and V. cholerae infection was above the lowest acceptable risk limit of 10(-4) as estimated by the World Health Organization for drinking water. This study showed that the target treated wastewater effluents and their receiving water bodies could pose a potential health risk to the surrounding communities. PMID:25777950

Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z; Genthe, B; Kamika, I; Momba, M N B

2015-06-15

64

Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

2013-01-01

65

Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources.  

PubMed

Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O

2014-01-01

66

Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)  

SciTech Connect

This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability.

Wagner, R.N.

1994-09-26

67

Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

1988-01-01

68

Absorption of carbon dioxide by raw and treated dye-bath effluents.  

PubMed

A bench-scale experimental apparatus, consisting of a glass column randomly packed with cylindrical glass rings, was utilized for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by chemical absorption. Various liquid solvents were used, in a batch mode, circulating between the column and a reservoir vessel, and contacting the gas in counter current flow. The absorptive capacity of the liquid solvents and the absorption kinetics were studied by obtaining the respective 'breakthrough curves'. Aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were initially utilized in order to demonstrate the experimental apparatus function. Dye-bath effluent proved highly effective due to its high alkalinity and the capacity of the hydrolyzed "azo-reactive" dyes to react with CO(2). Decolorized dye-bath effluent (treated with FeSO(4)) can also be used as a chemical solvent for the absorption of CO(2); however, its absorptive capacity is much lower compared to the raw wastewater. The above technique is also a very effective method to neutralize industrial effluents. PMID:17118534

Georgiou, D; Petrolekas, P D; Hatzixanthis, S; Aivasidis, A

2007-06-01

69

Coal mine drainage sludge and its application for treating metallic mine effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) impregnated polyurethane granular composite media (PUCMDS) was prepared and used to remove arsenic and other heavy metals in a metallic mine effluent. PUCMDS was used in rapid small-scale column tests to assess the effectiveness and suitability in the application of metallic mine water treatment. As a result in column tests, good performance of PUCMDS was observed with respect to bed volumes (more than 14,000 BVs) achieved to treat arsenic and other toxic heavy metals below their regulations. Three cycles of media regeneration and four cycles of column tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of PUCMDS. PMID:24695032

Jang, Min

2014-01-01

70

Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year. PMID:19273902

Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

2009-01-01

71

Biological activity of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents before and after activated sludge and ozone treatments.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp production, an important sector of the Brazilian national economy, is responsible for generating large volume, high pollutant load effluents, containing a considerable fraction of recalcitrant organic matter. The objectives of this study were to quantify the biological activity of the effluent from a eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill, characterize the nature of compounds responsible for biological activity and assess the effect of ozone treatment on its removal. Primary and secondary effluents were collected bimonthly over the course of one year at a Brazilian bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill and their pollutant loads (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), lignin, extractives) and biological activity (acute and chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity) quantified. The effluent studied did not present acute toxicity to Daphnia, but presented the chronic toxicity effects of algal growth inhibition and reduced survival and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia, as well as estrogenic activity. Chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity were reduced but not eliminated during activated sludge biological treatment. The toxicity identification evaluation revealed that lipophilic organic compounds (such as residual lignin, extractives and their byproducts) were responsible for the toxicity and estrogenic activity. Ozone treatment (50 mg/L O(3)) of the secondary effluent eliminated the chronic toxicity and significantly reduced estrogen activity. PMID:23168632

Lopes, Alessandra Cunha; Mounteer, Ann H; Stoppa, Teynha Valverde; Aquino, Davi Santiago

2013-01-01

72

Water quality of treated sewage effluent in a rural area of the upper Thames Basin, southern England, and the impacts of such effluents on riverine phosphorus concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for water quality surveys of effluent from sewage treatment works (STWs) in the rural Kennet/Dun sub-catchments of the upper Thames Basin are presented to characterize treated sewage effluent. Water quality determinand relationships with boron (B) are presented to provide information that can be used, with stream water quality information, to assess the relative inputs of treated sewage effluent pollutants to streams in rural areas. The approach is based on three points: (1) information on sewage effluent and agricultural pollution is of concern in relation to the management of UK lowland river systems in rural environments; (2) the lack of detailed information on sewage runoff chemistry and flow means that direct assessment of sewage effluent pollution to surface waters cannot be gauged; (3) B provides a clear chemically conservative marker of sewage sources in surface and ground waters. Three types of relationship to B were observed. Firstly, determinands such as Na, Cl, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and NO 3 showed a positive linear relationship with B and there is a near zero intercept; these components are essentially derived from sewage sources. Secondly, Mg and SO 4 show linear relationships with B, but there is a non-zero intercept; these components have both a sewage component and a background component linked to water supplies from surface and groundwater sources. Thirdly, there are determinands that show no relationship with boron. In this study, an erratic pattern was observed for ammonium. This probably reflects the variable removal of this pollutant from sewage sources. Near constant concentrations of components such as Ca and alkalinity, which come from the background aquifer sources, were also found. SRP and B relationships for rivers in the upper Thames Basin showed the potential importance of (a) removal processes in the stream/groundwater for SRP derived from STW effluent inputs and (b) tertiary P stripping at the STWs on river water SRP levels. The importance of agricultural sources of SRP is questioned.

Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Margaret; Love, Alison J.; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

2005-03-01

73

Effluent quality of a conventional activated sludge and a membrane bioreactor system treating hospital wastewater.  

PubMed

Two lab scale wastewater treatment plants treating hospital wastewater in parallel were compared in terms of performance characteristics. One plant consisted of a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) and comprised an anoxic and aerobic compartment followed by a settling tank with recycle loop. The second pilot plant was a plate membrane bioreactor (MBR). The wastewater as obtained from the hospital had a variable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) ranging from 250 to 2300 mg l(-1). Both systems were operated at a similar hydraulic residence time of 12 hours. The reference conventional activated sludge system did not meet the regulatory standard for effluent COD of 125 mg l(-1) most of the time. Its COD removal efficiency was 88%. The plate MBR delivered an effluent with a COD value of 50 m g l(-1) or less, and attained an efficiency of 93%. The effluent contained no suspended particles. In addition, the MBR resulted in consistent operational parameters with a flux remaining around 8-10 l m(-2) h(-1) and a trans membrane pressure < 0.1 bar without the need for backwash or chemical cleaning. The CAS and the MBR system performed equally well in terms of TAN removal and EE2 removal. The CAS system typically decreased bacterial groups for about 1 log unit, whereas the MBR decreased these groups for about 3 log units. Enterococci were decreased below the detection limit in the MBR and indicator organisms such as fecal coliforms were decreased for 1.4 log units in the CAS system compared to a 3.6 log removal in the MBR. PMID:16583824

Pauwels, B; Fru Ngwa, F; Deconinck, S; Verstraete, W

2006-04-01

74

Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end-of-pipe discharge chemistry. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, ammonia, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and radium are removed from the constituent list. Annual analysis for low-level tritium is added to the constituent list to help confirm that groundwater beneath the TEDF remains isolated from operational influences.

DB Barnett

2000-05-17

75

Phosphorus removal mechanisms in active slag filters treating waste stabilization pond effluent.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) removal mechanisms from waste stabilization pond effluent by a melter slag filter were investigated. The studied filter had treated pond effluent for a decade, but lost its P removal efficiency after 5 years. The P distribution in the slag was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical fractionation. The results showed the slag to be covered by a film comprising metal oxides/oxyhydroxides, organic resin, and Fe-phosphate precipitates. The slag porous matrix beneath this film hosted lower P concentrations and consisted of metal oxides/oxyhydroxides and calcmagnesium silicates. The study revealed the following mechanisms for P removal from effluent by the melter slag: (1) P adsorption onto metal oxides/oxyhydroxides which are ubiquitous throughout the porous slag matrix and its surface film; (2) P precipitation, mainly as Fe-phosphates (determined by SEM/EDS) on the surface film, derived from the release of metal ions into the solution phase; and (3) P sequestration by an amorphous organic resin that comprises a substantial proportion of the surface film, which was deduced by SEM/EDS and XRF. Results of chemical extractions performed on the slag demonstrated that 1 M HCl, which has been used to determine Ca-associated P in previous studies, is an unreliable Ca-P marker. By contrast, the citrate-dithionite reagent was shown to be a good indicator of Fe/Al-associated P and revealed that adsorption onto metal oxides/oxyhydroxides, in the porous matrix as well as its surface film, is the most significant P removal mechanism achieved by the slag filter. PMID:17539540

Pratt, Chris; Shilton, Andy; Pratt, Steven; Haverkamp, Richard G; Bolan, Nanthi S

2007-05-01

76

Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

77

Biochemical responses and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus after exposure to treated municipal effluents.  

PubMed

This study assessed the responses of biochemical biomarkers and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus exposed to the increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluents (TME) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area. Clams were exposed to 0%, 1%, 3% and 10% for 7 and 14 day and the following biochemical responses were measured: (1) catalase activity and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) as oxidative stress biomarkers, (2) gluthathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a phase II conjugation enzyme; (3) cholinesterase activity (ChE) as biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins as a proteins highly induced by heavy metals. A significant uptake of Cu, Cd and Zn in digestive gland and serious biochemical alterations were observed. Thus, exposure of clams to croissant concentration of TME have the potential to increase the oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, CAT activity) and MT levels; and decrease ChE activity in both gills and digestive gland. Current experimental results suggest that CAT, GST, ChE activities and MT and TBARs levels in gills and digestive gland of clam R. decussatus are sensitive and suitable responses for assessing the effects of anthropogenic contaminants on the aquatic ecosystems, particularly effluent complex mixtures. PMID:22664226

Kamel, Naouel; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Ben Khedher, Sana; Chouba, Lassaad; Boussetta, Hamadi

2012-08-01

78

BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BEACH, LEACHATE, AND EFFLUENT SITES AT LAKE TEXOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

A biological assessment of five beach areas, five leachate areas, and four effluent areas was initiated in June 1999. The target sites are being monitored for total and fecal coliform. The average of the total samples taken at each beach site: total coliform ranged from 1877 to...

79

Short-term exposure to a treated sewage effluent alters reproductive behaviour in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).  

PubMed

Some UK sewage treatment work (STW) effluents have been found to contain high levels of anti-androgenic activity, but the biological significance of this activity to fish has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a STW effluent with anti-androgenic activity on the reproductive physiology and behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were exposed to a STW effluent (50 and 100%, v/v) with a strong anti-androgenic activity (328.56±36.83 ?gl(-1) flutamide equivalent, as quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human androgen receptor) and a low level of oestrogenic activity (3.32±0.66 ngl(-1) oestradiol equivalent, quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human oestrogen receptor) for a period of 21 days in a flow-through system in the laboratory. Levels of spiggin, an androgen-regulated protein, were not affected by the STW effluent exposure, nor were levels of vitellogenin (a biomarker of oestrogen exposure), but the reproductive behaviour of the males was impacted. Males exposed to full strength STW effluent built fewer nests and there was a significant reduction in male courtship behaviour for exposures to both the 50 and 100% STW effluent treatments compared with controls. The effect seen on the reproduction of male sticklebacks may not necessarily have been as a consequence of the endocrine active chemicals present in the STW effluent alone, but could relate to other features of the effluent, such as turbidity that can impair visual signalling important for courtship interactions. Regardless the specific causation, the data presented show that effluents from STW have an impact on reproductive behaviour in male sticklebacks which in turn affects reproductive performance/outcome. The study further highlights the use of fish behaviour as a sensitive endpoint for assessing potential effects of contaminated water bodies on fish reproduction. PMID:21684244

Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Taylor, Nick G H; Maack, Gerd; Tyler, Charles R

2011-09-01

80

Challenges and innovations on biological treatment of livestock effluents.  

PubMed

Intensification of animal production led to high amounts of manure to be managed. Biological processes can contribute to a sustainable manure management. This paper presents the biological treatments available for the treatment of animal manure, mainly focusing on swine manure, including aerobic processes (nitrification, denitrification, enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic digestion. These processes are discussed in terms of pollution removal, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) and pathogen removal. Application of emerging processes such as partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) applied to animal manure is also considered. Finally, perspectives and future challenges for the research concerning biological treatments are highlighted in this paper. PMID:19269810

Bernet, Nicolas; Béline, Fabrice

2009-11-01

81

Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems  

DOEpatents

Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT)

2000-01-01

82

Modelling biological phosphorus removal from a cheese factory effluent by an SBR.  

PubMed

A mathematical model, named A3DX, based on ASM3(A3) for C and N removal, on the bio-P metabolic model of the Technological University of Delft (D), and on extra processes (X) for chemical and biological phosphorus removal, was developed and used to simulate the treatment of a fermented cheese factory effluent by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale SBR were used to calibrate the model. The model calibration was performed by changing a minimal number (four) of default values for parameters, and by introducing a Monod function to account for magnesium limitation. This study suggests that the value of stoichiometric and kinetic model parameters determined with municipal effluents or enriched bio-P cultures can be reasonably used with some agro-industrial effluents with minimal parameter adjustment for calibration. PMID:11381914

Ky, R C; Comeau, Y; Perrier, M; Takacs, I

2001-01-01

83

UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.  

PubMed

The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation. PMID:17953980

Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

2008-02-01

84

Advanced oxidation treatment of physico-chemically pre-treated olive mill industry effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added. PMID:17701710

Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet

2007-08-01

85

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

86

Assessment of odour problem in sewage-treated effluent in a closed loop irrigation system.  

PubMed

Uses of wastewater drives significant economic activity, supports countless livelihoods particularly those for developing countries. While using wastewater, the challenge is to identify practical, affordable safeguards that do not threaten the health of users. In Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, treated sewage effluent (TSE) is used for landscape purposes. In the present study, the odour problem caused by TSE in community area has been addressed. Samples were collected and analysed for total coliform, odour, trihalomethanes (THMs), total organic carbon (TOC) and other physicochemical parameters. Results show that in distribution network, residual chlorine was below the detection limit, turbidity, THMs, TOC and total coliform concentration was much higher than point source, and concentration of these parameters was further increased in problematic areas. It was also observed that areas with odourous problem were at the tail of irrigation network. This indicates that odour problem was due to less residual chlorine high turbidity, high rate of coliform and TOC. In odourous water samples, carbon disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were also identified by GC/MS, while in other areas where there was no odour, both these compounds were not detected. Odour problem was successfully resolved by improving sand filtration system to minimise turbidity the main cause of odour, increasing the residual chlorine at the treatment plant and regularly flushing the distribution network. PMID:20568010

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad Saeed; Miran, Mamdoh M

2011-05-01

87

Seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) located in Nonsan City, South Korea, and constructed as the final stage of a piggery wastewater treatment plant that aims to treat high nutrient content effluent during dry days and stormwater runoff during wet days was monitored from October 2008 to November 2011. This research investigated the seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in the CW and nutrient concentration changes in each treatment region under monsoon and temperate climate conditions. Results showed that the mean total nitrogen removal during summer (June to August) was higher by 13% than in spring (March to May), while total phosphorus removal was higher by 22% in fall (September to November) than in winter (December to February). All plants in the CW reached their maximum biomass coverage and weight in summer and minimum growth in winter. The highest N and P content in plants occurred in September with 583.2 g/m(2) and August with 62.0 g/m(2), respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that the harvesting of plants should be conducted during the time of the peak nutrient uptake and before the plants release the nutrient content back to the CW. The dependence of nutrient removal efficiency on plants is not so significant. In order to increase the nutrient removal rate by plant uptake, it is suggested that the treatment regions in the CW be covered by plants. PMID:23508157

Lee, S Y; Maniquiz, M C; Choi, J Y; Jeong, S M; Kim, L H

2013-01-01

88

Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16?:?0), C(17?:?0) cyclo, C(19?:?0) cyclo ?8c and C(14?:?0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) (?=?DSM 25520(T)?=?NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

2014-06-01

89

Effects of primary- and secondary-treated bleached kraft mill effluents on the immune system and physiological parameters of roach.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine, whether, effluents from a modern pulp and paper mill using elemental chlorine-free/total chlorine-free (ECF/TCF) bleaching, exert effects on the immune system of fish and, in addition, to relate these findings to physiological parameters known to be affected by bleached kraft-mill effluents (BKME). Roach (Rutilus rutilus) were exposed in laboratory conditions to primary- or secondary-treated effluent from a pulp and paper mill. In order to study their capability to respond to foreign antigens they were immunised with bovine gamma-globulin (BGG) prior to exposure. The number of anti-BGG antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and the number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) in the spleen and blood as well as the level of anti-BGG specific antibodies and concentration of plasma immunoglobulin (IgM) were studied. Phagocytosis and migration of granulocytes of the head kidney were also determined. In addition to the immunological parameters, the activity of hepatic biotransformation enzymes, the carbohydrate metabolism and osmoregulation were examined. Exposure of roach for 21 days to BKME affected several immunological parameters. Both effluents, primary- and secondary-treated, impaired the immunoreactivity of the fish. Sex-related differences in the immune responses were evident in many parameters e.g. in the number of blood ISC and splenic ASC. Sex also had effects on cortisol levels and in the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). These results demonstrate that both primary- and secondary-treated effluent from a pulp and paper mill using ECF/TCF bleaching have effects on fish immune functions. Further, these findings suggest that steroids may contribute to immunomodulation in fish. PMID:10998499

Aaltonen, T M; Jokinen, E I; Lappivaara, J; Markkula, S E; Salo, H M; Leppänen, H; Lammi, R

2000-11-01

90

Membrane Filtration Coupled with Chemical Precipitation to Treat Recirculating Aquaculture System Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus of- ten require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precip- itation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents.

Ling Yang; Hongde Zhou; Richard Moccia

2006-01-01

91

Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application. The spray-irrigated effluent affected the ground-water quality of the shallow aquifer differently on the hilltop and hillside topographic settings of the watershed where spray irrigation was being applied (application area). Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) and chloride (Cl) in the effluent were higher than concentrations of these constituents in shallow ground water from wells on the hilltop and hillside prior to start of spray irrigation. In water from wells on the hilltop, concentrations of nitrate N and Cl increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. In water from wells on the hillside, which were on the eastern part of the application area, nitrate N and Cl concentrations increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. However, on the hillside of the western application area, the ground-water quality was not affected by the spray-irrigated effluent because of the greater thickness of unconsolidated material and higher amounts of clay present in those unconsolidated sands. Although nitrate N concentrations increased in water from hilltop and hillside wells in the application area, the nitrate N concentrations were below the effluent concentration. A combination of plant uptake, biological activity, and denitrification may be the processes accounting for the lower nitrate N concentrations in shallow ground water compared to the spray-irrigated effluent. Cl concentrations in water from hilltop western application area well Ch-5173 increased during the study period but were an order of magnitude less than the input effluent concentration. Cl concentrations in shallow ground water in the e

Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

2005-01-01

92

Palm oil mill effluent treatment using a two-stage microbial fuel cells system integrated with immobilized biological aerated filters.  

