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Sample records for biologically treated effluent

  1. Chemical oxidation of biologically treated phenolic effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, S.; Kallas, J.; Munter, R.; Trapido, M.

    1995-12-01

    Experimental research into the oxidative purification of biologically treated phenolic effluents of the Estonian oil shale chemical industry was undertaken. The main phenolic compounds identified in this wastewater were phenol, cresols, resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinols. For chemical oxidation of phenols different advanced oxidation methods (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) were tested. For tracking of the changes in the concentration of different phenols during the treatment process, HPLC and colorimetry were applied. It was shown that, in principle, phenols can be reduced almost by any oxidation method studied. Oxidation with molecular ozone has the most potential for practical application. Methods not including ozone (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) had, in general, lower efficiency for total phenols reduction than the methods combining ozone.

  2. Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-03-01

    Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650 g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4 bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59 l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325 mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060 Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180 mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045 Abs/cm, respectively. PMID:25463225

  3. Degradation of 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid in biological treated effluent by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-02-01

    Gamma irradiation-induced degradation of a chlorinated aromatic compound, 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (CHBA) in biological treated effluent was studied and the results were compared with those obtained in deionized water. Gamma irradiation led to a complete decomposition of CHBA and a partial mineralization in the treated effluent. The removal of CHBA followed the pseudo first-order reaction kinetic model and the rate constant in the treated effluent was 1.7-3.5 times lower than that in deionized water. The CHBA degradation rate was higher at acidic condition than at neutral and alkaline conditions. The radiolytic yield, G-value for CHBA degradation was lower in the treated effluent, which decreased with increase in absorbed doses and increased with increase in initial concentrations of CHBA. The degradation mechanism of CHBA using gamma irradiation was proposed through the oxidation by -OH and reduction by eaq- and H- radicals. As exposed to gamma irradiation, dechlorination takes place rapidly and combines with the oxidation and cleavage of the aromatic ring, producing chloride ions, small carboxylic acids, acetaldehyde and other intermediates into the solution.

  4. Diagnosis of dissolved organic matter removal by GAC treatment in biologically treated papermill effluents using advanced organic characterisation techniques.

    PubMed

    Antony, Alice; Bassendeh, Mojgan; Richardson, Desmond; Aquilina, Simon; Hodgkinson, Andrew; Law, Ian; Leslie, Greg

    2012-02-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) exhaustion rates on pulp and paper effluent from South East Australia were found to be a factor of three higher (3.62cf. 1.47kgm(-3)) on Kraft mills compared to mills using Thermomechanical pulping supplemented by Recycled Fibre (TMP/RCF). Biological waste treatment at both mills resulted in a final effluent COD of 240mgL(-1). The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was only 1.2 times higher in the Kraft effluent (70 vs. 58mgL(-1)), however, GAC treatment of Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent was largely different on the DOC persisted after biological treatment. The molecular mass (636 vs. 534gmol(-1)) and aromaticity (5.35 vs. 4.67Lmg(-1)m(-1)) of humic substances (HS) were slightly higher in the Kraft effluent. The HS aromaticity was decreased by a factor of 1.0Lmg(-1)m(-1) in both Kraft and TMP/RCF effluent. The molecular mass of the Kraft effluent increased by 50gmol(-1) while the molecular mass of the TMP/RCF effluent was essentially unchanged after GAC treatment; the DOC removal efficiency of the GAC on Kraft effluent was biased towards the low molecular weight humic compounds. The rapid adsorption of this fraction, coupled with the slightly higher aromaticity of the humic components resulted in early breakthrough on the Kraft effluent. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analysis of the each GAC treated effluent indicated that the refractory components were higher molecular weight humics on the Kraft effluent and protein-like compounds on the TMP/RCF effluent. Although the GAC exhaustion rates are too high for an effective DOC removal option for biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents, the study indicates that advanced organic characterisation techniques can be used to diagnose GAC performance on complex effluents with comparable bulk DOC and COD loads. PMID:22209320

  5. Impact of Microcystis aeruginosa on membrane fouling in a biologically treated effluent.

    PubMed

    Goh, Y T; Harris, J L; Roddick, F A

    2011-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured in biologically treated municipal effluent to simulate blue-green algal bloom conditions in a treatment lagoon. The effect of algae in the early, mid and late phases of growth on membrane fouling, chemical coagulation (alum or aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH)) and hydraulic cleaning on the microfiltration of this effluent was investigated. The effect of M. aeruginosa in the early phase was negligible and gave a similar flux profile and permeate volume to that of effluent alone. The increase in M. aeruginosa concentration for the mid and late phases caused a significant reduction in permeate volume compared with the early phase. Full flux recovery was achieved with an alum dose of 1 mg Al3+ L(-1) (early phase) and 10 mg Al3+ L(-1) (mid phase), demonstrating that membrane fouling was hydraulically reversible. For the late phase, the highest flux recovery was 89%, which was achieved with an alum dose of 5 mg Al3+ L(-1). Higher alum dosages resulted in a reduction in flux recovery. The use of 1.5 pm pre-filtration after alum treatment showed little improvement in water quality but led to a drastic reduction in flux recovery, which was attributed to diminishing the protective layer on the membrane surface, thus enabling internal fouling. The performance of ACH was comparable to alum at low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and cell concentration, but was not as effective as alum at high DOC and cell concentration due to the formation of more compact ACH flocs, which resulted in a higher cake layer specific resistance, leading to the deterioration of performance. PMID:22049710

  6. Applicability of high rate transpiration system for treatment of biologically treated distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Juwarkar, Asha A; Pandey, R A; Chakrabarti, T

    2008-06-01

    The biologically treated distillery effluent (BTDE) contains intense colour, high total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). These properties even after primary, secondary and tertiary treatments contain high concentrations of TDS, COD and BOD. The paper highlights the safe disposal and treatment of BTDE on land through High Rate Transpiration System (HRTS). HRTS is a zero discharge, low cost, high-tech method for improving the quality of BTDE for potential reuse. The experiments conducted at bench and pilot scale showed that HRTS having coconut husk as a bedding material could successfully treat the BTDE with a hydraulic load of 200 m3 ha(-1) day(-1) having BOD of 100 mg l(-1) and 500 m3 ha(-1) day(-1) having BOD of 500 mg l(-1) with average COD load of 0.686 and 2.88 ton ha(-1) day(-1) during the post and pre monsoon periods respectively. There was no significant increase in the organic carbon of the soil irrigated with BTDE. The concentrations of various pollutants analyzed in the leachate were within the prescribed limit for the drinking water sources. The colour removal was 99 to 100% and BOD and COD were possible to treat with optimum hydraulic loading of BTDE through HRTS planted with Dendrocalamus strictus. PMID:17882528

  7. Removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in biologically treated textile effluents by NDMP anion exchange process: efficiency and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Xu, Zi-Xiao; Shuang, Chen-Dong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency and mechanism of anion exchange resin Nanda Magnetic Polymer (NDMP) for removal of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in biologically treated textile effluents were studied. The bench-scale experiments showed that as well as activated carbon, anion exchange resin could efficiently remove both aniline-like and humic-like fluorescent components, which can be up to 40 % of dissolved organic matter. The humic-like fluorescent component HS-Em460-Ex3 was more hydrophilic than HS-Em430-Ex2 and contained fewer alkyl chains but more acid groups. As a result, HS-Em460-Ex3 was eliminated more preferentially by NDMP anion exchange. However, compared with adsorption resins, the polarity of fluorescent components had a relatively small effect on the performance of anion exchange resin. The long-term pilot-scale experiments showed that the NDMP anion exchange process could remove approximately 30 % of the chemical oxygen demand and about 90 % of color from the biologically treated textile effluents. Once the issue of waste brine from resin desorption is solved, the NDMP anion exchange process could be a promising alternative for the advanced treatment of textile effluents. PMID:26578375

  8. Application of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation as a tertiary treatment of effluent of biologically treated tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangdao; Pan, Feng; Fan, Guofeng; Liu, Guoguang

    2016-07-01

    The present study employed a Mn-Cu/Al2O3 heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process for tertiary treatment of actual tannery wastewater, focusing on its feasibility in that application. The primary factors affecting the removal efficiency of organic pollutants were investigated, including catalyst dosage, ozone dosage, and initial pH value. The experimental results showed that the addition of a Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalyst improved the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) during ozonation, which initiated a 29.3% increase for COD removal, compared to ozonation alone after 60 min. The optimum pH, catalyst dosage, and ozone dosage were determined to be 7.0, 2.0 g/L, and 0.3 g/h, respectively. Under these conditions, following 60 min of reaction, the COD removal efficiency and the concentration in effluent were 88%, and 17 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the presence of tert-butanol (a well known hydroxyl radical scavenger) strongly inhibited COD removal via Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation, indicating that the Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation process follows a hydroxyl radical (OH·) reaction mechanism. The Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited good stability and reusability. Finally, the kinetic analysis revealed that the apparent reaction rate constant of COD removal with the Mn-Cu/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation system (0.0328 min(-1)) was 2.3 times that of an ozonation system alone (0.0141 min(-1)). These results demonstrated that the catalytic ozonation using Mn-Cu/Al2O3 is an effective and promising process for tertiary treatment of tannery effluent in biological systems. PMID:27088814

  9. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

  10. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater, an abundant and widely distributed impaired water source, is a promising alternative water source for thermoelectric power plant cooling. However, excessive biological growth is a major challenge associated with wastewater reuse in cooling systems as it can interfere with normal system operation as well as enhance corrosion and scaling problems. Furthermore, possible emission of biological aerosols (e.g., Legionella pneumophila) with the cooling tower drift can lead to public health concerns within the zone of aerosol deposition. In this study, the effectiveness of pre-formed and in-situ-formed monochloramine was evaluated for its ability to control biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater as the only makeup water source. Bench-scale studies were compared with pilot-scale studies for their ability to predict system behavior under realistic process conditions. Effectiveness of the continuous addition of pre-formed monochloramine and monochloramine formed in-situ through the reaction of free chlorine with ammonia in the incoming water was evaluated in terms of biocide residual and its ability to control both planktonic and sessile microbial populations. Results revealed that monochloramine can effectively control biofouling in cooling systems employing secondary-treated municipal wastewater and has advantages relative to use of free chlorine, but that bench-scale studies seriously underestimate biocide dose and residual requirements for proper control of biological growth in full-scale systems. Pre-formed monochloramine offered longer residence time and more reliable performance than in-situ-formed monochloramine due to highly variable ammonia concentration in the recirculating water caused by ammonia stripping in the cooling tower. Pilot-scale tests revealed that much lower dosing rate was required to maintain similar total chlorine residual when pre-formed monochloramine was used as compared to in-situ-formed monochloramine. Adjustment of biocide dose to maintain monochloramine residual above 3mg/L is needed to achieve successful biological growth control in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal effluent as the only source of makeup water. PMID:23063442

  11. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  12. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. ); Swanson, S.M. ); Marchant, T. . Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. )

    1994-09-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

  13. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  14. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  15. Cytotoxicity assays to evaluate tannery effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, N; Moraes, J P; Klauck, C R; Gehlen, G; Rodrigues, M A S; Ziulkoski, A L

    2015-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) is used to increase the treatment efficiency of effluents however, it is necessary to compare the toxicity of treated and untreated effluents to evaluate if the decontamination process does not cause any biological harm. Cultured cells have been previously used to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of various compounds. Hence, the aim of this work was to assess the applicability of cytotoxicity assays to evaluate the toxicity related to the AOP treatment. Samples of an industrial effluent were collected after their treatment by a conventional method. Cytotoxicity of standard and AOP treated effluents was assessed in CRIB and HEp-2 cell line using the MTT and neutral red assays. We observed decrease at cell viability in the both assays (50% MTT and 13% NRU) when cells were exposed to the AOP treatment in the highest concentration. Thus, cytotoxic assays in cultured cells can be explored as an useful method to evaluate toxicity as well as to optimize effluents treatment process. PMID:26628242

  16. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  17. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  18. Efficiency assessment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Pramod W; Awasthi, S; Srinath, T; Joseph, Babu

    2010-10-01

    The efficacy of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) based on activated sludge process employed for treatment of tannery effluent was analyzed for the efficiency to reduce chromium and other contaminants. Physico-chemical parameters of treated effluent were found within permissible levels of statutory limits. A significant reduction in COD and BOD levels were achieved during the course of treatment in CETP. A reduction of 98.46%, 87.5%, and 96.15% in bacterial counts especially in pathogens like Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were observed after treatment. Pathogens were not detected in the dried sludge. Complete elimination of fecal streptococci was observed in treated effluent. Around 10.8% of microbial isolates from the effluent showed ability to reduce chromate >90%. In treated effluent chromium level was 5.48 mg/L, which exceeds the statutory limit of Indian standards. Cleaner production options to reduce chromium levels before discharging into water bodies is discussed. PMID:19731056

  19. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-02-06

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments.

  20. Forage subsurface drip irrigation using treated swine effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

  1. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

  2. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  3. Unhairing effluents treated by an activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Vidal, G; Nieto, J; Cooman, K; Gajardo, M; Bornhardt, C

    2004-08-01

    Leather tannery effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to beamhouse processes, generates a significantly toxic, alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids and salts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradability and toxicity of diluted unhairing wastewater after being treated by an activated sludge (AS) system. The biomass activity of the AS was also evaluated. The AS system was fed for 180 days with diluted unhairing effluent. The operation strategy increased the organic load rate (OLR) from 0.23 to 2.98 g COD/l per day while the HRT was variable until operation day 113, when the HRT was near 1.1 days. Results show that when the organic load rate was lower than 2 g COD/l per day, the biological oxygen demand (BOD5) efficiency was 99%, whereas the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was around 80%. The reactor operation was stable until 2 g COD/l per day. For higher values, the system was less efficient (COD and BOD5 removal rate lower than 40%) and the relation of food/micro-organisms (F/M) was higher than 0.15. Biomass evaluations through oxygen utilisation coefficients show that the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased from 1.11 to 0.083 g O2/g MLVSS per day, in the same way the endogenous oxygen coefficient decreased from 0.77 to 0.058 per day. The reduction of biomass activity (measured as oxygen respiration) could be attributable to the inorganic compound content (ammonia and chloride) in the unhairing effluent. Also, the bioassays with Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex showed that with these compounds, only between 24 and 31% of the toxicity of the aerobic-treated effluent can be removed. On the other hand, ultrafiltration (UF) analysis indicated that a COD fraction is recalcitrant to the aerobic treatment, principally those above 10,000 Da (around 55% of total unhairing influent COD). PMID:15225940

  4. Combined chemical and biological oxidation of penicillin formulation effluent.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Alaton IA; Dogruel S; Baykal E; Gerone G

    2004-11-01

    Antibiotic formulation effluent is well known for its important contribution to environmental pollution due to its fluctuating and recalcitrant nature. In the present study, the chemical treatability of penicillin formulation effluent (average filtered COD(o)=830 mg/l; average soluble COD(o)=615 mg/l; pH(o)=6.9) bearing the active substances penicillin Amoxicillin Trihydrate (C(16)H(19)N(3)O(5)S.3H(2)O) and the beta-lactamase inhibitor Potassium Clavulanate (C(8)H(8)KNO(5)) has been investigated. For this purpose, the penicillin formulation effluent was subjected to ozonation (applied ozone dose=2500 mg/(lxh)) at varying pH (2.5-12.0) and O(3)+H(2)O(2) (perozonation) at different initial H(2)O(2) concentrations (=2-40 mM) and pH 10.5. According to the experimental results, the overall Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency varied between 10 and 56% for ozonation and 30% (no H(2)O(2)) and 83% (20 mM H(2)O(2)) for the O(3)+H(2)O(2) process. The addition of H(2)O(2) improved the COD removal rates considerably even at the lowest studied H(2)O(2) concentration. An optimum H(2)O(2) concentration of 20 mM existed at which the highest COD removal efficiency and abatement kinetics were obtained. The ozone absorption rate ranged between 53% (ozonation) and 68% (perozonation). An ozone input of 800 mg/l in 20 min was sufficient to achieve the highest BOD(5)/COD (biodegradability) ratio (=0.45) and BOD(5) value (109 mg/l) for the pre-treated penicillin formulation effluent. After the establishment of optimum ozonation and perozonation conditions, mixtures of synthetic domestic wastewater+raw, ozonated and perozonated penicillin formulation effluent were subjected to biological activated sludge treatment at a food-to-microorganisms (F/M) ratio of 0.23 mg COD/(mg MLSSxd), using a consortium of acclimated microorganisms. COD removal efficiencies of the activated sludge process were 71, 81 and 72% for pharmaceutical wastewater containing synthetic domestic wastewater mixed with either raw, ozonated or perozonated formulation effluent, respectively. The ultimate COD value obtained after 24-h biotreatment of the synthetic domestic wastewater+pre-ozonated formulation effluent mixture was around 100 mg/l instead of 180 mg/l which was the final COD obtained for the wastewater mixture containing raw formulation effluent, indicating that pre-ozonation at least partially removed the non-biodegradable COD fraction of the formulation effluent.

  5. Combined chemical and biological oxidation of penicillin formulation effluent.

    PubMed

    Alaton, I Arslan; Dogruel, S; Baykal, E; Gerone, G

    2004-11-01

    Antibiotic formulation effluent is well known for its important contribution to environmental pollution due to its fluctuating and recalcitrant nature. In the present study, the chemical treatability of penicillin formulation effluent (average filtered COD(o)=830 mg/l; average soluble COD(o)=615 mg/l; pH(o)=6.9) bearing the active substances penicillin Amoxicillin Trihydrate (C(16)H(19)N(3)O(5)S.3H(2)O) and the beta-lactamase inhibitor Potassium Clavulanate (C(8)H(8)KNO(5)) has been investigated. For this purpose, the penicillin formulation effluent was subjected to ozonation (applied ozone dose=2500 mg/(lxh)) at varying pH (2.5-12.0) and O(3)+H(2)O(2) (perozonation) at different initial H(2)O(2) concentrations (=2-40 mM) and pH 10.5. According to the experimental results, the overall Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency varied between 10 and 56% for ozonation and 30% (no H(2)O(2)) and 83% (20 mM H(2)O(2)) for the O(3)+H(2)O(2) process. The addition of H(2)O(2) improved the COD removal rates considerably even at the lowest studied H(2)O(2) concentration. An optimum H(2)O(2) concentration of 20 mM existed at which the highest COD removal efficiency and abatement kinetics were obtained. The ozone absorption rate ranged between 53% (ozonation) and 68% (perozonation). An ozone input of 800 mg/l in 20 min was sufficient to achieve the highest BOD(5)/COD (biodegradability) ratio (=0.45) and BOD(5) value (109 mg/l) for the pre-treated penicillin formulation effluent. After the establishment of optimum ozonation and perozonation conditions, mixtures of synthetic domestic wastewater+raw, ozonated and perozonated penicillin formulation effluent were subjected to biological activated sludge treatment at a food-to-microorganisms (F/M) ratio of 0.23 mg COD/(mg MLSSxd), using a consortium of acclimated microorganisms. COD removal efficiencies of the activated sludge process were 71, 81 and 72% for pharmaceutical wastewater containing synthetic domestic wastewater mixed with either raw, ozonated or perozonated formulation effluent, respectively. The ultimate COD value obtained after 24-h biotreatment of the synthetic domestic wastewater+pre-ozonated formulation effluent mixture was around 100 mg/l instead of 180 mg/l which was the final COD obtained for the wastewater mixture containing raw formulation effluent, indicating that pre-ozonation at least partially removed the non-biodegradable COD fraction of the formulation effluent. PMID:15380320

  6. Electrochemical Corrosion Investigations on Anaerobic Treated Distillery Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2014-09-01

    Present study is focused on the corrosivity of anaerobic treated distillery effluent and corrosion performance of mild steel and stainless steels. Accordingly, electrochemical polarization tests were performed in both treated distillery and synthetic effluents. Polarization tests were also performed in synthetic solutions and it was observed that Cl- and K+ increase whereas SO4 -, PO4 -, NO3 -, and NO2 - decrease the corrosivity of effluent at alkaline pH. Further, comparison in corrosivity of distillery and synthetic effluents shows the former to be less corrosive and this is assigned due to the presence of amino acids and melanoidins. Mild steel experienced to have the highest corrosion rate followed by stainless steels—304L and 316L and lowest in case of SAF 2205. Relative corrosion resistance of stainless steels is observed to depend upon Cr, Mo, and N content.

  7. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.J.

    2000-05-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

  8. Anaerobic biological treatment of coal gasifier effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, W.H.; Chian, E.S.K.; Pohland, F.G.; Harper, S.; Kharkar, S.; Cheng, S.S.; Lu, F.

    1982-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor system consisting of two columns in series, containing Raschig rings and granular activated carbon, respectively, has been acclimated to operate on dilute coal gasification wastewater. The system has been successfully operated at loadings of 2.5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m/sup 3/d resulting in removals as high as 92% COD, 78% total organic carbon (TOC), 93% phenol, and 99% cresol. Methane gas was generated at a rate of 3.6 to 8.1 L/d. The effluent from the anaerobic system was treated in an aerobic nitrifying system for ammonia removal. Complete conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen occurred with further reduction in COD and TOC of 74 and 85%, respectively. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

    2013-12-15

    Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 μg/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

  10. Effect of treated effluent diversion on Yahara River flow, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, K.B.

    1966-01-01

    Before December 1958 the treated sewage effluent from the Madison, Wisconsin, metropolitan area was discharged into the Yahara River at the north end of Lake Waubesa, which is upstream from the USGS gaging station on the Yahara River near McFarland, Wis. Since December 1958 the effluent has been diverted southward from the sewage treatment plant into Badfish Creek and enters the lower reach of Yahara River, thus byrpassing the gaging station. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the effect that this diversion seems to have on the flow of the Yahara River near McFarland. Indirectly, it also demonstrates the effect on streamflow of withdrawing ground water for use in the Madison metropolitan area since the treated effluent is primarily the major portion of the used ground water.

  11. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  12. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of bleach plant effluents treated anaerobically.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

    2010-01-01

    As part of an experimental project on the treatment of bleach plant effluents the results of biodegradability and toxicity assessment of effluents from a bench-scale horizontal anaerobic immobilized bioreactor (HAIB) are discussed in this paper. The biodegradability of the bleach plant effluents from a Kraft pulp mill treated in the HAIB was evaluated using the modified Zahn-Wellens test. The inoculum came from a pulp mill wastewater treatment plant and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was used as the indicator of organic matter removal. The acute and chronic toxicity removal during the anaerobic treatment was estimated using Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii respectively. Moreover, the evaluation of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus frequencies (MN) and mitotic index (IM) in Allium cepa cells were used as genotoxicity indicators. The results indicate that the effluents from the anaerobic reactor are amenable to aerobic polishing. Acute and chronic toxicity were reduced by 90 and 81%, respectively. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa were observed after exposure to the raw bleach plant effluent. The HAIB was able to reduce the acute and chronic toxicity as well as chromosome aberrations and the occurrence of micronucleus. PMID:20861545

  13. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

  14. Biological treatment of a textile effluent after electrochemical oxidation of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Vilaseca, Mercè; Gutiérrez, Maria-Carmen; López-Grimau, Victor; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Crespi, Martí

    2010-02-01

    In this work, a synthetic textile effluent containing a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Orange 4) was treated in an electrochemical cell with titanium covered by platinum oxide (Ti/PtOx) electrodes to remove color. The discolored effluent was mixed with other textile mill process effluents (scouring, bleaching, washing, etc.), according to the rate of each effluent in the mill, and was submitted to biological treatment (activated sludge plant). Two biological plants were run simultaneously to evaluate the influence of oxidant products generated during the electrochemical treatment. The final chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in both plants was 65 to 72%. The yield of the activated sludge plants was not affected by the addition of 10% of the discolored dyeing effluent (even when oxidants products were not removed), which indicates that the previous electrochemical treatment do not produce inhibition effects on the biological plant. However, in the case of direct addition of the discolored effluent, the biological treatment plant required a longer adaptation period. In addition, the electrolytic respirometry tests showed that all the biodegradable organic matter was removed, which implies that the yield in organic matter removal was the maximum possible for this type of treatment. PMID:20183984

  15. Biological treatability of raw and ozonated synthetic penicillin formulation effluent.

    PubMed

    Cokgor, E U; Karahan, O; Arslan-Alaton, I; Saruhan, H; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Chemical pre-treatment of synthetic Procaine Penicillin G (PPG) effluent with ozone (applied dose = 1440 mg/h; treatment duration = 60 min) at pH = 7 was investigated. Successive biological treatability studies were performed with raw, ozonated penicillin formulation effluent and synthetic readily biodegradable substrate as simulated domestic wastewater. The PPG effluent additions were adjusted to constitute approximately 30% of the total COD in the reactor. Ozonation of PPG effluent resulted in practically complete removal of the parent pollutant accompanied by 40% COD abatement. Speaking for the raw PPG effluent, prolonged acclimation periods were necessary to obtain significant COD removal efficiencies. Batch activated sludge treatment experiments and respirometric studies have demonstrated that the selection of true retention time is extremely crucial for having high amount of slowly hydrolysable substrate or complex wastewater, like pharmaceutical effluent. The effect of ozonation time on biological treatability performance of PPG has been evaluated in the study. Pre-ozonation of PPG effluent did not improve its ultimate biodegradability. PMID:16459780

  16. Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

  17. Performance of very shallow ponds treating effluents from UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M; Mascarenhas, L C A M

    2005-01-01

    Polishing ponds are units conceived for the post-treatment of the effluents from anaerobic reactors, are designed as maturation ponds, and aim at a further removal of organic matter and a high removal of pathogenic organisms. The paper investigates the performance of four very shallow (H = 0.40 m) polishing ponds in series, with very low detention times (1.4-2.5 days in each pond), treating anaerobic effluent from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The system was able to achieve excellent results in terms of BOD and E. coli removal, and good results in terms of ammonia removal, allowing compliance with European standards for urban wastewater and WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The paper presents the values of BOD and E. coli removal coefficients, which were much higher than those found in conventional pond systems. No statistically significant difference was found in the effluent E. coli concentrations from a pond with low depth and low detention time, and another pond in parallel, with double the depth and approximately double the detention time. The results endorse the applicability of the system composed by UASB reactors followed by very shallow ponds in series, with low detention times. PMID:16114667

  18. POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

  19. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  20. Ecotoxicity of raw and treated effluents generated by a veterinary pharmaceutical company: a comparison of the sensitivities of different standardized tests.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Bianca de S; Luna, Luis A V; Palmeira, Joice de O; Tavares, Karla P; Barbosa, Sandro; Beijo, Luiz A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A; Kummrow, Fábio

    2015-05-01

    Pharmaceutical effluents have recently been recognized as an important contamination source to aquatic environments and the toxicity related to the presence of antibiotics in effluents has attracted great attention. Conventionally, these effluents have been treated using physico-chemical and aerobic biological processes, usually with low rates of pharmaceuticals removal. Due to the complexity of effluents, it is impossible to determine all pharmaceuticals and their degradation products using analytical methods. Ecotoxicity tests with different organisms may be used to determine the effect level of effluents and thus their environmental impacts. The objective of this work was to compare the sensitivities of five ecotoxicity tests using aquatic and terrestrial organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents from the production of veterinary medicines before and after treatment. Raw and chemically treated effluent samples were highly toxic to aquatic organisms, achieving 100,000 toxic units, but only few of those samples presented phytotoxicity. We observed a reduction in the toxicity in the biologically treated effluent samples, which were previously chemically pre-treated, however the toxicity was not eliminated. The rank of test organisms' reactions levels was: Daphnia similis > Raphidocelis subcapitata > Aliivibrio fischeri > Allium cepa ~ Lactuca sativa. Effluent treatment employed by the evaluated company was only partially efficient at removing the effluent toxicity, suggesting potential risks to biota. The acute toxicity test with D. similis proved to be the most sensitive for both raw and treated effluents and is a suitable option for further characterization and monitoring of pharmaceutical effluents. PMID:25682103

  1. Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Elin; Björlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2010-03-01

    Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology. PMID:20022642

  2. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  3. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  4. Treated mine drainage effluent benefits Maryland and West Virginia fisherman

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    In January of 1994, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Freshwater Fisheries Division and Mettiki Coal Corporation of Oakland, Maryland entered into a cooperative agreement to construct a trout rearing facility within Mettiki`s 10 million gallons per day acid mine drainage treatment system to supplement the DNR stockings in the newly revitalized North Branch of the Potomac River. Due to pyrite oxidation and a lack of alkaline buffering capacity in the Freeport coal strata, seven thousand gallons per minute of acidic water containing oxidized sulfide minerals must be pumped through Mettiki`s AMD treatment systems and elevated to Federal standards prior to discharge into the Upper North Branch of the Potomac River. Utilizing hydrated lime, aeration, flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge recirculation, Mettiki`s treatment imparts superior trout propagation qualities to the discharge (pH of 8.1, dissolved oxygen of 8.0 ppm, temperature ranges of from 52 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and has allowed for weight gain throughout the typically dormant winter months. Presently, 30,000 brown, rainbow, and cutthroat trout are suspended in floating net pens within the systems` discharge collection pond where pH, flow, temperature, feed assimilation, and growth rates were compared with typical stream diversion hatcheries. Growth rates, lack of significant disease, and quality parameters coupled with ideal temperatures suggests treated acidic mine effluent can offer successful fish propagation opportunities.