PubMed

An integrated system of two-stage microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and immobilized biological aerated filters (I-BAFs) was used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) at laboratory scale. By replacing the conventional two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with a newly proposed upflow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UML-MFC) in the integrated system, significant improvements on NH(3)-N removal were observed and direct electricity generation implemented in both MFC1 and MFC2. Moreover, the coupled iron-carbon micro-electrolysis in the cathode of MFC2 further enhanced treatment efficiency of organic compounds. The I-BAFs played a major role in further removal of NH(3)-N and COD. For influent COD and NH(3)-N of 10,000 and 125 mg/L, respectively, the final effluents COD and NH(3)-N were below 350 and 8 mg/L, with removal rates higher than 96.5% and 93.6%. The GC-MS analysis indicated that most of the contaminants were satisfactorily biodegraded by the integrated system. PMID:20042327

Cheng, Jia; Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Borthwick, Alistair

2010-04-01

93

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

94

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

95

Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria))

1990-04-01

96

Long-term impacts of pasture irrigation with treated sewage effluent on shallow groundwater quality.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of 26 years of effluent irrigation on chemical and bacteriological quality of shallow (<3.0 m) groundwater. Annual loading rates for N and P exceeded pasture requirements, while trace metals were either lower or higher than guideline limits. Effluent irrigation removed TN (44-71%), TP (80%), Cr (96%) and coliform bacteria (87-99.9%) while Zn, Cu and Cd removal was negligible probably due to their enhanced mobility. Analysis of groundwater samples from effluent-irrigated and non-irrigated control sites showed that effluent irrigation increased the levels of all measured parameters compared to the control. Average groundwater quality parameters from effluent-irrigated sites compared to the control were: pH (6.1 vs. 5.7), EC (0.71 vs. 0.53 dS m(-1)), concentrations (mg L(-1)) for TP (2.3 vs. 0.3), DP (1.0 vs. 0.1), TN (15.1 vs. 2.5), NH(4)-N (2.6 vs. 0.5), NO(3)-N (4.1 vs. 1.3), Zn (0.4 vs. 0.05), Cu (0.13 vs. 0.02), Cd (0.05 vs. 0.01) and Cr (0.06 vs. 0.03). Across effluent-irrigated sites, FC and TC were 25 and 288 cfu/100 ml, respectively, versus nil for the control. Overall, effluent irrigation led to groundwater contamination by N, P, trace metals and coliform bacteria, which could threaten the long-term sustainability of the practice. PMID:19092224

Gwenzi, W; Munondo, R

2008-01-01

97

Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent  

PubMed Central

Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = ?0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

2014-01-01

98

Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.  

PubMed

A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium. PMID:24804625

Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

2014-08-01

99

Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

2014-09-01

100

Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.  

PubMed

In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9?A?m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15?min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process. PMID:25182075

Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

2015-02-01

101

Ozonation as a Treatment for Mechanical And Chemical Pulp Mill Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen effluent types from seven thermomechanical (TMP), chemithermomechanical (CTMP), bleached chemimechanical (BCMP), and kraft pulp mills were treated in the laboratory with ozone alone or ozone in conjunction with aerobic biological treatment. Except for one mechanical pulp mill effluent, all effluents ozonized showed rapid and selective destruction of their acute toxicity, juvabiones (JB), and resin and fatty acids (RFAs) over

L. Roy-Arcand; F. S. Archibald

1996-01-01

102

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

103

Production of ligninolytic activities when treating paper pulp effluents by Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the ability of Trametes versicolor to decolorize the effluents from the alkaline cooking of cereal straw produced at a paper and paper pulp making plant is studied. Enzymatic activities related to the metabolism of lignin during fungal treatment have also been evaluated. The results that have been attained show the necessity of a carbon source for the

P. Manzanares; S. Fajardo; C. Martin

1995-01-01

104

Chemical modifications of groundwater contaminated by recharge of treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of the chemical composition of recharge sewage effluent and associated contaminated groundwater from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project shows, after 16 years of recharge operation, the presence of a distinct saline plume (up to 400 mg\\/l Cl), extending 1600 m downgradient in the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel. The recorded electrolyte composition of groundwater in the vicinity

Avner Vengosh; Rami Keren

1996-01-01

105

Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

2012-07-01

106

New possibilities of biological treatment of effluents from different stages of sulphate pulping  

SciTech Connect

We present the results obtained upon incubation of Penicillium thomii with the sulphate pulping waste waters from different stages of pulping: brown stock washing water, chlorine bleaching waste water, final waste water leaving the pulp mill, partly aerated lagoon purified water and waste water entering the river Sava downstream from the mill. All waste waters were filtered and sterilized prior to inoculation and the liquid media were added 0.5% sucrose and standard mineral salts for fungal growth. The pH, absorbance at 450 nm and COD were determined for the filtered waste waters before the inoculation and after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation with the mould. Incubation of P. thomii produced the best effects with the brown stock water and the least with chlorine bleaching waste water. The positive effects even in the latter case, however, recommend P. thomii as a convenient microorganism for biological treatments of sulphate pulping effluents.

Janezic, T.S.; Bujanovic, B. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

1996-10-01

107

Biological kinetics evaluation of anaerobic stabilization pond treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Biological kinetic (bio-kinetic) study of the anaerobic stabilization pond treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out in a laboratory anaerobic bench scale reactor (ABSR). The reactor was operated at different feed flow-rates of 0.63, 0.76, 0.95, 1.27, 1.9 and 3.8l of raw POME for a day. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) as influent substrates was selected for bio-kinetic study. The investigation showed that the growth yield (Y(G)), specific biomass decay (b), maximum specific biomass growth rate (mu(max)), saturation constant (K(s)) and critical retention time (Theta(c)) were in the range of 0.990 g VSS/g COD(removed) day, 0.024 day(-1), 0.524 day(-1), 203.433 g COD l(-1) and 1.908 day, respectively. PMID:19560338

Wong, Yee Shian; Kadir, Mohd Omar A B; Teng, Tjoon Tow

2009-11-01

108

DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL TOXICITY ASSAY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A chemical analysis procedure was developed to measure within 1.5 hours compounds responsible for the toxicity of pulp mill effluents to fish. Analytical results for 113 samples of raw and biologically-treated bleached and unbleached kraft, sulphite and groundwood effluents were ...

109

Kinetics, design and biomass production of a bacteria reactor treating RAS effluent streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and design of a suspended bacteria growth reactor, which can be integrated in a 100MT African catfish farm, were determined. Such a reactor converted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from RAS effluents into heterotrophic bacteria biomass. The determined kinetics were: yield=0.537gVSS\\/gC; endogenous decay coefficient=0.033h?1; maximum specific growth rate=0.217h?1; half-velocity constant=0.025g\\/l; maximum rate of substrate utilization=0.404gC\\/gVSSh. A reactor integrated

Oliver Schneider; Vasiliki Sereti; Ep. H. Eding; Johan A. J. Verreth; Bram Klapwijk

2007-01-01

110

Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30\\u000a ± 1°C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45–52%), lignin (30–42%),\\u000a BOD (40–70%), COD (50–60%), total phenol (32–40%) and PCP (85–90%) within

Ram Chandra; Abhay Raj; Sangeeta Yadav; Devendra Kumar Patel

2009-01-01

111

An aerobic fixed-phase biofilm reactor system for the degradation of the low-molecular weight aromatic compounds occurring in the effluents of anaerobic digestors treating olive mill wastewaters.  

PubMed

An aerobic co-culture, prepared by combining Ralstonia sp. LD35 and Pseudomonas putida DSM1868, was recently found to be capable of extensively degrading many of the hydroxylated and/or methoxylated benzoic, phenylacetic and 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acids occurring in the olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the degradation of low-molecular weight (MW) aromatic compounds occurring in the effluents of anaerobic digestors treating OMWs, the capability of this bacterial co-culture of biodegrading a synthetic mix of the above mentioned compounds and the aromatic compounds of an anaerobic OMW-treatment plant effluent in the physiological state of immobilised cells was investigated. Two aerobic fixed-bed biofilm reactors were developed by immobilising the co-culture cells on Manville silica beads and on polyurethane foam cubes. Both supports were found to give rise to a microbiologically stable and biologically active biofilm. The two biofilm reactors were found to be similarly capable of rapidly and completely biodegrading the components of a synthetic mix of nine monocyclic aromatic acids typically present in OMWs and the low-MW aromatic compounds occurring in the anaerobic effluent in batch conditions. However, in the same conditions, the silica bead-packed reactor was found to be more effective in the removal of high-MW phenolic compounds from the anaerobic effluent with respect to the polyurethane cube-packed reactor. These results are encouraging in the perspective of using the co-culture as immobilized cells for developing a continuous biotechnological process for the post-treatment of effluents with low-MW aromatic compounds produced by anaerobic digestors treating OMWs. PMID:11278039

Bertin, L; Majone, M; Di Gioia, D; Fava, F

2001-05-01

112

Risk-based site-specific water quality criteria for treated mine-tailings effluent  

SciTech Connect

A mine development project proposes to discharge a combined effluent into marine waters in southeast Alaska. The discharge will consist of sewage, storm water, and tailings pond effluent. With the exception of arsenic, the discharge and its subsequent dispersion will comply with state and federal water quality criteria. The proposed discharge will comply with acute and chronic arsenic standards for the protection of marine life, but will not comply with the arsenic standard for the protection of human health via consumption of seafood. The arsenic standard for the protection of human health is based on a risk management objective that the likelihood of skin cancer be no more than 1 excess case per 100,000 people (10{sup {minus}5}) who ingest arsenic in seafood. Based on USEPA methodology for developing ambient water quality criteria, the seawater concentration that corresponds to this risk management objective is 1.4,{micro}g/L, which is less than the naturally-occurring arsenic concentration in seawater. Consequently, a site-specific risk-based evaluation was conducted to identify more realistic and achievable goals for arsenic in seawater that are consistent with the risk management objective of 10{sup {minus}5}. Parameters evaluated were discharge transport, chemical speciation and fate of arsenic, fish exposure, bioaccumulation and metabolism, patterns of fish catch and consumption, and toxic potency of arsenic. Results of the evaluation showed numerous, substantial differences between the assumptions inherent in the risk assessment model used by USEPA to estimate water quality criteria, and site-specific values that could be applied to the proposed discharge. Overall, the collective weight of evidence indicates that the concentration of arsenic in seawater that corresponds to the 10{sup {minus}5} risk management objective may be substantially (i.e., 10 to 1,000 times) higher than the 1.4 {micro}g/L criterion.

Williams, L.G.; Fendick, E.; LaKind, J.; Stern, B.; Strand, J.A.; Tardiff, R.G. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Redmond, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

113

Comparative animal and plant toxicities of 10 treated effluents discharged to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical quality and acute and chronic toxicities of 10 effluents discharged to near-coastal areas in Northwest Florida were determined using standard and nonstandard toxicity tests. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the toxicities of different types of effluents and to assess the ability of a variety of toxicity tests to differentiate effluent-specific effects. Focus

M. A. Lewis; D. E. Weber; R. S. Stanley

1998-01-01

114

Performance of a pilot-scale nitrifying trickling filter treating municipal aerated lagoon effluent.  

PubMed

Colfax, WA, operates an aerated lagoon to achieve compliance with its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which currently requires biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal. However, ammonia removal may soon be required, and Colfax is considering a nitrifying trickling filter (NTF) that would allow them to also maintain the lagoons. To obtain data from which to ultimately design a full-scale system, a four-year NTF pilot study was performed. Results demonstrated that an NTF would be an effective, reliable NH3 removal method and could produce effluent NH3 concentrations < 1.0 mg/L. NTF performance was characterized by zero- and first-order kinetics; zero-order rates correlated with influent NH3 concentrations and mass load. Utilizing data from these investigations it was determined that the pilot NTF could be reduced by 19%, which demonstrates the value of pilot testing. Finally, pilot data was evaluated to provide a data set that will be useful to engineers designing full-scale NTFs. PMID:25630125

Coats, Erik R; Watson, Ben; Lee, Kiersten; Hammer, Matt

2015-01-01

115

Removal processes of disinfection byproducts in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.  

PubMed

The removal efficiencies and the kinetics of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were studied in six greenhouse laboratory-scale SSF CWs. Cattail (Typha latifolia) and its litter (collected from the aboveground samples of cattail in autumn) were used as a potential phytoremediation technology and as a primary substrate, respectively, for DBP removal. Results showed that most of the 11 DBPs (except chloroform and 1, 1-dichloropropanone) were efficiently removed (>90%) in six SSF CWs with hydraulic retention time of 5 d and there were no significant differences among the systems. Under the batch mode, the removal of DBPs in SSF CWs followed first-order kinetics with half-lives of 1.0-770.2 h. As a primary DBP in wastewater effluent, removal efficiencies for chloroform were higher in planted systems than in unplanted ones and plant uptake accounted for more than 23.8% of the removal. Plant litter greatly enhanced the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) by supplying primary substrates and reducing conditions, and the formation of dichloromethane supported the anaerobic biodegradation of THMs via reductive dechlorination in SSF CWs. Trichloroacetonitrile was completely removed within 10 h in each system and hydrolysis was considered to be the dominant process as there was a rapid formation of the hydrolysis byproduct, trichloroacetamide. PMID:24440896

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Cai, Yanlong; Zhou, Qi

2014-03-15

116

Nitrogen mass balance in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The nitrogen changes and the nitrogen mass balance in a free water surface flow constructed wetland (CW) using the four-year monitoring data from 2008 to 2012 were estimated. The CW was composed of six cells in series that include the first settling basin (Cell 1), aeration pond (Cell 2), deep marsh (Cell 3), shallow marsh (Cell 4), deep marsh (Cell 5) and final settling basin (Cell 6). Analysis revealed that the NH(+)4-N concentration decreased because of ammonification which was then followed by nitrification. The NO(-)2-N and NO(-)2-N were also further reduced by means of microbial activities and plant uptake during photosynthesis. The average nitrogen concentration at the influent was 37,819 kg/year and approximately 45% of that amount exited the CW in the effluent. The denitrification amounted to 34% of the net nitrogen input, whereas the accretion of sediment was only 7%. The biomass uptake of plants was able to retain only 1% of total nitrogen load. In order to improve the nutrient removal by plant uptake, plant coverage in four cells (i.e., Cells 1, 3, 4 and 5) could be increased. PMID:25079834

Lee, Soyoung; Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Lee-Hyung

2014-06-01

117

Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactor had been operated continuously at 35 degrees C for 514 d, with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). The results showed that the EGSB reactor had good performance in terms of COD removal on the one hand, high COD removal of 91% was obtained at two days' of hydraulic retention time (HRT), and the highest OLR of 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). On the other hand, only 46% COD in raw POME was transformed into biogas in which the methane content was about 70% (V/V). A 30-d intermittent experiment indicated that the maximum transformation potential of organic matter in raw POME into methane was 56%. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed in the later operation stage, and this was settled by supplementing trace metal elements. On the whole, the system exhibited good stability in terms of acidity and alkalinity. Finally, the operational problems inherent in the laboratory scale experiment and the corresponding countermeasures were also discussed. PMID:18763558

Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Chi, Lina; Long, Xiuhua; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

2008-01-01

118

Field-Based Approach for Assessing the Impact of Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Endogenous Metabolites of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great La...

119

The Impact of Different Proportions of a Treated Effluent on the Biotransformation of Selected Micro-Contaminants in River Water Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ?0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible. PMID:25310538

Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

2014-01-01

120

Coupled effects of treated effluent irrigation and wetting-drying cycles on transport of triazines through unsaturated soil columns.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical parameters controlling the movement of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine; 98.8%) and prometryn [N,N'-bis(1-methylethyl)-6-(methylthio)-l,3,5triazine-2,4-diamine; 99.5%] were investigated in columns infiltrated with treated effluent under unsaturated transient conditions and subjected to drying events at 22 or 60 degrees C followed by rewetting. Three soils varying in soil pH and texture and three solutions were used. The infiltrating solutions consisted of either a CaCl2 matrix (CC), a swine waste-derived lagoon effluent (SW), or a simulated buffer solution (SB) representative of the element composition and pH of the SW but with no dissolved organic matter. Several parameters were monitored including leachate triazine concentrations, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic carbon, and flow rates. Compared with CC, application of SW and SB increased column leachate pH, enhanced dissolution of organic carbon and particle dispersion, and decreased average flow rates, which allowed for increased desorption time. The coupled effect of these processes enhanced movement of triazines in some cases, with SW generally having the greatest effect. The individual effect of increased pH was more pronounced for prometryn (pKa=4.05) versus atrazine (pKa=1.66), and most dramatic for the soil with the lowest initial pH. High-temperature drying, which simulated intensive evaporation, further enhanced the dissolution of soil organic matter and the reduction in leachate flow rates with SW and SB applications; however, the net effect under the experimental conditions employed varied with soil type. Relative to low-temperature drying, high-temperature drying in the silty clay loam-packed columns reduced pesticide migration. PMID:11577872

Seol, Y; Lee, L S

2001-01-01

121

The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400?ng/L and 2400?ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

2014-02-01

122

Improving neural network prediction of effluent from biological wastewater treatment plant of industrial park using fuzzy learning approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in which the online monitoring parameters served as the\\u000a input variable were employed to predict suspended solids (SSeff), chemical oxygen demand (CODeff), and pHeff in the effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant in industrial park. Artificial neural network (ANN) was also\\u000a used for comparison. The results indicated that ANFIS statistically

Tzu-Yi Pai; S. C. Wang; C. F. Chiang; H. C. Su; L. F. Yu; P. J. Sung; C. Y. Lin; H. C. Hu

2009-01-01

123

Application of integrated ozone biological aerated filters and membrane filtration in water reuse of textile effluents.  

PubMed

A combined process including integrated ozone-BAFs (ozone biological aerated filters) and membrane filtration was first applied for recycling textile effluents in a cotton textile mill with capacity of 5000 m(3)/d. Influent COD (chemical oxygen demand) in the range of 82-120 mg/L, BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) of 12.6-23.1 mg/L, suspended solids (SSs) of 38-52 mg/L and color of 32-64° were observed during operation. Outflows with COD?45 mg/L, BOD5?7.6 mg/L, SS?15 mg/L, color?8° were obtained after being decontaminated by ozone-BAF with ozone dosage of 20-25 mg/L. Besides, the average removal rates of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and UV254 were 100% and 73.4% respectively. Permeate water produced by RO (reverse osmosis) could be reused in dyeing and finishing processes, while the RO concentrates could be discharged directly under local regulations with COD?100 mg/L, BOD5?21 mg/L, SS?52 mg/L, color?32°. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality, and solve the problem of RO concentrate disposal. PMID:23422307

He, Yaozhong; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jinling; Yan, Jinli; Ge, Qilong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Jian, Lei

2013-04-01

124

Combined biological and chemical assessment of estrogenic activities in wastewater treatment plant effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five wastewater treatment plant effluents were analyzed for known endocrine disrupters and estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was determined by using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and by measuring the blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in exposed male rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). While all wastewater treatment plant effluents contained measurable concentrations of estrogens and gave a positive response with the YES, only

Hans-Rudolf Aerni; Bernd Kobler; Barbara V. Rutishauser; Felix E. Wettstein; René Fischer; Walter Giger; Andreas Hungerbühler; M. Dolores Marazuela; Armin Peter; René Schönenberger; A. Christiane Vögeli; Marc J.-F. Suter; Rik I. L. Eggen

2004-01-01

125

Processing of particulate organic carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluent in intertidal sediments: a 13C pulse-chase experiment.  