  5. Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.

    PubMed

    Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

    2012-11-15

    Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

  6. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

  7. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    PubMed

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. PMID:24374244

  8. Irrigation of eucalyptus plantation using treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Rezende, A A P; de Matos, A T; Silva, C M; Neves, J C L

    2010-01-01

    The use of treated pulp mill effluent on eucalyptus plantation appears to be an attractive option for plant nutrition and water supply. It also constitutes a supplementary treatment process and a final disposal option for the mill effluent. This study aimed at the investigation and evaluation of the effects of bleached kraft pulp mill treated effluent on three typical Brazilian soils used for eucalyptus plantation. The effluent was characterized and five different application rates, defined according to the load of sodium, were tested in controlled environment experiments (greenhouse). After effluent application over a six month period an increase in the salinity of the studied soils was observed, although no soil dispersion was detected. The low content of some nutrients in the treated effluent indicated the need for fertilizer complementation. In general, the best biomass productivity and plant growth results were obtained in fine textured soil at a loading rate of 6.49 t Na ha(-1). The good response of the soil-plant system under different effluent application rates showed the feasibility for the eucalyptus irrigation if adequate management practices and monitoring are carried out. PMID:21045344

  9. On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

    2009-12-01

    Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be responsible for the low infiltration rate. Quantification of these mechanisms is an on-going effort. Spatial and temporal distribution of redox was identified and results indicate that nitrate and iron reducing conditions dominate the upper 1 m profile during the flooding (Eh -100 to 200 mV). Once the drying process begins atmospheric oxygen penetrates from the surface and re-oxidation occurs (Eh 500mV). Organic matter content in the soil decreases from ~0.7% in the upper 0.5 m to ~0.2% at the 0.5-2 m depth. Simulations of the infiltration process is in progress; however, the lack of complete saturation and the observed double wetting front have proven difficult to simulate. Our results suggest that the incomplete saturation govern the physico-chemical process along the upper 2-m of the spreading basin. Current efforts are focused on better quantification and simulations of the observed processes as well as more accurately identifying the changes in the hydraulic parameters along the entire soil profile.

  10. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the protein, amino acid and carbohydrate content of molluscs exposed to both of the treated effluent were found close to that of control. Comet assay revealed no damage in the DNA for MF and MF+RO treated effluent indicating that the membrane based treatment procedure restores environmental condition to control level. PMID:26720808

  11. Toxicity of the effluent from an anaerobic bioreactor treating cereal residues on Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian Jonathan; Riera, Nicolás Iván; Beily, María Eugenia; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2012-02-01

    Effluents generated during the process of anaerobic digestion should be treated before their disposal into the environment. The aim of this study was evaluating the effectiveness of the effluent treatment system from an anaerobic bioreactor, assessing the toxicity reduction with the Lactuca sativa seed germination and root elongation inhibition test. Three sampling points were selected along the effluent treatment system: inflow into the first treatment pond, outflow from the third pond and recirculated flow to the bioreactor. Effluent dilutions tested for each sampling point were 25% and 50% (v/v), undiluted sample and controls. The pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD₅ and COD were measured. The decrease in the organic and inorganic loads was correlated with a reduction in the phytotoxicity. The use of the seed toxicity test allows evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the studied effluent treatment system. PMID:21993347

  12. Proposal to optimize ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treated by conventional biological and ozonation processes.

    PubMed

    Wigh, Adriana; Devaux, Alain; Brosselin, Vanessa; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Domenjoud, Bruno; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Creusot, Nicolas; Gosset, Antoine; Bazin, Christine; Bony, Sylvie

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of urban and hospital effluents (50 % v/v) was evaluated for ecotoxicity with an advanced bioassay battery. Mixed effluents were tested before any treatment, after biological treatment alone, and after biological treatment followed by a tertiary ozonation (15 mg O3/L). Laying a high value on the continuance of organisms' fitness, essential to preserve a healthy receiving ecosystem, the main objective of this study was to combine normalized bioassays with newly developed in vivo and in vitro tests in order to assess alteration of embryo development, growth and reproduction, as well as genotoxic effects in aquatic organisms exposed to complex wastewater effluents. Comparison of the bioassays sensitivity was considered. Contrary to the lack of toxicity observed with normalized ecotoxicity tests, endpoints measured on zebrafish embryos such as developmental abnormalities and genotoxicity demonstrated a residual toxicity in wastewater both after a biological treatment followed or not by a tertiary O3 treatment. However, the ozonation step allowed to alleviate the residual endocrine disrupting potential measure in the biologically treated effluent. This study shows that normalized bioassays are not sensitive enough for the ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewaters and that there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the possible residual toxicity of treated effluents. PMID:26400245

  13. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

  14. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

  15. Sequential in situ hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification for the treatment of high-nitrate industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Douglas, Grant B

    2014-11-01

    A sequential process using hydrotalcite precipitation and biological denitrification was evaluated for the treatment of a magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2)-rich effluent (17,000mgNO3(-)-N/L, 13,100mgMg/L) generated from an industrial nickel-mining process. The hydrotalcite precipitation removed 41% of the nitrate (7000mgNO3(-)-N/L) as an interlayer anion with an approximate formula of Mg5Al2(OH)14(NO3)2·6H2O. The resultant solute chemistry was a Na-NO3-Cl type with low trace element concentrations. The partially treated effluent was continuously fed (hydraulic retention time of 24h) into a biological fluidised bed reactor (FBR) with sodium acetate as a carbon source for 33days (1:1 v/v dilution). The FBR enabled >70% nitrate removal and a maximal NOx (nitrate+nitrite) removal rate of 97mg NOx-N/Lh under alkaline conditions (pH 9.3). Overall, this sequential process reduced the nitrate concentration of the industrial effluent by >90% and thus represents an efficient method to treat Mg(NO3)2-rich effluents on an industrial scale. PMID:25280045

  16. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  17. Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

    The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to develop measures to reduce the foam index. As no criterion exists for foam in rivers in Austria, as well as in Hungary, the not accepted degree of foam formation was defined as the limit at which population protests from Hungary arose. This approach resulted in a foam index higher than 3.5, which was observed with 40% probability during the investigation period. By developing and performing a simple mathematical regression model the required reduction of foam potential emissions could be calculated in order to minimize the foam index to an accepted standard. By the elimination of 75% of foam potential, a foam index lower than 3.5 would be assured with 95% probability based on long term discharge development.

  18. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

    PubMed

    He, Shengbing; Xue, Gang

    2010-06-15

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state. PMID:20334971

  19. Irrigational impact of untreated and treated brewery-distillery effluent on seed germination of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuradha; Malaviya, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Current study presents the effect of irrigation with different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%) of untreated and treated brewery-distillery effluent on germination behaviour of marigold (Tagetes erecta L. var. Pusa Basanti). The 100% untreated effluent showed acidic pH (4.80) and higher values of BOD (1500.00 mg l(-1)), COD (4000.00 mg l(-1)), chloride (1742.20 mg l(-1)), TSS (900.00 mg l(-1)) as compared to that of treated effluent. Tagetes seeds were exposed to different concentrations of effluent and the results revealed maximum values of germination parameters viz., percent germination, peak value, germination value, germination index, speed of germination and vigour index at 20% untreated and 60% treated effluent concentrations, whereas the values for negative germination parameters viz., delay index, germination period and percent inhibition were minimum at 20% untreated and 60% treated effluent concentrations. PMID:26930868

  20. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  1. DEMINERALIZATION OF CARBON-TREATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY SPIRAL-WOUND REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 56.8 cu m/day (15,000 gallons/day) spiral-wound reverse osmosis pilot plant was operated at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility on the carbon-treated secondary effluent. The specific objectives for this study were (a) to establish the effective membrane l...

  2. E. coli Regrowth in a Constructed Wetland Receiving Treated Sewage Effluent: A Threat to Human Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands are used throughout the world to filter toxins from treated wastewater and to increase wildlife habitat. Bird and mammal excretions result in background levels of enteric bacteria in any natural wetland, but regrowth of bacteria in wastewater effluent can further increase microb...

  3. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility computer software release cover sheet and revision record

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, R.J.

    1994-11-28

    This supporting document contains the computer software release cover sheet and revision records for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The previous revision was controlled by CH2M Hill which developed the software. A 7-page listing of the contents of directory C:{backslash}TEDF is contained in this report.

  4. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl

    2013-05-15

    This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

  5. Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems. PMID:24273037

  6. Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, S N; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Khaifi, A; Elshafie, A E; Al-Harthy, A

    2009-01-01

    Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (TTSE) used for irrigation, was investigated at the Sultan Qaboos University sewage treatment plant (STP). This water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout Oman and the Gulf region. Samples of TTSE were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. Chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the STP. Viable bacteria, coliforms and nitrate concentrations increased significantly while biological oxygen demand (BOD) declined after STP chlorination. Mean values of turbidity changed slightly. Trace elements values were insignificant. A total of 336 bacteria from 8 genera revealed that the dominant isolates were Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Aeromonas spp. Among the isolates 59.8% were multiply resistant to several antibiotics. Resistance was higher to ampicillin followed by sulphamethoxazole, carbenicillin, streptomycine and minocycline. Frequency of resistance to the 14 antibiotics varied among the isolates. The present system related to the viability of MARB in TTSE used for irrigation may have serious implications for public health and wildlife. Results of this investigation will be of value in modifying current STPs systems and thus avoiding serious health issues. PMID:19934516

  7. What is the relationship between whole effluent toxicity and instream biological condition?

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, J.; Daley, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compiled a database of 250 dischargers across the US and examined relationships between standardized Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), whole effluent toxicity (WET) test endpoints, and instream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. Sites were included in the analysis if the effluents were not manipulated before testing (e.g., dechlorination), and standardized biological and physical habitat assessment methods were used upstream and directly downstream of the discharge. Several analyses indicated that fish endpoints were more related to instream biological condition than Ceriodaphnia WET endpoints. Dischargers that failed <25% of their tests had {le}15% chance of exhibiting instream impairment. Effluent dilution was the strongest factor affecting relationships between WET and observed biological conditions. Effluents that comprised >80% of the stream under low-flow conditions exhibited better relationships between WET and instream condition than effluents with greater dilution. Effluents that comprised <20% of the stream had a low probability of exhibiting impairment, even if several WET test failures were observed over a 1-year period. Fish acute and chronic WET information could predict instream biological conditions; however, WET compliance, based on 7Q10 stream flow, was consistently conservative. Their results indicate that WET was more predictive of instream biological condition if several tests were conducted, more than one type of test was conducted, and endpoints within a test were relatively consistent over time.

  8. Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. )

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

  9. Performance of anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors using effluents of microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Wulin; Ye, Yaoli; LaBarge, Nicole; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    Anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs) have been mainly developed as a post-treatment process to produce high quality effluent with very low energy consumption. The performance of an AFMBR was examined using the effluent from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) treating domestic wastewater, as a function of AFMBR hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and organic matter loading rates. The MFC-AFMBR achieved 89±3% removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), with an effluent of 36±6mg-COD/L over 112days operation. The AFMBR had very stable operation, with no significant changes in COD removal efficiencies, for HRTs ranging from 1.2 to 3.8h, although the effluent COD concentration increased with organic loading. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) was low, and could be maintained below 0.12bar through solids removal. This study proved that the AFMBR could be operated with a short HRT but a low COD loading rate was required to achieve low effluent COD. PMID:26921870

  10. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C.; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  11. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  12. Chemical and biological flocculation process to treat municipal sewage and analysis of biological function.

    PubMed

    Xia, Si-qing; Yang, Dian-hai; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Jian-fu

    2005-01-01

    The pilot-scale experimental apparatus and the procedure of the chemical and biological flocculation process to verify the feasibility in treating Shanghai municipal sewage were introduced in this paper. In addition, the biological function of the process was discussed. The results of optimal running showed that in the reaction tank, the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid(MLSS) was 2 g/L, hydraulic retention time(HRT) was 35 min, dosage of liquid polyaluminium chloride(PAC) was 60 mg/L, and the concentration of polyacrylamide(PAM) was 0.5 mg/L. The effluent average concentrations of COD(Cr), TP, SS and BOD5 were 50 mg/L, 0.62 mg/L, 18 mg/L, and 17 mg/L, respectively. These were better than the designed demand. In addition, the existence of biological degradation in this system was proven by several methods. The removal efficiencies of the chemical and biological flocculation process were 20% higher than that of the chemical flocculation process above at the same coagulant dosage. The treatment process under different situations was evaluated on a pilot-scale experiment, and the results provided magnificent parameters and optimal condition for future operation of the plant. PMID:15900782

  13. Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

  14. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  15. Measuring free, conjugated, and halogenated estrogens in secondary treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David R; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Eglinton, Timothy I; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Gschwend, Philip M

    2014-01-01

    Steroidal estrogens are potent endocrine-disrupting chemicals that enter natural waters through the discharge of treated and raw sewage. Because estrogens are detrimental to aquatic organisms at sub-nanogram per liter concentrations, many studies have measured so-called "free" estrogen concentrations in wastewater effluents, rivers, and lakes. Other forms of estrogens are also of potential concern because conjugated estrogens can be easily converted to potent free estrogens by bacteria in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters and halogenated estrogens are likely produced during wastewater disinfection. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have concurrently characterized free, conjugated, and halogenated estrogens. We have developed a method that is capable of simultaneously quantifying free, conjugated, and halogenated estrogens in treated wastewater effluent, in which detection limits were 0.13-1.3 ng L(-1) (free), 0.11-1.0 ng L(-1) (conjugated), and 0.18-18 ng L(-1) (halogenated). An aqueous phase additive, ammonium fluoride, was used to increase the electrospray (negative mode) ionization efficiency of free and halogenated estrogens by factors of 20 and 2.6, respectively. The method was validated using treated effluent from the greater Boston metropolitan area, where conjugated and halogenated estrogens made up 60-70% of the steroidal estrogen load on a molar basis. PMID:24476066

  16. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

  17. Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

    2014-05-01

    Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman. PMID:24338053

  18. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of the WWTP effluent. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

    2000-01-02

    The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

  20. Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

  1. Biological activity of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents before and after activated sludge and ozone treatments.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Alessandra Cunha; Mounteer, Ann H; Stoppa, Teynha Valverde; Aquino, Davi Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp production, an important sector of the Brazilian national economy, is responsible for generating large volume, high pollutant load effluents, containing a considerable fraction of recalcitrant organic matter. The objectives of this study were to quantify the biological activity of the effluent from a eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill, characterize the nature of compounds responsible for biological activity and assess the effect of ozone treatment on its removal. Primary and secondary effluents were collected bimonthly over the course of one year at a Brazilian bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill and their pollutant loads (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), lignin, extractives) and biological activity (acute and chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity) quantified. The effluent studied did not present acute toxicity to Daphnia, but presented the chronic toxicity effects of algal growth inhibition and reduced survival and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia, as well as estrogenic activity. Chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity were reduced but not eliminated during activated sludge biological treatment. The toxicity identification evaluation revealed that lipophilic organic compounds (such as residual lignin, extractives and their byproducts) were responsible for the toxicity and estrogenic activity. Ozone treatment (50 mg/L O(3)) of the secondary effluent eliminated the chronic toxicity and significantly reduced estrogen activity. PMID:23168632

  2. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  3. Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2014-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  4. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z; Genthe, B; Kamika, I; Momba, M N B

    2015-06-15

    The failure of wastewater treatment plants to produce effluents of a high microbiological quality is a matter of great concern in terms of water resource pollution. A more serious concern is that this water source is used by communities in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae) in the treated effluents of three selected South African Wastewater Treatment Works as well as their receiving water bodies. Culture-based and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect and identify the pathogenic bacteria. The conventional methods revealed that of the 272 water samples collected, 236 samples (86.8%) tested presumptively positive for Salmonella spp., 220 samples (80.9%) for Shigella spp. and 253 samples (93.0%) for V. cholerae. Molecular test results indicated that out of the randomly selected presumptive positive samples (145), zero to 60% of samples were positive for S. typhimurium and S. dysenteriae and 20% to 60% for V. cholerae. For the health risk assessment, the daily combined risk of S. typhimurium, S. dysenteriae and V. cholerae infection was above the lowest acceptable risk limit of 10(-4) as estimated by the World Health Organization for drinking water. This study showed that the target treated wastewater effluents and their receiving water bodies could pose a potential health risk to the surrounding communities. PMID:25777950

  5. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  6. Absorption of carbon dioxide by raw and treated dye-bath effluents.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, D; Petrolekas, P D; Hatzixanthis, S; Aivasidis, A

    2007-06-01

    A bench-scale experimental apparatus, consisting of a glass column randomly packed with cylindrical glass rings, was utilized for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by chemical absorption. Various liquid solvents were used, in a batch mode, circulating between the column and a reservoir vessel, and contacting the gas in counter current flow. The absorptive capacity of the liquid solvents and the absorption kinetics were studied by obtaining the respective 'breakthrough curves'. Aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were initially utilized in order to demonstrate the experimental apparatus function. Dye-bath effluent proved highly effective due to its high alkalinity and the capacity of the hydrolyzed "azo-reactive" dyes to react with CO(2). Decolorized dye-bath effluent (treated with FeSO(4)) can also be used as a chemical solvent for the absorption of CO(2); however, its absorptive capacity is much lower compared to the raw wastewater. The above technique is also a very effective method to neutralize industrial effluents. PMID:17118534

  7. Performance evaluation of a constructed wetland treating high-ammonium primary domestic wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Spokas, L A; Veneman, P L M; Simkins, S C; Long, S C

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of a top-loading, vertical-flow, submerged-bed constructed wetland system subject to a New York State discharge permit, of mineral nitrogen transformations occurring within the wetland units, and of the effects of local environment on system performance indicated 100% removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and mean 99.0 +/- 1.1% removal of ammonium (NH4(+)). The wetland system, located in Highland, New York, treats primary domestic wastewater effluent and consists of four beds presently operated in series. Influent and effluent samples from each of the four treatment units were analyzed for BOD, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2(-)-N). During the study, mean influent wastewater concentrations were 170.8, 3.1, and 0.015 mg/L for NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and NO2(-)-N, respectively. Mean effluent concentrations of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and NO2(-)-N were 1.9, 4.2, and 0.002 mg/L, respectively. PMID:20669720

  8. Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

  9. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1998-09-01

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought.

  10. Detection and diversity of aeromonads from treated wastewater and fish inhabiting effluent and downstream waters.

    PubMed

    Topic Popovic, Natalija; Kazazic, Snjezana P; Strunjak-Perovic, Ivancica; Barisic, Josip; Sauerborn Klobucar, Roberta; Kepec, Slavko; Coz-Rakovac, Rozelinda

    2015-10-01

    A two-season investigation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, of related waters, sludge and fish across a wide area and 11 stations, with emphasis on Aeromonas spp. was conducted. Aeromonas veronii was the prevailing aeromonad isolated by MALDI TOF MS in the summer period. A rise of Aeromonas hydrophila was observed in summer in raw sewage, treated wastewater and effluent-carrying canal. The ratio of aeromonad species retrieved from fish tissues did not correspond with the water and sludge findings, as in spring in the effluent-carrying canal fish carried Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida and Aeromonas bestiarum, while in summer mainly A. veronii and Acinetobacter johnsonii were isolated from fish tissues in the same location. No correlation was established between fecal coliforms/enterococci and aeromonad occurrence. All retrieved Aeromonas species demonstrated a distinct spectral pattern, with peaks showing unique mass distribution ranging from 4000 to 10,000Da. Hierarchical clustering separated aeromonads of all isolated species and clustered closely related strains together. Resistance was determined towards amoxicillin, and frequently towards sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In summer, a high proportion of water and sludge Aeromonas species demonstrated multiple resistance patterns towards five or more antimicrobials. The quinolone resistance of water aeromonads was mostly related to A. veronii. There are potential health concerns regarding aeromonad exposure amongst recreational fishermen who come into contact with fish inhabiting waters downstream from the WWTP, and WWTP workers who are occupationally exposed to wastewaters and their aerosols. PMID:26092555

  11. Coal mine drainage sludge and its application for treating metallic mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) impregnated polyurethane granular composite media (PUCMDS) was prepared and used to remove arsenic and other heavy metals in a metallic mine effluent. PUCMDS was used in rapid small-scale column tests to assess the effectiveness and suitability in the application of metallic mine water treatment. As a result in column tests, good performance of PUCMDS was observed with respect to bed volumes (more than 14,000 BVs) achieved to treat arsenic and other toxic heavy metals below their regulations. Three cycles of media regeneration and four cycles of column tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of PUCMDS. PMID:24695032

  12. VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, BACK RIVER, BALTIMORE HARBOR, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose for the study was to measure the toxicity of effluents discharged to an estuary using freshwater test species and compare the predictions with the receiving water biological impact. In addition, ambient tests were done in conjunction with salinity tolerance tests to c...

  13. Oil refinery experience with the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically based methods.

    PubMed

    Comber, Michael H I; Girling, Andrew; den Haan, Klaas H; Whale, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The trend in discharges of petroleum-related substances from refineries in Europe shows a consistent picture of declining emissions, since first measured in 1969. This decline coincides with enhanced internal capture or recycling procedures and increasing use of physical and biological treatments. At the same time, and partly in response to legislative drivers, there has been an increase in the use of chronic (long-term) toxicity tests and alternative methods for assessing the quality of effluent discharges. The Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) approach has also driven the increased conduct of studies addressing the fate of effluent constituents. Such studies have included the use of biodegradation and solid-phase micro-extraction-biomimetic extraction (SPME-BE) methods to address potentially bioaccumulative substances (PBS). In this way, it is then possible to address the persistence and toxicity of these PBS constituents of an effluent. The data collected in various case studies highlights the advantages and pitfalls of using biologically-based methods to assess the potential for refinery effluents to cause environmental impacts. PMID:25810150

  14. Dicentrarchus labrax biotransformation and genotoxicity responses after exposure to a secondary treated industrial/urban effluent.