PubMed

To determine the benthic transformation pathways and fate of carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill (PPM) effluent, (13)C-labeled activated sludge biomass (ASB) and phytoplankton (PHY) were added, separately, to estuarine intertidal sediments. Over 28 days, (13)C was traced into sediment organic carbon, fauna, seagrass, bacteria, and microphytobenthos and into fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from inundated sediments, and carbon dioxide (CO2(g)) from exposed sediments. There was greater removal of PHY carbon from sediments (~85% over 28 days) compared to ASB (~75%). Although there was similar (13)C loss from PHY and ASB plots via DIC (58% and 56%, respectively) and CO2(g) fluxes (<1%), DOC fluxes were more important for PHY (41%) than ASB (12%). Faster downward transport and loss suggest that fauna prefer PHY, due to its lability and/or toxins associated with ASB; this may account for different carbon pathways. Secondary-treated PPM effluent has lower oxygen demand than primary-treated effluent, but ASB accumulation may contribute to sediment anoxia, and respiration of ASB and PHY-derived DOC may make the water column more heterotrophic. This highlights the need to optimize secondary-treatment processes to control the quality and quantity of organic carbon associated with PPM effluent. PMID:24261917

Oakes, Joanne M; Ross, Donald J; Eyre, Bradley D

2013-12-01

126

The relevance of physicochemical and biological parameters for setting emission limit values for plants treating complex industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

The influents of plants treating complex industrial wastewaters from third parties may contain a large variety of often unknown or unidentified potentially harmful substances. The conventional approach of assessing and regulating the effluents of these plants is to set emission limit values for a limited set of physicochemical parameters, such as heavy metals, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogen compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of physicochemical parameters for setting emission limit values for such plants based on a comparison of effluent analyses by physicochemical and biological assessment tools. The results show that physicochemical parameters alone are not sufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of the water treatment plants for removing hazardous compounds and to protect the environment. The introduction of toxicity limits and limits for the total bioaccumulation potential should be considered to supplement generic parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogens. A recommendation is made to include toxicity screening as a technique to consider in the determination of best available techniques (BAT) during the upcoming revision of the BAT reference document for the waste treatment industries to provide a more rational basis in decisions on additional treatment steps. PMID:24142491

Huybrechts, Diane; Weltens, Reinhilde; Jacobs, Griet; Borburgh, Ab; Smets, Toon; Hoebeke, Lut; Polders, Caroline

2014-02-01

127

Long-term impacts of pasture irrigation with treated sewage effluent on nutrient status of a sandy soil in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining freshwater resources and the need to safely dispose wastewater have led to a rapid increase in wastewater reuse\\u000a in developing countries. However, empirical evidence on the effects of effluent-irrigation on soil fertility is limited. The\\u000a study investigated the nutrient status of a sandy soil after 26 years of effluent irrigation. Soil samples from effluent-irrigated\\u000a and non-irrigated sites were analysed for

W. Gwenzi; R. Munondo

2008-01-01

128

Using transcriptomic tools to evaluate biological effects across effluent gradients at a diverse set of study sites in Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the utility of "omics" approaches in monitoring aquatic environments where complex, often unknown stressors make chemical-specific risk assessment untenable. We examined changes in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovarian transcriptome following 4-day exposures conducted at three sites in Minnesota (MN, USA). Within each site, fish were exposed to water from three locations along a spatial gradient relative to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. After exposure, site-specific impacts on gene expression in ovaries were assessed. Using an intragradient point of comparison, biological responses specifically associated with the WWTP effluent were identified using functional enrichment analyses. Fish exposed to water from locations downstream of the effluent discharges exhibited many transcriptomic responses in common with those exposed to the effluent, indicating that effects of the discharge do not fully dissipate downstream. Functional analyses showed a range of biological pathways impacted through effluent exposure at all three sites. Several of those impacted pathways at each site could be linked to potential adverse reproductive outcomes associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows, specifically signaling pathways associated with oocyte meiosis, TGF-beta signaling, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB), and gene sets associated with cyclin B-1 and metalloproteinase. The utility of this approach comes from the ability to identify biological responses to pollutant exposure, particularly those that can be tied to adverse outcomes at the population level and those that identify molecular targets for future studies. PMID:24433150

Berninger, Jason P; Martinovi?-Weigelt, Dalma; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Escalon, Lynn; Perkins, Edward J; Ankley, Gerald T; Villeneuve, Daniel L

2014-02-18

129

Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

2010-01-01

130

Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.  

PubMed

The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ?70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal. PMID:23508150

Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

2013-01-01

131

Chemical and Biological Characterization of Estrogenicity in Effluents from WWTPs in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are responsible for the input of estrogenic contaminants into aquatic ecosystems,\\u000a leading to widespread effects in wildlife. In the present work, levels of estrone (E1), 17?- and 17?-estradiol (E2), 17?-ethinylestradiol\\u000a (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP) were quantified in effluents from WWTPs located in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal),\\u000a as well as in

Ana Sousa; René Schönenberger; Niels Jonkers; Marc J.-F. Suter; Shinsuke Tanabe; Carlos M. Barroso

2010-01-01

132

300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

NONE

1995-05-01

133

Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

Vigerstad, T J

1980-01-01

134

Anaerobic treatment of gasifier effluent: Final report. [Organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been conducted to determine the biological treatability of coal gasification effluent for removal of organic carbon and ammonia. The treatment system consisted of an anaerobic activated carbon filter for organic carbon removal followed by a single stage nitrification system followed by a biological denitrification reactor. Dilute (approx.10%) wastewater was successfully treated over an extended period of time. However,

W. H. Cross; F. G. Pohland; E. S. K. Chian; S. R. Harper; F. Lu; H. Gao; F. M. Saunders; J. Havash; E. Wang

1986-01-01

135

How safe are the biologicals in treating asthma and rhinitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of biological agents are available or being investigated for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis. The safety profiles of these biologic agents, which may modify allergic and immunological diseases, are still being elucidated. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy, the oldest biologic agent in current use, has the highest of frequency of the most serious and life-threatening reaction, anaphylaxis. It is

Linda S Cox

2009-01-01

136

CATALYTICALLY AND NONCATALYTICALLY TREATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H2SO4 alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaus...

137

Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.  

PubMed

Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m(3) ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system. PMID:25805372

Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

2015-04-01

138

Nitrification and denitrification in biological activated carbon filter for treating high ammonia source water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the ammonia in the effluent of the traditional water purification process could not meet the supply demand, the advanced\\u000a treatment of a high concentration of NH4\\u000a +-N micro-polluted source water by biological activated carbon filter (BACF) was tested. The filter was operated in the downflow\\u000a manner and the results showed that the removing rate of NH4\\u000a +-N was related

Jianguang Liu; Xiaojian Zhang; Zhansheng Wang

2008-01-01

139

Characteristics of granular sludge developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge fixed-film bioreactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study, characteristics of the granular sludge (including physical characteristics under stable conditions and process shocks arising from suspended solid overload, soluble organic overload, and high temperature; biological activity; and sludge kinetic evaluation in a batch experiment) developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed-film reactor for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was investigated. The main aim of this work was to provide suitable understanding of POME anaerobic digestion using such a granular sludge reactor, particularly with respect to granule structure at various operating conditions. The morphological changes in granular sludge resulting from various operational conditions was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. It was shown that the developed granules consisted of densely packed rod- (Methanosaeta-like microorganism; predominant) and cocci- (Methanosarsina) shaped microorganisms. Methanosaeta aggregates functioned as nucleation centers that initiated granule development of POME-degrading granules. Under the suspended solid overload condition, most of the granules were covered with a thin layer of fiberlike suspended solids, so that the granule color changed to brown and the sludge volume index also increased to 24.5 from 12 to 15 mL/g, which caused a large amount of sludge washout. Some of the granules were disintegrated because of an acidified environment, which originated from acidogenesis of high influent organic load (29 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L d). At 60 degrees C, the rate of biomass washout increased, as a result of disintegration of the outer layer of the granules. In the biological activity test, approximately 95% COD removal was achieved within 72 hours, with an initial COD removal rate of 3.5 g COD/L d. During POME digestion, 275 mg calcium carbonate/L bicarbonate alkalinity was produced per 1000 mg COD(removed)/ L. A consecutive reaction kinetic model was used to simulate the data obtained from the sludge activity in the batch experiment. The mathematical model gave a good fit with the experimental results (R2 > 0.93). The slowest step was modeled to be the acidification step, with a rate constant between 0.015 and 0.083 hours(-1), while the rate constant for the methanogenic step was obtained to be between 0.218 and 0.361 hours(-1). PMID:17824529

Zinatizadeh, A A L; Mohamed, A R; Mashitah, M D; Abdullah, A Z; Hasnain Isa, M

2007-08-01

140

REUSE OF TREATED FRUIT PROCESSING WASTEWATER IN A CANNERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reclamation of the biologically treated effluent by filtration through mixed media pressure filters and disinfection with chlorine was investigated for two processing seasons. The reclaimed water was put to several trial uses: (a) initial product conveying, (b) equipment, floor a...

141

Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

2013-12-01

142

Assessment of in vitro cyto/genotoxicity of sequentially treated electroplating effluent on the human hepatocarcinoma HuH-7 cell line.  

PubMed

The present study compares in vitro toxicity of electroplating effluent after the batch treatment process with that obtained after the sequential treatment process. Activated charcoal prepared from sugarcane bagasse through chemical carbonization, and tolerant indigenous bacteria, Bacillus sp. strain IST105, were used individually and sequentially for the treatment of electroplating effluent. The sequential treatment involving activated charcoal followed by bacterial treatment removed 99% of Cr(VI) compared with the batch processes, which removed 40% (charcoal) and 75% (bacteria), respectively. Post-treatment in vitro cyto/genotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT test and the comet assay in human HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. The sequentially treated sample showed an increase in LC50 value with a 6-fold decrease in comet-assay DNA migration compared with that of untreated samples. A significant decrease in DNA migration and an increase in LC50 value of treated effluent proved the higher effectiveness of the sequential treatment process over the individual batch processes. PMID:24525376

Naik, Umesh Chandra; Das, Mihir Tanay; Sauran, Swati; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2014-03-01

143

Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test  

SciTech Connect

Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be solved by using in vitro tests. The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test has been used to assess (a) the efficacy of a treatment plant in the aeronautics industry and (b) the exposure of fish and molluscs cultured in Esteiro Bay to the effluent of a fish-processing factory. Ecotoxicological assessments could be done without identifying the responsible chemicals. The RTG-2 test was used in combination with concentration/fractionation procedures. It proved that the toxicity of the liquid wastes from the aeronautics industry was eliminated by the treatment, and that molluscs and fish reared in Esteiro Bay had accumulated toxic chemicals dumped by the fish-processing factory. A combination of the RTG-2 cytotoxicity test and HPLC proved to give useful information even for chemicals not identified by GC-MS.

Castano, A. (Inst. Carlos III, Madrid (Spain). Centro de Sanidad Ambiental); Vega, M.; Blazquez, T.; Tarazona, J.V. (CISA-INIA, Madrid (Spain))

1994-10-01

144

Observations on Root Disease of Container Whitebark Pine Seedlings treated with Biological Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a non-treated control. Seedlings treated with the biological controls and non-symptomatic seedlings in the control treatment had

R Kasten Dumroese

2008-01-01

145

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient concentrations in Indian Creek. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

2014-01-01

146

Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Plant Growth and Biological Activity in Three Soil Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two types of treated wastewater on soil biological activity were studied in a pot experiment. Four irrigation treatments were tested on both soils sown with barley and unsown soils: distilled water (DW), half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (NS), treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW), and treated wastewater from a lagoon (LWW). Three types of soils were

Maria Adrover; Gabriel Moyà; Jaume Vadell

2012-01-01

147

Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the remaining samples were archived. Biological characteristics were determined by using an in-vitro bioassay to determine total estrogenicity in water samples and a caged fish study to determine characteristics of fish from experiments that exposed fish to wastewater effluent in 2009. St. Cloud State University deployed and processed caged fathead minnows at 13 stream sites during September 2009 for the caged fish study. Measured fish data included length, weight, body condition factor, and vitellogenin concentrations.

Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

2011-01-01

148

Effect of pretreatment on the fouling of membranes: application in biologically treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reuse of wastewater can help in maintaining environmental quality and relieving the unrelenting pressure on conventional and natural freshwater sources. Membrane processes find an important place in the wastewater treatment for reuse. Nonetheless, reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF), i.e. non-porous membranes require higher operational costs and energy. Thus, in this research NTR 7410 ultrafiltration (UF) membrane which is porous

H. K Shon; S Vigneswaran; In S Kim; J Cho; H. H Ngo

2004-01-01

149

Evaluation of Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) process in wastewater treatment secondary effluent for reclamation purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two different granular activated carbon (GAC) types (steam activated, PK1–3 and chemically activated, CAgran) on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, nitrification and denitrification were evaluated in BAC columns for wastewater reclamation\\/reuse purposes. Continuous-flow laboratory-scale BAC columns were operated for 320days using the secondary effluent water of Pasakoy Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant. During the first 83days of column

Çigdem Kalkan; Kozet Yapsakli; Bulent Mertoglu; Deniz Tufan; Ahmet Saatci

2011-01-01

150

Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1?mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

2013-01-01

151

Biological treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a Lab-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR).  

PubMed

The production of highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has resulted in serious environmental hazards. While anaerobic digestion is widely accepted as an effective method for the treatment of POME, anaerobic treatment of POME alone has difficulty meeting discharge limits due to the high organic strength of POME. Hence, subsequent post-treatment following aerobic treatment is vital to meet the discharge limits. The objective of the present study is to investigate the aerobic treatment of anaerobically digested POME by using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) removal as well as Sludge Volume Index (SVI). The operating pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found to be 8.25-9.14 and 1.5-6.4 mg/L, respectively, throughout the experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that MLVSS, OLR and sludge loading rate (SLR) play a significant role in the organic removal efficiency of SBR systems and therefore, further investigation on these parameters was conducted to attain optimum SBR performance. Maximum COD (95-96%), BOD (97-98%) and TSS (98-99%) removal efficiencies were achieved at optimum OLR, SLR and MLVSS concentration ranges of 1.8-4.2 kg COD/m(3)day, 2.5-4.6 kg TSS/m(3)day and 22,000-25,000 mg/L, respectively. The effluent quality remained stable and complied with the discharge limit. At the same time, the sludge showed good settling properties with average SVI of 65. It is envisaged that the SBR process could complement the anaerobic treatment to produce final treated effluent which meets the discharge limit. PMID:20430515

Chan, Yi Jing; Chong, Mei Fong; Law, Chung Lim

2010-08-01

152

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

PubMed Central

Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in the biofilter throughout the treatment. Conclusion The silica-bead packed bed biofilm reactor developed and characterized in this study was able to significantly decontaminate anaerobically digested OMWs. Therefore, the application of an integrated anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in an improved system for valorization and decontamination of OMWs. PMID:16595023

Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

2006-01-01

153

The presence of the top prescribed pharmaceuticals in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in Southwest Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

From a list of the top prescribed drugs in Canada, 11 pharmaceuticals and two metabolites were selected for study in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants across Southwest Nova Scotia including the Annapolis Valley, South Shore, and Metropolitan Halifax. Samples were also collected between 100 and 200 m downstream of effluent outflows. Seven pharmaceuticals were found above ?g/L levels with their highest concentrations as follows: metformin (10.6 ?g/L), acetaminophen (28.9 ?g/L), paraxanthine (18.2 ?g/L), cotinine (3.10 ?g/L), caffeine (115 ?g/L), naproxen (29.1 ?g/L), and venlafaxine (2.65 ?g/L). Metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, naproxen, ramipril, and venlafaxine were detected in every wastewater effluent sample. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in pharmaceutical occurrence by treatment methods, weak dependence of pharmaceutical concentrations on populations, and the co-occurrence of some pharmaceuticals. Experimental results might indicate the limitation of primary only treatment methods in breaking down pharmaceuticals. PMID:25099660

Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Fox, Shannon; Tong, Anthony Z

2015-01-01

154

SITE-SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY STUDIES OF THE STRAIGHT RIVER, MINNESOTA: COMPLEX EFFLUENT TOXICITY, ZINC TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish relationships between the toxicity of a sewage treatment plant effluent containing high concentrations of zinc, toxicity of the effluent in t...

155

Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation  

E-print Network

Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation with long, Nottingham, UK Background: As age advances breast cancer appears to change its biological characteristics breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic. In all, 813 underwent primary surgery and 575 good

Aickelin, Uwe

156

Biological treatment of chemically flocculated agro-industrial waste from the wool scouring industry by an aerobic process without sludge recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new agro-industrial effluent known as Sirolan CF effluent is the aqueous phase remaining after the chemical flocculation of wool scouring effluent by the Sirolan CF process. This effluent has been characterized, and shown to be effectively treated by biological degradation. It has a high concentration of organic material (5750mg\\/L COD), with a low BOD5\\/COD ratio (0.29). Aerobic biological treatment

Andrew J Poole; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; F. William Jones

1999-01-01

157

Disinfection kinetics of heterotrophic plate count bacteria in biologically treated potable water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection kinetics of biologically and non-biologically treated drinking waters were evaluated at bench-scale using process water from a pilot plant employing pre-ozonation and biologically active carbon (BAC) contactors. The Chick-Watson kinetic model did not describe the inactivation of native heterotrophic plate count bacteria (R2A agar, 7 d at 20°C) with decreasing rates of inactivation seen at extended contact times

David J. Pernitsky; Gordon R. Finch; Peter M. Huck

1995-01-01

158

NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

159

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

160

Dissolved organic matter from treated effluent of a major wastewater treatment plant: characterization and influence on copper toxicity.  

PubMed

A combination of reverse osmosis (RO) concentration and DAX-8/XAD-4 resin adsorption techniques is used to isolate the various constituents of urban dissolved organic matter (DOM) from inorganic salts. Three fractions: hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPI) and hydrophilic (HPI) accounting respectively for 35%, 20% and 45% of extracted carbon, are isolated from effluents of a major French wastewater treatment plant. This atypical DOC distribution, in comparison with natural water where the HPO fraction dominates, shows the significance of HPI fraction which often gets neglected because of extraction difficulties. A number of analytical techniques (elemental, spectroscopic: UV, FTIR) allow highlighting the weak aromaticity of wastewater effluent DOM (EfOM) due to fewer degradation and condensation processes and the strong presence of proteinaceous structures indicative of intense microbial activity. Copper toxicity in the presence of DOM is estimated using an acute toxicity test on Daphnia Magna (Strauss). Results reveal the similar protective role of each EfOM fraction compared to reference Suwannee river fulvic acid despite lower EfOM aromaticity (i.e. specific UV absorbance). The environmental implications of these results are discussed with respect to the development of site-specific water quality criteria. PMID:18632131

Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Clouzot, Ludiwine; Varrault, Gilles; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Verger, Alain; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

2008-09-01

161

Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

1980-01-01

162

Estimating effluent COD  

SciTech Connect

In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

1995-06-01

163

Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 ?g/L of THMs and 1140.6 ?g/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively. PMID:23535379

Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

2013-05-15

164

Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent.  