    PubMed

    Gravato, C; Santos, M A

    2003-07-01

    The present research work was designed to study Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) biotransformation and genotoxicity responses to the soluble fraction of a secondary treated industrial/urban effluent (SF-STIUE) discharged through a submarine pipe outlet into the Aveiro coastal area. Sea bass was exposed for 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 96 h to 0%, 0.1%, and 1% SF-STIUE and the following biological responses were measured: (1) liver cytochrome P450 (P450) content and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as phase I biotransformation parameters; (2) liver gluthathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a phase II conjugation enzyme; (3) biliary and liver cytosol naphthalene (Naph)- and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-type metabolites, by fixed wavelength fluorescence detection (FF); (4) liver DNA strand breaks, erythrocytic micronuclei (EMN), and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) as genotoxicity parameters. Both SF-STIUE dilutions (0.1% and 1%) failed to significantly increase liver EROD activity, despite a significant increase of liver P450 at 16 and 48 h exposure to 0.1%. Liver GST activity increased significantly at 4h of sea bass exposure to 1% SF-STIUE, being inhibited at 96 h of exposure to this SF-STIUE dilution. Naph- and B(a)P-type metabolite contents were not significantly increased in bile. However, Naph-type metabolite contents increased significantly in liver cytosol at 4h exposure to 1% SF-STIUE, and at 24h exposure to 0.1% and 1% SF-STIUE. Furthermore, B(a)P-type metabolites increased significantly in liver cytosol at 4h exposure to 1% SF-STIUE, and 16 h exposure to 0.1% and 1% SF-STIUE. EMN and ENA frequencies increased significantly at 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 96 h exposure to 0.1% and 1% SF-STIUE. Liver DNA integrity decreased significantly at 96 h of sea bass exposure to 1% SF-STIUE. The STIUE discharged into Aveiro coastal area is of great ecotoxicological concern due to its genotoxic potential. PMID:12798764

  15. Multivariate analysis of selected metals in agricultural soil receiving UASB treated tannery effluent at Jajmau, Kanpur (India).

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Sinha, S; Basant, A; Singh, K P

    2007-11-01

    Tannery effluent and soils samples were collected from 12 different sites of an agricultural area receiving treated tannery wastewater near Kanpur city (India). The samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni and Pb) content with a view to assess the impact of industrial wastewater on agricultural soils. The results revealed elevated levels of Fe and Cr in agricultural soils irrigated with treated tannery effluents. Cluster analysis of tannery effluent and soil datasets yielded two groups of the metals and demonstrated their relationship in each media. Principal component analysis performed on two datasets yielded two significant factors each for the effluents and soils, suggested tanneries as the probable sources of metals in the soils. PMID:17943220

  16. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

  17. Modelling biological phosphorus removal from a cheese factory effluent by an SBR.

    PubMed

    Ky, R C; Comeau, Y; Perrier, M; Takacs, I

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model, named A3DX, based on ASM3(A3) for C and N removal, on the bio-P metabolic model of the Technological University of Delft (D), and on extra processes (X) for chemical and biological phosphorus removal, was developed and used to simulate the treatment of a fermented cheese factory effluent by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale SBR were used to calibrate the model. The model calibration was performed by changing a minimal number (four) of default values for parameters, and by introducing a Monod function to account for magnesium limitation. This study suggests that the value of stoichiometric and kinetic model parameters determined with municipal effluents or enriched bio-P cultures can be reasonably used with some agro-industrial effluents with minimal parameter adjustment for calibration. PMID:11381914

  18. Temporal variation in the estrogenicity of a sewage treatment plant effluent and its biological significance.

    PubMed

    Martinović, Dalma; Denny, Jeffrey S; Schmieder, Patricia K; Ankley, Gerald T; Sorensen, Peter W

    2008-05-01

    Daily variation in the estrogenic activity of effluent released by a modern sewage treatment plant (STP) was measured and its effects on the physiology, behavior, and reproductive success of male fish were evaluated. As measured by an estrogen receptor binding assay, the daily estrogenic activity of this effluent was both high and extremely variable (42 +/- 25.4 [mean +/- SD] ng 17beta-estradiol (E2) equivalents/L; n = 18). Liver VTG mRNA expression in male fathead minnows (FHM) covaried with the binding assay estimates, suggesting that these fluctuations are biologically relevant. Tests which exposed male FHMs to either fluctuating levels of E2, a constant concentration of E2 (time-weighted to reflect average concentrations), or control (no E2) demonstrated that while the estrogenic activity of this effluent was detrimental to male spawning success, the fact that its concentration varied in a daily manner was without additional influence. The variability of the effluent's estrogenicity suggests that studies concerned with the effects of STP effluents should collect multiple daily samples and then test them on an appropriate time-weighted basis. PMID:18522128

  19. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end-of-pipe discharge chemistry. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, ammonia, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and radium are removed from the constituent list. Annual analysis for low-level tritium is added to the constituent list to help confirm that groundwater beneath the TEDF remains isolated from operational influences.

  20. Evaluation of an integrated sponge--granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor for treating primary treated sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; Cullum, P

    2011-05-01

    An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to treat synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE). The NSBF contains starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients. The results indicate that the iFBBR with NSBF addition could remove more than 93% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% total phosphorus (T-P) at just a very short hydraulic retention time of 50 min. The optimum frequency of adding NSBF to the iFFBR is four times per day. As a pretreatment to microfiltration, the iFFBR could increase 5L/m(2)h of critical flux thus reducing the membrane fouling. In addition, better microbial activity was also observed with high DO consumption (>66%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (>35 mg O(2)/g VSS h). PMID:21123048

  1. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced. PMID:26270209

  2. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  3. Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Borba, Fernando Henrique; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Manenti, Diego Ricieri; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mora, Nora Diaz

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 33 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The oPtimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 20 g H2O2 L(-1) and pH3, for 120 min UV irradiation time. Reactor operating parameter (ROP) effects on the removal of chemical oxygen demand, colour, turbidity, total suspended solids and total volatile solids were evaluated, suggesting that a broad range of ROP values are also suitable to give results very near to those of the photo-Fenton experiments under optimal conditions. Based on the low calculated median lethal dose (LD50) values from a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test, we suggest that recalcitrant substances are present in treated TIE samples. A possible cause of the high toxicity level could partly be attributed to the nitrate concentration, which was not completely abated by the photo-Fenton process. Apart from this, the photo-Fenton process can be used as a part of an industrial effluent treatment system in order to abate high organic pollutant loads. PMID:23837315

  4. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  5. Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis: Are Biologic Drugs Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis: Are Biologic Drugs Right for You? What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)? Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a serious condition. The body’s immune system attacks the lining of ...

  6. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  7. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. PMID:22218195

  8. Hyporheic Zone Management: Nitrate Removal from Treated Wastewater Effluent using an Engineered Hyporheic Zone as a Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, M.; Herzog, S.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor within streambed sediments. The dynamic interface of streamwater and groundwater creates a diverse microbial community that has potential to provide substantial contaminant removal. However, insufficient water exchange between the stream and the HZ is often a limiting factor for improved streamwater quality. Modular subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) modifications with the addition of organic carbon substrates have been proposed as a means to increase hyporheic exchange and enhance natural water treatment via denitrification. Subsurface K modification flow paths are well understood from previous computer modeling and tracer testing studies, but treatment capabilities have yet to be tested in physical systems. This research applied chemical and molecular biological techniques to investigate nitrate removal and microbial community structure in a bench-scale stream simulation with subsurface K and carbon modifications. The system received treated wastewater effluent containing soluble nitrogen primarily in the form of nitrate at concentrations fluctuating from 4-7mg/L. To gain insight into denitrification potential and relative microbial activity along hyporheic flow paths, profiles of nitrate fate, total bacterial presence and the density of the denitrification genes (nirS and nirK) were quantified spatially. Nitrate tests showed a decrease from ~7mg/L in the influent to less than 1mg/L along hyporheic flowpaths. This was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA copies (representative of total bacterial biomass) from approximately 200000 gene copies in the influent zone to 630000 gene copies in the effluent zone. Also, the bacterial communities had a greater presence in the upper 6cm of the sediment layer with nirS amplifying 4-5 cycles earlier than nirK in the PCR analysis. The nirS gene concentration was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the effluent zone than the carbon modified zone, suggesting that leached dissolved organic carbon was fueling the process downstream. Our findings show the value of coupled chemical, hydrological and microbial analyses for the optimization of engineered denitrification zones in HZ systems and could further present monitoring tools for assessing environmental performance in situ.

  9. Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Reungoat, J; Escher, B I; Macova, M; Argaud, F X; Gernjak, W; Keller, J

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs) in three full-scale reclamation plants using ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration to treat wastewater treatment plant effluents. Chemical analysis was used to quantify a wide range of TrOCs and combined with bioanalytical tools to assess non-specific toxicity (Microtox assay) and estrogenicity (E-SCREEN assay). Limited dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal (<10%) was observed in the ozonation stages showing that oxidation leads to the formation of transformation products rather than mineralization. The quantified TrOCs were removed to a degree highly dependent on the compounds' structures and the specific ozone dose (mg(O3) mg(DOC)(-1)). Non-specific toxicity was reduced by 31-39%, demonstrating that the mixture of remaining parent compounds and their transformation products as well as newly formed oxidation by-products had an overall lower toxic potential than the mixture of parent compounds. Estrogenicity was reduced by more than 87% indicating that the transformation products of the estrogenic chemicals lost their specific toxicity potential. The subsequent BAC filtration removed between 20 and 50% of the DOC depending on the plant configuration, likely due to biodegradation of organic matter. The filtration was also able to reduce the concentrations of most of the remaining TrOCs by up to 99%, and reduce non-specific toxicity by 33-54%. Overall, the combination of ozonation and BAC filtration can achieve removals of 50% for DOC and more than 90% for a wide range of TrOCs as well as a reduction of 70% of non-specific toxicity and more than 95% of estrogenicity. This process combination is therefore suggested as an effective barrier to reduce the discharge of TrOCs into the environment or their presence in water recycling schemes. PMID:22172561

  10. Long-term operation of biological activated carbon pre-treatment for microfiltration of secondary effluent: Correlation between the organic foulants and fouling potential.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-03-01

    The impact of long-term (>2 years) biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment for mitigating organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent was investigated. Correlation between the organic constituents and hydraulic filtration resistance was investigated to identify the major components responsible for fouling. Over two years operation, the removal efficiency for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the BAC treatment was fairly consistent (30 ± 3%), although the reduction in UVA254 gradually decreased from 56 to 34%. BAC treatment effectively decreased the organic foulants in the effluent and so contributed to the mitigation of membrane fouling as shown by reduction in the unified membrane fouling index (UMFI). BAC consistently removed biopolymers whereas the removal of humic substances decreased from 52 to 25% after two years of BAC operation, and thus led to a gradual decrease in UMFI reduction efficiency from 78 to 43%. This was due to gradual reduction in adsorption capacity of the activated carbon as confirmed by analysis of its pore size distribution. Hence humics also played an important role in membrane fouling. However, there was a good correlation between protein and carbohydrate contents with hydraulically reversible and irreversible filtration resistance, compared with UVA254, turbidity and DOC. Although the mitigation of membrane fouling decreased over time, this study demonstrated that the long-term use of BAC pre-treatment of biologically treated secondary effluent prior to microfiltration has potential to reduce the need for frequent chemical cleaning and so increase membrane life span. PMID:26773606

  11. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F < 0.01. The optimum performance was obtained at the current density of 56 mA/cm(2), contact time of 65 min and initial pH of 4.5, rendering complete removal of colour and turbidity with COD removal of 75.4%. The pH of post-treated POME of 7.6 was achieved, which is suitable for direct discharge. These predicted outputs were subsequently confirmed by insignificant standard deviation readings between predicted and actual values. This optimum condition also permitted the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, and various metal ions, signifying the superiority of the electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD. PMID:27232407

  12. Reduction on the anaerobic biological activity inhibition caused by heavy metals and sulphates in effluents through chemical precipitation with soda and lime.

    PubMed

    Alves, L de Carvalho; Cammarota, M C; De França, F P

    2006-12-01

    The School of Chemistry Environmental Technology Laboratory generates 43.4 1 of effluent with low pH (0.7) and high contents of COD (1908 mgO2 l(-1)), phenol (132.1 mg l(-1)), sulfate (36700 mg l(-1)) and heavy metals (28.2 mg Hg l(-1); 82.1 mg Cr(total) l(-1); 30.8 mg Cu l(-1); 57.4 mg Fe(total) l(-1); 16.2 mg Al l(-1)) weekly. These data show that this effluent presents high toxicity for biological treatment, with a physical-chemical step being necessary before a biological step. Preliminary studies showed that the most toxic constituents of the effluent were sulfate, phenol and total chromium. In this work, a chemical precipitation step with sodium hydroxide or lime was evaluated for the toxicity reduction on anaerobic microbial consortium. These experiments were carried out with increasing concentrations of alkalis in the effluent in order to obtain pH initial values of 8-12. Similar results were obtained for COD (15-28%), turbidity (95-98%), phenol (13-24%) and total chromium (99.8-99.9%) removals in each condition studied with soda or lime. Sulfate was only removed by precipitation with lime, obtaining reductions from 84 to 88%. The toxicity on the anaerobic sludge was studied employing specific methanogenic activity (SMA) analysis of raw and treated effluent (after chemical precipitation step). The SMA experiments showed that chemical precipitation at pH 8 reduces the toxic effect of the effluent on anaerobic microbial consortium three times (with soda) and thirteen times (with lime). These results indicate that precipitation with lime is more efficient at toxicity removal, however the produced sludge volume is around two times higher than that produced with soda. PMID:17285944

  13. Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    lvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodrguez, A; Sanromn, M A; Deive, F J

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

  14. An evaluation of the application of treated sewage effluents in Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park, Central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Vicente; Garca, Beatriz; Snchez, David; Asensio, Laura

    2011-04-01

    SummaryAt the present time there is not enough information available to develop a quantitative model on how inundation takes place in the 1490 ha area of Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Central Spain) located upstream of Morenillo Dam. Given that it is the most important area in the Park from an ecological standpoint, this is a major concern, as it has not been possible to assess the potential effectiveness of the interventions geared towards improving its current state. As a result, it is not feasible to simulate the hydrologic response to the application of treated sewage effluents, an initiative recently implemented by the Public Administration responsible for water management in the Guadiana River Basin, where the Park is located. To help solve this problem, a simplified model of the hydrologic behaviour of the system has been developed focusing on the characterisation of the main trends of the inundation process. Field data from 12 drying processes were used to identify the model parameters. Later, the evolution of the system was examined after the application of treated sewage effluents, assuming the hypothesis of a dry climate. The results show that the 10 Mm 3 of available effluents is sufficient to improve from 2 ha to 60 ha the inundation condition of the areas considered to be high-priority. This therefore demonstrates that, from a hydrologic point of view, it is highly advisable to use treated sewage effluents.

  15. Valuation and modelling of helminth eggs removal in baffled and unbaffled ponds treating anaerobic effluent.

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M; Chernicharo, C A L; Soares, A M E; Zerbini, A M

    2003-01-01

    The paper evaluates and models helminth eggs removal in a combined UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor-maturation pond system (one baffled and one unbaffled pond in parallel). The system is comprised of demonstration-scale units, treating actual domestic sewage from Itabira city, Brazil. The paper addresses the following points: (i) removal of helminth eggs from the wastewater in the system; (ii) comparison of the observed removal efficiency with the predictions using the Ayres et al. model; (iii) accumulation of helminth eggs in the sludge; (iv) viability of eggs in the sludge; (v) distribution of helminth species in the sludge. The removal efficiency of helminth eggs from the wastewater in both ponds was 100% for most of the time (0 counts in the final effluent). The predictions of helminth eggs removal according to the Ayres et al. model can be considered reasonable. After one year of operation, 88% of the eggs in the sludge remained viable. Helminth eggs counts in the sludge tended to decrease along the baffled pond length (from first to last compartment). The prevailing helminth species found in the sludge from both ponds was Ascaris lumbricoides. PMID:14510201

  16. Assessment of odour problem in sewage-treated effluent in a closed loop irrigation system.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad Saeed; Miran, Mamdoh M

    2011-05-01

    Uses of wastewater drives significant economic activity, supports countless livelihoods particularly those for developing countries. While using wastewater, the challenge is to identify practical, affordable safeguards that do not threaten the health of users. In Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, treated sewage effluent (TSE) is used for landscape purposes. In the present study, the odour problem caused by TSE in community area has been addressed. Samples were collected and analysed for total coliform, odour, trihalomethanes (THMs), total organic carbon (TOC) and other physicochemical parameters. Results show that in distribution network, residual chlorine was below the detection limit, turbidity, THMs, TOC and total coliform concentration was much higher than point source, and concentration of these parameters was further increased in problematic areas. It was also observed that areas with odourous problem were at the tail of irrigation network. This indicates that odour problem was due to less residual chlorine high turbidity, high rate of coliform and TOC. In odourous water samples, carbon disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were also identified by GC/MS, while in other areas where there was no odour, both these compounds were not detected. Odour problem was successfully resolved by improving sand filtration system to minimise turbidity the main cause of odour, increasing the residual chlorine at the treatment plant and regularly flushing the distribution network. PMID:20568010

  17. Anaerobic filter for polishing effluent of UASB reactor treating strong sewage at 23 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Alrajoula, Mohammad; Halalsheh, Maha; Fayyad, Manar

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic filter (AF) was used for polishing effluent of UASB reactor treating strong sewage at an average water temperature of 23 degrees C. The UASB-AF system was operated with sludge discharge taking place only from the AF reactor. It was hypothesized that better removal of suspended COD (COD(ss)) fraction from the system can be achieved by increasing sludge discharge frequency from the AF reactor. For this purpose, sludge discharge frequencies of once, twice and thrice per day from the AF reactor were investigated. Results showed that average total COD (COD(tot)) removal efficiency of the system increased from 62% when sludge was discharged once per day from the AF reactor up to 67% when sludge was discharged twice and thrice per day. However, the increase in COD(tot) removal was not due to increased removal of COD(ss) fraction; but mainly due to development of an active biomass on the filter media, which increased removal efficiency of soluble COD fraction. The AF reactor had also an evidence of pathogens reduction. The AF reactor achieved 1-2 log reduction in Fecal Coliform counts. PMID:19474492

  18. Impact of biological filtrations for organic micropollutants and polyfluoroalkyl substances removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-08-01

    The impact of biological activated carbon (BAC), sand filtration (SF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) for removal of the selected organic micropollutants and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from secondary effluent was studied. BAC led to greater removal of dissolved organic carbon (43%) than BAF (30%) which in turn was greater than SF (24%). All biological filtration systems could effectively remove most of the selected organic micropollutants, and there was a greater removal of these micropollutants by BAC (76-98%) than BAF (70-92%) or SF (68-90%). It was found that all treatment was effective for removal of the hydrophobic (log D > 3.2) and readily biodegradable organic micropollutants. The major mechanism for the removal of these molecules was biodegradation by the micro-organism and sorption by the biofilm. Compared to organic micropollutants removal, there was a lower removal of PFASs by all treatments, and BAF and SF had a considerably lower removal than BAC treatment. The better removal for all molecule types by BAC was due to additional adsorption capacity by the activated carbon. This study demonstrated that the BAC process was most effective in removing organic micropollutants present in the secondary effluent. PMID:26695189

  19. Biologic Approaches to Treat Substance-Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Skolnick, Phil

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to traditional pharmacodynamic approaches to treat substance-use disorders (SUDs), the use of biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and genetically modified enzymes) is based on a pharmacokinetic principle: reduce the amount of (and, ideally, eliminate) abused drug entering the central nervous system (CNS). Preclinical studies indicate that biologics are effective in both facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to abused substances ranging from nicotine to heroin. While data are still emerging, the results from multiple clinical trials can best be described as mixed. Nonetheless, these clinical studies have already provided important insights using 'first-generation' tools that may inform the development of effective and commercially viable biologics to treat tobacco-, cocaine-, and methamphetamine-use disorders. PMID:26435208

  20. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application. The spray-irrigated effluent affected the ground-water quality of the shallow aquifer differently on the hilltop and hillside topographic settings of the watershed where spray irrigation was being applied (application area). Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) and chloride (Cl) in the effluent were higher than concentrations of these constituents in shallow ground water from wells on the hilltop and hillside prior to start of spray irrigation. In water from wells on the hilltop, concentrations of nitrate N and Cl increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. In water from wells on the hillside, which were on the eastern part of the application area, nitrate N and Cl concentrations increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. However, on the hillside of the western application area, the ground-water quality was not affected by the spray-irrigated effluent because of the greater thickness of unconsolidated material and higher amounts of clay present in those unconsolidated sands. Although nitrate N concentrations increased in water from hilltop and hillside wells in the application area, the nitrate N concentrations were below the effluent concentration. A combination of plant uptake, biological activity, and denitrification may be the processes accounting for the lower nitrate N concentrations in shallow ground water compared to the spray-irrigated effluent. Cl concentrations in water from hilltop western application area well Ch-5173 increased during the study period but were an order of magnitude less than the input effluent concentration. Cl concentrations in shallow ground water in the e

  1. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  2. Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c and C(14 : 0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) ( = DSM 25520(T) = NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

  3. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  4. Long-term impacts of pasture irrigation with treated sewage effluent on shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Gwenzi, W; Munondo, R

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of 26 years of effluent irrigation on chemical and bacteriological quality of shallow (<3.0 m) groundwater. Annual loading rates for N and P exceeded pasture requirements, while trace metals were either lower or higher than guideline limits. Effluent irrigation removed TN (44-71%), TP (80%), Cr (96%) and coliform bacteria (87-99.9%) while Zn, Cu and Cd removal was negligible probably due to their enhanced mobility. Analysis of groundwater samples from effluent-irrigated and non-irrigated control sites showed that effluent irrigation increased the levels of all measured parameters compared to the control. Average groundwater quality parameters from effluent-irrigated sites compared to the control were: pH (6.1 vs. 5.7), EC (0.71 vs. 0.53 dS m(-1)), concentrations (mg L(-1)) for TP (2.3 vs. 0.3), DP (1.0 vs. 0.1), TN (15.1 vs. 2.5), NH(4)-N (2.6 vs. 0.5), NO(3)-N (4.1 vs. 1.3), Zn (0.4 vs. 0.05), Cu (0.13 vs. 0.02), Cd (0.05 vs. 0.01) and Cr (0.06 vs. 0.03). Across effluent-irrigated sites, FC and TC were 25 and 288 cfu/100 ml, respectively, versus nil for the control. Overall, effluent irrigation led to groundwater contamination by N, P, trace metals and coliform bacteria, which could threaten the long-term sustainability of the practice. PMID:19092224

  5. Biological nutrient removal from pre-treated landfill leachate in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Ahmet; Kargi, Fikret

    2004-05-01

    Biological treatment of landfill leachate usually results in low nutrient removals because of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and the presence of toxic compounds such as heavy metals. Landfill leachate with high COD content was pre-treated by coagulation-flocculation with lime followed by air stripping of ammonia at pH=12. Nutrient removal from pre-treated leachate was carried out using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Three different operations consisting of different numbers of steps were tested and their performances were compared. These operations were the three-step anaerobic (An)/anoxic (Ax)/oxic (Ox); the four-step (An/Ox/Ax/Ox), and the five-step (An/Ax/Ox/Ax/Ox) operations with total residence time of seven hours each. Experiments were carried out using three consecutive operations with a total cycle time of 21 h at a constant sludge age of 10 days. The lowest effluent nutrient levels were realized by using the five-step operation which resulted in effluent COD, NH4-N and PO4-P contents of 1,400, 107 and 65 mg l(-1), respectively, at the end of 21 h. Addition of domestic wastewater (1/1, v/v) and powdered activated carbon (PAC, 1 g l(-1)) to the pre-treated leachate improved nutrient removals in the five-step SBR operation, resulting in 75% COD, 44% NH4-N and 44% PO4-P removals after 21 hours of operation. PMID:15084355

  6. Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

  7. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  8. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs. PMID:26652186

  9. Mutagenicity and toxicity of treated aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J.I.; Klein, J.A.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Rao, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    Coal gasification and hydrocarbonization wastewaters were treated in a series of bench-scale unit operations representative of a conceptual treatment process. Ammonia stripping, biological oxidation, ozonation and carbon adsorption were performed with sampling before and after each major unit operation. In addition to monitoring more traditional parameters of treatment effectiveness, such as total carbon and phenol removal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity studies were done on these samples, both before and after fractionation. The major mutagenic activity of these wastes was in the basic and neutral fractions. Toxicity of untreated wastes was primarily due to organics, but toxicity after removal of the organics was also significant. Significant reduction in mutagenicity during primary processing steps was accompanied by high concentrations of known mutagens in the sludges produced during these steps, thus indicating that future research focusing on these sludges is desirable.

  10. Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9 A m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15 min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process. PMID:25182075

  11. New possibilities of biological treatment of effluents from different stages of sulphate pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Janezic, T.S.; Bujanovic, B.

    1996-10-01

    We present the results obtained upon incubation of Penicillium thomii with the sulphate pulping waste waters from different stages of pulping: brown stock washing water, chlorine bleaching waste water, final waste water leaving the pulp mill, partly aerated lagoon purified water and waste water entering the river Sava downstream from the mill. All waste waters were filtered and sterilized prior to inoculation and the liquid media were added 0.5% sucrose and standard mineral salts for fungal growth. The pH, absorbance at 450 nm and COD were determined for the filtered waste waters before the inoculation and after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation with the mould. Incubation of P. thomii produced the best effects with the brown stock water and the least with chlorine bleaching waste water. The positive effects even in the latter case, however, recommend P. thomii as a convenient microorganism for biological treatments of sulphate pulping effluents.