PubMed

Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE. PMID:24675614

Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang

2014-05-15

165

Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible. PMID:16180426

Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

2005-01-01

166

EFFECTS OF LIQUID DETERGENT PLANT EFFLUENT ON THE ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on the treatment of wastewaters from a liquid detergent manufacturing plant by a rotating biological contactor and presents the findings of an analytical effort to determine the presence or absence of metals and organic compounds which were among those...

167

Solar Fenton and solar TiO2 catalytic treatment of ofloxacin in secondary treated effluents: evaluation of operational and kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

Two different technical approaches based on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), solar Fenton homogeneous photocatalysis (hv/Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) suspensions were studied for the chemical degradation of the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin in secondary treated effluents. A bench-scale solar simulator in combination with an appropriate photochemical batch reactor was used to evaluate and select the optimal oxidation conditions of ofloxacin spiked in secondary treated domestic effluents. The concentration profile of the examined substrate during degradation was determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. Mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The concentrations of Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) were the key factors for the solar Fenton process, while the most important parameter of the heterogeneous photocatalysis was proved to be the catalyst loading. Kinetic analyses indicated that the photodegradation of ofloxacin can be described by a pseudo-first-order reaction. The rate constant (k) for the solar Fenton process was determined at different Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations whereas the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) kinetic expression was used to assess the kinetics of the heterogeneous photocatalytic process. The conversion of ofloxacin depends on several parameters based on the various experimental conditions, which were investigated. A Daphnia magna bioassay was used to evaluate the potential toxicity of the parent compound and its photo-oxidation by-products in different stages of oxidation. In the present study solar Fenton has been demonstrated to be more effective than the solar TiO(2) process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate and DOC reduction of about 50% in 30 min of the photocatalytic treatment. PMID:20667580

Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

2010-10-01

168

IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

169

IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

170

Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical–biological treatment sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills\\u000a RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement\\u000a was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment\\u000a (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was

Ebtesam El-Bestawy; Ibrahim El-Sokkary; Hany Hussein; Alaa Farouk Abu Keela

2008-01-01

171

Evaluation of UV/TiO(2) and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems coupled to a biological process for the treatment of bleaching pulp mill effluent.  

PubMed

This paper presents an exploratory study of pulp mill bleaching effluent treatment by a biological-photocatalytic coupled system. A fungus, Trametes pubescens, immobilized on polyurethane foam was used to inoculate the biological pre-treatment system. The pretreated effluent was then exposed to a photocatalytic treatment in which two catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) and two supports (aluminum foil and Luffa cylindrica) were tested. Catalyst characterization was carried out by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Information about crystalline structure, chemical composition, morphology, homogeneity and distribution on the support surface area was obtained. The overall biological-photocatalytic coupled system achieved degradation of 96% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), 97% of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 90% of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-CP) and 99% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). This approach of synergistic coupling of T. pubescens and a semiconductor photocatalyst appears to be a viable alternative for the treatment of these non-biodegradable effluents. PMID:22818977

Botía, Diana C; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Sarria, Víctor M

2012-10-01

172

Aerobic biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate by fed-batch operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachate obtained from the solid waste landfill area contained high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium ions which resulted in low COD and ammonium removals by direct biological treatment. COD and ammonium ion contents of the leachate were reduced to reasonable levels by chemical precipitation with lime and air stripping of ammonia. The pre-treated leachate was subjected to aerobic

Fikret Kargi; M. Yunus Pamukoglu

2003-01-01

173

Humic Acid Toxicity in Biologically Treated Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminated soil from a land treatment unit at the Libby Groundwater Superfund Site in Libby, MT, was amended with 14C pyrene and incubated for 396 days to promote biodegradation and the formation of soil-associated bound residues. Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from the treated soil microcosms and analyzed for the presence of pyrene residues. Biologic activity promoted 14C association

J. K. C. Nieman; R. C. Sims; D. L. Sorensen; J. E. McLean

2005-01-01

174

Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic\\u000a marine sediments from 1989–2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing\\u000a residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna\\u000a and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences

Arny L. Blanchard; Howard M. Feder; David G. Shaw

2011-01-01

175

Toxicity evaluation and biological treatment of lead and zinc mine-mill effluents in southeast Missouri  

SciTech Connect

A new type of biological treatment system was developed consisting of a large tailings lagoon followed by a series of artificially constructed meanders and polishing lagoon. This system provided additional time and distance for removal of heavy metals by algae and sedimentation. Application of a Waste Load Allocation model was evaluated to determine the system treatment efficiency for handling and removing an increased discharge of metal concentration from the primary tailings pond. Alternative analytical extraction techniques have been tested to determine the best recovery of the heavy metals. Static acute toxicity tests using Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) found that lead, cadmium and zinc are much less toxic in hard, alkaline waters typical of New Lead Belt rivers and streams. However, determining the toxic fraction of the metal in this environment in regard to an acid soluble metal would not be representative of the toxic form of the metal that would cause lethality in test organisms because, no correlation was found between the toxicity results and chemical extraction results in regard to the available, easily dissolved, total and nominal concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc.

Erten, Z.M.

1988-01-01

176

Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

Specht, W.L.

1991-10-01

177

Effect of solids retention time on membrane fouling intensity in two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs) treating palm oil mill effluent were analysed in terms of membrane fouling dynamics when working at three different sludge retention times (SRTs of 15, 30 and 60 d). The average permeate flux was fixed at 2.4 L x m(-2) x h(-1). During operation, the membrane was regenerated by using two steps: membrane wiping during each experiment as soon as trans-membrane pressure reached 125-130 mbars, and complete membrane cleaning including backwash and chemical cleaning at the end of each experiment when analysing the membrane surface and foulant material. Whatever the SRT, the cake formation was the dominant effect on membrane fouling dynamics. The concentration of suspended solids in the SAnMBRs, depending on the SRT, was then a determining criterion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that fouled membrane surfaces were covered with a cake layer containing organic and inorganic elements whose concentrations were higher when working at a higher SRT; the higher concentrations of such elements gave to the cake layer a denser and more compact structure. In these experiments, the soluble fractions played a secondary role because of the dominant effect of cake layer structuring. PMID:25145221

Annop, S; Sridang, P; Puetpaiboon, U; Grasmick, A

2014-01-01

178

Methane recovery efficiency in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating sulphate-rich urban wastewater: evaluation of methane losses with the effluent.  

PubMed

The present paper presents a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) as a sustainable approach for urban wastewater treatment at 33 and 20 °C, since greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and energy recovery is enhanced. Compared to other anaerobic systems, such as UASB reactors, the membrane technology allows the use of biogas-assisted mixing which enhances the methane stripping from the liquid phase bulk. The methane saturation index obtained for the whole period (1.00±0.04) evidenced that the equilibrium condition was reached and the methane loss with the effluent was reduced. The methane recovery efficiency obtained at 20 °C (53.6%) was slightly lower than at 33 °C (57.4%) due to a reduction of the treatment efficiency, as evidenced by the lower methane production and the higher waste sludge per litre of treated wastewater. For both operational temperatures, the methane recovery efficiency was strongly affected by the high sulphate concentration in the influent wastewater. PMID:22705508

Giménez, J B; Martí, N; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

2012-08-01

179

Biological nutrient removal in a small-scale MBR treating household wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological nutrient-removal potential of an on-site Membrane bioreactor (MBR) located in the basement of a four-person house treating domestic wastewater was investigated. The reactor consists of two tanks in series. This treatment plant differs from other conventional MBRs by a highly fluctuating influent water flow and a lack of pretreatment. During the first period, the first reactor was operated

Christian Abegglen; Mario Ospelt; Hansruedi Siegrist

2008-01-01

180

Powdered activated carbon added biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate in a fed-batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of landfill leachate usually results in low treatment efficiencies because of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and also presence of toxic compounds such as heavy metals. A landfill leachate with high COD content was pre-treated by coagulation-flocculation followed by air stripping of ammonia at pH = 12. Pre-treated leachate was biologically treated in an aeration tank operated

Fikret Kargi; M. Yunus Pamukoglu

2003-01-01

181

Effects of secondarily-treated sewage effluent on the early life-history stages of two species of brown macroalgae: Hormosira banksii and Durvillaea potatorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage effluent has a deleterious effect on the early life-history stages of Hormosira banksii (Turner) Decaisne and Durvillaea potatorum (Labillardière) Areschoug. High concentrations of sewage effluent (28 and 40% in seawater) inhibit zygote germination by 55 to 95%, retard embryo growth (80 to 100%) and cause severe embryo mortality, with less than 60 and 5% surviving after 14 d, respectively.

M. A. Doblin; M. N. Clayton

1995-01-01

182

Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

Not Available

1989-04-04

183

Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

2014-01-01

184

Adherence to guidelines in the use of biological agents to treat psoriasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective In São Paolo, Brazil, patients can appeal to the courts, registering law suits against the government claiming the need for biological agents for treatment of psoriasis. If the lawsuits are successful, which is usually the case, the government then pays for the biologic agent. The extent to which the management of such patients, after gaining access to government payment for their biologic agents, adheres to authoritative guidelines, is uncertain. Methods We identified patients through records of the State Health Secretariat of São Paulo from 2004 to 2011. We consulted guidelines from five countries and chose as standards only those recommendations that the guidelines uniformly endorsed. Pharmacy records provided data regarding biological use. Guidelines not only recommended biological agents only in patients with severe psoriasis who had failed to respond to topical and systemic therapies (eg, ciclosporin and methotrexate) but also yearly monitoring of blood counts and liver function. Results Of 218 patients identified in the database, 3 did not meet eligibility criteria and 12 declined participation. Of the 203 patients interviewed, 91 were still using biological medicine; we established adherence to laboratory monitoring in these patients. In the total sample, management failed to meet standards of prior use of topical and systemic medication in 169 (83.2%) patients. Of the 91 patients using biological medicine at the time of the survey, 23 (25.2%) did not undergo appropriate laboratory tests. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between clinical practice and the recommendations of guidelines in the management of plaintiffs using biological drugs to treat psoriasis. PMID:24598304

Silveira, Miriam Sanches do Nascimento; de Camargo, Iara Alves; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Guyatt, Gordon; de Camargo, Mayara Costa; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

2014-01-01

185

Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

2012-07-01

186

A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens).  

PubMed

The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p<0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p<0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found at the gene and cellular levels. Present results suggest that relating transcriptomic analyses to phenotypic responses is important to better understand impacts of environmental contamination on wild fish populations. PMID:25137380

Houde, Magali; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Bougas, Bérénice; Couture, Patrice; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Lair, Stéphane; Verreault, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

2014-11-01

187

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-print Network

and after activated sludge and ozone treatments." water Science & Technology 67, no. 2 (2013): 333 - 339. 3, the effluent is normally treated by biological process such as aerated lagoon and activated sludge processes be very expensive, and the cost is almost always proportional to the volume of waste generated. Recycling

Hutcheon, James M.

188

Evaluation of secondary refinery effluent treatment using ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of the possibilities of using ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment for reverse osmosis, in a double membrane filtration scheme, in order to recycle biologically treated refinery effluent as cooling water make-up. This study focused on establishing the influence of process conditions for ultrafiltration, i.e. pressure, duration of fouling, frequency and duration of backwashing and chemical cleaning,

Carmen C Teodosiu; Marie D Kennedy; Henry A van Straten; Jan C Schippers

1999-01-01

189

Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools.  

PubMed

Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. PMID:22717564

Filloux, E; Labanowski, J; Croue, J P

2012-08-01

190

Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

2014-08-01

191

Bioremediation of metal-rich effluents: could the invasive bivalve work as a biofilter?  

PubMed

Industrial effluents are important sources of contamination of water and sediments, frequently causing serious damage at different levels of biological organization. Management and treatment of harmful industrial wastes is thus a major concern. Metal-bearing effluents, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), are particularly problematic because metals can easily bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify across the trophic chain. Several solutions have been proposed to treat AMD, including active methods involving the addition of neutralizing agents and passive techniques that use natural energy sources for remediation. However, increasing environmental and economic requirements lead the constant search for more sustainable solutions. The present study explores the possibility of using , an invasive freshwater bivalve, as a bioremediation tool using AMD as a model, metal-bearing effluent. The study compares untreated and biotreated effluents at two dilution levels (4 and 10% v/v) following two distinct approaches: (i) chemical characterization of the metal concentrations in water complemented by determination of the accumulation in the clams' soft tissues and shells; and (ii) ecotoxicity assessment using standard organisms (the bacterium , the microalgae , and the cladoceran ). Significant removal of metals from water was recorded for both effluent dilutions, with higher purification levels found for the 4% effluent. The environmental toxicity of the effluents generally decreased after the treatment with the clams. Thus, this study provides evidence for the suitability of as a bioremediator for metal-bearing effluents, especially if the treatment can be materialized in a multistage configuration system. PMID:25603239

Rosa, Inês Correia; Costa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Joana Luísa

2014-09-01

192

Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.  

PubMed

Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

2013-10-15

193

Repeated fed-batch biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate by powdered activated carbon addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

High chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and presence of toxic compounds such as heavy metals result in low removal efficiencies in direct biological treatment of landfill leachate. Raw landfill leachate was subjected to pre-treatment by coagulation-flocculation and air stripping of ammonia before biological treatment. Pre-treated leachate was subjected to biological treatment in an aeration tank operated in repeated

Fikret Kargi; M. Yunus Pamukoglu

2004-01-01

194

In vitro assessment of retinoic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity of treated effluent from 39 wastewater-treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia, in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity of the dissolved phase using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays. More than 90% of the effluents examined in this study elicited RAR activity (<0.5-198 ng/l a-t-RA equivalents [EQ]). All of the effluents had AhR activity (16-279 ng/l ?NF EQ). Notwithstanding the paucity of comparative data, on the whole, the levels of RAR and AhR activity observed in this pilot survey of Victorian WWTP effluents were greater than those recently reported internationally. One assumption commonly made is that WWTP discharges will be diluted significantly in the receiving environment, further decreasing the potential risk of the discharges. Making this assumption may not be appropriate for some of Victoria's more ephemeral waterways or where effluent is discharged to an enclosed water body, such as a lake or terminal wetland. However, even where WWTP discharges represent all of the environmental flow in the warmer months, the observed RAR and AhR activity (as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] EQ, respectively) was still significantly lower than the concentrations of RA, and 2,3,7,8-TCCD known to cause developmental malformations in fish larvae after short-term exposure to these chemicals. Of perhaps greater concern, WWTP effluent can contain significant suspended solids (essentially biosolids), which may be a considerable sink for some hormonally active, hydrophobic compounds, and which may in turn increase the long-term exposure risk for aquatic fauna. Further studies of the nuclear and AhR activity of WWTP effluent suspended soilds are required to address this hypothesis. PMID:21461931

Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

2011-11-01

195

POME is treated for removal of color from biologically treated POME in fixed bed column: applying wavelet neural network (WNN).  

PubMed

As Malaysia is one of the world's largest producer of palm oil, large amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated. It was found that negatively charged components are accountable for POME color. An attempt was made to remove residual contaminants after conventional treatment using anion base resin. Adsorption experiments were carried out in fixed bed column. Various models such as the Thomas, the Yoon-Nelson, the Wolborska and BDST model were used to fit the experimental data. It was found that only the BDST model was fitted well at the initial breakthrough time. A wavelet neural network model (WNN) was developed to model the breakthrough curves in fixed bed column for multicomponent system. The results showed that the WNN model described breakthrough curves better than the commonly used models. The effects of pH, flow rate and bed depth on column performance were investigated. It was found that the highest uptake capacity was obtained at pH 3. The exhaustion time appeared to increase with increase in bed length and decrease in flow rate. PMID:24021163

Bello, M M; Nourouzi, M M; Abdullah, L Chuah; Choong, Thomas S Y; Koay, Y S; Keshani, S

2013-11-15

196

Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

Engelsman, Martijn, E-mail: mengelsman@partners.or [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S. [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2011-02-01

197

Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

198

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

199

Biological effective dose evaluation and assessment of rectal and bladder complications for cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy and surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to retrospectively evaluate dosimetric parameters calculated as biological effective dose in relation to outcome in patients with cervical cancer treated with various treatment approaches, including radiotherapy with and without surgery. Material and methods Calculations of biological effective dose (BED) were performed on data from a retrospective analysis of 171 patients with cervical carcinoma stages IB-IIB treated with curative intent, between January 1989 and December 1991. 43 patients were treated only with radiotherapy and 128 patients were treated with a combination of radiotherapy and surgery. External beam radiotherapy was delivered with 6-21 MV photons from linear accelerators. Brachytherapy was delivered either with a manual radium technique or with a remote afterloading technique. The treatment outcome was evaluated at 5 years. Results The disease-specific survival rate was 87% for stage IB, 75% for stage IIA and 54% for stage IIB, while the overall survival rates were 84% for stage IB, 68% for stage IIA and 43% for stage IIB. Patients treated only with radiotherapy had a local control rate of 77% which was comparable to that for radiotherapy and surgery patients (78%). Late complications were recorded in 25 patients (15%). Among patients treated with radiotherapy and surgery, differences in radiation dose calculated as BED10 did not seem to influence survival. For patients treated with radiotherapy only, a higher BED10 was correlated to a higher overall survival (p = 0.0075). The dose response parameters found based on biological effective dose calculations were D50 = 85.2 Gy10 and the normalized to total dose slope of the dose response curve ? = 1.62 for survival and D50 = 61.6 Gy10 and ? = 0.92, respectively for local control. Conclusions The outcome correlates with biological effective dose for patients treated with radiation therapy alone, but not for patients treated with radiotherapy and surgery. No correlations were found between BED and late toxicity from bladder and rectum. PMID:23378849

Beskow, Catharina; Ågren-Cronqvist, Anna-Karin; Lewensohn, Rolf

2012-01-01

200

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF A COMBINED SEWER IMPACTED SECONDARY EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical-chemical treatment of conventional biological secondary effluent for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants is used and considered applicable in areas where secondary treatment alone is incapable of producing satisfactory effluent quality. This report describes ...

201

Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

2004-01-01

202

Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

2013-06-01

203

Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa  

PubMed Central

Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

2013-01-01

204

Biological nutrient removal in a small-scale MBR treating household wastewater.  

PubMed

The biological nutrient-removal potential of an on-site Membrane bioreactor (MBR) located in the basement of a four-person house treating domestic wastewater was investigated. The reactor consists of two tanks in series. This treatment plant differs from other conventional MBRs by a highly fluctuating influent water flow and a lack of pretreatment. During the first period, the first reactor was operated as a primary clarifier, resulting in nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 50% and 25%, respectively. Primary sludge production and bad odors in the basement were further disadvantages. When using the first reactor as an anaerobic/anoxic reactor by recycling activated sludge and mixing the first reactor, nitrogen and phosphorus removals of over 90% and 70% were achieved, respectively. By applying a dynamic model of the plant, the return sludge ratio was identified as the most important parameter. With a return sludge ratio of about 1.2, optimal PAO growth and phosphorous removal up to 90% was reached. Since only activated sludge is produced with this operational mode, on-site sludge dewatering is possible. During vacation periods without loading, the Bio-P activity is kept constant if the aeration is reduced to 5-20 min d(-1). PMID:17707877

Abegglen, Christian; Ospelt, Mario; Siegrist, Hansruedi

2008-01-01

205

Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent  

E-print Network

ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENT J. ROBERT HART, MANAGER, EPRI PULP & PAPER OFFICE, ATLANTA, GA ABSTRACT The composition of effluent from various pulping processes can exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical... parameters. The dissolved solids consist of the chemicals derived from the wood material plus the chemicals added to the specific pulping process. No one technology can adequately treat these effluent streams, rather a combination of treatment methods...

Hart, J. R.

206

Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schuuring, Ed [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wisman, G. Bea A. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der, E-mail: a.g.j.van.der.zee@og.umcg.n [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-02-01

207

Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.  

PubMed

This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment. PMID:25277708

Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

2015-03-01

208

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

209

Effect of biological wastewater treatment on the molecular weight distribution of soluble organic compounds and on the reduction of BOD, COD and P in pulp and paper mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterizated, before (influent) and after (effluent) biological wastewater treatment based on an activated sludge process, by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22?m) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3kDa) of the wastewater samples into different size fractions. Various parameters were measured on each fraction: molecular weight distribution (MWD) using high performance size exclusion chromatography

Tiina Leiviskä; Hannu Nurmesniemi; Risto Pöykiö; Jaakko Rämö; Toivo Kuokkanen; Jaakko Pellinen

2008-01-01

210

Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore.  

PubMed

Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3kN/m(3) to 10.3kN/m(3) at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43. PMID:25746176

Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; Santhosh, L G

2015-05-01

211

Collagen tissue treated with chitosan solutions in carbonic acid for improved biological prosthetic heart valves.  

PubMed

Calcification of bovine pericardium dramatically shortens typical lifetimes of biological prosthetic heart valves and thus precludes their choice for younger patients. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the calcification is to be mitigated by means of treatment of bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with carbon dioxide at high pressure. This acidic aqueous fluid unusually combines antimicrobial properties with absolute biocompatibility as far as at normal pressure it decomposes spontaneously and completely into H2O and CO2. Yet, at high pressures it can protonate and dissolve chitosan materials with different degrees of acetylation (in the range of 16-33%, at least) without any further pretreatment. Even exposure of the bovine pericardium in pure carbonic acid solution without chitosan already favours certain reduction in calcification, somewhat improved mechanical properties, complete biocompatibility and evident antimicrobial activity of the treated collagen tissue. The reason may be due to high extraction ability of this peculiar compressed fluidic mixture. Moreover, exposure of the bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid introduces even better mechanical properties and highly pronounced antimicrobial activity of the modified collagen tissue against adherence and biofilm formation of relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Yet, the most important achievement is the detected dramatic reduction in calcification for such modified collagen tissues in spite of the fact that the amount of the thus introduced chitosan is rather small (typically ca. 1wt.%), which has been reliably detected using original tritium labelling method. We believe that these improved properties are achieved due to particularly deep and uniform impregnation of the collagen matrix with chitosan from its pressurised solutions in carbonic acid. PMID:24582232

Gallyamov, Marat O; Chaschin, Ivan S; Khokhlova, Marina A; Grigorev, Timofey E; Bakuleva, Natalia P; Lyutova, Irina G; Kondratenko, Janna E; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Khokhlov, Alexei R

2014-04-01

212

Ecotoxicity assessment of lipid regulators in water and biologically treated wastewater using three aquatic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The high consumption of blood lipid regulators is leading to frequent reports of the occurrence of fibrates in natural streams\\u000a and wastewater effluents. This paper describes a study undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity of bezafibrate, clofibric\\u000a acid, gemfibrozil, and fenofibric acid, a metabolite of fenofibrate whose ecotoxicity has not been previously reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The bioassays

Roberto Rosal; Ismael Rodea-Palomares; Karina Boltes; Francisca Fernández-Piñas; Francisco Leganés; Soledad Gonzalo; Alice Petre

2010-01-01

213

Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.  

PubMed

Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100 mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75 mg L(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100 mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200 Lux), whereas 0.67 mg L(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg L(-1)). The prevention of dark repair is ensured with 25-50% lower concentration of total oxidants. An increase of the TSS concentration from 11 mg L(-1) to 75 mg L(-1) leads to a triplication of the need of total oxidants from 0.6 mg L(-1) to 1.8 mg L(-1) (3*10(5)E. coli per 100 mL). The energy consumption of the hybrid reactor varies from 0.17 kWh m(-3) to 0.94 kWh m(-3) depending on the TSS concentration (11-75 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, biofilm formation on quartz glass surfaces, of which the sleeves of UV lamps consist, can be suppressed by electrochemically produced total oxidants at a concentration of at least 1 mg L(-1) which ensures high operational safety of the hybrid reactor combined with large maintenance intervals. PMID:24447954

Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

2014-04-01

214

Wastewater reclamation by advanced treatment of secondary effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were the investigation of the performance of an advanced treatment system, for the reclamation of secondary municipal effluents, and the study of the environmental quality of treated effluents. The secondary effluents from a conventional activated sludge process were fed to an advanced wastewater treatment system, consisting of a moving-bed sand filter, a granular activated carbon

M. Petala; V. Tsiridis; P. Samaras; A. Zouboulis; G. P. Sakellaropoulos

2006-01-01

215

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

2010-01-01

216

The new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis applied to treat and prevent breast cancer.  

PubMed

The successful use of high-dose synthetic estrogens to treat postmenopausal metastatic breast cancer is the first effective 'chemical therapy' proven in clinical trial to treat any cancer. This review documents the clinical use of estrogen for breast cancer treatment or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal hysterectomized women, which can either result in breast cancer cell growth or breast cancer regression. This has remained a paradox since the 1950s until the discovery of the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis at the end of the 20th century. The key to triggering apoptosis with estrogen is the selection of breast cancer cell populations that are resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation. However, estrogen-independent growth occurs through trial and error. At the cellular level, estrogen-induced apoptosis is dependent upon the presence of the estrogen receptor (ER), which can be blocked by nonsteroidal or steroidal antiestrogens. The shape of an estrogenic ligand programs the conformation of the ER complex, which, in turn, can modulate estrogen-induced apoptosis: class I planar estrogens (e.g., estradiol) trigger apoptosis after 24?h, whereas class II angular estrogens (e.g., bisphenol triphenylethylene) delay the process until after 72?h. This contrasts with paclitaxel, which causes G2 blockade with immediate apoptosis. The process is complete within 24?h. Estrogen-induced apoptosis is modulated by glucocorticoids and cSrc inhibitors, but the target mechanism for estrogen action is genomic and not through a nongenomic pathway. The process is stepwise through the creation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory responses, which then initiate an unfolded protein response. This, in turn, initiates apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway (mitochondrial) with the subsequent recruitment of the extrinsic pathway (death receptor) to complete the process. The symmetry of the clinical and laboratory studies now permits the creation of rules for the future clinical application of ERT or phytoestrogen supplements: a 5-year gap is necessary after menopause to permit the selection of estrogen-deprived breast cancer cell populations to cause them to become vulnerable to apoptotic cell death. Earlier treatment with estrogen around menopause encourages growth of ER-positive tumor cells, as the cells are still dependent on estrogen to maintain replication within the expanding population. An awareness of the evidence that the molecular events associated with estrogen-induced apoptosis can be orchestrated in the laboratory in estrogen-deprived breast cancers now supports the clinical findings regarding the treatment of metastatic breast cancer following estrogen deprivation, decreases in mortality following long-term antihormonal adjuvant therapy, and the results of treatment with ERT and ERT plus progestin in the Women's Health Initiative for women over the age of 60. Principles have emerged for understanding and applying physiological estrogen therapy appropriately by targeting the correct patient populations. PMID:25339261

Jordan, V Craig

2015-02-01

217

Application of Fenton's reagent as a polishing step for removal of UV quenching organic constituents in biologically treated landfill leachates.  

PubMed

When landfill leachate, with or without biological pretreatment, is discharged to publically owned treatment works (POTWs), it can interfere with the installed treatment facilities. Biological treatment is ineffective for the removal of some of the bio-refractory organic matter, including UV??? quenching substances. Fenton's reagent treatment for biologically treated landfill leachates is examined in this study as a polishing step to make landfill leachates acceptable to POTWs. The optimum conditions for the Fenton's reagent treatment are explored. The molecular weight and hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature based fractions of the Fenton's treated leachate samples are analyzed to provide insight into the leachate fractions targeted by the Fenton's reagent. The results indicate that Fenton's reagent can act as a good compliment to biological treatment as it can remove leachate fractions which are widely considered to be bio-refractory. It exhibited good UV??? absorbance removal by removing larger molecular weight humic substances and thus, can help solve the UV??? quenching problem due to leachates discharged to POTWs. PMID:24457051

Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Douglas Goldsmith, C

2014-06-01

218

Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.  

PubMed

The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ?2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse. PMID:22814960

Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

2013-04-01

219

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

220

Microbial process for the decolorization of textile effluent containing azo, diazo and reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and practical biological process for the decolorization of coloured effluent from a textile company is described. A number of aerobic and anaerobic cultures able to decolorize dyes in textile effluent samples were isolated after prolonged enrichment culture from textile dyes-effluent samples. The decolorization of some component dyes of the effluent and of a mixture of dyes was achieved

Poonam Nigam; Ibrahim M. Banat; Dalel Singh; Roger Marchant

1996-01-01

221

A Laboratory-Scale Investigation into the Use of Powdered Iron for In situ Removal of Phosphorus from Treated Sewage Effluent with Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of powdered iron into the root bed of experimental constructed wet- lands removes phosphorus from treated sewage to levels that easily meet govern- ment guidelines for discharge into natural water bodies. Various combinations of powdered iron and sand were used to determine the best arrangement that removes the largest amount of phosphorus. Macrophytes fulfill a beneficial function by delivering

ROGER L. MCLAUGHLIN; IAN D. BRINDLE

222

Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.  

SciTech Connect

Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

2005-04-01

223

[Human African trypanosomiasis in Ivory Coast: biological characteristics after treatment. 812 cases treated in the Daloa focus (Ivory Coast)].  

PubMed

The treatment and post therapeutic follow up of patients diagnosed with HAT are important for HAT control. A longitudinal survey was implemented in the focus of Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire). A total of 812 patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in meningoencephalitic stage and treated with melarsoprol were included, this study pointed out the biological characteristics of patients after treatment. The relapse occurs between 1 and 24 months after treatment. It is essentially neurological, and characterised by the presence in the CSF of antibodies, by the increase of cell count compared with value immediately after treatment, or by the presence of trypanosomes. The cure can be confirmed from 18 months after treatment, and is characterised by the absence of antibodies and trypanosomes in the CSF, by a normal cell count and a normal proteinorachy. Biological scares were recorded on some of the patients after 18 months of follow up, but no relapse occurred among them. PMID:12696377

Miezan, T W; Dje, N N; Doua, F; Boa, F

2002-12-01

224

Biological activity of T4 DNA synthesized in toluene-treated Escherichia coli cells.  

PubMed Central

T4 DNA synthesized in a toluene-treated cell system can act as the genetic donor in a DNA transformation assay. This material transforms a variety of markers at high efficiency. We present evidence that the genetic activity is due to newly synthesized, double-stranded DNA. PMID:1089805

McNicol, L A; Miller, R C

1975-01-01

225

Trickle irrigation: Predominant bacteria in treated Colorado River water and biologically clogged emitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial numbers and predominant bacterial types were determined in trickle irrigation systems receiving treated Colorado River water. Fourteen bacterial genera were isolated and identified from 86 water and sediment samples collected from trickle emitter systems receiving six water treatments. The bacteria identified were common aquatic and soil microbes and the genera in order of prevalence were Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Brevibacterium,

R. G. Gilbert; F. S. Nakayama; D. A. Bucks; O. F. French; K. C. Adamson; R. M. Johnson

1982-01-01

226

Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in raw and biologically treated sewage and in groundwater below leaking sewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 750 isolates of faecal coliforms (>200 strains), enterococci (>200 strains) and pseudomonads (>340 strains) from three wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and from four groundwater wells in the vicinity of leaking sewers were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics. Most, or at least some, strains of the three bacterial groups, isolated from raw or treated sewage of the three

C. Gallert; K. Fund; J. Winter

2005-01-01

227

Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment. PMID:25723133

Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

2015-05-01

228

Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials  

PubMed Central

Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500??mol?g?1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents. PMID:22629157

Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

2012-01-01

229

AADNMR: A Simple Method for Rapid Identification of Bacterial/Mycobacterial Infections in Antibiotic Treated Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Samples for Diagnosis of Infectious Peritonitis  

E-print Network

An efficient method is reported for rapid identification of bacterial or mycobacterial infection in a suspected clinical/biological sample. The method is based on the fact that the ring methylene protons of cyclic fatty acids (constituting the cell membrane of several species of bacteria and mycobacteria) resonate specifically between -0.40 and 0.68 ppm region of the 1H NMR spectrum. These cyclic fatty acids are rarely found in the eukaryotic cell membranes. Therefore, the signals from cyclic ring moiety of these fatty acids can be used as markers (a) for the identification of bacterial and mycobacterial infections and (b) for differential diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. However, these microbial fatty acids when present inside the membrane are not easily detectable by NMR owing to their fast T2 relaxation. Nonetheless, the problem can easily be circumvented if these fatty acids become suspended in solution. This has been achieved by abolishing the membrane integrity using broad spectrum antibiot...

Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

2014-01-01

230

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

231

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

232

Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor  

PubMed Central

The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell’Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

2013-01-01

233

A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.  

PubMed

Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic. PMID:17583772

Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

2007-08-01

234

Artificial Streams, Distorted Processes: The Effect of Effluent on Stream-Aquifer Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treated wastewater, effluent, has been used as a remedy for overstressed aquifers and dry streambeds. Artificial recharge basins allow effluent to seep into the ground relieving stressed aquifers. These basins however, frequently become clogged due to physical obstacles resulting from chemical and biological reactions. Effluent can also be used to replace baseflow for dry streambeds. However, little is known about the effect of effluent on stream-aquifer interactions. The Upper Santa Cruz River, Arizona has effluent, from the Nogales International Waste Water Treatment Plant, as its dominant water input (excepting flood events). A series of monthly field campaigns were undertaken to understand the impact of effluent on the streambed at 16 different sites along a thirty kilometer stretch of the river. The San Pedro River, Arizona is a natural flow, perennial stream that was also tested monthly and used as a control reach. The field campaigns had two focuses: physical transformations in the streambed and water source identification using chemical composition. Physical transformations were measured through the use of 1) piezometers and seepage pans and 2) soil cores; both used to obtain saturated hydraulic conductivity values (KSAT) over time. Water sampling included: the monthly field campaigns, monsoon flows, and nearby wells. All samples were analyzed for cations, anions, and stable isotope ratios (?D and ?18O). Results indicate that the Santa Cruz River becomes disconnected from the aquifer adjacent to the point of effluent discharge. Furthermore, as the time between major flood events increases, the disconnection of the stream and aquifer extends further downstream. In total the results imply that water in the streambed is isolated from the groundwater, perhaps due to clogging and that barrier is removed after especially large flood flows (1000+ cfs).

Treese, S.; Meixner, T.; Hogan, J.; McCoy, A.

2007-12-01

235

Diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in a sponge-based trickling filter treating effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

Changes in ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) population dynamics were examined in a new sponge-based trickling filter (TF) post-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and these changes were linked to relevant components influencing nitrification (chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N)). The sponge-based packing media caused strong concentration gradients along the TF, providing an ecological selection of AOB within the system. The organic loading rate (OLR) affected the population dynamics, and under higher OLR or low ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentrations some AOB bands disappeared, but maintaining the overall community function for NH4(+)-N removal. The dominant bands present in the upper portions of the TF were closely related to Nitrosomonas europaea and distantly affiliated to Nitrosomonas eutropha, and thus were adapted to higher NH4(+)-N and organic matter concentrations. In the lower portions of the TF, the dominant bands were related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha, commonly found in environments with low levels of NH4(+)-N. From a technology point of view, changes in AOB structure at OLR around 0.40-0.60 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) did not affect TF performance for NH4(+)-N removal, but AOB diversity may have been correlated with the noticeable stability of the sponge-based TF for NH4(+)-N removal at low OLR. This study is relevant because molecular biology was used to observe important features of a bioreactor, considering realistic operational conditions applied to UASB/sponge-based TF systems. PMID:23925194

Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Zerbini, A M; Brandt, E M F; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

2013-01-01

236

Biologically Effective Dose-Response Relationship for Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To find a biologically effective dose (BED) response for adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) for initial-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Results of randomized trials of RT vs. non-RT were reviewed and the tumor control probability (TCP) after RT was calculated for each of them. Using the linear-quadratic formula and Poisson statistics of cell-kill, the average initial number of clonogens per tumor before RT and the average tumor cell radiosensitivity (alpha-value) were calculated. An {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 4 Gy was assumed for these calculations. Results: A linear regression equation linking BED to TCP was derived: -ln[-ln(TCP)] = -ln(No) + {alpha}{sup *} BED = -4.08 + 0.07 * BED, suggesting a rather low radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells (alpha = 0.07 Gy{sup -1}), which probably reflects population heterogeneity. From the linear relationship a sigmoid BED-response curve was constructed. Conclusion: For BED values higher than about 90 Gy{sub 4} the radiation-induced TCP is essentially maximizing at 90-100%. The relationship presented here could be an approximate guide in the design and reporting of clinical trials of adjuvant breast RT.