  12. Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2014-08-01

    A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium. PMID:24804625

  13. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

  14. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  15. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  16. Denitrification in a South Louisiana wetland forest receiving treated sewage effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.; Crozier, C.R.; Rybczyk, J.M.; Twilley, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Although denitrification has the potential to reduce nitrate (NO3a??) pollution of surface waters, the quantification of denitrification rates is complex because it requires differentiation from other mechanisms and is highly variable in both space and time. This study first measured potential denitrification rates at a wetland forest site in south Louisiana before receipt of secondary wastewater effluent, and then, following 30 months of effluent application, landscape gradients of dissolved nitrate (NO3a??) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured. A computer model was developed to quantify N transformations. Floodwater NO3a?? and N2O concentrations were higher in the forest receiving effluent than in the adjacent control forest. Denitrification rates of NO3a?? -amended soil cores ranged from 0.03a??0.45 g N ma??2 da??1 with an overall mean of 0.10 g N ma??2 da??1. Effluent N is being applied at a rate of approximately 0.034 g N ma??2 da??1, with approximately 95% disappearing along a 1 km transect. In the treatment forest, floodwater NO3a?? concentrations decreased from 1000 M at the inflow point to 50 M along the 1 km transect. Nitrous oxide concentrations increased from 0.25 M to 1.2 M within the first 100 m, but decreased to 0.1 M over the next 900 m. The initial increase in N2O was presumably a result ofin situ denitrification. Model analyses indicated that denitrification was directly associated with nitrification and was limited by the availability of NO3a?? produced by nitrification. Due to different redox potential optima, coupling of nitrification and denitrification was a function of a balance of environmental conditions that was moderately favorable to both processes. N removal efficiency was largely dependent on the proportion of effluent NH4+ to NO3a?? . When NH4+ /NO3a?? was 1, average N removal efficiency ranged from 95a??100%, but ratios that were >1 reduced average efficiencies to as low as 57%. Actual effluent NH4+ /NO3a?? loading ratios at this site are approximately 0.2 and are consistently <1.

  17. Dual purpose system that treats anaerobic effluents from pig waste and produce Neochloris oleoabundans as lipid rich biomass.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Eugenia J; Castillo, Omar S; Mendoza, Anil; Tapia, Karla; Gonzlez-Portela, Ricardo E; Hernndez-Landa, Vctor J

    2015-05-25

    Dual purpose systems that treat wastewater and produce lipid rich microalgae biomass have been indicated as an option with great potential for production of biodiesel at a competitive cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a dual purpose system for the treatment of the anaerobic effluents from pig waste utilizing Neochloris oleoabundans and to evaluate its growth, lipid content and lipid profile of the harvested biomass and the removal of nutrients from the media. Cultures of N. oleoabundans were established in 4 L flat plate photobioreactors using diluted effluents from two different types of anaerobic filters, one packed with ceramic material (D1) and another one packed with volcanic gravel (D2). Maximum biomass concentration in D1 was 0.63 g L(-1) which was significantly higher than the one found in D2 (0.55 g L(-1)). Cultures were very efficient at nutrient removal: 98% for NNH4(+) and 98% for PO4(3-). Regarding total lipid content, diluted eflluents from D2 promoted a biomass containing 27.4% (dry weight) and D1 a biomass containing 22.4% (dry weight). Maximum lipid productivity was also higher in D2 compared to D1 (6.270.62 mg L(-1) d(-1) vs. 5.120.12 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Concerning the FAMEs profile in diluted effluents, the most abundant one was C18:1, followed by C18:2 and C16:0. The profile in D2 contained less C18:3 (linolenic acid) than the one in D1 (4.37% vs. 5.55%). In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that cultures of N. oleoabundans treating anaerobic effluents from pig waste are very efficient at nutrient removal and a biomass rich in lipids can be recovered. The maximum total lipid content and the most convenient FAMEs profile were obtained using effluents from a digester packed with volcanic gravel. PMID:25556121

  18. A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ge; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Wang, Feifei; Zhang, Xingsong

    2010-08-01

    A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH(4)(+)-N (average in 86.4 mg/L), low in COD/NH(4)(+)-N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD(5)/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably below 100mg/L COD and 20mg/L NH(4)(+)-N, separately, with organic loading rate of 4954 kg COD/d and 92.5 kg NH(4)(+)-N/d. It is found that the BOD(5)/COD ratio could be raised from 0.24 to 0.35, and the production of total VFAs account for 9.57% of the total COD via the treatment of hydrolysis/acidification. MBBR and oxidation ditch represent 35.4% and 60.7% of NH(4)(+)-N removal, 30.2% and 61.5% of COD removal, separately, of the total treatment process. PCR-DGGE is used for microbial community analysis of MBBR and oxidation ditch. PMID:20335031

  19. [Single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor with self-generated granular sludge for treating sludge dewatering effluent].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian-ping; Du, Bing; Liu, Yin; Qin, Yong-sheng

    2009-10-15

    Single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal (SANR) has been observed in a long-term operated nitrosation air-lift reactor for treating digested sludge dewatering effluent from sewage wastewater treatment plant. A kind of so called self-generated granular sludge which undertake the SANR reaction has oriented formed. The performance of SANR reactor cultivated above sludge for treating sludge dewatering effluent has been tested and better results have been reached. When the influent total nitrogen (TN) was kept about 350 mg/L (mainly ammonium nitrogen), the average TN removal efficiency and nitrogen removal load were 74.8% (maximum 86.92%) and 0.68 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) [maximum 0.9 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)] respectively. The operation stability and nitrogen removal efficiency have been enforced after adding a certain quantity powered activated carbon. The influent ammonium concentration, nitrogen load and aeration rate have a great effect on SANR reactor as well as the influent organic compound, pH, alkalinity have a relatively low effect. The parameters such as the ratios of aeration rate/deltaTN, aeration rate/deltaNH4+ -N, deltaALK/deltaTN can be used for better controlling the reaction. PMID:19968119

  20. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges. PMID:20865243

  1. Treatment of cosmetic effluent in different configurations of ceramic UF membrane based bioreactor: Toxicity evaluation of the untreated and treated wastewater using catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Sarkar, Sandeep; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-03-01

    Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse. PMID:26714296

  2. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27 ± 0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples and between 38.1 and 65.7 for the receiving water bodies. These findings revealed that the receiving water bodies were classified as having "poor" quality status, except Leeuwkuil receiving water body (Vaal River) and Sandspruit upstream (Sandspruit stream). The dry season showed a relatively lower water quality index. This situation might be attributed to the higher amount of organic matter and lower microbial activities in the receiving water bodies. This study suggests that wastewater effluents and receiving water systems should be monitored regularly to ensure best practices with regard to nutrient treatment and discharge of wastewater. PMID:26311265

  3. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  4. Naphthalenes associated with treated wastewater effluents in an urban national wildlife refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Tanacredi, J.T. )

    1990-02-01

    This project demonstrates the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon character of Jamaica Bay sediments and the wastewater effluents entering the Bay from four major water pollution control facilities. Jamaica Bay, is a part of the Hudson-Raritan estuarine ecosystem and is incorporated into the Gateway National Recreation Area. Jamaica Bay, because of its hydrological characteristics, affords a long residence time for introduced pollutants. This study was conducted to further characterize the PAH character of the wastewater effluents. These fused ring structures are of interest in that they represent the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic components of petroleum compounds to marine organisms. Because of their high molecular weight, the solubility of PAH in water, is of a very low order. Consequently, in estuarine environments, PAH compounds will be found associated with suspended solids and sediments. Although PAH degrading microorganisms are known to occur in estuarine environments, the degradation rates of these compounds are very slow. Coupled with the low degradation rates and known carcinogenicity of many of these compounds, investigations have shown that fish and other organisms taken from areas with a history of oil contamination have been found to exhibit elevated levels of compounds which bioactivate complex PAH compounds into mutagens.

  5. Application of integrated ozone biological aerated filters and membrane filtration in water reuse of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    He, Yaozhong; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jinling; Yan, Jinli; Ge, Qilong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Jian, Lei

    2013-04-01

    A combined process including integrated ozone-BAFs (ozone biological aerated filters) and membrane filtration was first applied for recycling textile effluents in a cotton textile mill with capacity of 5000 m(3)/d. Influent COD (chemical oxygen demand) in the range of 82-120 mg/L, BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) of 12.6-23.1 mg/L, suspended solids (SSs) of 38-52 mg/L and color of 32-64° were observed during operation. Outflows with COD≤45 mg/L, BOD5≤7.6 mg/L, SS≤15 mg/L, color≤8° were obtained after being decontaminated by ozone-BAF with ozone dosage of 20-25 mg/L. Besides, the average removal rates of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) and UV254 were 100% and 73.4% respectively. Permeate water produced by RO (reverse osmosis) could be reused in dyeing and finishing processes, while the RO concentrates could be discharged directly under local regulations with COD≤100 mg/L, BOD5≤21 mg/L, SS≤52 mg/L, color≤32°. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality, and solve the problem of RO concentrate disposal. PMID:23422307

  6. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana

    2015-09-01

    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12 h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9 mg S(0) g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24 h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6 mg L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24 h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater. PMID:25737383

  7. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation < Activated Sludge < Moving Bed Bioreactor, in almost all cases. From the different combinations tested, municipal wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) < k (UV/H2O2) and k (Fenton) < k (solar irradiation) < k (photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed. PMID:26255127

  8. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems. PMID:26333200

  9. Changes in water quality of treated sewage effluents by their receiving environments in Tablas de Daimiel National Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramos, David; Sánchez-Emeterio, Gema; Florín Beltrán, Máximo

    2016-04-01

    The Tablas de Daimiel National Park (TDNP), a floodplain wetland located in the Upper Guadiana Basin (central Spain), receives pollution from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging their treated sewage effluents (TSEs) to tributary channels to the wetland. The TSEs suffer transformations on their way to the TDNP, but the water quality is controlled only at the point of discharge. In this work, we analyse the change in water quality of the TSE from four urban WWTPs in the surroundings of the TDNP (Alcázar de San Juan, Daimiel, Manzanares and Villarrubia de los Ojos towns). The water samples were taken at the outlet of the plants and in the receiving environments, to analyse the water quality transformation of the TSE. The different discharge configurations of each WWTP have been related with the water quality transformation of their TSE, to interpret the influence of the hydro-geomorphology in the improvement or deterioration of the water quality of TSE. We found that the discharge of TSE into slow flow channels with macrophyte vegetation facilitates water self-purification but, with time, the accumulation of sludge in the beds of the effluents tends to be the cause of the deterioration of the water quality. PMID:25982982

  10. Technical, environmental, and health aspects of the use of reclaimed secondary treated wastewater effluent for cooling makeup

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, R.; Cerr, H.R.; Dunn, D.E.

    1999-11-01

    Water resources are increasingly limited in coastal areas and some inland areas where demand for fresh water exceeds supply. Some larger users of water have been encouraged for cost reasons, or driven by regulations to conserve fresh water by any means possible, including reuse of treated industrial and municipal effluent. There are health and technical aspects to be considered in such cases. Health issues include assurance of adequate protection from pathogens and adequate removal of chemical contaminants. Technical issues include protection of the users system, as characteristics of the reuse water can adversely affect the system by causing corrosion, deposition, and microbiological fouling. This paper will discuss some of the significant problems typically encountered. While many papers and articles have been published examining the issues of water reuse, the authors are seeking to connect the technical aspects with the important environmental and health aspects.

  11. Nitrogen mass balance in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen changes and the nitrogen mass balance in a free water surface flow constructed wetland (CW) using the four-year monitoring data from 2008 to 2012 were estimated. The CW was composed of six cells in series that include the first settling basin (Cell 1), aeration pond (Cell 2), deep marsh (Cell 3), shallow marsh (Cell 4), deep marsh (Cell 5) and final settling basin (Cell 6). Analysis revealed that the NH(+)4-N concentration decreased because of ammonification which was then followed by nitrification. The NO(-)2-N and NO(-)2-N were also further reduced by means of microbial activities and plant uptake during photosynthesis. The average nitrogen concentration at the influent was 37,819 kg/year and approximately 45% of that amount exited the CW in the effluent. The denitrification amounted to 34% of the net nitrogen input, whereas the accretion of sediment was only 7%. The biomass uptake of plants was able to retain only 1% of total nitrogen load. In order to improve the nutrient removal by plant uptake, plant coverage in four cells (i.e., Cells 1, 3, 4 and 5) could be increased. PMID:25079834

  12. Comparative animal and plant toxicities of 10 treated effluents discharged to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.; Stanley, R.S.

    1998-09-01

    The chemical quality and acute and chronic toxicities of 10 effluents discharged to near-coastal areas in Northwest Florida were determined using standard and nonstandard toxicity tests. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the toxicities of different types of effluents and to assess the ability of a variety of toxicity tests to differentiate effluent-specific effects. Focus was placed on animal-plant sensitivity comparisons because phytotoxicity is rarely determined for effluents discharged to coastal estuaries. The standard toxicity test organisms included two algae, two invertebrates, and two fish. In addition, effluent toxicity was evaluated using three rapid bioassays and an early-seedling-growth toxicity test. Most concentrations of potentially toxic inorganic and organic contaminants in the effluents were low, a finding that contrasted with the sometimes elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations. With the exception of their effects on algae, the toxicities of most effluents were considered moderate. Chronic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Mysidopsis bahia were observed consistently for five effluents; the lowest first-effect levels were typically 35 or 71% effluent. Inhibitory effects on fish and macrophyte seedling growth were infrequent, as were those determined using the three rapid bioassays. Nine of the ten effluents were either phytotoxic or phytostimulatory to algae; first effects were noted in some cases at effluent concentrations less than 6%.

  13. Isolation of a salt tolerant laccase secreting strain of Trichoderma sp. NFCCI-2745 and optimization of culture conditions and assessing its effectiveness in treating saline phenolic effluents.

    PubMed

    Divya, L M; Prasanth, G K; Sadasivan, C

    2013-12-01

    Most of the hazardous pollutants are phenolic in nature and persists in the environment. The ability of laccases to oxidize phenolic compounds and reduce molecular oxygen to water has led to intensive studies of these enzymes. Therefore the fungal strains with high laccase activity and substrate affinity that can tolerate harsh environmental conditions have a potential for biotechnological applications. Salt tolerant laccase secreting fungi can be utilized in treatment of saline and phenolic rich industrial effluents such as coir effluent and textile effluent that needed to be diluted several fold before microbial treatment. This is the first study describing the isolation and optimization of a salt tolerant strain of Trichoderma sp. potential for industrial applications. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and was subsequently confirmed with molecular techniques and deposited at National Fungal Culture Collections of India (NFCCI) under the Accession No. Trichoderma viride NFCCI 2745. In contrast to other laccase secreting fungi, light conditions did not exert much influence on laccase production of this strain and salinity enhanced its laccase secretion. The fungus effectively removed the phenolic content of the textile effluent, coir-ret liquor and wood processing effluent within 96 hr of incubation. The tolerance of the fungus to high salinity and phenolic compounds makes this strain ideal for treating saline and phenolic rich industrial effluents. PMID:24649671

  14. The Impact of Different Proportions of a Treated Effluent on the Biotransformation of Selected Micro-Contaminants in River Water Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ≥0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible. PMID:25310538

  15. Field-Based Approach for Assessing the Impact of Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Endogenous Metabolites of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great La...

  16. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p < 0.001; slope = 0.94) between BOD₅ and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

  17. Anal fin morphology and gonadal histopathology in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) exposed to treated municipal sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Leusch, F D L; Chapman, H F; Kay, G W; Gooneratne, S R; Tremblay, L A

    2006-05-01

    Feral mosquitofish living in undiluted treated municipal sewage in Queensland, Australia, were examined for morphologic abnormalities indicative of reproductive dysfunction. Male and female mosquitofish were captured at two sites receiving undiluted treated sewage and compared with those captured at a reference site. Several morphologic end points were examined, including length of the fourth and sixth anal fin rays and gonadal histology. Both male and female mosquitofish at one site exhibited minor elongation of the fourth anal fin ray consistent with exposure to androgenic stimulation, although the spatial extent of the effect was limited and not significant at other sites further downstream. No incidences of intersex were found. These findings suggest that the level of treatment of domestic sewage at the two sewage treatment plants assessed is adequate to prevent reproductive abnormalities in exposed mosquitofish populations. PMID:16446994

  18. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Basava Rao, V. V.

    Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash, subjected to hydrothermal treatment is used as adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic samples. The effect of initial stock solution, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH were studied in a batch experiment. Results are compared with powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon and untreated fly ash. The capacity of adsorption was found to be increased in the case of treated fly ash and it follows the order of powdered activated carbon >granular activated carbon >treated fly ash >untreated fly ash. The adsorption isotherms of Langmuir constants and Freundlich constants for all the adsorbents were determined. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was recommended.

  19. Vegetative evaluation of procedures used to treat aqueous effluents derived from in situ fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.; Carson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of synthetic fuel waste water treatment in removing compounds toxic to a rangeland grass was evaluated. Treated and untreated tar sand and oil shale in situ produced waste water were applied to bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) and phytotoxic effects were observed. Different waste water concentrations (volume/volume dilutions with distilled water) were tested to help determine a full range of plant response to these waste waters. Test waters plus nutrient solution were applied daily to seedlings grown in perilite or soil for ten weeks. Plants were harvested, dried, weighed and analyzed for treatment differences using leaf area; leaf, stem, root, shoot, and total weight production; root to shoot dry weight ratios; and survival. Results indicate treated and untreated tar sand waste waters are toxic but not lethal to bluebunch wheatgrass at high concentrations. Low concentrations of these waters stimulate plant growth. All tested concentrations of treated and untreated oil shale retort waste water were toxic and lethal to bluebunch wheatgrass. 46 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  20. CATALYTICALLY AND NONCATALYTICALLY TREATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H2SO4 alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaus...

  1. Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.

    PubMed

    Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. PMID:20042267

  2. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  3. Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simes, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

  4. Biological deammonification of livestock effluents after anaerobic digestion using specialized bacterial cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated a deammonification process for the removal of ammonia from anaerobi digestion (AD) effluents. This process is autotrophic and removes N without carbon. Instant deammonification reaction was obtained by mixing a high performance nitrifying sludge (HPNS) (NRRL B-50298) with anammox slu...

  5. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species. PMID:14510202

  6. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal. PMID:23508150

  7. Nitrogen removal from on-site treated anaerobic effluents using intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactors at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, Sari; Luste, Sami; Valentín, Lara; Rintala, Jukka

    2006-05-01

    On-site post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated dairy parlour wastewater (DPWWe; 10 degrees C) and mixture of kitchen waste and black water (BWKWe; 20 degrees C) was studied in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). The focus was on removal of nitrogen and of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD). Moreover, the effect of intermittent aeration and continuous vs. sequencing batch operation was studied. All MBBRs removed 50-60% of nitrogen and 40-70% of total COD (CODt). Complete nitrification was achieved, but denitrification was restricted by lack of carbon. Nitrogen removal was achieved in a single reactor by applying intermittent aeration. Continuous and sequencing batch operation provided similar nitrogen and COD removal, wherefore simpler continuous feeding may be preferred for on-site applications. Combination of pre-treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) -septic tank and MBBR removed over 92% of CODt, 99% of biological oxygen demand (BOD7), and 65-70% of nitrogen. PMID:16647521

  8. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active culture, and excellent settling velocity. This integrated two-stage design for immobilized hydrogen fermentation and methane production offers a promising approach for modifying current anaerobic wastewater treatment processes to harvest hydrogen from the existing systems.

  9. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Topić Popović, Natalija; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita; Kepec, Slavko; Kazazić, Snježana P; Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Car, Ivan; Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka; Klobučar, Goran I V; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra

    2015-12-15

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. PMID:26298246

  10. Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

    2005-09-01

    Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

  11. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a baffled pond with attached growth: treating anaerobic effluent under the Sahelian climate.

    PubMed

    Moumouni, D A; Andrianisa, H A; Konaté, Y; Ndiaye, A; Maïga, A H

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate and understand the zero-level detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the outlet of an improved waste stabilization pond. Wastewaters were collected from the International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) campus and were subjected to biological treatment. The system included two-stage Anaerobic Reactors followed by a Baffled Pond (AR-BP) with recycled plastic media as a medium for attached growth and a control pond (CP). Three vertical baffles were installed, giving four compartments in the baffled pond (BP). The research was conducted on the pilot scale from March to July 2014, by monitoring E. coli, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll-a in each compartment and at different depths. The results show that E. coli concentrations were lower in top layers of all compartments with an undetectable level in the last compartment up to 0.60 m deep. E. coli mean removal efficiencies and decay rates were achieved by significant difference in BP (4.5 log-units, 9.1 day(-1)) and CP (1.1 log-units, 1.1 day(-1)). Higher values of pH (≥9), temperature (≥32°C), DO (≥ 8 mg/L) and chlorophyll-a (≥ 1000 µg/L) were observed at the surface of BP, whereas lower values were shown at the bottom. Sedimentation combined with the synergetic effects of the physicochemical parameters and environmental factors would be responsible for the inactivation of E. coli in BP. It was concluded that the AR-BP could be applied as an alternative low-cost wastewater treatment technology for developing countries and recommended for reuse of their effluent for restricted peri-urban irrigation. PMID:26496019

  13. How safe are the biologicals in treating asthma and rhinitis?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A number of biological agents are available or being investigated for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis. The safety profiles of these biologic agents, which may modify allergic and immunological diseases, are still being elucidated. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy, the oldest biologic agent in current use, has the highest of frequency of the most serious and life-threatening reaction, anaphylaxis. It is also one of the only disease modifying interventions for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Efforts to seek safer and more effective allergen immunotherapy treatment have led to investigations of alternate routes of delivery and modified immunotherapy formulations. Sublingual immunotherapy appears to be associated with a lower, but not zero, risk of anaphylaxis. No fatalities have been reported to date with sublingual immunotherapy. Immunotherapy with modified formulations containing Th1 adjuvants, DNA sequences containing a CpG motif (CpG) and 3-deacylated monophospholipid A, appears to provide the benefits of subcutaneous immunotherapy with a single course of 4 to 6 preseasonal injections. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events or anaphylaxis in the clinical trials of these two immunotherapy adjuvants. Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IgE, has been associated with a small risk of anaphylaxis, affecting 0.09% to 0.2% of patients. It may also be associated with a higher risk of geohelminth infection in patients at high risk for parasitic infections but it does not appear to affect the response to treatment or severity of the infection. Clinical trials with other biologic agents that have targeted IL-4/IL-13, or IL-5, have not demonstrated any definite serious treatment-related adverse events. However, these clinical trials were generally done in small populations of asthma patients, which may be too small for uncommon side effects to be identified. There is conflicting information about the safety TNF-alpha blocking agents, which have been primarily used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, with serious infections, cardiovascular disease and malignancies being the most frequent serious adverse events. An unfavorable risk-benefit profile led to early discontinuation of a TNF-blocking agent in a double-blind placebo controlled of severe asthmatics. In summary, the risk of anaphylaxis and other treatment-related serious events with of all of the biological agents in this review were relatively small. However, most of the clinical trials were done in relatively small patient populations and were of relatively short duration. Long term studies in large patient populations may help clarify the risk-benefit profile of these biologic agents in the treatment of asthma. PMID:20016776

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2-3, and 0.5-1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  16. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    PubMed

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system. PMID:25805372

  17. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the remaining samples were archived. Biological characteristics were determined by using an in-vitro bioassay to determine total estrogenicity in water samples and a caged fish study to determine characteristics of fish from experiments that exposed fish to wastewater effluent in 2009. St. Cloud State University deployed and processed caged fathead minnows at 13 stream sites during September 2009 for the caged fish study. Measured fish data included length, weight, body condition factor, and vitellogenin concentrations.

  18. Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent injected in a saline aquifer, St. Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent into the uppermost producing zone (zone A) of the Upper Floridan aquifer in St. Petersburg, Florida, is being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. A measure of the success of this practice is the recovery efficiency, or the quantity of water relative to the quantity injected, that can be recovered before the water that is withdrawn fails to meet water-quality standards. The feasibility of this practice will depend upon the ability of the injected zone to receive, store, and discharge the injected fluid. A cylindrical model of ground-water flow and solute transport, incorporating available data on aquifer properties and water quality, was developed to determine the relation of recovery efficiency to various aquifer and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area. The reference case for testing was a base model considered representative of the saline aquifer underlying St. Petersburg. Parameter variations in the tests represent possible variations in aquifer conditions in the area. The model also was used to study the effect of various cyclic injection and withdrawal schemes on the recovery efficiency of the well and aquifer system. A base simulation assuming 15 days of injection of effluent at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day and 15 days of withdrawal at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day was used as reference to compare changes in various hydraulic and chemical parameters on recovery efficiency. A recovery efficiency of 20 percent was estimated for the base simulation. For practical ranges of hydraulic and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area, the model analysis indicates that (1) the greater the density contrast between injected and resident formation water, the lower the recovery efficiency, (2) recovery efficiency decreases significantly as dispersion increases, (3) high formation permeability favors low recovery efficiencies, and (4) porosity and anisotropy have little effect on recovery efficiencies. In several hypothetical tests, the recovery efficiency fluctuated between about 4 and 76 percent. The sensitivity of recovery efficiency to variations in the rate and duration of injection (0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 million gallons per day) and withdrawal cycles (60, 180, and 365 days) was determined. For a given operational scheme, recovery efficiency increased as the injection and withdrawal rate is increased. Model results indicate that recovery efficiencies of between about 23 and 37 percent can be obtained for different subsurface storage and recovery schemes. Five successive injection, storage, and recovery cycles can increase the recovery efficiency to about 46 to 62 percent. There is a larger rate of increase at smaller rates than at larger rates. Over the range of variables studied, recovery efficiency improved with successive cycles, increasing rapidly during initial cycles tyhen more slowly at later cycles. The operation of a single well used for subsurface storage and recovery appears to be technically feasible under moderately favorable conditions; however, the recovery efficiency is higly dependent upon local physical and operational parameters. A combination of hydraulic, chemical, and operational parameters that minimize dispersion and buoyancy flow, maximizes recovery efficiency. Recovery efficiency was optimal where resident formation water density and permeabilities were relatively similar and low.

  19. Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed. PMID:24620597

  20. SITE-SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY STUDIES OF THE STRAIGHT RIVER, MINNESOTA: COMPLEX EFFLUENT TOXICITY, ZINC TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish relationships between the toxicity of a sewage treatment plant effluent containing high concentrations of zinc, toxicity of the effluent in t...

  1. Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).