Plataniotis, George A. [Department of Oncology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)], E-mail: george.plataniotis@nhs.net; Dale, Roger G. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2009-10-01

237

Biodegradation of phytosanitary products in biological wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Agricultural activity generates two types of waste: firstly, biodegradable organic effluents generally treated by biological processes and, secondly, phytosanitary effluents which contain residues of plant protection products. The latter are collected and treated. Current technological solutions are essentially based on concentration or physical-chemical processes. However, recent improvements in the biodegradability of pesticides open the way to the consideration of alternative, biological, treatment using mixed liquor from wastewater plant activated sludge. The feasibility of the biological treatment of viticultural effluents has been evaluated by the application of pesticides to activated sludge. The necessity for selection of a pesticide-resistant biomass has been highlighted. The elimination of the phytosanitary products shows the potential of a resistant biomass in the treatment of pesticides. The aerated biological storage ponds at three wineries, followed by a sand or reed-bed filter, were used for the treatment of the total annual volume of the viticulture effluents and validate the laboratory experiments. The results show that the biological purification of pesticides by activated sludge is possible by allowing approximately 8 days for biomass adaptation. Stability of purification occurs between 20 and 30 days. PMID:22284913

Massot, A; Estève, K; Noilet, P; Méoule, C; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

2012-04-15

238

Structural Biology Contributions to the Discovery of Drugs to Treat Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This case study illustrates how the determination of multiple co-crystal structures of the protein tyrosine kinase c-Abl was used to support drug discovery efforts leading to the design of nilotinib, a newly approved therapy for imatinib-intolerant and - resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from the BCR-Abl onco-protein, which possesses a constitutively activated Abl tyrosine kinase domain. Although many chronic-phase CML patients treated with imatinib as first-line therapy maintain excellent, durable responses, patients who have progressed to advanced-stage CML frequently fail, or lose their response to therapy, often due to the emergence of drug-resistant mutants of the protein. More than 60 such point mutations have been detected in imatinib-resistant patients. We determined the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Abl kinase in complex with imatinib and other small molecule Abl inhibitors, with the aim of understanding the molecular basis for resistance and to aid in the design and optimization of inhibitors active against the resistance mutants. These results are presented in a way which illustrates the approaches used to generate multiple structures, the type of information that can be gained and the way this information is used to support drug discovery.

Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W.; Fendrich, Gabriele; Floersheimer, Andreas; Furet, Pascal; Liebetanz, Janis; Rummel, Gabriele; Rheinberger, Paul; Centeleghe, Mario; Fabbro, Doriano; Manley, Paul W.

239

Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.  

PubMed

Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation. PMID:25607672

Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

2015-01-01

240

Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

Abrunhosa, Viviane M.; Mermelstein, Claudia S.; Costa, Manoel L.; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.

2011-02-01

241

MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF  

SciTech Connect

European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)

1994-01-01

242

Reproducible (1)H NMR-based metabolomic responses in fish exposed to different sewage effluents in two separate studies.  

PubMed

Treated sewage effluents contain complex mixtures of micropollutants, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. The addition of advanced treatment steps has therefore been suggested. However, some of these could potentially produce effluents affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. Here, (1)H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) metabolomics of fish blood plasma was used to explore potential responses not identified by more targeted (chemical or biological) assays. Rainbow trout was exposed in parallel to six differently treated effluents (e.g., conventional activated sludge, addition of sand filter, further addition of ozonation and/or a moving bed biofilm reactor or a separate membrane bioreactor line). Multivariate data analysis showed changes in the metabolome (HDL, LDL, VLDL and glycerol-containing lipids, cholesterol, glucose, phosphatidylcholine, glutamine, and alanine) between treatment groups. This formed the basis for postulating a hypothesis on how exposure to effluent treated by certain processes, including ozonation, would affect the metabolic profiles of exposed fish. The hypothesis withstood testing in an independent study the following year. To conclude, (1)H NMR metabolomics proved suitable for identifying physiological responses not identified by more targeted assays used in parallel studies. Whether these changes are linked to adverse effects remains to be tested. PMID:21261249

Samuelsson, Linda M; Björlenius, Berndt; Förlin, Lars; Larsson, D G Joakim

2011-02-15

243

Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: Photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.  

PubMed

In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 ?m) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

2015-03-15

244

Enhanced hydrogen recovery from effluent gas streams  

SciTech Connect

Effluent gas streams for steam reforming, partial oxidation or coal gasification operations are advantageously treated in shift conversion, scrubbing and pressure swing adsorption units for recovery of a purified, hydrogen-containing product gas stream. By recycling a portion of the waste gas removed from the pressure swing adsorption system to the shift conversion unit and/or to the effluent gas generation operation, enhanced product recovery is achieved without the necessity for employing low temperature shift or for achieving essentially complete removal of the carbon dioxide content of the gas being treated prior to its passage to said pressure swing adsorption system.

Fuderer, A.

1985-11-19

245

Degradation of Selected Acidic and Neutral Pharmaceutical Products in a Primary-Treated Wastewater by Disinfection Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsive drugs are being detected in measurable quantities in municipal wastewaters. Some of these emerging substances undergo major transformation at the sewage treatment plant after biological and chemical treatments. The degradation of pharmaceutical products from high-quality treated wastewaters by disinfection processes is well documented. However, the effect of disinfection processes on these products in physicochemical primary-treated municipal effluents

Christian Gagnon; André Lajeunesse; Patrick Cejka; François Gagné; Robert Hausler

2008-01-01

246

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

PubMed Central

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

2006-01-01

247

Disinfection of greywater effluent and regrowth potential of selected bacteria.  

PubMed

Chlorination and UV irradiation of RBC (rotating biological contactor)-treated light GW (greywater) was investigated. The ability of chlorine and UV to inactivate indictor bacteria (FC - Faecal Coliforms, HPC - Heterotrophic Plate Count) and specific pathogens (P.a. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp., S.a. - Staphylococcus aureus sp.), was assessed and their regrowth potential was examined. The RBC removed 88.5-99.9% of all four bacteria groups. Nevertheless, the treated GW had to be disinfected. Most of the chlorine was consumed during the first 0.5 h, while later its decay rate decreased significantly, leaving enough residual after 6 h to prevent regrowth and to further inactivate bacteria in the stored GW effluent. Under exposure to low UV doses (?69 mJ/cm(2)) FC was the most resistant bacteria group, followed by HPC, P.a. and S.a. Exposure to higher doses (?439 mJs/cm(2)) completely inactivated FC, P.a. and S.a., while no further HPC inactivation was observed. FC, P.a. and S.a. did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to all the UV doses applied (up to 6 h storage). HPC did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to low UV doses (19-69 mJ/cm2), while it presented statistically significant regrowth in un-disinfected effluent and after exposure to higher UV doses (147-439 mJ/cm(2)). PMID:21411943

Friedler, Eran; Yardeni, Anat; Gilboa, Yael; Alfiya, Yuval

2011-01-01

248

Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

1981-01-01

249

Evolution of N-converting bacteria during the start-up of anaerobic digestion coupled biological nitrogen removal pilot-scale bioreactors treating high-strength animal waste slurry.  

PubMed

Animal wastes have been successfully employed in anaerobic biogas production, viewed as a pragmatic approach to rationalize energy costs in animal farms. Effluents resulting from that process however are still high in nitrogen such that attempts were made to couple biological nitrogen removal (BNR) with anaerobic digestion (AD). The demand for organic substrate in such system is partitioned between the anaerobic metabolism in AD and the heterotrophic denitrification cascade following the autotrophic nitrification in BNR. Investigation of underlying N-converting taxa with respect to process conditions is therefore critical in optimizing N-removal in such treatment system. In this study, a pilot-scale intermittently aerated BNR bioreactor was started up either independently or in series with the AD bioreactor to treat high-strength swine waste slurry. The compositions of NH(3)-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NO(2)(-)-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and denitrifiers (nosZ gene) were profiled by polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis/single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-CE/SSCP) technique and clone library analysis. Performance data suggested that these two process configurations significantly differ in the modes of biological N-removal. PCR-CE/SSCP based profiling of the underlying nitrifying bacteria also revealed the selection of distinct taxa between process configurations. Under the investigated process conditions, correlation of performance data and composition of underlying nitrifiers suggest that the stand-alone BNR bioreactor tended to favor N-removal via NO(3)(-) whereas the coupled bioreactors could be optimized to achieve the same via a NO(2)(-) shortcut. PMID:19329298

Anceno, Alfredo J; Rouseau, Pierre; Béline, Fabrice; Shipin, Oleg V; Dabert, Patrick

2009-07-01

250

Performance of an AnMBR pilot plant treating high-strength lipid wastewater: biological and filtration processes.  

PubMed

The performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating wastewater with high levels of oil and grease content from a snacks factory is studied and its effectiveness is demonstrated. The relation between the reversible and the irreversible fouling rate and the fouling propensity of the fatty matter were evaluated under a subcritical flux of 7.9 and 8.3 L/m(2) h. Low Oil and Grease (O&G) concentrations of 500 mg/L produced an irreversible fouling rate of only 0.09 mbar/d, while the fouling rate was between 0.96 and 3.95 mbar/d for an average O&G concentration of 6 g/L. In spite of the significant increase in filtration resistance from 0.31 to 6.08 × 10(12) m(-1) after 40 days of continuous operation, the critical flux level hardly decreased from 11.1 to 9.7 L/(m(2) h). With regard to the biological process, after a start-up period with an organic loading rate (OLR) of below 2 kg COD/(m(3) d), the system was able to treat wastewater between 4.6 and 36 g O&G/L and the system remained stable for OLR at around 17 kg COD/(m(3) d) for 2.8 d, without inhibitory signals. Acclimated sludge quickly reached maximum methane production and digested substrate with high oil and grease content, observing an increase in palmitic acid the first days and constant levels of propionic acid while fatty acids were in the medium. PMID:25282089

Ramos, C; García, A; Diez, V

2014-12-15

251

Assessing changes in soil physical and chemical properties under long term effluent disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site wastewater treatment systems aim to assimilate domestic effluent into the environment. Unfortunately failure of such systems is common and inadequate effluent treatment can have serious environmental implications. The capacity of a particular soil to treat wastewater will change over time. The physical properties influence the rate of effluent movement through the soil and its chemical properties dictate the ability

L. Dawes; A. Goonetilleke

252

Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

253

Potentials of using a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out in order to assess the impact of CODbiod. in an UASB effluent applied to a single stage, a two stage RBC system and an anoxic up-flow submerged bio-filter followed by a segmental two stage aerobic RBC on the removal efficiency of different COD fractions, Escherichia coli, ammonia and partially nitrate removal.The two (single stage)

A. Tawfik; A. Klapwijk; F. El-Gohary; G. Lettinga

2005-01-01

254

Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

255

Systems Conveyance and Operations Program (SCOP) for determination of an alternative wastewater effluent discharge site in lake mead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Las Vegas, City of Henderson, and Clark County Sanitation District own and operate wastewater treatment facilities that pass treated effluent to Lake Mead via the Las Vegas Wash. Concern is growing as studies indicate the effluent \\

D. Karafa; I. Rackley; M. A. Metcalf

2003-01-01

256

USE OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETE, 'LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS', FOR EFFLUENT BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of toxic agents in industria...

257

Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

Graf, F.A. Jr.

1995-02-27

258

Deammonification reaction in digested swine effluents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers that would like to implement biological nitrogen (N) removal from the effluent of anaerobic digesters (AD) – for example to comply with regional surplus nitrogen regulations or to take advantage of environmental nutrient credit programs – are often limited by the low amount of endogenous ca...

259

Management of hospital wastewaters: the case of the effluent of a large hospital situated in a small town.  

PubMed

Hospitals are the main source of pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) released into the environment. Generally, their discharges are co-treated with domestic wastewaters, resulting in a decrement of the recalcitrant compound concentrations in the final effluent due to water dilution. However, as many PhCs resist normal treatments, pollutant load does not change. This paper compares the chemical characteristics of hospital and domestic wastewaters on the basis of an experimental investigation for macro-pollutants and literature data for PhCs. A membrane biological reactor pilot plant fed by a hospital effluent is tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of treating these kinds of wastewaters with membrane systems. The paper then presents the possible scenarios in the management of the effluent of a large hospital situated in a small town. In particular, it reports on a case study of designing a (new) treatment plant for the effluent of the 900 bed hospital in Ferrara, Northern Italy, located on the outskirts of the town. Finally, costs for the intervention are given. PMID:20453323

Verlicchi, Paola; Galletti, Alessio; Masotti, Luigi

2010-01-01

260

Application of a sensitive chemiluminescent technique for comparison of cytochrome P4501A induction in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conjunction with an environmental assessment of biologically-treated bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) in a Western Canadian river, data indicated that lipophilic compounds were transferred to the mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni through ingestion of filter-feeding benthic caddisflies. P4501A induction was correlated with lipophilic body burdens, not with indices of recent BKME exposure. P4501A contents in hepatic and intestinal tissues of

Pamela J. Kloepper-Sams; Elizabeth Benton

1995-01-01

261

Comparing biological effects and potencies of estrone and 17 B-estradiol in mature fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of endocrine active compounds such as estrogens in treated wastewater effluent and their effects on aquatic life are causing concern among aquatic resource managers. In contrast to 17B-estradiol (E2), the steroid hormone produced by all vertebrates, the biological effects of estrone (E1...

262

Prosthetic joint infection after total hip or knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for acute surgical-site infection (SSI) after total joint arthroplasty\\u000a in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).\\u000a We performed a retrospective study of all consecutive total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasties performed during\\u000a a 5-year period (THA 81; TKA 339). Multivariate logistic

Shigeki MomoharaKosei; Kosei Kawakami; Takuji Iwamoto; Koichiro Yano; Yu Sakuma; Ryo Hiroshima; Hitoshi Imamura; Ikuko Masuda; Asami Tokita; Katsunori Ikari

263

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

264

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

265

GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

266

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

267

Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.  

PubMed

The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B

2014-02-01

268

Constructed wetlands design for enhanced phytoremediation of effluents  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses constructed wetlands to solve an environmental compliance problem. Effluents from a coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) and a sewage treatment plant are both intermittently toxic based on effluent testing conducted under ORNL`s wastewater discharge permit. The CYRTF uses conventional technology (lime neutralization, flocculation); its effluent is toxic due primarily to the presence of high concentrations of calcium. Effluent from the sewage treatment plant is occasionally toxic due to a semivolatile, low-molecular weight constituent, perhaps generated when the wastewater is chlorinated prior to discharge. The two effluent are blended (about 2:8, volume:volume) before being passed through a pair of constructed wetland (CW) cells, each 1.8 m wide and 20 m long, for final equilibration. The CW system treats about 1,800 gallons of blended effluent per day. The effluent blend`s toxicity, as determined by testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia, is reduced by passage through the CW system. This simple aqueous-phase phytoremediation system is environmentally benign and provides the necessary minimal level of treatment for both effluents at low cost. We provide {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} in building and operating the CW system, and summarize the results of the chemical and toxicological tests used to demonstrate this technology`s application.

Stewart, A.J.; Sparks, B.J.; Carder, J.P.; Sumner, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31

269

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

DOEpatents

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06

270

Evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated Parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, ?-?rabinofuranosidase and ? xylosidase, respectively. The saccharification of alkali and biologically treated carrot grass by culture extract of M. cinnamomea was further enhanced by supplementation of ?-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus sp. mutant "O". The resultant hydrolysates containing glucose/xylose were fermented efficiently to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to presence of xylose isomerase (0.8 units/gds) activity in culture extract of M. cinnamomea resulting in production of 16.5 and 15.0 g/l of ethanol from alkali treated rice straw and carrot grass, respectively. PMID:24835742

Mahajan, Chhavi; Chadha, B S; Nain, Lata; Kaur, Amarjeet

2014-07-01

271

Effects of municipal effluent on algal growth  

E-print Network

direction, encouragement and as istance throughout the course of' this study. Deep apprecia- tion is also extended *o Dr. Tom D. Reynolds and Dr. Edward A. Hiler for their assistance and criticism in the preparation of this manuscript. The investigator... stream. The result is the eventual return of some eighty percent of *he removed phosphorus back to the effluent. Biological methods therefore may only result in a partial reduc*ion of phosphorus. 2. Chemical Methods: In 1944, C. N. Sawyer developed...

Sung, Yeh-Min

1975-01-01

272

Coupled photocatalytic-biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol: effects of photolytic and photocatalytic effluent composition on bioreactor process performance, community diversity, and resistance and resilience to perturbation.  

PubMed

Sequentially coupled advanced oxidation-biodegradation systems have proven effective for treating a variety of wastewaters, but in several cases the pretreatment did not improve, or even hindered, subsequent biodegradation. Therefore, investigating the relationship between advanced oxidation pretreated effluent and subsequent bioreactor performance can help to optimize these systems. Here, a photocatalytic reactor was used to produce four unique effluents from 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) by varying light wavelength, catalyst presence, and reaction time, demonstrating that the conditions of photocatalytic pretreatment can be tuned to achieve a variety of treatment objectives. The photocatalytic effluents were characterized for chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride release, aromaticity, and residual TCP concentration. The four effluents were normalized to 40 mg COD/L, combined with biological medium components, and fed to continuous bioreactors. Bioreactors were assayed for COD removal, TCP removal, optical density (OD), and microbial diversity via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In general COD removal in the bioreactors increased as aromatic character of the photoeffluent decreased, but the least aromatic effluent performed poorly indicating the nuanced relationship between photoreactor effluent composition and bioreactor performance. While neither indicator of community diversity, richness nor evenness, correlated with COD removal or biomass accumulation, each effluent produced a unique community as indicated through similarity indices. All conditions demonstrated strong overall TCP removal. After two weeks at steady state, the reactors were perturbed with a 120-?M spike of TCP. Overall the most aromatic photoeffluent produced the most resistant community to the perturbation, while the optimum effluents at steady state produced communities with poor resistance in terms of biomass accumulation and COD removal. These results highlight the tradeoffs between steady state performance and resistance to perturbation that are necessary to optimize a combined advanced oxidation-biodegradation treatment strategy. PMID:24361703

Marsolek, Michael D; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Gray, Kimberly A; Rittmann, Bruce E

2014-03-01

273

Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm process to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan. The components of VOC were identified to be toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA). The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series, respectively, using 10- and

Wen-Hsi CHENG

2009-01-01

274

Feasibility study of the bio-barrier with biologically-active tire rubbers for treating chlorinated hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leachate from landfill released into the subsurface environment can result in serious environmental problems such as soil\\u000a and groundwater contaminations because there is no landfill liner system in the unsanitary landfill. The authors developed\\u000a the multi-permeable reactive barriers (M-PRBs) to treat mixed contaminants in leachate and to get over the limitation of a\\u000a single reactive barrier. The M-PRBs consist

Jai-Young Lee; Chul-Hwan Moon; Jung-Hoon Kim; Byung-Taek Oh

2007-01-01

275

Process and system for treating waste water  

DOEpatents

A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

Olesen, Douglas E. (Kennewick, WA); Shuckrow, Alan J. (Pasco, WA)

1978-01-01

276

Evaluation of Fenton method and ozone-based processes for colour and organic matter removal from biologically pre-treated swine manure.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the efficiency of different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton method, O3, H2O2 and O3/H2O2) for removing total COD (TCOD) and colour from biologically pre-treated swine manure. The Fenton process with a dosage of 100 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 800 mg L(-1) of H2O2 resulted in about 78% TCOD and 96% colour reductions at an initial pH=3 after a reaction time of 30 min. Coagulation, rather than oxidation process, was identified as a crucial mechanism for removing pollutants. Otherwise, single ozonation achieved only 27-30% TCOD and 53-88% colour removals for ozone dosages ranging between 0.7 and 4.3 g O3 h(-1) at the original wastewater pH (pH=8.1) after 30 min reaction time. The combined treatment with O3/H2O2 at pH=8.1 did not produce any significant TCOD or colour reduction improvement. Therefore, direct reactions with ozone rather than radical reactions were elucidated as the main removal mechanisms in the ozone-based processes. Finally, a rough estimation of the operational costs involved in each process was also performed to compare their economic feasibility. The findings suggested that the Fenton process was more suitable than ozonation for reducing TCOD and colour from the biologically pre-treated swine manure. PMID:25058844

Riaño, Berta; Coca, Mónica; García-González, Mari Cruz

2014-12-01

277

Integrated management of liquid effluents at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This poster session illustrates the integrated approach that the Hanford Site has taken in managing high-priority liquid effluent streams. These waste waters are produced from a variety of process- and utility-related sources. The Hanford Site approach to management of liquid effluents focusses on eliminating the source, reusing where possible, and treating and disposing of the water that cannot be eliminated or recycled prior to disposal. Thirteen of the high-priority waste water streams have been or will be eliminated by the end of 1995. Some of these streams have been eliminated as the result of shutting down the associated operation. However, the elimination of other streams has been the result of process modifications, equipment substitutions, or recycling. Several of the waste water streams will receive treatment at the individual generating facility before being discharged into a new industrial sewer (the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility). The industrial sewer will collect treated streams from various plants in the 200 Areas and dispose of the clean effluent at two uncontaminated new 20,235-square meter (5-acre) ponds permitted by Washington State. Finally, condensate from the 200 Areas tank waste evaporator and waste water from operations in the 300 Area will be treated at two end-of-the-pipe treatment facilities. The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will treat condensate (a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (1)-listed waste) from the tank waste evaporator, thereby allowing the waste to be delisted prior to disposal. The treated effluent will be pumped to a state-approved land disposal site selected to maximize the migration time to the river. This disposal site allows for the decay of tritium, which will be present in the condensate but cannot be removed using current technologies.