    PubMed

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stphanie; Delmas, Franois; Coste, Michel

    2013-10-01

    The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality. PMID:23903932

  2. A novel biological approach to treat chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from several sources (bone marrow, synovial tissue, cord blood, and adipose tissue) can differentiate into variable parts (bones, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue), representing a promising new therapy in regenerative medicine. In animal models, mesenchymal stem cells have been used successfully to regenerate cartilage and bones. However, there have been no follow-up studies on humans treated with adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the chondromalacia patellae. To obtain ADSCs, lipoaspirates were obtained from lower abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The stromal vascular fraction was separated from the lipoaspirates by centrifugation after treatment with collagenase. The stem-cell-containing stromal vascular fraction was mixed with calcium chloride-activated platelet rich plasma and hyaluronic acid, and this ADSCs mixture was then injected under ultrasonic guidance into the retro-patellar joints of all three patients. Patients were subjected to pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Pre- and post-treatment subjective pain scores and physical therapy assessments measured clinical changes. One month after the injection of autologous ADSCs, each patient's pain improved 50-70%. Three months after the treatment, the patients' pain improved 80-90%. The pain improvement persisted over 1 year, confirmed by telephone follow ups. Also, all three patients did not report any serious side effects. The repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at three months showed improvement of the damaged tissues (softened cartilages) on the patellae-femoral joints. In patients with chondromalacia patellae who have continuous anterior knee pain, percutaneous injection of autologous ADSCs may play an important role in the restoration of the damaged tissues (softened cartilages). Thus, ADSCs treatment presents a glimpse of a new promising, effective, safe, and non-surgical method of treatment for chondromalacia patellae. PMID:23700485

  3. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient concentrations in Indian Creek. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 10 to 100 times higher than at the upstream sites, even after changes in treatment practices at the WWTFs. Median total phosphorus concentrations during below-normal and normal streamflows at a downstream site were 43 percent lower following improvements in wastewater treatment processes. Similar decreases in total nitrogen were not observed, likely because total nitrogen concentrations only decreased in Middle Basin effluent and wastewater contributed a higher percentage to streamflows when nutrient samples were collected during the after-upgrade period. The wastewater effluent discharges to Indian Creek caused changes in stream-water quality that may affect biological community structure and ecosystem processes, including higher concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and warmer water temperatures during winter months. Other urban sources of contaminants also caused changes in stream-water quality that may affect biological community structure and ecosystem processes, including higher turbidities downstream from construction areas and higher specific conductance and chloride concentrations during winter months. Chloride concentrations exceeded acute and chronic exposure criteria at all Indian Creek study sites, regardless of wastewater influence, for weeks or months during winter. Streambed sediment chemistry was affected by wastewater (elevated nutrient and organic wastewater-indicator compound concentrations) and other contaminants from urban sources (elevated polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations). Overall habitat conditions were suboptimal or marginal at all sites; general decline in habitat conditions along the upstream-downstream gradient likely was caused by the cumulative effects of urbanization with increasing drainage basin size. Wastewater effluent likely affected algal periphyton biomass and community composition, primary production, and community respiration in Indian Creek. Functional stream health, evaluated using a preliminary framework based on primary production and community respiration, was mildly or severely impaired at most downstream sites relative to an urban upstream Indian Creek site. The mechanistic cause of the changes in these biological variables are unclear, though elevated nutrient concentrations were positively correlated with algal biomass, primary production, and community respiration. Macroinvertebrate communities indicated impairment at all sites, and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic life support scores indicated conditions nonsupporting of aquatic life, regardless of wastewater influences. Urban influences, other than wastewater effluent discharge, likely control macroinvertebrate community structure in Indian Creek. Changes in treatment processes at the Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek WWTFs improved wastewater effluent quality and decreased nutrient loads, but wastewater effluent discharges still had negative effects on the environmental and biological conditions at downstream Indian Creek sites. Wastewater effluent discharge into Indian Creek likely contributed to changes in measures of ecosystem structure (streamflow, water and streambed-sediment chemistry, algal biomass, and algal periphyton community composition) and function (primary production and community respiration) along the upstream-downstream gradient. Wastewater effluent discharges maintained streamflows and increased nutrient concentrations, algal biomass, primary production, and community respiration at the downstream sites. Functional stream health was severely impaired downstream from the Middle Basin WWTF and mildly impaired downstream from the Tomahawk WWTF relative to the urban upstream site. As distance from the Middle Basin WWTF increased, nutrient concentrations, algal biomass, primary production, and community respiration decreased, and functional stream health was no longer impaired 9.5 kilometers downstream from the discharge relative to the urban upstream site. Therefore, although wastewater effluent caused persistent changes in environmental and biological conditions and functional stream health at sites located immediately downstream from WWTF effluent discharges, some recovery to conditions more similar to the urban upstream site occurred within a relatively short distance.

  4. REUSE OF TREATED FRUIT PROCESSING WASTEWATER IN A CANNERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reclamation of the biologically treated effluent by filtration through mixed media pressure filters and disinfection with chlorine was investigated for two processing seasons. The reclaimed water was put to several trial uses: (a) initial product conveying, (b) equipment, floor a...

  5. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  6. Effluent quality and reuse potential of domestic wastewater treated in a pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Selma Ç; Aktaş, Özgür; Akça, Lütfi; Fındık, Nur

    2015-06-01

    The study investigates treatment and reuse potential of domestic wastewater of a small community of about 30 people sequentially by anaerobic pretreatment followed by horizontal (HSSF-CW) and vertical (VSSF-CW) sub-surface flow constructed wetlands operated in series. The organic and suspended solids load to the hybrid wetland system was decreased by anaerobic pretreatment. HSSF-CW mainly removed organic matter and supported denitrification whereas VSSF-CW mainly obtained nitrification and phosphorus removal. Recirculation of the effluent increased particularly total nitrogen removal in the wetland system. The study involves evaluation of the whole system in terms of effluent quality. It was achieved on average >95% organic matter and >90% nitrogen removal in the hybrid constructed wetland system with anaerobic pretreatment at a specific wetland surface area of only about 1 m(2) per person. Average mass removal rates were 21.17 gCOD/m(2)day, 5.58 gBOD5/m(2)day, 2.78 gTKN/m(2)day, 1.35 gTN/m(2)day, 0.44 gTP/m(2)day and 5.21 gTSS/m(2)day throughout the total duration of the operation. Consequently, the effluent met the regulations for discharge limits for organic matter and suspended solids. COD and TN concentrations decreased to below 20 mg/L in the effluent. It was also shown that effluent of the system could be reused for irrigation if it is disinfected properly. PMID:25841192

  7. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. All other physicochemical parameters studied were significantly different (p < 0.05) higher than the control site. Soil organic carbon content gave significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity (r = 0.450, 0.461, 0.574 and 0.591 at p < 0.01), respectively. The quantitative analysis of soil microbial density demonstrates a marked decrease in total culturable numbers of the different microbial groups of the polluted soil samples. Soil contamination decreased catalase, urease and dehydrogenase activities. The findings revealed that soil enzymes can be used as indices of soil contamination and bio-indicator of soil quality. PMID:26055654

  8. Occurrence of earthy and musty odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole) in biologically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Urase, T; Sasaki, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of earthy and musty odor compounds (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA)) in treated wastewater were measured. Concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA (4.3-37.7 ng/L) and geosmin (3.7-42.2 ng/L) higher than their odor thresholds were detected for effluents from large-scale treatment plants. The effluent from a small-scale wastewater plant treating toilet and kitchen wastewater contained the target earthy and musty odor compounds below the odor thresholds. The ozonation applied as an advanced wastewater treatment process was considerably more effective for the removal of 2,4,6-TCA than for the removal of 2-MIB and geosmin. The measured concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in river environments without the influence of large-scale wastewater effluents were less than the odor threshold. PMID:24225096

  9. The presence of the top prescribed pharmaceuticals in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in Southwest Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Fox, Shannon; Tong, Anthony Z

    2015-01-01

    From a list of the top prescribed drugs in Canada, 11 pharmaceuticals and two metabolites were selected for study in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants across Southwest Nova Scotia including the Annapolis Valley, South Shore, and Metropolitan Halifax. Samples were also collected between 100 and 200 m downstream of effluent outflows. Seven pharmaceuticals were found above μg/L levels with their highest concentrations as follows: metformin (10.6 μg/L), acetaminophen (28.9 μg/L), paraxanthine (18.2 μg/L), cotinine (3.10 μg/L), caffeine (115 μg/L), naproxen (29.1 μg/L), and venlafaxine (2.65 μg/L). Metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, naproxen, ramipril, and venlafaxine were detected in every wastewater effluent sample. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in pharmaceutical occurrence by treatment methods, weak dependence of pharmaceutical concentrations on populations, and the co-occurrence of some pharmaceuticals. Experimental results might indicate the limitation of primary only treatment methods in breaking down pharmaceuticals. PMID:25099660

  10. Influence of phenol on ammonia removal in an intermittent aeration bioreactor treating biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale intermittent aeration bioreactor was investigated to treat biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater that was mainly composed of NH3-N and phenol. The results showed that increasing phenol loading had an adverse effect on NH3-N removal; the concentration in effluent at phenol loading of 40mgphenol/(L·day) was 7.3mg/L, 36.3% of that at 200mg phenol/(L·day). The enzyme ammonia monooxygenase showed more sensitivity than hydroxylamine oxidoreductase to the inhibitory effect of phenol, with 32.2% and 10.5% activity inhibition, respectively at 200mg phenol/(L·day). Owing to intermittent aeration conditions, nitritation-type nitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) were observed, giving a maximum SND efficiency of 30.5%. Additionally, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and denitrifying bacteria were the main group identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization. However, their relative abundance represented opposite variations as phenol loading increased, ranging from 30.1% to 17.5% and 7.6% to 18.2% for AOB and denitrifying bacteria, respectively. PMID:27155414

  11. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. PMID:23774187

  12. Treatment of effluents polluted by nitrogen with new biological technologies based on autotrophic nitrification-denitrification processes.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, A; Poyatos, J M; Hontoria, E; Gonzalez-Lopez, J; Osorio, F

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, various technologies have been developed for the removal of nitrogen from wastewater that is rich in nitrogen but poor in organic carbon, such as the effluents from anaerobic digesters and from certain industries. These technologies have resulted in several patents. The core of these technologies is some of the processes and patents described in this paper: Aerobic denitrification, Sharon, Anammox, OLAND, CANON, NOx process, DEMON. More specifically, one of the first innovative options described for removing nitrogen include partial nitrification under aerobic conditions (partial Sharon process) followed by autotrophic anaerobic oxidation (Anammox process). The partial Sharon-Anammox process can be performed under alternating oxic and anoxic conditions in the same bioreactor or in two steps in two separate bioreactors. This overview focuses on the technical and biological aspects of these new types of treatment system, and compares them to other technologies. Given the fact that nitrification is a sensitive process, special attention is paid to conditions such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, hydraulic retention time, free ammonia, nitrous acid concentration, and pH. A discussion of the pros and cons of such treatment systems is also included since autotrophic nitrogen removal has advantages as well as drawbacks. The paper concludes with a discussion of future research that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs. PMID:21619549

  13. Quantification of synthetic organic chemicals in biological treatment process effluent using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Magbanua, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, D.R.; Fehniger, S.M.; Bowyer, R.L.; Grady, C.P.L. Jr.

    2000-02-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a technique that uses a polymer-coated, fused-silica fiber to selectively extract organic analyses from a sample matrix, followed by gas chromatography (GC), was used to quantify selected synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) in biological reactor effluent. By selecting an appropriate combination of SPME fiber, GC column, and GC detector, assays to quantify either a suite of SOCs or single selected SOCs were developed. Phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4,-dinitrophenol, isophorone, m-toluate, m-sylene, and di-n-butylphthalate were quantified simultaneously using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a flame ionization detector. m-Xylene was quantified using a 100-{micro}m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a mass spectrometric detector. Dichloromethane was quantified using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a Carbopack B/1% SP-1000 packed column, and an electron capture detector. All three assays enabled detection of the target analyses to low concentrations ({micro}g/L) with minimal sample volume and processing requirements.

  14. Biological nutrient removal in an MBR treating municipal wastewater with special focus on biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Monclús, Hector; Sipma, Jan; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2010-06-01

    The performance of an MBR pilot plant for biological nutrient removal was evaluated during 210days of operation. The set point values for the internal recycles were determined in advance with the use of an optimisation spreadsheet based on the ASM2d model to optimise the simultaneous removal of C, N and P. The biological nutrient removal (BNR) efficiencies were high from the start of operation with COD and N removal efficiencies of 92+/-6% and 89+/-7, respectively. During the course of the experiment P removal efficiencies increased and finally a P-removal efficiency of 92% was achieved. The activity of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and denitrifying poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (DPAOs) increased and the specific phosphate accumulation rates after 150days of operation amounted to 13.6mgPg(-1)VSSh(-1) and 5.6mgPg(-1)VSSh(-1), for PAOs and DPAOs, respectively. PMID:20137918

  15. Reduction of enteric microbes in flushed swine wastewater treated by a biological aerated filter and UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Vincent R; Kantardjieff, Alexandra; Sobsey, Mark D; Westerman, Phil W

    2002-01-01

    An aerobic biofilter system was studied to assess its effectiveness for reducing enteric microbial indicators in flushed swine wastewater under different seasonal conditions. A laboratory-scale, low-pressure UV collimated beam apparatus was used to investigate the effectiveness of UV irradiation for inactivating enteric bacteria, coliphages, and bacterial spores in treated and untreated swine wastewater having unfiltered absorbances of 5 to 11 cm(-1) and total suspended solids concentrations of 500 to 1200 mg/L. Fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, and male-specific coliphages were reduced by 97 to 99% in the biofilter system when reactor water temperatures were between 23 and 32 degrees C. Salmonella were reduced by 95 to 97% when water temperatures were 17 to 32 degrees C. Of the six microbial indicators studied. Clostridium perfringens spores were typically reduced the least by the biofilter system. At an average absorbed UV irradiation dose of 13 mJ/cm2, maximum reductions of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens spores, and somatic coliphages in biofilter system effluent were 2.2, 2.1, 1.3, 0.2, and 2.3 log10, respectively. The results of this study show that the aerobic biofilter system can be an effective alternative for treatment of flushed swine waste. Ultraviolet irradiation can be effective for further reducing enteric microbe concentrations in biologically-treated swine waste, as well as in lower quality wastewaters, indicating its general potential for pathogen reductions in low-quality wastewaters intended for beneficial reuse. PMID:11995872

  16. Dissolved organic matter from treated effluent of a major wastewater treatment plant: characterization and influence on copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Clouzot, Ludiwine; Varrault, Gilles; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Verger, Alain; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2008-09-01

    A combination of reverse osmosis (RO) concentration and DAX-8/XAD-4 resin adsorption techniques is used to isolate the various constituents of urban dissolved organic matter (DOM) from inorganic salts. Three fractions: hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPI) and hydrophilic (HPI) accounting respectively for 35%, 20% and 45% of extracted carbon, are isolated from effluents of a major French wastewater treatment plant. This atypical DOC distribution, in comparison with natural water where the HPO fraction dominates, shows the significance of HPI fraction which often gets neglected because of extraction difficulties. A number of analytical techniques (elemental, spectroscopic: UV, FTIR) allow highlighting the weak aromaticity of wastewater effluent DOM (EfOM) due to fewer degradation and condensation processes and the strong presence of proteinaceous structures indicative of intense microbial activity. Copper toxicity in the presence of DOM is estimated using an acute toxicity test on Daphnia Magna (Strauss). Results reveal the similar protective role of each EfOM fraction compared to reference Suwannee river fulvic acid despite lower EfOM aromaticity (i.e. specific UV absorbance). The environmental implications of these results are discussed with respect to the development of site-specific water quality criteria. PMID:18632131

  17. Evaluation of UV/TiO(2) and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems coupled to a biological process for the treatment of bleaching pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Botía, Diana C; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Sarria, Víctor M

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of pulp mill bleaching effluent treatment by a biological-photocatalytic coupled system. A fungus, Trametes pubescens, immobilized on polyurethane foam was used to inoculate the biological pre-treatment system. The pretreated effluent was then exposed to a photocatalytic treatment in which two catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) and two supports (aluminum foil and Luffa cylindrica) were tested. Catalyst characterization was carried out by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Information about crystalline structure, chemical composition, morphology, homogeneity and distribution on the support surface area was obtained. The overall biological-photocatalytic coupled system achieved degradation of 96% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), 97% of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 90% of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-CP) and 99% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). This approach of synergistic coupling of T. pubescens and a semiconductor photocatalyst appears to be a viable alternative for the treatment of these non-biodegradable effluents. PMID:22818977

  18. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

  19. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  20. Chemical properties and biological activity in soils of Mallorca following twenty years of treated wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Adrover, Maria; Farrús, Edelweïss; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2012-03-01

    On the Mediterranean island of Mallorca, the use of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in irrigation was introduced with the construction of the first wastewater treatment plants in the 1970s. In this study, the chemical properties and biological activity of 21 arable soils, irrigated for more than 20 years with secondary-treated wastewater, were tested in order to assess their quality. Soil quality was evaluated by measuring cation exchange capacity, pH, calcium carbonate equivalent, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, water-soluble organic carbon, soil microbial biomass, soil basal respiration, and the activities of the enzymes dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase. No negative effects of the irrigation treatment were observed on the measured soil parameters. Indeed, soil water-soluble organic carbon, soil microbial biomass and β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased under treated wastewater irrigation. Biological activity of soils irrigated with treated wastewater was affected mainly by soil organic matter content. Although the typical crop management of alfalfa, and other forage crops associated with treated wastewater irrigation, may have contributed to the increase of these parameters, the results suggest that irrigation with treated wastewater is a strategy with many benefits to agricultural land management. PMID:20855147

  1. Three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of Chlorella sorokiniana for treating dairy farm effluent and lipid enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hena, S; Fatihah, N; Tabassum, S; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production. PMID:26043271

  2. Long-term evaluation of different strategies of cationic polyelectrolyte dosage to control fouling in a membrane bioreactor treating refinery effluent.

    PubMed

    Alkmim, Aline R; da Costa, Paula R; Moser, Priscila B; França Neta, Luzia S; Santiago, Vânia M J; Cerqueira, Ana C; Amaral, Míriam C S

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the long-term use of cationic polyelectrolyte to improve the sludge filterability and to control membrane fouling in bioreactor membrane while treating refinery effluents have been evaluated in pilot scale. Corrective and preventive cationic polyelectrolyte dosages have been added to the membrane bioreactor (MBR) to evaluate the membrane fouling mitigation in both strategies. The results have confirmed that the use of the Membrane performance enhancer (MPE) increased the sludge filterability and reduced the membrane fouling. During the monitoring period, stress events occurred due to the increase in oil and grease and phenol concentrations in the MBR feeds. The preventive use of cationic polyelectrolyte allowed for a more effective and stable sludge filterability, with lower cationic polyelectrolyte consumption and without decreasing MBR's overall pollutant removal performance. PMID:26508453

  3. Safety of biologics approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of spontaneous reports of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Diogo; Alves, Carlos; Batel Marques, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    Despite the effectiveness of biologics approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, they have been associated with serious adverse events (AEs). Biologics are used under close supervision of health care professionals. In Portugal, they are legally required to report AEs occurring during the treatment. This study aims at investigating post-marketing safety monitoring data of biologics in Portugal by comparing the frequency of spontaneously reported adverse events between 2009 and 2011 with the frequency of such events in the summary of the product characteristics of each biologic. Sales data for biologics were obtained from IMS Health and converted into defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants/day in order to estimate a proportion of the population treated. The frequency of AEs was estimated as the percentage of patients in which an AE may have occurred. The use of each biologic was estimated for adalimumab at 1,439 patients/year, etanercept 1,944 patients/year, and infliximab 3,211 patients/year. A total of 992 AEs were reported: 207 for adalimumab, 199 for etanercept, and 586 for infliximab. Of the 515 different spontaneously reported AEs, 194 were included for comparisons with the SPCs. Of those, 31 (16 %) were similarly frequent, and 163 (84.0 %) occurred less frequently compared with SPCs' data. These results suggest an insufficient post-marketing safety monitoring of biologics in Portugal. PMID:23604594

  4. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  5. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  6. Identification and antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains from treated wastewater effluents in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adefisoye, Martins A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E. coli isolates against 17 common antibiotics in human therapy and veterinary medicine. Seven virulence associated and fourteen antibiotic resistance genes were also evaluated by molecular methods. Molecular characterization revealed five pathotypes of E. coli in the following proportions: enterotoxigenic ETEC (1.4%), enteropathogenic EPEC (7.6%), enteroaggregative EAEC (7.6%), neonatal meningitis (NMEC) (14.8%), uropathogenic (41.7%), and others (26.9%). Isolates showed varying (1.7-70.6%) degrees of resistance to 15 of the test antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was exhibited by 32.7% of the isolates, with the commonest multiple antibiotic-resistant phenotype (MARP) being AP-T-CFX (12 isolates), while multiple antibiotic-resistant indices (MARI) estimated are 0.23 (Site 1) and 0.24 (Site 2). Associated antibiotic resistance genes detected in the isolates include: strA (88.2%), aadA (52.9%), cat I (15%), cmlA1 (4.6%), blaTEM (56.4%), tetA (30.4%), tetB (28.4%), tetC (42.2%), tetD (50%), tetK (11.8%), and tetM (68.6%). We conclude that municipal wastewater effluents are important reservoirs for the dissemination of potentially pathogenic E. coli (and possibly other pathogens) and antibiotic resistance genes in the aquatic milieu of the Eastern Cape and a risk to public health. PMID:26758686

  7. Predicting the Unmet Need for Biologically Targeted Coverage of Insecticide-Treated Nets in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M.; Alegana, Victor A.; Patil, Anand P.; Snow, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In some countries the biological targeting of universal malaria prevention may offer optimal impact on disease and significant cost-savings compared with approaches that presume universal risk. Spatially defined data on coverage of treated nets from recent national household surveys in Kenya were used within a Bayesian geostatistical framework to predict treated net coverage nationally. When combined with the distributions of malaria risk and population an estimated 8.1 million people were not protected with treated nets in 2010 in biologically defined priority areas. After adjusting for the proportion of nets in use that were not long lasting, an estimated 5.5 to 6.3 million long-lasting treated nets would be required to achieve universal coverage in 2010 in Kenya in at-risk areas compared with 16.4 to 18.1 million nets if not restricted to areas of greatest malaria risk. In Kenya, this evidence-based approach could save the national program at least 55 million US dollars. PMID:20889879

  8. Adherence to guidelines in the use of biological agents to treat psoriasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Miriam Sanches do Nascimento; de Camargo, Iara Alves; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Guyatt, Gordon; de Camargo, Mayara Costa; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective In São Paolo, Brazil, patients can appeal to the courts, registering law suits against the government claiming the need for biological agents for treatment of psoriasis. If the lawsuits are successful, which is usually the case, the government then pays for the biologic agent. The extent to which the management of such patients, after gaining access to government payment for their biologic agents, adheres to authoritative guidelines, is uncertain. Methods We identified patients through records of the State Health Secretariat of São Paulo from 2004 to 2011. We consulted guidelines from five countries and chose as standards only those recommendations that the guidelines uniformly endorsed. Pharmacy records provided data regarding biological use. Guidelines not only recommended biological agents only in patients with severe psoriasis who had failed to respond to topical and systemic therapies (eg, ciclosporin and methotrexate) but also yearly monitoring of blood counts and liver function. Results Of 218 patients identified in the database, 3 did not meet eligibility criteria and 12 declined participation. Of the 203 patients interviewed, 91 were still using biological medicine; we established adherence to laboratory monitoring in these patients. In the total sample, management failed to meet standards of prior use of topical and systemic medication in 169 (83.2%) patients. Of the 91 patients using biological medicine at the time of the survey, 23 (25.2%) did not undergo appropriate laboratory tests. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between clinical practice and the recommendations of guidelines in the management of plaintiffs using biological drugs to treat psoriasis. PMID:24598304

  9. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  10. Role of vegetation (Typha latifolia) on nutrient removal in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland treating UASB reactor-trickling filter effluent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; Martins, Weber Luiz Pinto; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to characterize the role of plants in a constructed wetland in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The experiments were carried out in a full-scale system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, with two parallel horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units (one planted with Typha latifolia and one unplanted) treating the effluent from a system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter (TF). Each wetland unit received a mean flow of approximately 8.5 m³ d⁻¹ (population equivalent around 60 inhabitants each), with a surface hydraulic loading rate 0.12 m³m⁻²d⁻¹. The experiments were conducted from September 2011 to July 2013. Mean effluent concentrations from the wetlands were: (a) planted unit total nitrogen (TN) 22 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 19 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.10 mg L⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.25 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹; and (b) unplanted unit TN 24 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 20 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.54 mg mL⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.15 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹. The aerial part of the plant contained mean values of 24.1 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.4 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹, and the plant root zone was composed of 16.5 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.1 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹. The mean extraction of N by the plant biomass was 726 kgN ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 17% of the N load removed. For P, the extraction by the plant biomass was 105 kgP ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 9% of the P load removed. These results reinforce the reports that N and P removal due to plant uptake is a minor mechanism in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands operating under similar loading rates, typical for polishing of sanitary effluent. PMID:25860702

  11. Isolation and Growth Characteristics of Chromium(VI) and Pentachlorophenol Tolerant Bacterial Isolate from Treated Tannery Effluent for its Possible Use in Simultaneous Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manikant; Vikram, Surendra; Jain, R K; Garg, Satyendra K

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial strains resistant to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were isolated from treated tannery effluent of a common effluent treatment plant. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analyzed were above permissible limits. Thirty-eight and four bacterial isolates, respectively were found resistant to >50 μg/ml concentration of [Cr(VI)] and the same level of PCP. Out of the above 42 isolates, only one was found simultaneously tolerant to higher levels of both PCP (500 μg/ml) and Cr(VI) (200 μg/ml), and hence was selected for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which a native bacterial isolate simultaneously tolerant to such a high concentrations of Cr(VI) and PCP has been reported. The culture growth was best at 0.4% (w/v) glucose as an additional carbon source and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source. The growth results with cow urine as a nitrogen source were comparable with the best nitrogen source ammonium chloride. The isolate exhibited resistance to multiple heavy metals (Pb, As, Hg, Zn, Co & Ni) and to antibiotics nalidixic acid and polymixin-B. The efficacy of bacterial isolate for growth, PCP degradation (56.5%) and Cr(VI) bioremediation (74.5%) was best at 48 h incubation. The isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological and biochemical tests. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% homology with Bacillus cereus. However, further molecular analysis is underway to ascertain its likelyhood of a novel species. PMID:22282630

  12. Enhanced Biological Behavior of In Vitro Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Cold Plasma-Treated Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Miao; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xin; Li, He-Ping; Tan, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma treatment of zirconia enhances its biocompatibility with human gingival fibroblasts. Materials and Methods The zirconia disks were divided into four groups and treated using helium atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasmas for 30, 60 or 90 s or left untreated. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical elements were analyzed. Fibroblasts density, morphology, morphometry and attachment-related genes expression were measured at different time points from 3 to 72 h. Results After plasma treatment, the surface morphology and roughness remained the same, while the contact angle decreased from 78.31° to 43.71°, and the surface C/O ratio decreased from 3.17 to 0.89. The surficial areas and perimeters of HGFs were increased two-fold in the treated groups at 3 h. Fibroblasts density increased on treated disks at all time points, especially the ones treated for 60 s. Attachment-related genes in the groups treated for 30 and 60 s were significantly higher at 3 and 24 h. Conclusion The helium atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma treatment enhances the biological behavior of fibroblasts on zirconia by increasing the expression of attachment-related genes within 24 h and promoting the cell density during longer culture times. Wettability of zirconia, an important physicochemical property, has a vital influence on the cell behaviors. PMID:26461253

  13. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  14. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Bougas, Bérénice; Couture, Patrice; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Lair, Stéphane; Verreault, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p<0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p<0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found at the gene and cellular levels. Present results suggest that relating transcriptomic analyses to phenotypic responses is important to better understand impacts of environmental contamination on wild fish populations. PMID:25137380

  15. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  16. Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Shaw, David G

    2011-07-01

    Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic marine sediments from 1989-2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences of natural abiotic gradients on macrofauna were stronger than associations between macrofauna and sediment PAH. Though overall associations of PAH with macrofaunal community structure were weak, effects were greater for the tube-dwelling polychaete worms Galathowenia oculata and Melinna cristata which responded negatively to low PAH values near sediment quality criteria (threshold effects concentration: TEC and field-based sediment quality criterion: fb-SQG: ∼300 ng g( -1)). Effects of PAH on benthic fauna may be strongest through poor survival of juveniles and failed recruitment over multiple years. Comparison of measured PAH concentrations to the TEC and field-based fb-SQG suggest that the observed levels of change in Port Valdez are minor and the criteria are ecologically appropriate for environmental monitoring. By demonstrating positive responses of sensitive fauna to reduction of PAH concentration, this study contributes to understanding the temporal change, ecological importance, and size of effects expected on benthic fauna in the presence of continuous exposure to low levels of hydrocarbons. PMID:20878230

  17. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

  18. Start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process using low activity anammox inoculum to treat low strength UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Di Fabio, S; Noutsopoulos, C; Fatone, F

    2013-11-01

    The start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using low activity anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) inoculum. The SBR received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) that treated low strength wastewater. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was first 0.24 ± 0.11 kg Nm(-3)d(-1) and then reduced to 0.10 ± 0.02 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). The average specific anammox activity was 2.27 ± 1.31 mg N (gVSS h)(-1), at 30°C representing an increase of 161% compared to the inoculum. The decrease in vNLR did not significantly affect anammox activity, but resulted in a decrease of denitrifying heterotrophic activity to very low levels after the first 30 days owing to the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the stable presence of anammox bacteria in biomass. Numerous filamentous microorganisms were present, several of which were in a state of endogenous respiration. PMID:24077156

  19. A compact process for treating oilfield wastewater by combining hydrolysis acidification, moving bed biofilm, ozonation and biologically activated carbon techniques.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A lab-scale hybrid system integrating a hybrid hydrolysis acidification (HA) reactor, a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an ozonation-biologically activated carbon (O3-BAC) unit was used in the treatment of heavy oil wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low biodegradability. The effects of hydraulic retention time and ozonation time were investigated. The results show that under the optimal conditions, the effluent concentrations of COD, oil and ammonia were 48, 1.3 and 3.5 mg/L, respectively, corresponding to total removal efficiencies of 95.8%, 98.9% and 94.4%, respectively. The effluent could meet the grade I as required by the national discharge standard of China. The HA process remarkably improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while the MBBR process played an important role in degrading COD. The ozonation process further enhanced the biodegradability of the MBBR effluent, and finally, deep treatment was completed in the BAC reactor. This work demonstrates that the hybrid HA/MBBR/O3-BAC system has the potential to be used for the treatment of high-strength oilfield wastewater. PMID:26507807

  20. Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

  1. Studies on water hyacinth as a biological filter for treating contaminants from agricultural wastes and industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, K.; Madhavendra, S.S.; Jamil, M.Z.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) showed a remarkable capacity to withstand the effects of pH changes ranging from 5 to 8 in the aquatic environment. Growth continued to be normal except when placed for longer periods in medium containing iron ions at pH 3.3. The ability of this plant to neutralize some very acid solutions of heavy metals such as salts of copper, cadmium and zinc individually and in combinations, is being reported. Plants placed in pure acid and alkali solutions were also able to neutralize the medium. Calcium appears to play an important role in the mechanism involved in the adaptability of these plants to such environments.

  2. Powdered activated carbon added biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate in a fed-batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Kargi, Fikret; Pamukoglu, M Yunus

    2003-05-01

    Biological treatment of landfill leachate usually results in low treatment efficiencies because of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and also presence of toxic compounds such as heavy metals. A landfill leachate with high COD content was pre-treated by coagulation-flocculation followed by air stripping of ammonia at pH = 12. Pre-treated leachate was biologically treated in an aeration tank operated in fed-batch mode with and without addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC). PAC at 2 g l-1 improved COD and ammonium-N removals resulting in nearly 86% COD and 26% NH4-N removal. PMID:12882168

  3. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

  4. Filtration device for active effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-12-31

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter.

  5. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  6. Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelsman, Martijn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

  7. Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

    2009-04-01

    Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting. PMID:19081715

  8. Silage effluent management: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of repeated land application of effluent on soil quality and crop yields, as spreading is a common disposal practice. PMID:24905641

  9. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

  10. Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L.; Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

  11. The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

  12. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry Translational Research in Addiction symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

  13. Biological denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating aquaculture system effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-Ming; Deng, Ya-Le; Ruan, Yun-Jie; Guo, Xi-Shan; Shi, Ming-Ming; Shen, Jia-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53 ± 0.19 kg NO3(-)-N m(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66 ± 0.12 kg NO3(-)-Nm(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance. PMID:26093254

  14. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density (j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  15. Biological nutrient removal in a small-scale MBR treating household wastewater.

    PubMed

    Abegglen, Christian; Ospelt, Mario; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The biological nutrient-removal potential of an on-site Membrane bioreactor (MBR) located in the basement of a four-person house treating domestic wastewater was investigated. The reactor consists of two tanks in series. This treatment plant differs from other conventional MBRs by a highly fluctuating influent water flow and a lack of pretreatment. During the first period, the first reactor was operated as a primary clarifier, resulting in nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 50% and 25%, respectively. Primary sludge production and bad odors in the basement were further disadvantages. When using the first reactor as an anaerobic/anoxic reactor by recycling activated sludge and mixing the first reactor, nitrogen and phosphorus removals of over 90% and 70% were achieved, respectively. By applying a dynamic model of the plant, the return sludge ratio was identified as the most important parameter. With a return sludge ratio of about 1.2, optimal PAO growth and phosphorous removal up to 90% was reached. Since only activated sludge is produced with this operational mode, on-site sludge dewatering is possible. During vacation periods without loading, the Bio-P activity is kept constant if the aeration is reduced to 5-20 min d(-1). PMID:17707877

  16. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    PubMed

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

  17. VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT ON FIVE MILE CREEK, BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation to determine the validity of laboratory toxicity tests to predict biological impact in receiving water. The first site visit in February 1983 was adversely affected by heavy rainfall immediately preceding and during the visit. Two of the trea...

  18. Development and validation of chemical and biological analyses to determine the antiestrogenic potency of resin acids in paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Masanori; Shiraishi, Fujio; Fukazawa, Hitoshi; Makino, Masakazu

    2009-12-15

    This study combined chemical analysis and bioassays of paper mill effluents and their components in order to determine their antiestrogenic activity. The bioassay comprised a yeast two-hybrid assay incorporating the estrogen receptor alpha (hERalpha) and an hERalpha competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 disk and a Florisil cartridge to obtain four fractions. The final fraction, eluted with methanol from the Florisil cartridge after pre-extraction by the C18 disk, was the most active in the two-hybrid assay, and its antiestrogenic potency, expressed as the equivalent concentration to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT), was 277 nM. Seven resin acids had antiestrogenic activity in the active fraction as determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and their concentration levels ranged from 0.11 to 12 microg/L. All the resin acids exhibited greater activity than OHT; their activity relative to OHT ranged from 2.8- to 4.0-fold in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Based on the chemical analysis data and relative potency of resin acids from the yeast two-hybrid assay, the contribution ratio of resin acids accounted for 72% of the observed antiestrogenic activity of the extract. Furthermore, no resin acid showed any affinity for the estrogen receptor in the ELISA. This study showed that analysis combining the SPE method and the yeast two-hybrid assay is likely to be effective for the comprehensive monitoring of resin acids in paper mill industrial discharge areas. PMID:20000523

  19. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  20. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the polishing of secondary effluents. Elimination of bacteria (total and coliforms, faecal streptococci) and their relationship with the hydraulic load and the temperature were investigated. PMID:11464749

  1. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; Santhosh, L G

    2015-05-01

    Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3kN/m(3) to 10.3kN/m(3) at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43. PMID:25746176

  2. Aerobic inhibition assessment for anaerobic treatment effluent of antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cetecioglu, Zeynep

    2014-02-01

    Biological treatment of antibiotic production effluents is an economical approach; however, there are still difficulties to overcome because of the recalcitrant characteristics of these compounds to biodegradation. This study aims to reveal that anaerobic treatment technology can be an option as pretreatment before the activated sludge system treatment to treat antibiotic production effluents. The ISO 8192 method was chosen to test the inhibitory effect of raw and treated antibiotic production effluents in this work. Inhibition tests, which were applied according to ISO 8192, highlighted that the anaerobic treatment effluent is less inhibitory than antibiotic production effluent for activated sludge system. Early EC50 concentrations (30-min values) of raw and treated wastewaters were lower than 180-min values. Also, triple effects (sulfamethoxazole-erythromycin-tetracycline) of antibiotics are more toxic than dual effects (sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline). In light of the experimental results obtained and their evaluation, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion can be applied as a biological pretreatment method for pharmaceutical industry wastewater including antibiotic mixtures prior to aerobic treatment. PMID:24146324

  3. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  4. Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

    2013-06-01

    The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

  5. The New Biology of Estrogen-induced Apoptosis Applied to Treat and Prevent Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, V Craig

    2014-01-01

    The successful use of high dose synthetic estrogens to treat post-menopausal metastatic breast cancer, is the first effective “chemical therapy” proven in clinical trial to treat any cancer. This review documents the clinical use of estrogen for breast cancer treatment or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for postmenopausal hysterectomized women which can either result in breast cancer cell growth or breast cancer regression. This has remained a paradox since the 1950s until the discovery of the new biology of estrogen induced apoptosis at the end of the 20th century. The key to triggering apoptosis with estrogen is the selection of breast cancer cell populations that are resistant to long term estrogen deprivation. However, through trial and error estrogen independent growth occurs. At the cellular level, estrogen induced apoptosis is dependent upon the presence of the estrogen receptor (ER) which can be blocked by non-steroidal or steroidal anti-estrogens. The shape of an estrogenic ligand programs the conformation of the ER complex which in turn can modulate estrogen induced apoptosis: class I planar estrogens (eg: estradiol) trigger apoptosis after 24 hours whereas class II angular estrogens (eg: bisphenol triphenylethylene) delay the process until after 72 hours. This contrasts with paclitaxel that causes G2 blockade with immediate apoptosis. The process is complete within 24 hours. Estrogen induced apoptosis is modulated by glucocorticoids and cSrc inhibitors but the target mechanism for estrogen action is genomic and not through a non-genomic pathway. The process is step wise through the creation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and, inflammatory responses that then initiate an unfolded protein response. This in turn initiates apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway (mitochondrial) with subsequent recruitment of the extrinsic pathway (death receptor) to complete the process. The symmetry of the clinical and laboratory studies now permits the creation of rules for the future clinical application of ERT or phytoestrogen supplements: a five year gap is necessary after menopause to permit the selection of estrogen deprived breast cancer cell populations to become vulnerable to apoptotic cell death. Earlier treatment with estrogen around the menopause encourages ER positive tumor cell growth, as the cells are still dependent on estrogen to maintain replication within the expanding population. An awareness of the evidence that the molecular events associated with estrogen induced apoptosis can be orchestrated in the laboratory in estrogen deprived breast cancers, now support the clinical findings for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer following estrogen deprivation, decreases in mortality following long term antihormonal adjuvant therapy, and the results of ERT and ERT plus progestin in the Women’s Health Initiative for women over the age of 60. Principles have emerged to understand and apply physiologic estrogen therapy appropriately by targeting the correct patient populations. PMID:25339261

  6. The new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis applied to treat and prevent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V Craig

    2015-02-01

    The successful use of high-dose synthetic estrogens to treat postmenopausal metastatic breast cancer is the first effective 'chemical therapy' proven in clinical trial to treat any cancer. This review documents the clinical use of estrogen for breast cancer treatment or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal hysterectomized women, which can either result in breast cancer cell growth or breast cancer regression. This has remained a paradox since the 1950s until the discovery of the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis at the end of the 20th century. The key to triggering apoptosis with estrogen is the selection of breast cancer cell populations that are resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation. However, estrogen-independent growth occurs through trial and error. At the cellular level, estrogen-induced apoptosis is dependent upon the presence of the estrogen receptor (ER), which can be blocked by nonsteroidal or steroidal antiestrogens. The shape of an estrogenic ligand programs the conformation of the ER complex, which, in turn, can modulate estrogen-induced apoptosis: class I planar estrogens (e.g., estradiol) trigger apoptosis after 24 h, whereas class II angular estrogens (e.g., bisphenol triphenylethylene) delay the process until after 72 h. This contrasts with paclitaxel, which causes G2 blockade with immediate apoptosis. The process is complete within 24 h. Estrogen-induced apoptosis is modulated by glucocorticoids and cSrc inhibitors, but the target mechanism for estrogen action is genomic and not through a nongenomic pathway. The process is stepwise through the creation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory responses, which then initiate an unfolded protein response. This, in turn, initiates apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway (mitochondrial) with the subsequent recruitment of the extrinsic pathway (death receptor) to complete the process. The symmetry of the clinical and laboratory studies now permits the creation of rules for the future clinical application of ERT or phytoestrogen supplements: a 5-year gap is necessary after menopause to permit the selection of estrogen-deprived breast cancer cell populations to cause them to become vulnerable to apoptotic cell death. Earlier treatment with estrogen around menopause encourages growth of ER-positive tumor cells, as the cells are still dependent on estrogen to maintain replication within the expanding population. An awareness of the evidence that the molecular events associated with estrogen-induced apoptosis can be orchestrated in the laboratory in estrogen-deprived breast cancers now supports the clinical findings regarding the treatment of metastatic breast cancer following estrogen deprivation, decreases in mortality following long-term antihormonal adjuvant therapy, and the results of treatment with ERT and ERT plus progestin in the Women's Health Initiative for women over the age of 60. Principles have emerged for understanding and applying physiological estrogen therapy appropriately by targeting the correct patient populations. PMID:25339261

  7. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Natvig, Bent; Gåsemyr, Jørund; Meland, Nils; Røine, Marianne; Klemp, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores). The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest), etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest), tocilizumab, anakinra, rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment) and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment) the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs. PMID:26356639

  8. PHYSICAL CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF A COMBINED SEWER IMPACTED SECONDARY EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical-chemical treatment of conventional biological secondary effluent for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants is used and considered applicable in areas where secondary treatment alone is incapable of producing satisfactory effluent quality. This report describes ...

  9. Biological and oxidative treatment of cotton textile dye-bath effluents by fixed and fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Baban, A; Yediler, A; Avaz, G; Hostede, S S

    2010-02-01

    A treatability study for highly polluted and recalcitrant azo reactive dye-baths from cotton textile dyeing processes was conducted by using fixed and up-flow fluidized bed type reactors packed with brown coal. Ozone oxidation was carried out to assess the combination of biological and chemical oxidation. COD removal efficiencies ranged from 70% to 93%, and up to 99% color removal was attained. At a COD loading rate of 25.5 x 10(-6) gCOD/m(2)-d, COD removal was 85%. Breakthrough of the brown coal used occurred at total organic loading of 0.090 gCOD/g coal. Biodegradable and inert COD fractions of the remazol dye-bath were assessed by BOD(28) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurements. 50% of total COD was initially inert. The inert fraction was reduced by adsorption and ozone oxidation by 65% and 40%, respectively. Brown coal is an inexpensive material and the system has economical and operational advantages as compared to treatment options such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) using UV, O(3), H(2)O(2) or electrocoagulation. PMID:19822422

  10. Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-04-01

    Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75mgL(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4mgL(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200Lux), whereas 0.67mgL(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg L(-1)). The prevention of dark repair is ensured with 25-50% lower concentration of total oxidants. An increase of the TSS concentration from 11mgL(-1) to 75mgL(-1) leads to a triplication of the need of total oxidants from 0.6mgL(-1) to 1.8mgL(-1) (3*10(5)E. coli per 100 mL). The energy consumption of the hybrid reactor varies from 0.17kWhm(-3) to 0.94kWhm(-3) depending on the TSS concentration (11-75mgL(-1)). Furthermore, biofilm formation on quartz glass surfaces, of which the sleeves of UV lamps consist, can be suppressed by electrochemically produced total oxidants at a concentration of at least 1mgL(-1) which ensures high operational safety of the hybrid reactor combined with large maintenance intervals. PMID:24447954

  11. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-03-13

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

  12. 40 CFR 411.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... overflow from facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from...

  13. 40 CFR 411.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... overflow from facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from...

  14. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

  15. Effects of advanced treatments of wastewater effluents on estrogenic and reproductive health impacts in fish.

    PubMed

    Filby, Amy L; Shears, Janice A; Drage, Briane E; Churchley, John H; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-06-01

    Whether the implementation of additional treatments for the removal of estrogens from wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents will eliminate their feminizing effects in exposed wildlife has yet to be established, and this information is crucial for future decisions on investment into WwTWs. Here, granular activated carbon (GAC), ozone (O(3)), and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing steroidal estrogen levels in a WwTW effluent and assessments made on the associated estrogenic and reproductive responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 21 days. All treatments reduced the estrogenicity of the standard-treated (STD) effluent, but with different efficacies; ranging between 70-100% for total estrogenicity and 53-100% for individual steroid estrogens. In fish exposed to the GAC- and ClO(2)- (but not O(3)-) treated effluents, there was no induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) or reduction in the weight of the fatpad, a secondary sex character in males, as occurred for fish exposed to STD effluent. This finding suggests likely benefits of employing these treatment processes for the reproductive health in wild fish populations living in rivers receiving WwTW discharges. Exposure of pair-breeding minnows to the GAC-treated effluent, however, resulted in a similar inhibition of egg production to that occurring for exposure to the STD effluent (34-40%). These data, together with a lack of effect on egg production of the estrogen, ethinylestradiol (10 ng/L), alone, suggest that chemical/physical properties of the effluents rather than their estrogenicity were responsible for the reproductive effect and that these factor(s) were not remediated for through GAC treatment. Collectively, our findings illustrate the importance of assessing integrative biological responses, rather than biomarkers alone, in the assessment and improvement of WwTW technologies for the protection of wild fish populations. PMID:20443592

  16. Synergizing Engineering and Biology to Treat and Model Skeletal Muscle Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bursac, Nenad; Juhas, Mark; Rando, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is one of the most regenerative organs in our body, various genetic defects, alterations in extrinsic signaling, or substantial tissue damage can impair muscle function and the capacity for self-repair. The diversity and complexity of muscle disorders have attracted much interest from both cell biologists and, more recently, bioengineers, leading to concentrated efforts to better understand muscle pathology and develop more efficient therapies. This review describes the biological underpinnings of muscle development, repair, and disease, and discusses recent bioengineering efforts to design and control myomimetic environments, both to study muscle biology and function and to aid in the development of new drug, cell, and gene therapies for muscle disorders. The synergy between engineering-aided biological discovery and biology-inspired engineering solutions will be the path forward for translating laboratory results into clinical practice. PMID:26643021

  17. Application of Fenton's reagent as a polishing step for removal of UV quenching organic constituents in biologically treated landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Douglas Goldsmith, C

    2014-06-01

    When landfill leachate, with or without biological pretreatment, is discharged to publically owned treatment works (POTWs), it can interfere with the installed treatment facilities. Biological treatment is ineffective for the removal of some of the bio-refractory organic matter, including UV₂₅₄ quenching substances. Fenton's reagent treatment for biologically treated landfill leachates is examined in this study as a polishing step to make landfill leachates acceptable to POTWs. The optimum conditions for the Fenton's reagent treatment are explored. The molecular weight and hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature based fractions of the Fenton's treated leachate samples are analyzed to provide insight into the leachate fractions targeted by the Fenton's reagent. The results indicate that Fenton's reagent can act as a good compliment to biological treatment as it can remove leachate fractions which are widely considered to be bio-refractory. It exhibited good UV₂₅₄ absorbance removal by removing larger molecular weight humic substances and thus, can help solve the UV₂₅₄ quenching problem due to leachates discharged to POTWs. PMID:24457051

  18. Simultaneous nutrient removal, optimised CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production by Chlorogonium sp. grown in secondary treated non-sterile saline sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Yin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Kwan, Ka Ki; Chan, King Ming; Huang, Guocheng; Yip, Ho Yin; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-10-30

    The phycoremediation process has great potential for effectively addressing environmental pollution. To explore the capabilities of simultaneous algal nutrient removal, CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production from spent water resources, a Chlorogonium sp. isolated from a tilapia pond in Hong Kong was grown in non-sterile saline sewage effluent for a bioremediation study. With high removal efficiencies of NH3-N (88.3514.39%), NO3(-)-N (85.3914.96%), TN (93.346.47%) and PO4(3-)-P (91.8017.44%), Chlorogonium sp. achieved a CO2 consumption rate of 58.96 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was optimised by the response surface methodology. Under optimised conditions, the lipid content of the algal biomass reached 24.262.67%. Overall, the isolated Chlorogonium sp. showed promising potential in the simultaneous purification of saline sewage effluent in terms of tertiary treatment and CO2 sequestration while delivering feedstock for potential biofuel production in a waste-recycling manner. PMID:25967099

  19. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  20. [Performance of biological phosphorus removal in anaerobic pre-fermentation and intermittent aerated biofilm system treating domestic wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bei; Long, Teng-Rui

    2008-05-01

    A fixed-film system composed of anaerobic biofilter and intermittent aerated biofilter (IABF) was developed for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in treatment of domestic wastewater. Influence of hydraulic, organic, and phosphorus loading on performance of the system was investigated in this study. The result indicates that the system is efficient for the removal of organic and P in the treatment. At a hydraulic retention time of the system of 23.3-4.6 h, the effluent concentration and reduction efficiency of TP and COD are 0.59 mg/L, 68 mg/L in average and 85.2%, 73.6% in average, respectively. A stable performance of EBPR in the system is achieved with a good adaptability of fluctuations of the loadings. An innovative method instead of traditional backwashing was applied to remove P in biofilm from IABF. The use of the method improves P-uptake capacity in biofilm during long-term operation without wasting, which prolongs operation duration and reduces backwashing frequency in IABF. Pre-fermentation of domestic wastewater in anaerobic biofilter increases concentration of volatile fatty acids in the influent of IABF. PMID:18624184

  1. Effect of COD/TP ratio on biological nutrient removal in A(2)O and SBR processes coupled with microfiltration and effluent reuse potential.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Shim, Hojae

    2016-06-01

    Two bench-scale hybrid processes, anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)O) reactor and sequencing batch reactor (SBR), each followed by the microfiltration (MF) system, were simultaneously operated to compare their performances on the removal of organics and phosphorus from both synthetic and real wastewater to further explore the potential for effluent reuse. The effects of different influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total phosphorus (TP) ratios (27, 50, 80, and 200) were investigated. For both processes, when the influent COD/TP ratio was 200, the effluent quality was satisfactory for some reuse potential. The MF membrane system showed an evident further removal of COD (20-89%) and color (18-60%), especially the removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity with the final effluent SS <1 mg/L and turbidity <0.1 NTU. When real wastewater was tested, the effluent quality was adequate and met the standard goals for regional reuse purposes. PMID:26581582

  2. [Effect of nitrite accumulation on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in A2O process treating domestic wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Lei; Yang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Yue; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2010-09-01