Lindsey, D.W.; Eacker, J.A.; Crane, A.F.; Veneziano, T.B.

1994-04-01

278

Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

2013-01-01

279

Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ? 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

2013-01-01

280

[Detoxification of textile industry effluents by photocatalytic treatment].  

PubMed

In Morocco the textile industry, representing 31% of all Moroccan industries, is accompanied by high water consumption and important wastewater discharges rejected without any treatment. The focus of this study was to characterize the effluent from the textile industry, to test separately the effect of UV light and TiO2 catalyst and to determine the optimum conditions (pH, concentration and reaction time) in photocatalytic treatment to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour. The biodegradability of the effluent was also studied using a toxicity test before and after treatment. After 90 min of reaction time at pH 4 and with 1.5 g F' of TiO2 catalyst, the photocatalytic treatment reached a global removal rate of 53% for COD and 89% for discoloration of the effluent. The relation BOD5/COD increased from around 0 to 0.3. The effluent became accessible to a biological treatment. The toxicity was studied by the Daphnia magna test over 24 hours. The results have shown the important toxicity of these effluents, which are rich in organic matter and other chemical compounds. After treatment by photocatalytic oxidation, the CI50 24 increased from 3.8% to 22.8%. This reduction of toxicity is related to the reduction of COD (53%) and colour (89%). Photocatalytic treatment has been shown to have an environmental benefit and, in combination with a secondary biological treatment, can be important for a significant reduction in the pollution of textile effluents. PMID:20540424

Gebrati, L; Idrissi, L Loukili; Mountassir, Y; Nejmeddine, A

2010-05-01

281

[The in vitro biological behavior of TiNb30 alloy treated with hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphates].  

PubMed

An in vitro study has been carried out in different cell systems to determine the biological response of TiNb30 alloy before and after a surface treatment with hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) by the sol-gel method. TiNb30 pure Ti induce favorable cell viability with respect to pure Ni showing a high cytotoxic effect. After surface treatment with HA or HA-TCP mixtures, no difference in cell proliferation can be observed between amorphous and cristalline forms. However, HA decreases (75 +/- 15%) and HA-TCP mixtures increase (133 +/- 11%) significantly cell proliferation compared with controls. PMID:9471695

Floquet, I; Ralison, A; Eisenbarth, E; Iost, A; Breme, J; Hildebrand, H F

1997-11-01

282

Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Treated by Peritoneal Dialysis Is Intact and Biologically Active  

PubMed Central

Context: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. Circulating FGF23 levels are elevated in inherited and acquired hypophosphatemic disorders that can cause rickets or osteomalacia. Particularly increased concentrations of FGF23 are observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), in which increased FGF23 is associated with more rapid disease progression, improved bone mineralization, the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, and increased mortality. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether the markedly elevated levels of immunoreactive FGF23 in CKD represent accumulation of intact, biologically active hormone, C-terminal cleavage fragments, or both. Design: Biologically active FGF23 in plasma from CKD patients treated by peritoneal dialysis was quantified using a cell-based Egr-1 reporter assay; bioactive FGF23 levels were compared with those measured with immunometric FGF23 assays detecting either intact hormone alone or intact hormone and C-terminal fragments. Setting and Patients: Adult and pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis participated in the study at a tertiary referral center. Results: Serially diluted patient samples revealed levels of bioactive FGF23 that ran in parallel to CHO cell-derived recombinant human FGF23. FGF23 bioactivity was inhibited by an anti-FGF23 antibody. Levels of bioactive and immunoreactive FGF23 were tightly correlated, and Western blot analysis of FGF23 immunoprecipitated with anti-FGF23 antibodies from plasma of dialysis patients revealed only a single prominent protein band, which was indistinguishable from recombinant intact FGF23, without clear evidence for FGF23 fragments. Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence for the conclusion that virtually all circulating FGF23 in dialysis patients is intact and biologically active. PMID:19965919

Shimada, Takashi; Urakawa, Itaru; Isakova, Tamara; Yamazaki, Yuji; Epstein, Michael; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Wolf, Myles; Salusky, Isidro B.; Jüppner, Harald

2010-01-01

283

Reactivation of human polyomavirus JC in patients affected by psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis and treated with biological drugs: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) are inter-related heritable inflammatory skin diseases. Psoriatic lesions develop as a result of abnormal immune responses, hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes, and a notable subset of psoriatic patients develops PsA, characterized by joints inflammation. Recently, biological drugs were introduced to treat these diseases. However, this therapy has already been associated with the development of serious life-threatening infections, such as the reactivation of human polyomavirus JC (JCV), responsible for the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a lethal demyelinating disease caused by oligodendrocytes lytic infection. Therefore, the aims of our study were the investigation of the possible JCV reactivation in PsV and PsA patients treated with adalimumab, etanercept, and methotrexate, performing quantitative real-time PCR in sera and skin biopsies at the time of recruitment (T0) and after 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months of treatment, and the sequencing analysis of the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR). We found JCV DNA in 5/15 PsV patients and in 2/15 PsA patients and JCV NCCR sequence analysis always showed a structure similar to non-pathogenic CY archetype, with random occurrence of a few irrelevant point mutations. Nevertheless the poor number of patients analyzed, our preliminary data can pave the way for taking into account that the follow-up of JCV DNA detection and the JCV NCCR sequence analysis in psoriatic patients may be important to evaluate the risk of PML onset, considering that patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologics continue to rise. PMID:22422468

Nardis, Chiara; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Rodio, Donatella M; De Pità, Ornella; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

2012-12-01

284

Epicardial Fat Thickness as Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Therapeutic Target in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Biological and Nonbiological Therapies  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-? inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 ± 1.90?mm versus 9.71 ± 1.45?mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 ± 1.52?mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

Lima-Martínez, Marcos M.; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O.

2014-01-01

285

Effect of halides in the electrochemical treatment of distillery effluent.  

PubMed

Electrochemical treatment can solve the problems arising due to effluents and offer an effective alternative to the existing methods. An undivided static electrolyser was charged with distillery effluent and the organics were oxidized electrochemically. Anodized graphite plate anodes and graphite cathodes were used for the treatment of distillery effluent. The effect of pH and current density on the treatment was studied. Sodium fluoride, sodium chloride and sodium bromide were chosen as electrolyte and their influence was found out. Complete decolorization has been observed in all cases. A maximum of 93.5% of biological oxygen demand reduction, 85.2% of chemical oxygen demand reduction and 98.0% absorbance reduction were obtained in the presence of sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Probable mechanism was also proposed for the oxidation of organics present in the effluent. PMID:15488586

Manisankar, P; Rani, C; Viswanathan, S

2004-11-01

286

Utilization of geothermal effluents to create waterfowl wetlands  

SciTech Connect

A generic research study was performed to determine the feasibility of using spent geothermal fluids to create waterfowl wetlands. Aspects studied included water quality, biology, ecology, toxicology, ground-water hydrology, geology and soils, wastewater treatment, economic, socioeconomic, and legal constraints. Results indicate that some geothermal effluents can be used directly with no treatment to create waterfowl wetlands. Many geothermal effluents can be used to create wetlands with relatively minimal pretreatment; this category is economically more attractive than injection. The wetlands themselves will effectively further cleanse the effluents for possible cascading resource use (such as irrigation water or surface water enhancement). Finally, some effluents require extensive pretreatment before wetland use. Economics in the latter category favor injection.

Kaczynski, V.W.; Wert, M.A.; LaBar, D.J.

1981-10-01

287

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

288

NITRIFICATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTE EFFLUENTS BY ROTATING BIO-DISCS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of nitrifying secondary effluent with rotating biological surfaces (RBS). Two municipal effluents were evaluated; one was from a high rate trickling filter and the other was from two-stage, flow through lagoon. RBS pilot pla...

289

Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

2012-01-01

290

Supply of organic matter and bacteria to aquatic ecosystems through waste water effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the impact on the river Seine of the waste water effluents from the city of Paris and its suburbs, a detailed characterisation was made of both raw and treated effluents from the three main treatment plants in this area which differ both in size and type of treatment. The waste water samples were subjected to analyses

Pierre Servais; Josette Garnier; Nadia Demarteau; Natacha Brion; Gilles Billen

1999-01-01

291

Treatment of wastewater effluent from an industrial park for agricultural irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of wastewater effluent from an industrial park for possible agricultural irrigation was investigated. The treatment method consisted of chemical coagulation, Fenton oxidation and ion exchange. The effectiveness of the combined physical and chemical methods in treating the industrial wastewater effluent was evaluated in terms of the water quality requirements for agricultural irrigation. Experimental tests were conducted to examine the

S. H. Lin; H. Y. Chan; H. G. Leu

2000-01-01

292

BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and effective tool in the treatment of water contaminated with BTEX mixture. Therefore, the raw petroleum refinery effluent might be a source of hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:20655572

Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

2010-09-15

293

Wastewater effluent characteristics from Moroccan textile industry.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to carry out a complete characterization of textile wastewater, resulting from a textile unit located in the Marrakesh region. A physico-chemical characterization has been performed, focused on organic and toxicological aspects. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used as the sensor organism and lethal concentration as a criterion to measure the toxicity of textile wastewater. The physico-chemical and toxicological status of a local textile effluent showed considerable values limitation, when compared to the European Union standard limit and Moroccan guide level and other studies. In view of those characteristics, the wastewater effluent from the textile industry should be considered to be treated before discharge to the environment. PMID:23787319

Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

2013-01-01

294

Computational Intelligence Techniques for Supervision and Diagnosis of Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) are based on complex, dynamic, and highly nonlinear processes. Depending on the design\\u000a and the specific application, these systems can achieve biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, besides removal of organic\\u000a carbon substances. Also, depending on the type\\/quantity of effluent to be treated, different configurations can be proposed\\u000a being the most common the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic

Ana M. A. Dias; Eugénio C. Ferreira

295

Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions.  

PubMed

A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm process to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan. The components of VOC were identified to be toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA). The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series, respectively, using 10- and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility. Experimental results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 +/- 605) mg/L of COD. A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m3 packing x d) was determined for the packed bed, in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow. A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 +/- 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system. Moreover, the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula, based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship, and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model. Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation revealed that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) were aerated into a gaseous phase, and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene were aerated. PMID:20108681

Cheng, Wen-Hsi

2009-01-01

296

Operation and model description of a sequencing batch reactor treating reject water for biological nitrogen removal via nitrite.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the operation and model description of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for biological nitrogen removal (BNR) from a reject water (800-900 mg NH(4)(+)-NL(-1)) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The SBR was operated with three cycles per day, temperature 30 degrees C, SRT 11 days and HRT 1 day. During the operational cycle, three alternating oxic/anoxic periods were performed to avoid alkalinity restrictions. Oxygen supply and working pH range were controlled to achieve the BNR via nitrite, which makes the process more economical. Under steady state conditions, a total nitrogen removal of 0.87 kg N (m(3)day)(-1) was reached. A four-step nitrogen removal model was developed to describe the process. This model enlarges the IWA activated sludge models for a more detailed description of the nitrogen elimination processes and their inhibitions. A closed intermittent-flow respirometer was set up for the estimation of the most relevant model parameters. Once calibrated, model predictions reproduced experimental data accurately. PMID:17292605

Dosta, J; Galí, A; Benabdallah El-Hadj, T; Macé, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

2007-08-01

297

Sudden failure of biological nitrogen and carbon removal in the full-scale pre-denitrification process treating cokes wastewater.  

PubMed

A full-scale pre-denitrification process treating cokes wastewater containing toxic compounds such as phenols, cyanides and thiocyanate has shown good performance in carbon and nitrogen removal. However, field operators have been having trouble with its instability without being able to identify the causes. To clarify the main cause of these sudden failures of the process, comprehensive studies were conducted on the pre-denitrification process using a lab-scale reactor system with real cokes wastewater. First, the shock loading effects of three major pollutants were investigated individually. As the loading amount of phenol increased to 600 mg/L, more COD, TOC and phenol itself were flowed into the aerobic reactor, but phenol itself did not inhibit nitrification and denitrification, owing to the effect of dilution and its rapid biodegradation. Higher loading of ammonia or thiocyanate slightly enhanced the removal efficiency of organic matter, but caused the final discharge concentration of total nitrogen to be above its legal limit of 60 mg-N/L. Meanwhile, continuous inflow of abnormal wastewater collected during unstable operation of the full-scale pre-denitrification process, caused a sudden failure of nitrogen removal in the lab-scale process, like the removal pattern of the full-scale one. This was discovered to be due to the lack of inorganic carbon in the aerobic reactor where autotrophic nitrification occurs. PMID:19427199

Kim, Young Mo; Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Jung, Kyung A; Park, Jong Moon

2009-10-01

298

Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.  

PubMed

UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. PMID:22748974

Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

2012-11-15

299

Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.  

PubMed

The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment. PMID:12892505

Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

2003-01-01

300

Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species  

PubMed Central

Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species. PMID:23737943

Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

301

The effect of sugar mill effluent on enzyme activities of rice seedlings.  

PubMed

The effect of sugar mill effluent on the activities of peroxidase, amylase, and nitrate reductase of rice (Oryza Sativa L. C.V. Mushoori) seedlings have been investigated. In addition, an attempt was also made to investigate effluent-induced changes in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, during germination of rice seedlings. The effects were studied in relation to both concentration of effluent and time of exposure. The activity of all enzymes tested, except succinate dehydrogenase, decreased during effluent treatment. A marked increase in succinate dehydrogenase activity was noticed at various concentrations of effluent treatment. When time-dependent changes in succinate dehydrogenase activity were followed a nearly threefold increase was found with 12 hr of treatment after which a rapid loss was noticed. A correlation was established between the retardation of growth and development of effluent-treated rice seedlings with the activities of some key enzymes regulating growth and development. PMID:3160578

Behera, B K; Misra, B N

1985-08-01

302

In-Plant Corrosion Study of Steels in Distillery Effluent Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with corrosion and performance of steels observed in an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a distillery. For this purpose, the metal coupons were exposed in primary (untreated effluent) and secondary tank (anaerobic treatment effluent) of the ETP. The extent of attack has been correlated with the composition of the effluent with the help of laboratory immersion and electrochemical tests. Untreated distillery effluent found to be more corrosive than the anaerobic-treated effluents and is assigned due to chloride, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and nitrite ions, which enhances corrosivity at acidic pH. Mild steel showed highest uniform and localized corrosion followed by stainless steels 304L and 316L and lowest in case of duplex 2205.

Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

2015-02-01

303

A genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of epilepsy prognosis in a prospective cohort of newly treated epilepsy.  

PubMed

We present the analysis of a prospective multicentre study to investigate genetic effects on the prognosis of newly treated epilepsy. Patients with a new clinical diagnosis of epilepsy requiring medication were recruited and followed up prospectively. The clinical outcome was defined as freedom from seizures for a minimum of 12 months in accordance with the consensus statement from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Genetic effects on remission of seizures after starting treatment were analysed with and without adjustment for significant clinical prognostic factors, and the results from each cohort were combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. After quality control (QC), we analysed 889 newly treated epilepsy patients using 472 450 genotyped and 6.9 × 10(6) imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Suggestive evidence for association (defined as Pmeta < 5.0 × 10(-7)) with remission of seizures after starting treatment was observed at three loci: 6p12.2 (rs492146, Pmeta = 2.1 × 10(-7), OR[G] = 0.57), 9p23 (rs72700966, Pmeta = 3.1 × 10(-7), OR[C] = 2.70) and 15q13.2 (rs143536437, Pmeta = 3.2 × 10(-7), OR[C] = 1.92). Genes of biological interest at these loci include PTPRD and ARHGAP11B (encoding functions implicated in neuronal development) and GSTA4 (a phase II biotransformation enzyme). Pathway analysis using two independent methods implicated a number of pathways in the prognosis of epilepsy, including KEGG categories 'calcium signaling pathway' and 'phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway'. Through a series of power curves, we conclude that it is unlikely any single common variant explains >4.4% of the variation in the outcome of newly treated epilepsy. PMID:23962720

Speed, Doug; Hoggart, Clive; Petrovski, Slave; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Coffey, Alison; Jorgensen, Andrea; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; De Iorio, Maria; Todaro, Marian; De, Tisham; Smith, David; Smith, Philip E; Jackson, Margaret; Cooper, Paul; Kellett, Mark; Howell, Stephen; Newton, Mark; Yerra, Raju; Tan, Meng; French, Chris; Reuber, Markus; Sills, Graeme E; Chadwick, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Bentley, David; Scheffer, Ingrid; Berkovic, Samuel; Balding, David; Palotie, Aarno; Marson, Anthony; O'Brien, Terence J; Johnson, Michael R

2014-01-01

304

A genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of epilepsy prognosis in a prospective cohort of newly treated epilepsy  

PubMed Central

We present the analysis of a prospective multicentre study to investigate genetic effects on the prognosis of newly treated epilepsy. Patients with a new clinical diagnosis of epilepsy requiring medication were recruited and followed up prospectively. The clinical outcome was defined as freedom from seizures for a minimum of 12 months in accordance with the consensus statement from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Genetic effects on remission of seizures after starting treatment were analysed with and without adjustment for significant clinical prognostic factors, and the results from each cohort were combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. After quality control (QC), we analysed 889 newly treated epilepsy patients using 472 450 genotyped and 6.9 × 106 imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Suggestive evidence for association (defined as Pmeta < 5.0 × 10?7) with remission of seizures after starting treatment was observed at three loci: 6p12.2 (rs492146, Pmeta = 2.1 × 10?7, OR[G] = 0.57), 9p23 (rs72700966, Pmeta = 3.1 × 10?7, OR[C] = 2.70) and 15q13.2 (rs143536437, Pmeta = 3.2 × 10?7, OR[C] = 1.92). Genes of biological interest at these loci include PTPRD and ARHGAP11B (encoding functions implicated in neuronal development) and GSTA4 (a phase II biotransformation enzyme). Pathway analysis using two independent methods implicated a number of pathways in the prognosis of epilepsy, including KEGG categories ‘calcium signaling pathway’ and ‘phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway’. Through a series of power curves, we conclude that it is unlikely any single common variant explains >4.4% of the variation in the outcome of newly treated epilepsy. PMID:23962720

Speed, Doug; Hoggart, Clive; Petrovski, Slave; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Coffey, Alison; Jorgensen, Andrea; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; De Iorio, Maria; Todaro, Marian; De, Tisham; Smith, David; Smith, Philip E.; Jackson, Margaret; Cooper, Paul; Kellett, Mark; Howell, Stephen; Newton, Mark; Yerra, Raju; Tan, Meng; French, Chris; Reuber, Markus; Sills, Graeme E.; Chadwick, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Bentley, David; Scheffer, Ingrid; Berkovic, Samuel; Balding, David; Palotie, Aarno; Marson, Anthony; O'Brien, Terence J.; Johnson, Michael R.

2014-01-01

305

The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (< 10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ?X174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

2012-11-01

306

The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils.  

PubMed

An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (<10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ?X174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent. PMID:22300802

O'Luanaigh, N D; Gill, L W; Misstear, B D R; Johnston, P M

2012-11-01

307

Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour. PMID:24031372

de Oliveira, Patrícia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lúcia Regina

2009-01-01

308

Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.  

PubMed

Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

2008-05-01

309

Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

Al-Sa’ed, R.

2007-01-01

310

III. Heavy metal content of sewage effluent, sludge, soil, and pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface irrigation of pasture with treated sewage effluent at Templeton, Christchurch, for up to 16 years, had little effect on the heavy metal composition of the soil or pasture. Slightly higher levels of 0.1n HC1-extractable Zn, Cu, Co, and Mn in the effluent-treated soil did not increase levels of these elements in the pasture, and did not increase the Cd\\/Zn

B. F. Quin; J. K. Syers

1978-01-01

311

Simple process for nutrient removal from food processing effluents.  

PubMed

Food processing effluents often contain high levels of nutrients, particularly N. Conventionally, anaerobic ponds are used to purify these effluents in Australia, giving cost-effective removal of BOD but little nutrient removal. It has become apparent that disposal by irrigation as presently practiced normally exceeds sustainable N application rates, thus reduction of nutrient levels before irrigation is becoming mandatory. Meatworks effluent is often discharged to country town sewers, frequently accounting for 50-75% of the nutrient load. Meatworks effluents contain 1,000-4,000 mg/L BOD, 200-400 mg/L TKN and 20-50 mg/LP. Conventional BNR technology can readily remove nutrients from such effluents, either alone or in combination with anaerobic ponds but sludge handling on such a small scale poses economic problems. Laboratory scale trials showed that both BOD removal from meatworks effluent and sludge disposal could be achieved readily in conventional anaerobic ponds. The pond effluent, together with the town sewage if required, could be treated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) designed for nitrification/denitrification service. Optimisation of the anaerobic pond operation was required to ensure production of the minimum BOD:N ratio needed for N removal. This paper will describe the design and commissioning of two plants; a demonstration plant installed at a typical sized meatworks in Gippsland, Victoria, and a full scale plant for treatment of combined domestic sewage and effluent from a large meatworks at Longford, Tasmania. In neither case (for different reasons) has P removal yet been required. It was demonstrated that 98% of BOD and up to 95% N removal may be cheaply and readily achieved in the SBR. Where lagoons are used, levels of N suitable for river discharge can be achieved. P can be readily removed by alum treatment when required. PMID:11381895

Raper, W G; Green, J M

2001-01-01

312

Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs were present in both WWTP effluents and receiving streams, (3) some effluents may be important sources of estrogenicity in weakly diluted streams, (4) measured levels of biological estrogenicity were often higher than estimated levels of chemical estrogenicity, and (5) the type of treatment had a large effect on the removal efficacy, and consequently, the estrogenicity levels observed in treated effluents.

Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

2014-01-01

313

Stress-related gene expression changes in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to various municipal wastewater treatment influents and effluents.  

PubMed

The present study sought to examine the performance of six different wastewater treatment processes from 12 wastewater treatment plants using a toxicogenomic approach in rainbow trout hepatocytes. Freshly prepared rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of influent (untreated wastewaters) and effluent (C(18)) extracts for 48 h at 15 °C. A test battery of eight genes was selected to track changes in xenobiotic biotransformation, estrogenicity, heavy metal detoxification, and oxidative stress. The wastewaters were processed by six different treatment systems: facultative and aerated lagoons, activated sludge, biological aerated filter, biological nutrient removal, chemically assisted primary treated, and trickling filter/solids contact. Based on the chemical characteristics of the effluents, the treatment plants were generally effective in removing total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand, but less so for ammonia and alkalinity. The 12 influents differed markedly with each other, which makes the comparison among treatment processes difficult. For the influents, both population size and flow rate influenced the increase in the following mRNA levels in exposed hepatocytes: metallothionein (MT), cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), and vitellogenin (VTG). Gene expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the estrogen receptor (ER), were influenced only by population size in exposed cells to the influent extracts. The remaining genes-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and multidrug resistance transporter (MDR)-were not influenced by either population size or flow rate in exposed cells. It is noteworthy that the changes in MT, ER, and VTG in cells exposed to the effluents were significantly affected by the influents across the 12 cities examined. However, SOD, CYP1A1, CYP3A4, GST, and MDR gene expression were the least influenced by the incoming influents. The data also suggest that wastewater treatments involving biological or aeration processes had the best performance. We found that the effects of municipal effluents on gene expression depended on the population size, the initial properties of the incoming influent, and the wastewater treatment method applied. Considering that the long-term goals of wastewater treatment is to produce clean effluents for the aquatic biota and independent of the incoming influent, more research is needed in developing treatment processes to better protect aquatic life from anthropogenic contamination. PMID:23010963

Gagné, F; Smyth, S A; André, C; Douville, M; Gélinas, M; Barclay, K

2013-03-01

314

Urban wastewater effluent increases antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in a receiving northern European river.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stångån River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stångån River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. PMID:25331227

Berglund, Björn; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

2015-01-01

315

Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.  

PubMed

Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential endocrine disrupting compounds. Such information could provide a scientific framework for establishing the need for environmental regulations. PMID:22197110

Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

2012-02-01

316

Stringfellow leachate treatment with RBC (rotating biological contactor)  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted with a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of leachate from the Stringfellow hazardous-waste site in Riverside County, California. The leachate was transported from California to Cincinnati, where a pilot-sized RBC was installed at the U.S. EPA's Testing and Evaluation (TandE) Facility. A series of kinetic runs were made with primary effluent from the City of Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Plant to develop a biomass on the disks and to obtain a standard kinetic removal rate. These runs were then followed with Stringfellow leachate experiments that included operations at various ratios of leachate to primary effluent, operations at 100% leachate, and operations to increase the percentage removal of dissolved organics. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the effectiveness of an RBC to adequately treat leachate from the Stringfellow hazardous-waste site.

Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

1988-02-01

317

Membrane-supported biological wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Research for a feasible method of complete pathogen removal from municipal wastewater has now arrived at a new stage of biological sewage treatment. Microfiltration membranes are integrated into the biological stage where they replace conventional sedimentation for the separation of treated water from sludge. These membranes form a physical barrier that even particles as small as bacteria cannot penetrate. Thus, the biological stage can be operated at higher biomass concentrations, which leads to better treatment performances and drastically reduces the excess sludge production. Results of test runs with pilot plants and municipal sewage suggest that the degradation and elimination potential of optimised membrane bioreactors will result in effluent concentrations as low as natural background concentrations of surface waters. Microfiltration membranes with a pore-size of 0.2 micron or less do not only retain bacteria but also viruses almost completely, and the clarified wastewater is practically free of pathogens. In consequence of these effluent qualities a much higher rate of wastewater can potentially be reclaimed. This paper includes results gained at a pilot plant operated at the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene of the Federal Environmental Agency in Berlin. PMID:10842832

Krüger, U

2000-01-01

318

Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks). Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. PMID:22884373

Filloux, Emmanuelle; Gallard, Hervé; Croue, Jean-Philippe

2012-11-01

319

Managing wastewater effluent to enhance aquatic receiving ecosystem productivity: a coastal lagoon in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Large amounts of waste are generated in urban centers that if properly managed could promote ecological services. In order to promote nutrient cycling and productivity without endangering aquatic ecosystems, management of wastewater treatment and effluent discharges to receiving waters must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. We applied this premise to examine a municipal wastewater treated effluent discharge in a shallow oligotrophic coastal lagoon in Western Australia. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological modeling (ELCOM-CAEDYM) was used to assess the reaction of ecosystem for effluent quality. Two scenarios were evaluated for the summer 2000-2001 period, the actual or "current" (conventional secondary treatment) and an "alternative" (involving substitution of biological nutrient removal by advanced treatment). The residence time of the simulated numerical domain averaged 8.4 ± 1.3 days. For the current scenario the model successfully estimated phytoplankton biomass, as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), that is within field-measured ranges and previously recorded levels. The model was able to reproduce nitrogen as the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the coastal ecosystem. Simulated surface Chl-a means were 0.26 (range 0.19-0.38) ?g Chl-a/L for the current scenario and 0.37 (range 0.19-0.67) ?g Chl-a/L for the alternative one. Comparison of the alternative scenario with field-measured Chl-a levels suggests moderate primary production increase (16-42%), within local historical variability. These results, suggest that such a scenario could be used, as part of a comprehensive wastewater management optimization strategy, to foster receiving ecosystem's productivity and related ecological services maintaining its oligotrophic state. PMID:22322127

Machado, Daniel A; Imberger, Jörg

2012-05-30

320

Fate of effluent organic matter and DBP precursors in an effluent-dominated river: A case study of wastewater impact on downstream water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of treated wastewater discharges on downstream water quality was evaluated in an effluent-dominated stream in the Southwest USA. The fate and transport of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors was studied. Nitrification and biodegradation were important mechanisms. Changes in DBP formation potential along the river appeared to correlate with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic

Baiyang Chen; Seong-Nam Nam; Paul K. Westerhoff; Stuart W. Krasner; Gary Amy

2009-01-01

321

EDCs, estrogenicity and genotoxicity reduction in a mixed (domestic + textile) secondary effluent by means of ozonation: a full-scale experience.  

PubMed

WWTP (wastewater treatment plant) effluents are considered to be a major source for the release in the aquatic environment of EDCs (Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds), a group of anthropogenic substances able to alter the normal function of the endocrine system. The application of conventional processes (e.g. activated sludge with biological nitrogen removal) does not provide complete elimination of all these micropollutants and, consequently, an advanced treatment should be implemented. This experimental work was conducted on the tertiary ozonation stage of a 140,000 p.e. activated sludge WWTP, treating a mixed domestic and textile wastewater: an integrated monitoring, including both chemical (nonylphenol, together with the parent compounds mono- and di-ethoxylated, and bisphenol A were chosen as model EDCs) and biological (estrogenic and genotoxic activities) analyses, was carried out. Removal efficiencies of measured EDCs varied from 20% to 70%, depending on flow conditions (ozone dosage being 0.5 gO3/gTOC). Biological tests, furthermore, displayed that the oxidation stage did not significantly reduce (only by 20%) the estrogenicity of the effluent and revealed the presence and/or formation of genotoxic compounds. These results highlight the importance of the application of an integrated (biological+chemical) analytical procedure for a global evaluation of treatment suitability; poor performances recorded in this study have been attributed to the presence of a significant industrial component in the influent wastewater. PMID:23648445

Bertanza, G; Papa, M; Pedrazzani, R; Repice, C; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Zerbini, I

2013-08-01

322

Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

NONE

1994-11-01

323

Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF  

SciTech Connect

The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

SIMMONS, F.M.

1999-09-01

324

EFFLUENT OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

The rural areas were identified for milk production; the urban centers were collected for the location of milk processing plants and product manufacturing factories. Out of the total water consumed by human being, more than 50 % of it is consumed for industrial activity and only small proportion is used for drinking purpose. The water after use emerging out of industry is better termed as waste water or industrial effluent (Sukumar De, 2002). DAIRY TECHNOLOGY-As the rapid industrialization taking place all over the country, the number of dairies and allied industries are sharply rising. I.Product and process involved in dairy-Many dairies restrict themselves bottling pasteurized milk and making ghee from scoured milk. In few dairies

unknown authors

325

Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

326

Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: Determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C\\/C0)

Ahmet Baki Engin; Özgür Özdemir; Mustafa Turan; Abdullah Z. Turan

2008-01-01

327

Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Simiele, G.A.

1994-09-29

328

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring  

E-print Network

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, M. L. Coffey, E. T. Collins, J. W. Evans, M. S. Greeley, Jr., L. V. Hamilton, K. G. Hanzelka, W. R. Hill, R. L. Hinzman, L. A. Kszos, D. M. Maguire, J. F. McCarthy, H. B. McElhoe, J. L. Murphy, M. J. Peterson, R. A

Pennycook, Steve

329

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring  

E-print Network

Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, D. S. Cicerone, M. L. Coffey, E. T. Collins, L. L. Cunningham, J. M. Eaton, J. W. Evans, M. S. Greeley, Jr., L. V. Hamilton, K. G. Hanzelka, W. R. Hill, L. A. Kszos, D. M. Maguire, J. F. McCarthy, H. B. McElhoe, M. J

Pennycook, Steve

330

Petroleum refinery secondary effluent polishing using freezing processes--toxicity and organic contaminant removal.  

PubMed

A petroleum refinery secondary effluent was treated using two freezing techniques--spray freezing and unidirectional downward freezing (UDF). The freezing processes were effective to remove toxicity and total organic carbon (TOC)- and chemical oxygen demand (COD)-causing materials in the effluent. Agitation of the liquid during UDF significantly improved the impurity separation efficiency; 85 to 96% removal of TOC and COD was achieved without any pretreatment and freezing only 70% of the feed water. The treatment efficiency of the spray freezing was at the same level as that of UDF without mixing. The spray ice with longer storage time released more contaminants with early meltwater. The initial contaminant concentration of the feed water and the freezing temperatures (-10 degrees C and -25 degrees C) had no significant influence on the treatment efficiency. A small fluctuation in effluent TOC concentration caused a dramatic change in effluent toxicity (Microtox). The effective concentration (EC20) (Microtox) was effective in detecting effluent toxicity. PMID:18686927

Gao, W; Smith, D W; Habib, M

2008-06-01

331

Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.  

PubMed

Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 ?m, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

2015-05-01

332

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

333

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

334

The sublethal effects of petroleum refinery effluents: Mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction in rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

Canada uses a single biological parameter which is based on the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to survive a 24 hour exposure to assess and regulate the toxicity of refinery effluents. The acute toxicity of Canadian refinery effluents is generally well controlled. Long term exposures to sublethal toxicants, which are not covered by the current regulations, could have adverse ecological effects. Since PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, can occur in refinery effluents, the authors tested the hypothesis that refinery effluents can induce mixed-function oxygenase measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) activity in fish. Two end of pipe effluent samples were collected from each of four Ontario refineries. All effluents induced EROD activity in young trout in a dose dependent manner. The EROD parameter has potential as a bioindicator of exposure to refinery effluents. The samples were also tested for toxicity to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and to a fish cell line (Ictalurus nebulosus). Fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by six out of eight samples, and larval survival was affected by one sample. The in vitro data were less consistent: weak toxicity was detected in some samples but the dose response relationship was poor. Direct acting mutagens were detected in two effluents using the Ames Fluctuation assay.

Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Parrott, J.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

335

Occurrence of antimicrobials in the final effluents of wastewater treatment plants in Canada.  

PubMed

To investigate the occurrence of antimicrobials in the final effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Canada, analytical methods were developed or modified from previously described methods using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-one antimicrobials from the macrolide, quinolone, quinoxaline dioxide, sulfonamide, and tetracycline classes were investigated in the final (treated) effluents from eight WWTPs, located in five Canadian cities. Ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin-H20, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, and tetracycline were frequently detected in the effluents. The detection of sulfapyridine in effluents is the first report of this compound in environmental samples. Antimicrobials used exclusively for veterinary applications or treatment of livestock, such as carbadox, olaquindox, and chlortetracycline were not detected in the WWTP final effluents. There appear to be differences in the relative concentrations of antimicrobials detected in WWTP final effluents in Canada relative to concentrations reported previously in northern Europe, particularly for quinolone and sulfonamide compounds. These data may reflect differences in prescription patterns in Canada and northern Europe. The antimicrobials frequently detected in WWTP effluents appear to be those prescribed heavily in Canada for medical applications, and these compounds should be considered priority compounds for monitoring in surface water near WWTP discharges. The concentrations of antimicrobials detected in WWTP final effluents did not exceed 1 microg/L; levels that are unlikely to affect the growth and survival of aquatic organisms. PMID:15296302

Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Bishay, Farida; Chen, Mei; Metcalfe, Chris D

2004-07-01

336

Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed

Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 microg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 microg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. PMID:19924963

Krasner, Stuart W; Westerhoff, Paul; Chen, Baiyang; Rittmann, Bruce E; Amy, Gary

2009-11-01

337

Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

2010-10-01

338

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

378

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

379

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

380

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

381

40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

382

40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

383

40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

384

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

385

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

386

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

387

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

389

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

390

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

392

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

393

40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

394

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

395

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

396

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

397

40 CFR 428.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

398

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

399

40 CFR 428.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

400

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

401

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

402

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

403

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

404

40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

405

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

406

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

407

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

408

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

411

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

412

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

413

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

414

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

416

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

417

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

418

40 CFR 415.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.133 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

420

40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

421

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

422

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

423

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

424

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

426

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

427

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

428

40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

429

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

430

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

431

40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

432

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

433

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

434

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

435

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

436

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

437

40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

438

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

439

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

440

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

441

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

442

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

443

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

444

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

446

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low fl