    At normal temperature, short-cut nitrification and denitrification was achieved in a lab-scale A2O process treating low C/N ratio domestic wastewater by controlling DO concentration of 0.3-0.5 mg/L and increasing the internal reflux ratio to decrease the actual aerobic HRT. However, the phosphorus removal in A2O process was deteriorated with the increasing of the nitrite concentration in the effluent. The factors causing phosphorus removal deterioration, such as the influent COD concentrations, temperature, pH and free nitrous acid (FNA) were systematically analyzed. Experimental results showed that the nitrite accumulation resulting from short-cut nitrification affected anaerobic P release and aerobic P uptake. Especially, the higher FNA concentration (HNO2-N 0.002-0.003 mg/L) in the aerobic zone significantly inhibited the aerobic P uptake, which was the major reason causing P removal deterioration. Through adding the carbon sources in influent to enhance anaerobic P release and denitrification, the nitrite and FNA concentrations in the aerobic zone were decreased, and the P removal was recovered. More than 96% of PO4(3-) -P could be removed in A2O process. PMID:21072931

  3. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

  4. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment. PMID:25277708

  5. Degradation of diethyl phthalate in treated effluents from an MBR via advanced oxidation processes: effects of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot-scale AOP operation.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Park, C G; Lee, J W; Ko, K B

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to delineate the oxidation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water, using bench-scale UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes, and to determine the effects of nitrate (NO(3-)-N, 5 mg L(-1)) on this oxidation. The oxidation of DEP was also investigated through a pilot-scale advanced oxidation process (AOP), into which a portion of the effluent from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was pumped. The bench-scale operation showed that DEP could be oxidized via solely UV oxidation or O3 oxidation. The adverse effect of nitrate on the DEP oxidation was remarkable in the UV/H2O2 process, and the nitrate clearly reduced its oxidation. The adverse effect of nitrate on O3 oxidation was also observed. It was noted, however, that the nitrate clearly enhanced the DEP oxidation in the O3/H2O2 process. A series of pilot-scale AOP operations indicated that the addition of H2O2 enhanced DEP oxidation in both the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes. No noticeable adverse effect of nitrate was observed in the NO(3-)-N concentration of about 6.0 mg L(-1), which was naturally contained in the treatment stream. About 52% and 61% of the DEP were oxidized by each of these two oxidation processes in this pilot-scale operation. Both the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes appeared to be desirable alternatives for DEP oxidation in treatment effluent streams. PMID:20232675

  6. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment. PMID:25723133

  7. Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500 μmol g−1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents. PMID:22629157

  8. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  9. The risk of malignancy or progression of existing malignancy in patients with psoriasis treated with biologics: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shailee; Patel, Tejas; Kerdel, Francisco A

    2016-05-01

    There is some debate regarding the risk of developing malignancy and progression of malignancy in patients with psoriasis treated with biologics. The lack of extensive, long-term, and large studies, including patients with psoriasis, to assess these aforementioned risks makes it difficult to ascertain the safety profile of biologic therapy in these patients. Several studies do support the favorability of the safety profile of biologics in patients with psoriasis in terms of the risk of developing malignancy. A few studies include patients with a previous history of cancer that were thereafter treated with biologics and show no increased risk of recurrence in those treated with biologics compared to non-biologic therapy. Although recent studies do not show an increased risk of new or recurrent malignancy in patients with psoriasis treated with biologic agents, there is still hesitancy in the widespread use of biologic agents in these patients. Considering all of the current data and opinions, the benefits of biologic therapy to improve quality of life often outweigh the negligible risk of solid organ malignancy associated with biologics in patients with existing or previous malignancies. Coordinating the management of patients that develop or have a history of previous malignancy with an oncology team is crucial for patient-centered care until clear evidence-based guidelines are developed. PMID:26711080

  10. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines. PMID:27037695

  11. Long-term performance of liter-scale microbial fuel cells treating primary effluent installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Ge, Zheng; Grimaud, Julien; Hurst, Jim; He, Zhen

    2013-05-01

    Two 4 L tubular microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility and operated for more than 400 days on primary effluents. Both MFCs removed 65-70% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and reduced about 50% suspended solids. The COD removal rates were about 0.4 (total) or 0.2 (soluble) kg m(-3) day(-1). They could handle fluctuation, such as emptying the anode for 1-3 days or different HRTs. The preliminary analysis of energy production and consumption indicated that the two MFCs could theoretically achieve a positive energy balance and energy consumption could be reduced using larger tubing connectors. Through linkage to a denitrifying MFC, the MFC system improved the removal of total nitrogen from 27.1 to 76.2%; however, the energy production substantially decreased because of organic consumption in the denitrifying MFC. Establishing a carbon (electron) balance revealed that sulfate reduction was a major electron scavenger (37-64%) and methane production played a very minor role (1.3-3.3%) in electron distribution. These results demonstrate the technical viability of MFC technology outside the laboratory and its potential advantages in low energy consumption, low sludge production, and energy recovery from wastes. PMID:23517192

  12. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations. PMID:26061210

  13. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contain or treat the volume of waste water which would result from a 10-year 24-hour precipitation event... Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed... not exceed the following limitations: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any...

  14. Antinuclear Antibodies in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis Treated or Not with Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Silvy, Florent; Bertin, Daniel; Bardin, Nathalie; Auger, Isabelle; Guzian, Marie-Caroline; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Guis, Sandrine; Roudier, Jean; Balandraud, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of biotherapies, accurate diagnosis in early arthritis is needed. At this time, there is no biological marker of psoriatic arthritis. Objective To test whether antinuclear antibodies (ANA) can be used as a diagnostic tool in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), we evaluated the prevalence of ANA in biologic-naïve PsA patients and in healthy blood donors. Methods 232 patients from the Rheumatology department, St Marguerite's Hospital, Marseilles, who fulfilled the CASPAR criteria for PsA, underwent clinical and laboratory investigations. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (ENA), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) were assayed. Ninety-one healthy blood donors were also tested. Results Detection of ANA by indirect immunofluorescence was significantly more frequent in sera from PsA patients than those from controls at serum dilution of 1:100 (57% compared with 40%, Odds Ratio (OR) 1.98 (1.2-3.4) p<0.02) and 1:160 (52% compared with 24%, OR 3,7 (1.9-7.2) p<0.001). No patients had lupus specific autoantibodies, 15 % had RF (34/232), and 1.7 % had ACPA (4/232). Conclusions Detection of ANA was more frequent in sera from PsA patients than in those from healthy controls. This suggests that ANA could be a diagnosis orientation tool in PsA. Nevertheless, the specificity of these antibodies still remains to be investigated. PMID:26230924

  15. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  16. A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic. PMID:17583772

  17. Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2012-04-15

    This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 μg L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

  18. Biologically Effective Dose-Response Relationship for Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Plataniotis, George A. Dale, Roger G.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To find a biologically effective dose (BED) response for adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) for initial-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Results of randomized trials of RT vs. non-RT were reviewed and the tumor control probability (TCP) after RT was calculated for each of them. Using the linear-quadratic formula and Poisson statistics of cell-kill, the average initial number of clonogens per tumor before RT and the average tumor cell radiosensitivity (alpha-value) were calculated. An {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 4 Gy was assumed for these calculations. Results: A linear regression equation linking BED to TCP was derived: -ln[-ln(TCP)] = -ln(No) + {alpha}{sup *} BED = -4.08 + 0.07 * BED, suggesting a rather low radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells (alpha = 0.07 Gy{sup -1}), which probably reflects population heterogeneity. From the linear relationship a sigmoid BED-response curve was constructed. Conclusion: For BED values higher than about 90 Gy{sub 4} the radiation-induced TCP is essentially maximizing at 90-100%. The relationship presented here could be an approximate guide in the design and reporting of clinical trials of adjuvant breast RT.

  19. Structural Biology Contributions to the Discovery of Drugs to Treat Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W.; Fendrich, Gabriele; Floersheimer, Andreas; Furet, Pascal; Liebetanz, Janis; Rummel, Gabriele; Rheinberger, Paul; Centeleghe, Mario; Fabbro, Doriano; Manley, Paul W.

    This case study illustrates how the determination of multiple co-crystal structures of the protein tyrosine kinase c-Abl was used to support drug discovery efforts leading to the design of nilotinib, a newly approved therapy for imatinib-intolerant and - resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from the BCR-Abl onco-protein, which possesses a constitutively activated Abl tyrosine kinase domain. Although many chronic-phase CML patients treated with imatinib as first-line therapy maintain excellent, durable responses, patients who have progressed to advanced-stage CML frequently fail, or lose their response to therapy, often due to the emergence of drug-resistant mutants of the protein. More than 60 such point mutations have been detected in imatinib-resistant patients. We determined the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Abl kinase in complex with imatinib and other small molecule Abl inhibitors, with the aim of understanding the molecular basis for resistance and to aid in the design and optimization of inhibitors active against the resistance mutants. These results are presented in a way which illustrates the approaches used to generate multiple structures, the type of information that can be gained and the way this information is used to support drug discovery.

  20. Structural biology contributions to the discovery of drugs to treat chronic myelogenous leukaemia

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W. Fendrich, Gabriele; Floersheimer, Andreas; Furet, Pascal; Liebetanz, Janis; Rummel, Gabriele; Rheinberger, Paul; Centeleghe, Mario; Fabbro, Doriano; Manley, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    A case study showing how the determination of multiple cocrystal structures of the protein tyrosine kinase c-Abl was used to support drug discovery, resulting in a compound effective in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) results from the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, which has a constitutively activated Abl tyrosine kinase domain. Although most chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib as first-line therapy maintain excellent durable responses, patients who have progressed to advanced-stage CML frequently fail to respond or lose their response to therapy owing to the emergence of drug-resistant mutants of the protein. More than 40 such point mutations have been observed in imatinib-resistant patients. The crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Abl kinase in complex with imatinib and other small-molecule Abl inhibitors were determined, with the aim of understanding the molecular basis of resistance and to aid in the design and optimization of inhibitors active against the resistance mutants. These results are presented in a way which illustrates the approaches used to generate multiple structures, the type of information that can be gained and the way that this information is used to support drug discovery.

  1. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation. PMID:25607672

  2. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

  3. Optimization of electrochemical reaction for nitrogen removal from biological secondary-treated milking centre wastewater.

    PubMed

    Won, Seung-Gun; Jeon, Dae-Yong; Rahman, Md Mukhlesur; Kwag, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Chang-Six

    2016-06-01

    In order to remove the residual nitrogen from the secondary-treated milking centre wastewater, the electrochemical reaction including NH4-N oxidation and NOx-N reduction has been known as a relatively simple technique. Through the present study, the electrochemical reactor using the Ti-coated IrO2 anode and stainless steel cathode was optimized for practical use on farm. The key operational parameters [electrode area (EA) (cm(2)/L), current density (CD) (A/cm(2)), electrolyte concentration (EC) (mg/L as NaCl), and reaction time (RT) (min)] were selected and their effects were evaluated using response surface methodology for the responses of nitrogen and colour removal efficiencies, and power consumption. The experimental design was followed for the central composite design as a fractional factorial design. As a result of the analysis of variance, the p-values of the second-order polynomial models for three responses were significantly fit to the empirical values. The nitrogen removal was significantly influenced by CD, EC, and RT (p < .05), whereas colour removal was significantly governed by EA, CD, RT, the interaction of EA and EC (p < .05). For higher efficiency of nitrogen removal over 90%, the combination of [EA, 20 cm(2)/L; CD, 0.044 A/cm(2); EC, 3.87 g/L as NaCl; RT, 240 min] was revealed as an optimal operational condition. The investigation on cathodic reduction of NOx-N may be required with respect to nitrite and nitrate separately as a future work. PMID:26582173

  4. Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra

    2009-07-15

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N=1318 mg/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O+NaHPO(4).7H(2)O, and MgO+85% H(3)PO(4) were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg(2+):NH(4)(+)-N:PO(4)(3-)-P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from 4.45 to 11. Preliminary test results indicated that maximum NH(4)(+)-N removal, as well as maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions, were obtained as 85.4%, 53.3% and 49.8% at pH 9.0 with the addition of MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), respectively. The paired experimental data obtained from batch studies were statistically evaluated by a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and a two-sample t-test. Based on the previous results, another batch experiments were then performed at pH 9.0 using MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4) for different molar ratios applied as overdose (1.2:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 1:1:1.2, 1:1:1.5) and underdose (0.5:1:1, 0.8:1:1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:0.8). In the final step, the fertility of the MAP precipitate as struvite was also tested on the growth of three test plants including purslane (Portulaca oleracea), garden cress (Lepidum sativum) and grass (Lolium perenne). Findings of this experimental study clearly confirmed the recovering of NH(4)(+)-N from UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation, and also the application of recovered MAP sludge as a valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:19097699

  5. Health Effects in Fish of Long-Term Exposure to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works

    PubMed Central

    Liney, Katherine E.; Hagger, Josephine A.; Tyler, Charles R.; Depledge, Michael H.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jobling, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Concern has been raised in recent years that exposure to wastewater treatment effluents containing estrogenic chemicals can disrupt the endocrine functioning of riverine fish and cause permanent alterations in the structure and function of the reproductive system. Reproductive disorders may not necessarily arise as a result of estrogenic effects alone, and there is a need for a better understanding of the relative importance of endocrine disruption in relation to other forms of toxicity. Here, the integrated health effects of long-term effluent exposure are reported (reproductive, endocrine, immune, genotoxic, nephrotoxic). Early life-stage roach, Rutilus rutilus, were exposed for 300 days to treated wastewater effluent at concentrations of 0, 15.2, 34.8, and 78.7% (with dechlorinated tap water as diluent). Concentrations of treated effluents that induced feminization of male roach, measured as vitellogenin induction and histological alteration to gonads, also caused statistically significant alterations in kidney development (tubule diameter), modulated immune function (differential cell count, total number of thrombocytes), and caused genotoxic damage (micronucleus induction and single-strand breaks in gill and blood cells). Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects occurred at concentrations of wastewater effluent lower than those required to induce recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive endocrine system. These findings emphasize the need for multiple biological end points in tests that assess the potential health effects of wastewater effluents. They also suggest that for some effluents, genotoxic and immune end points may be more sensitive than estrogenic (endocrine-mediated) end points as indicators of exposure in fish. PMID:16818251

  6. Latent viral infections in young patients with inflammatory diseases treated with biological agents: prevalence of JC virus genotype 2.

    PubMed

    Comar, Manola; Delbue, Serena; Lepore, Loredana; Martelossi, Stefano; Radillo, Oriano; Ronfani, Luca; D'Agaro, Pierlanfranco; Ferrante, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Treatment with biological drugs is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections. Reactivation of JC virus (JCV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in adults after therapy has been documented. The long-term effects of biological and conventional therapy on human herpesviruses and polyomaviruses infections in young patients were assessed. One hundred eighty-six samples [urine, serum, and blood cells (PBMCs)] from 62 patients (15.8 ± 6.2 years old) with Crohn's disease, ulcerative rectocolitis or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated with immunotherapy or conventional therapy for over 12 months were tested by real time PCR. One hundred twenty-four samples (urine and blood) from 62 matched healthy volunteers (13.8 ± 8.6 years old) were included as controls. Sequencing of the JCV viral protein 1 (VP1) and transcriptional control region (TCR) was performed. Herpes simplex virus 1/2 and varicella zoster virus genomes were not detected in any patients, whereas Epstein-Barr virus, HCMV, and human herpesvirus-6 genomes were detected in 4.8%, 3.2%, and 1.6% of the patients, respectively. JCV was detected in 22.6% (14/62) of urine samples from patients and in 8% (5/62) from controls, in 50% (7/14) of sera from patients shedding JCV, and in 71.4% (5/7) of matched PBMCs. There was a significant association between infliximab treatment and excretion of JCV genotype 2. Subclinical infection/reactivation of JCV genotype 2 in young patients during infliximab therapy was demonstrated. Conversely, increased susceptibility to herpesviruses infection was not shown. Future studies are warranted to investigate the effects of JCV reactivation on the health of young patients treated with infliximab. PMID:23364870

  7. Coagulation-flocculation-decantation of dye house effluents: concentrated effluents.

    PubMed

    Allegre, C; Maisseu, M; Charbit, F; Moulin, P

    2004-12-10

    The treatment and valorization (recycling of water and mineral salts) of dyeing effluents constitutes a major economic and environmental issue. Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is actually the most polluting in terms of discharge. In order to treat and valorize the effluent from a dyeing process using reactive dyes, the firm Clariant and the LPPE have developed and patented a process allowing the recovery of most of the water and salts present in the effluent and also of a concentrate containing the hydrolyzed reactive dyes and the highly concentrated auxiliaries. This paper describes the coagulation-flocculation-decantation process used to optimize water recovery from the concentrate. Coagulants and flocculants are used in the industry for the treatment of effluents produced by the synthesis of dyes in general (acid, disperse, reactive). Although the settling velocity is relatively low, the results show that it is possible to recycle a great volume of water using a small decanter area, since the concentrate flow rate is low. These effluents are substantially discolored, it possible to envisage recycling them. PMID:15561363

  8. Recovery and biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluent from UASB treatment of municipal sewage using a two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge system.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Norihisa; Hatamoto, Masashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-03-15

    A two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used as a post-treatment to prevent methane being emitted from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents containing unrecovered dissolved methane. The performance of the closed DHS reactor was evaluated using real municipal sewage at ambient temperatures (10-28 °C) for one year. The first stage of the closed DHS reactor was intended to recover dissolved methane from the UASB effluent and produce a burnable gas with a methane concentration greater than 30%, and its recovery efficiency was 57-88%, although the amount of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent fluctuated in the range of 46-68 % of methane production greatly depending on the temperature. The residual methane was oxidized and the remaining organic carbon was removed in the second closed DHS reactor, and this reactor performed very well, removing more than 99% of the dissolved methane during the experimental period. The rate at which air was supplied to the DHS reactor was found to be one of the most important operating parameters. Microbial community analysis revealed that seasonal changes in the methane-oxidizing bacteria were key to preventing methane emissions. PMID:25576697

  9. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M.; Mermelstein, Claudia S.; Costa, Manoel L.; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of recalcitrant organic compounds in biologically treated municipal solid waste leachate in a flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xuejun; Cheng, Zhiliang; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Xincai

    2013-10-01

    Biologically-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate still contains many kinds of bio-recalcitrant organic matter. A new plate and frame electrochemical reactor was designed to treat these materials under flow conditions. In the electrochemical oxidation process, NH3 and color could be easily removed by means of electro-generated chlorine/hypochlorite within 20 min. The effects of major process parameters on the removal of organic pollutants were investigated systematically. Under experimental conditions, the optimum operation parameters were current density of 65 mA/cm2, flow velocity of 2.6 cm/sec in electrode gap, and initial chloride ion concentration of 5000 mg/L. The COD in the leachate could be reduced below 100 mg/L after 1 hr of treatment. The kinetics and mechanism of COD removal were investigated by simultaneously monitoring the COD change and chlorine/hypochlorite production. The kinetics of COD removal exhibited a two-stage kinetic model, and the decrease of electro-generated chlorine/hypochlorite production was the major mechanism for the slowing down of the COD removal rate in the second stage. The narrowing of the electrode gap is beneficial for COD removal and energy consumption. PMID:24494488

  11. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

  12. Molecular detection of human noroviruses in influent and effluent samples from two biological sewage treatment plants in the region of Monastir, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hassine-Zaafrane, Mouna; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Kaplon, Jérôme; Ben Salem, Imen; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2014-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for numerous cases of waterborne and foodborne gastroenteritis every year. They are released in the sewage and their detection in this environment can reflect the epidemiology of the viral strains circulating in the community. A three-year (2007-2010) survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of human NoVs using RT-PCR in 518 sewage samples collected at the entrance and exit of two biological sewage treatment plants located in Monastir region, Tunisia. In this study, we aimed to genetically characterize the most prevalent GI and GII NoV strains, in order to obtain a rough estimate of the efficacy of disinfection treatments and to compare the results with clinical data documented in the same area during the same period. This work confirms the wide circulation and the genetic diversity of NoVs in Tunisia and the widespread distribution of NoV variants in both raw and treated wastewater. Indeed, NoV was detected in 192 (37.1%) sewage samples, among them mixed infections with group A rotavirus were detected in 125 (65.1%) cases. The genotypes of the GI NoVs were GI.1, GI.2, GI.4, GI.5, and GI of unassigned genotype (GI.UA), and the genotypes of the GII NoVs were all GII.12. This study enhances the currently poor environmental virological data gathered in Tunisia, demonstrates the benefit of environmental surveillance as a tool to determine the epidemiology of NoVs circulating in a given community, and underlines the need for the design and support of similar long-term studies in our country, in order to compensate for the absence of a national surveillance system for gastroenteric viruses. PMID:24818568

  13. Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

  14. Performance of an AnMBR pilot plant treating high-strength lipid wastewater: biological and filtration processes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C; Garca, A; Diez, V

    2014-12-15

    The performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating wastewater with high levels of oil and grease content from a snacks factory is studied and its effectiveness is demonstrated. The relation between the reversible and the irreversible fouling rate and the fouling propensity of the fatty matter were evaluated under a subcritical flux of 7.9 and 8.3 L/m(2) h. Low Oil and Grease (O&G) concentrations of 500 mg/L produced an irreversible fouling rate of only 0.09 mbar/d, while the fouling rate was between 0.96 and 3.95 mbar/d for an average O&G concentration of 6 g/L. In spite of the significant increase in filtration resistance from 0.31 to 6.08 10(12) m(-1) after 40 days of continuous operation, the critical flux level hardly decreased from 11.1 to 9.7 L/(m(2) h). With regard to the biological process, after a start-up period with an organic loading rate (OLR) of below 2 kg COD/(m(3) d), the system was able to treat wastewater between 4.6 and 36 g O&G/L and the system remained stable for OLR at around 17 kg COD/(m(3) d) for 2.8 d, without inhibitory signals. Acclimated sludge quickly reached maximum methane production and digested substrate with high oil and grease content, observing an increase in palmitic acid the first days and constant levels of propionic acid while fatty acids were in the medium. PMID:25282089

  15. Biodegradation of phytosanitary products in biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Massot, A; Estve, K; Noilet, P; Moule, C; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

    2012-04-15

    Agricultural activity generates two types of waste: firstly, biodegradable organic effluents generally treated by biological processes and, secondly, phytosanitary effluents which contain residues of plant protection products. The latter are collected and treated. Current technological solutions are essentially based on concentration or physical-chemical processes. However, recent improvements in the biodegradability of pesticides open the way to the consideration of alternative, biological, treatment using mixed liquor from wastewater plant activated sludge. The feasibility of the biological treatment of viticultural effluents has been evaluated by the application of pesticides to activated sludge. The necessity for selection of a pesticide-resistant biomass has been highlighted. The elimination of the phytosanitary products shows the potential of a resistant biomass in the treatment of pesticides. The aerated biological storage ponds at three wineries, followed by a sand or reed-bed filter, were used for the treatment of the total annual volume of the viticulture effluents and validate the laboratory experiments. The results show that the biological purification of pesticides by activated sludge is possible by allowing approximately 8 days for biomass adaptation. Stability of purification occurs between 20 and 30 days. PMID:22284913

  16. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D; Sim, Marissa K; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%). PMID:25999243

  17. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F.; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D.; Sim, Marissa K.; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%). PMID:25999243

  18. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Mechanically-biologically treated municipal solid waste as a support medium for microbial methane oxidation to mitigate landfill greenhouse emissions.

    PubMed

    Einola, Juha-Kalle M; Karhu, A Elina; Rintala, Jukka A

    2008-01-01

    The residual fraction of mechanically-biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT residual) was studied in the laboratory to evaluate its suitability and environmental compatibility as a support medium in methane (CH(4)) oxidative biocovers for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Two MBT residuals with 5 and 12 months total (aerobic) biological stabilisation times were used in the study. MBT residual appeared to be a favourable medium for CH(4) oxidation as indicated by its area-based CH(4) oxidation rates (12.2-82.3 g CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) at 2-25 degrees C; determined in CH(4)-sparged columns). The CH(4) oxidation potential (determined in batch assays) of the MBT residuals increased during the 124 d column experiment, from <1.6 to a maximum of 104 microg CH(4) g(dw)(-1) h(-1) (dw=dry weight) at 5 degrees C and 578 microg CH(4) g(dw)(-1) h(-1) at 23 degrees C. Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production in MBT residual (<15 microg N(2)O kg(dw)(-1) d(-1) in the CH(4) oxidative columns) was at the lower end of the range of N(2)O emissions reported for landfills and non-landfill soils, and insignificant as a greenhouse gas source. Also, anaerobic gas production (25.6 l kg(dw)(-1) during 217 d) in batch assays was low, indicating biological stability of the MBT residual. The electrical conductivities (140-250 mS m(-1)), as well as the concentrations of zinc (3.0 mg l(-1)), copper (0.5 mg l(-1)), arsenic (0.3 mg l(-1)), nickel (0.1 mg l(-1)) and lead (0.1 mg l(-1)) in MBT residual eluates from a leaching test (EN-12457-4) with a liquid/solid (L/S) ratio of 10:1, suggest a potential for leachate pollutant emissions which should be considered in plans to utilise MBT residual. In conclusion, the laboratory experiments suggest that MBT residual can be utilised as a support medium for CH(4) oxidation, even at low temperatures, to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. PMID:17360174

  1. Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically-biologically treated waste.

    PubMed

    Einola, J-K M; Sormunen, K M; Rintala, J A

    2008-12-15

    The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically-biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (> 96%) of the methane produced (< 23 l CH4 m(-2) d(-1)) in the lysimeter was oxidized. Methane was oxidized mainly at the depths of 35-75 cm, as indicated by the upward decrease both in the methane concentration and in the methane-to-carbon dioxide ratio in the pore gas. Lower methane oxidation (< 0.8 CH4 m(-2) d(-1); this was < 22% of the methane produced) was observed only during the coldest time of the year (January 2006), apparently due to the fall in temperature at the depths of 25-70 cm (from 9-25 degrees C during April to October to 2-9 degrees C in January). Unexpectedly, the highest methane oxidation potential (MOP) was observed in samples from the top layer where exposure to methane was low. Overall, the results show that MBT residual is a suitable support medium for methane oxidation in landfill covers in field conditions in a boreal climate. PMID:18823644

  2. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell'Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

  3. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    PubMed Central

    Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell’Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

  4. Artificial Streams, Distorted Processes: The Effect of Effluent on Stream-Aquifer Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treese, S.; Meixner, T.; Hogan, J.; McCoy, A.

    2007-12-01

    Treated wastewater, effluent, has been used as a remedy for overstressed aquifers and dry streambeds. Artificial recharge basins allow effluent to seep into the ground relieving stressed aquifers. These basins however, frequently become clogged due to physical obstacles resulting from chemical and biological reactions. Effluent can also be used to replace baseflow for dry streambeds. However, little is known about the effect of effluent on stream-aquifer interactions. The Upper Santa Cruz River, Arizona has effluent, from the Nogales International Waste Water Treatment Plant, as its dominant water input (excepting flood events). A series of monthly field campaigns were undertaken to understand the impact of effluent on the streambed at 16 different sites along a thirty kilometer stretch of the river. The San Pedro River, Arizona is a natural flow, perennial stream that was also tested monthly and used as a control reach. The field campaigns had two focuses: physical transformations in the streambed and water source identification using chemical composition. Physical transformations were measured through the use of 1) piezometers and seepage pans and 2) soil cores; both used to obtain saturated hydraulic conductivity values (KSAT) over time. Water sampling included: the monthly field campaigns, monsoon flows, and nearby wells. All samples were analyzed for cations, anions, and stable isotope ratios (δD and δ18O). Results indicate that the Santa Cruz River becomes disconnected from the aquifer adjacent to the point of effluent discharge. Furthermore, as the time between major flood events increases, the disconnection of the stream and aquifer extends further downstream. In total the results imply that water in the streambed is isolated from the groundwater, perhaps due to clogging and that barrier is removed after especially large flood flows (1000+ cfs).

  5. Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

  6. Treatment of anti-osmotic drug based pharmaceutical effluent in an upflow anaerobic fluidized bed system.

    PubMed

    Saravanane, R; Murthy, D V; Krishnaiah, K

    2001-01-01

    During the production of Cephradine (a main constituent of anti-osmotic drug) a large quantity of concentrated effluent was produced. The main polluting compounds in this effluent are osmotic drug, acetic acid and ammonia. The feasibility of using a fluidized bed reactor under anaerobic condition with bioaugmentation to treat anti-osmotic drug based pharmaceutical effluent was evaluated. The main objective of the study was to show that bioaugmentation could be used to promote biological treatment to applications where conventional operation might be difficult or unfavourable. The effluent with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 14000-18000 mg/l was treated in a fluidized bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-12 h. The reactor was unable to maintain consistent removal in conventional mode of operation due to an inability to retain and grow biomass. The COD reduction (%) after inoculation from a sequencing batch reactor was related to influent concentration, mass of inoculum and hydraulic retention time characterized by calculating the initial food to microorganism ratio. The role of volatile fatty acid (VFA) as cosubstrate was assessed with respect to COD reduction (%). Continuous COD reduction (%) attained a maximum value of 88.5% using bioaugmentation through periodic addition of acclimated cells every 2 days with 30-73.2 g of cells from an off-line enricher reactor. PMID:11478623

  7. Census of cultivable bacterial community in common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tannery discharge and computational scrutiny on their leading residents

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Thangaiyan; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Arunprasanna, Vimalanathan; Shanmugam, Ponnusamy; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2013-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) for tannery effluent, is the combination of physical, chemical and biological treatment to facilitate the degradation of industrial waste water. Obviously, the biomass which survives in this extreme environment may have the ability to utilize the effluent as the sole carbon source for its survival. The ultimate aim of the present investigation is to expose the microbial diversity in each stage of the CETP through the culture dependent way. Bacterial diversity in the effluent were analysed through 16S rRNA gene. The community study revealed the dominance of firmicutes and the dominant genus was Bacillus sp, with variable species diversity. Notably, Putative Bacillus sp, B. firmus and B. licheniformis were observed in all stages of treatment. The dominant residents were analysed by BProm and TF site scan to prove their uniqueness. This species richness indicates the capability of liveliness in treatment plant and whose can be exploited for treating the effluent by using modern molecular approach. Abbreviations CETP - Common Effluent Treatment Plant, PTIET - Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company Ltd. PMID:23390354

  8. MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. . Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. . Marine Studies Group)

    1994-01-01

    European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

  9. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    PubMed Central

    Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

  10. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Sial, R A; Chaudhary, M F; Abbas, S T; Latif, M I; Khan, A G

    2006-12-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

  11. Separate treatment of hospital and urban wastewaters: A real scale comparison of effluents and their effect on microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Chonova, Teofana; Keck, François; Labanowski, Jérôme; Montuelle, Bernard; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès

    2016-01-15

    Hospital wastewaters (HWW) contain wider spectrum and higher quantity of pharmaceuticals than urban wastewaters (UWW), but they are generally discharged in sewers without pretreatment. Since traditional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not designed to treat HWWs, treated effluents may still contain pollutants that could impair receiving aquatic environments. Hence, a better understanding of the effect of pharmaceuticals in the environment is required. Biofilms are effective "biological sensors" for assessing the environmental effects of pharmaceuticals due to their ability to respond rapidly to physical, chemical and biological fluctuations by changes in their structure and composition. This study evaluated the efficiency of biological treatment with conventional activated sludge system performed parallel on HWW and UWW. Furthermore, six successive monthly colonizations of biofilms were done on autoclaved stones, placed in grid-baskets in the hospital treated effluents (HTE) and urban treated effluents (UTE). The biomass of these biofilms as well as the structure and diversity of their bacterial communities were investigated. Results showed better treatment efficiency for phosphate and nitrite/nitrate during the treatment of UWW. Pharmaceuticals from all investigated therapeutic classes (beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, analgesics and anticonvulsants) were efficiently removed, except for carbamazepine. The removal efficiency of the antibiotics, NSAIDs and beta-blockers was higher during the treatment of HWW. HTE and UTE shaped the bacterial communities in different ways. Higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the HTE caused adapted development of the microbial community, leading to less developed biomass and lower bacterial diversity. Seasonal changes in solar irradiance and temperature, caused changes in the community composition of biofilms in both effluents. According to the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals, the separate treatment was beneficial. However, their high concentrations in the HTE and the following adaptations of biofilm communities identify the importance of adapting wastewater treatment to specific hospital pollutants. PMID:26562343

  12. Denitrification and biofilm growth in a pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers for biological nitrogen removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhong; Wu, Guangxue; Wei, Nan; Hu, Hongying

    2015-06-01

    Tertiary denitrification is an effective method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. A pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers was operated for tertiary denitrification with ethanol as the organic carbon source. Long-term performance, biokinetics of denitrification and biofilm growth were evaluated under filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr. The pilot-scale biofilter removed nitrate from the secondary effluent effectively, and the nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) removal percentage was 82%, 78% and 55% at the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, respectively. At the filtration velocities of 6 and 10 m/hr, the nitrate removal loading rate increased with increasing influent nitrate loading rates, while at the filtration velocity of 14 m/hr, the removal loading rate and the influent loading rate were uncorrelated. During denitrification, the ratio of consumed chemical oxygen demand to removed NO3-N was 3.99-4.52 mg/mg. Under the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, the maximum denitrification rate was 3.12, 4.86 and 4.42 g N/(m2·day), the half-saturation constant was 2.61, 1.05 and 1.17 mg/L, and the half-order coefficient was 0.22, 0.32 and 0.24(mg/L)1/2/min, respectively. The biofilm biomass increased with increasing filtration velocity and was 2845, 5124 and 7324 mg VSS/m2 at filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, respectively. The highest biofilm density was 44 mg/cm3 at the filtration velocity of 14 m/hr. Due to the low influent loading rate, biofilm biomass and thickness were lowest at the filtration velocity of 6m/hr. PMID:26040729

  13. EVAPORATIVE PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE CONTAINING EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A unique evaporation/humidification process for treating wastewater effluent has been developed at Alcoa Laboratories. A major portion of the effluent is recovered as water of high purity suitable for recycle or reuse, and the small volume of concentrated chemicals can be either ...

  14. Advanced oxidation of bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Mounteer, A H; Pereira, R O; Morais, A A; Ruas, D B; Silveira, D S A; Viana, D B; Medeiros, R C

    2007-01-01

    In this study a poorly biodegradable (BOD/COD = 0.3) industrial alkaline ECF bleaching filtrate was treated using different advanced oxidation processes to evaluate their use in combined chemical-biological treatment aimed at increasing recalcitrant COD removal and improving final effluent quality. Oxidative treatments included ozonation combined with hydrogen peroxide (2, 5, 10, 20 mmol L(-1) O3/0.7, 2, 5, 10 mmol L(-1) H2O2) and photocatalysis with hydrogen peroxide (UV/2, 4 and 8 mmolL(-1) H2O2) and with TiO2 (UV/TiO2/0.7 and 4 mmol L(-1) H2O2). The O3/H2O2 process increased effluent biodegradability by up to 68% as a result of increasing BOD and decreasing COD. Increasing the O3 dose had a greater effect on biodegradability improvement and lignin and colour removal efficiencies than increasing the H2O2 dose. A combined oxidant dose of 5 mmol L(-1) O3 and 2 mmol L(-1) H2O2 resulted in 75% lignin removal, 40% colour removal and 6% carbohydrate loss without mineralizing the organic carbon. The photocatalytic processes led to a decrease in effluent biodegradability through combined decrease in BOD and increase in COD and did not result in efficient lignin or colour removal. Photocatalytic oxidation was apparently inhibited by the high chloride and COD levels in the alkaline filtrate, and may be more efficient in recalcitrant COD removal if performed after biological. PMID:17486841

  15. 40 CFR 419.54 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (b) of this section. (e) Effluent limitations for contaminated runoff. The following effluent... paragraph and attributable to contaminated runoff which may be discharged after the application of the best... solely of contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may...

  16. 40 CFR 419.24 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section. (e) Effluent limitations for contaminated runoff. The following effluent limitations constitute... attributable to contaminated runoff which may be discharged after the application of the best conventional... contaminated runoff and is not commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged if it...

  17. Analysis and removal of organic pollutants in biologically treated landfill leachate by an inorganic flocculent composite of Al(III)-Mg(II).

    PubMed

    Sang, Yimin; Gu, Qingbao; Sun, Tichang; Li, Fasheng; Pan, Yiting

    2008-10-01

    A novel inorganic flocculent composite of Al(III)-Mg(II) poly-magnesium-aluminum-sulfate (PMAS) is used to remove organic matter from biologically treated leachate in some landfills in Beijing, China. Jar-test experiments are employed to determine the optimum conditions for the removal of organic matter, which is represented as UV(254). Under optimum conditions, the removal of COD, BOD(5), and color is also determined. Moreover, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used to analyze the organic matter in the biologically treated leachate before and after treatment by the coagulant. The experimental results indicate that the removal of COD, BOD(5), UV(254), and color by coagulation with PMAS can reach above 65%, 60%, 85%, and 85%, respectively, under optimal conditions. This greatly weakens its pollution extent and improves its visual appeal. Forty-one kinds of organic pollutants in the biologically treated leachate were determined. Some of them belong to the Black List of water environmental preferred controlled pollutants, as judged by the United States and China. The species of alkyl, alkene, acyclic alcohol, and acyclic acyl amines are about 85% removed, some of them are removed completely, while the species of acids, esters, and ketones are removed at about 65%. Those contaminants with benzene rings, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxybenzene, aromatic alcohol, and aromatic acyl amine, are about 50% partially removed. PMID:18991941

  18. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  19. Evaluation of proteins and organic nitrogen in wastewater treatment effluents.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Pamela J; Park, Chul

    2010-07-15

    Proteins represent a large portion of organic nitrogen and carbon in wastewater treatment effluents, but their detailed characteristics and their role and fate in receiving waters are virtually unknown. We used two protein fractionation techniques to characterize effluent proteins and proteolytic enzymes in three activated sludge plants, as a first step to elucidate the fate and role of proteins in receiving water environments. The quantitative data first showed that the protein concentration in primary and secondary effluents was significantly correlated with organic nitrogen and could comprise up to 60% of effluent organic nitrogen. Protein separation results showed that some proteins persisted through secondary treatment, while others were produced during biological treatment. Despite a high similarity of protein and enzyme profiles in primary effluent across three facilities, those in secondary effluent were consistently different, suggesting that effluent proteins could serve as markers of different wastewater treatment works. These profile fingerprints can be used to track effluent proteins in laboratory bioassays, or directly in receiving waters, and may permit the determination of the fate of effluent proteins, and thus a significant fraction of effluent organic nitrogen, in the environment. PMID:20557127

  20. USE OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETE, 'LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS', FOR EFFLUENT BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of toxic agents in industria...

  1. Merits of ozonation and catalytic ozonation pre-treatment in the algal treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Balcioğlu, I Akmehmet; Tarlan, E; Kivilcimdan, C; Saçan, M Türker

    2007-12-01

    Since the performance of algal treatment for pulp mill effluent decreases with increasing color intensity and AOX content, which mainly originate from the chlorine bleaching of Kraft pulp, the separated CEH bleaching effluent was pre-treated by both the conventional and the heterogeneous catalytic ozonation processes. An increase in the BOD(5)/COD ratio from 0.11 to 0.28 and 87% color abatement in terms of Pt-Co were achieved by catalytic ozonation, which had the best treatment performance. Biodegradability enhancement of the CEH effluent correlated well with a decrease in toxicity, high-molecular-weight-compound content, and AOX abatement. By the pre-treatment of the CEH bleaching effluent, the overall efficiencies of algal treatment of the combined pulp mill effluent in terms of the fractional removal of COD and color were increased from 76% and 53% to 86-90% and 96-99%, respectively. Effects of both the conventional and the catalytic ozonation pre-treatments on subsequent biological treatment were close to each other and they reduced the filling period of the Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) cycle from 8 to 5 days. PMID:17188420

  2. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  3. In vitro effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent on sea bass red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Bogé, G; Roche, H

    2004-10-01

    Red blood cells of marine fish have been used in suitable biological assays to study the (eco)toxicity of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The aim of the present work was to draw upon their more relevant effects on cell hemolysis, ATP content, osmotic resistance and cell volume regulation. Following physico-chemical treatment, treatment plant effluents showed a residual toxicity resulting from multiple impairment of cell metabolism and structures. The earliest and most sensitive effects were related to the regulation of intracellular osmotic pressure leading to decreased cell water volume. Such effects were also observed following short-term incubation in 10-fold diluted effluent. Other damages were found following incubation in non-diluted effluent. Membrane structure was affected leading to increased osmotic resistance. Later, a decrease of the intracellular ATP level was found, followed by hemolysis. The presence of glucose in the incubation medium lessened the fall in ATP content and hemolysis in the treated cells but also in control cells. PMID:15556061

  4. Deammonification reaction in digested swine effluents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers that would like to implement biological nitrogen (N) removal from the effluent of anaerobic digesters (AD) – for example to comply with regional surplus nitrogen regulations or to take advantage of environmental nutrient credit programs – are often limited by the low amount of endogenous ca...

  5. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

  7. Comparing biological effects and potencies of estrone and 17 B-estradiol in mature fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of endocrine active compounds such as estrogens in treated wastewater effluent and their effects on aquatic life are causing concern among aquatic resource managers. In contrast to 17B-estradiol (E2), the steroid hormone produced by all vertebrates, the biological effects of estrone (E1...

  8. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  9. Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ≤2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse. PMID:22814960

  10. 40 CFR 411.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from materials storage...

  11. 40 CFR 411.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from materials storage...

  12. 40 CFR 411.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from materials storage...

  13. 40 CFR 411.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from materials storage...

  14. 40 CFR 411.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... facilities designed, constructed and operated to treat the volume of runoff from materials storage...

  15. Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests on wastewater treatment plants with Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Hyun Koo; Chang, Nam Ik; Kim, Sang Don

    2007-06-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests, with Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, were introduced to evaluate the biological toxicities of effluents from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. In WET tests of WWTPs effluents, 33.3% (33/99) for D. magna and 92.6% (75/81) for S. capricornutum revealed greater than 1 toxic unit (TU), even though all the treatment plants investigated were operating in compliance with the regulations, as assessed using conventional monitoring methods (i.e., BOD and total concentration of N or P, etc). There were only minor differences in toxicities according to the types of influents (municipal and agro-industrial) in all treatment plants. However, the effluents treated by an activated sludge treatment process were found to exhibit significantly lower toxicity than those treated by rotating biological contactor (RBC) and extended aeration processes. The seasonal variations in the toxicity were lower in the summer compared to winter, which may have been due to the rainfall received to the sewage intake system during the former period. The impact of WET on river water was also investigated based on the discharge volume. At sites A and B, the total impact of toxicity to stream and river waters was observed to be 70.9% and 90.4% for D. magna and S. capricornutum, respectively. The other four small treatment plants (sites F, G, H and I), with relative discharging volumes between 0.001 and 0.002, contribute less than 1% to the total toxicity. PMID:17106776

  16. Influence assessment of a lab-scale ripening process on the quality of mechanically-biologically treated MSW for possible recovery.

    PubMed

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Binner, Erwin; Lombardi, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the influence of an additional ripening process on the quality of mechanically-biologically treated MSW was evaluated in the prospective of recovering the end material, rather than landfilling. The biostabilised waste (BSW) coming from one of the MBT plants of Rome was therefore subjected to a ripening process in slightly aerated lab test cells. An in-depth investigation on the biological reactivity was performed by means of different types of tests (aerobic and anaerobic biological tests, as well as FT-IR spectroscopy method). A physical-chemical characterisation of waste samples progressively taken during the ripening phase was carried out, as well. In addition, the ripened BSW quality was assessed by comparing the characteristics of a compost sampled at the composting plant of Rome which treat source segregated organic wastes. Results showed that the additional ripening process allowed to obtain a better quality of the biostabilised waste, by achieving a much higher biological stability compared to BSW as-received and similar to that of the tested compost. An important finding was the lower heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) release in water phase at the end of the ripening compared to the as-received BSW, showing that metals were mainly bound to solid organic matter. As a result, the ripened waste, though not usable in agriculture as found for the compost sample, proved anyhow to be potentially suitable for land reclamation purposes, such as in landfills as cover material or mixed with degraded and contaminated soil for organic matter and nutrients supply and for metals recovery, respectively. In conclusion the study highlights the need to extend and optimise the biological treatment in the MBT facilities and opens the possibility to recover the output waste instead of landfilling. PMID:26074212

  17. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in Raphanus sativus L. and Spinacia oleracea L. plants irrigated with industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S N

    2006-05-01

    Effluent from electroplating industry contains various heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, which are used in electroplating process of industry. Effluent was slightly greenish in colour and pungent in odour. Physico-chemical properties like total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), alkalinity, Biological oxygen demand (BOD), and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) showed higher values in effluent with high metal contents like Cd, 0.013; Cr, 0.093; Ni, 0.935 and Zn 4.76 mg l(-1). plants of S. oleracea and R. sativus were raised in uncontaminated alluvial soil of Lucknow by soil pot culture method and irrigated with industrial effluent, showed visual toxic symptoms like stunted growth, necrosis followed by chlorosis in leaves and finally death of the plants. Severity of toxicity was less in plants treated with diluted effluent (50%). High accumulation of Cr, 302.0; Cu, 81.2; Ni, 155.1 and Zn 146.8 microg g(-1) dry weight in S. oleracea and Cr, 198.0; Cu, 41.0; Ni, 84.3 and Zn, 140.2 microg g(-1) dry weight in R. sativus were determined. Tissue concentration of metals and toxic effects was more in S. oleracea plants. The tissue concentration of metals showed much higher values in treated plants than that of their respective control. PMID:17436528

  18. Potential treatment alternative for laboratory effluents.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa C; Henrique, Humberto M; Xavier, Alcina M F; Cammarota, Magali C

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Analysis Laboratory under study weekly generates 46.5 L effluent with low pH (0.7), high COD concentration (6535 mg O2/L), sulphate (10390 mg/L) and heavy metals (213 mg Hg/L, 55 mg Cr/L, 28 mg Al/L, 22 mg Fe/L, 10mg Cu/L, 4 mg Ag/L). A treatment sequence has been proposed using a physical chemical step (coagulation/flocculation or chemical precipitation) followed by a biological step (anaerobic treatment). Removals of COD (18%), turbidity (76%) and heavy metals (64-99%) were attained only after adjusting pH to 6.5, without requiring the addition of Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3. Due to the low COD:sulphate ratio (0.9-1.3), it was possible to efficiently operate the UASB reactor (at the biological step) only upon mixing the effluent with household wastewater. COD, sulphate and heavy metals removals of 60%, 23% and 78% to 100%, respectively, were attained for 30% effluent in the reactor feed. The results pointed to the need of a pretreatment step and mixing the effluent in household wastewater prior to the biological step. This alternative is feasible as this can be achieved using sanitary wastewater generated in the university campus. PMID:16023567

  19. Treatment of an ECF effluent by combined use of activated sludge and advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Silva, F T; Mattos, L R; Paiva, T C B

    2007-01-01

    The combined biological and chemical treatments of the cellulose effluents have been studied aiming to promote a more significant degradation of their recalcitrant compounds and to reduce their toxicity, as compared with the isolated treatments. In this work the effluent from acid stages of the ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus urograndis pulp was treated by using separately activated sludge and UV radiation and its combination. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by colour, total phenol, COD, BOD, UV spectroscopy, molar weight distribution and toxicity. The untreated effluent presented 587 +/- 18 CU, 19.3 +/- 0.6 mg.L(-1) of total phenol, 2246 +/- 137 mgO2.L(-1) of COD and 904 +/- 48 mgO2.L(-1) of BOD. It did not show acute toxicity to Escherichia coli, but presented chronic toxicity to Selenastrum capricornutum (EC50 = 25%). The sludge treatment resulted in a colour increasing of 42% and decreasing of total phenol, COD and BOD of 33%, 64% and 92%, respectively. The UV radiation treatment for 120 min resulted in a decrease of colour, total phenol, BOD and COD of 70%, 43%, 62% and 43%, respectively. The combined treatment promoted an expressive decrease for colour and total phenol. The UV absorption indicated a degradation of the aromatic compounds. The biological treatment did not remove chronic toxicity and after UV radiation treatment, a 10 times improving toxicity was noticed. PMID:17486846

  20. Biological treatment of leachate from a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

    1989-02-01

    Studies were completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. The biomass was developed on the RBC discs with primary effluent from the City of Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Facility. Experiments were then conducted to determine the effectiveness of treating a hazardous waste leachate and to provide information on the following: the rate of organics removal; the final effluent quality; the fate of priority pollutants and specific organic compounds; and the loss of volatiles via stripping in the RBC. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the applicability of an RBC to treat a hazardous-waste leachate from a Superfund site.

  1. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  2. Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Laurenson, S; Luo, J; Sukias, J

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed. PMID:19342229

  3. Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ≈ 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

  4. Efficacy of Varunadi Ghritha (polyherbal compound) in treated head and neck cancer cases as a biological response modifier

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Divya; Hariharan, Indhu; Muwonge, Richard; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna; Ramadas, Kunnambath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent immune suppression is reported in Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) even after treatment and a higher recurrence rate was observed in patients with poor CD3 count. Loco regional recurrences and second primary tumours are the common forms of failure in head and neck cancers. Several agents have been tried to overcome this problem without much benefit. In Ayurveda, several plant based products have been reported to have anti-tumour and immunomodulatory properties. Aim: To test the role of Varunadi Ghritha, as an immunomodulator in apparently healthy, treated and controlled HNC patients and to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing locoregional relapses and development of second primary tumours. Materials and Methods: Total 78 patients of treated head and neck cancers were randomly selected for intervention and control group. Patients in the intervention group (n = 38) received Varunadi Ghritha, 5gms twice daily for one year and followed up to two years. Patients in the control group (n = 40) were followed up at regular intervals. Immune parameters were assessed in the peripheral blood at base line and at the end of administration of the study compound. Results: In the intervention group, mean percentage increase in CD3, CD19 and CD16 positive cells were significantly higher after the administration of the study compound compared to the control group indicating an immunomodulatory effect of the study compound. A non-significant improvement in disease control was observed in patients with advanced stage of disease in the intervention group. Conclusion: Administration of Varunadi Ghritha resulted in an increase in T cell counts in patients with treated HNC. PMID:25558162

  5. Medical Plant Extracts for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: a Snapshot of Recent Clinical Trials and Their Biological Background.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Sonja M; Weinmann, Daniela; Toegel, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In light of the growing global health problem associated with osteoarthritis, herbal remedies have become an important research focus in the scientific and medical community, and numerous studies have been published to identify their biological effects and mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. This review is a snapshot of the most recent clinical trials on the efficacy of medical plant extracts in knee osteoarthritis patients, and provides relevant background information on the biological mechanisms that may underlie the clinical observations. Therefore, we performed a PubMed literature survey and discussed a selection of clinical trials in the field, with special attention being drawn to the design and outcome measures of the studies. We further spotlighted on issues relating to the efficacy and safety of the plant extracts and discussed major challenges for upcoming studies in the field, which include the need for rigorously designed in vivo and in vitro studies, as well as the elucidation of potential additive effects and structure-modifying activities beyond symptom relief. PMID:26163305

  6. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  7. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  8. Effect of treated sewage on the water quality and phytoplankton populations of Lake Manzala (Egypt) with emphasis on biological assessment of water quality.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, M E; Shaaban-Dessouki, S A; Abdel-Hamid, M I; Aly Elham, M

    1997-07-01

    The effect of treated sewage on the quality of water and phytoplankton populations of Lake Manzala was studied with emphasis on use of algae to monitor water pollution as part of a search for a biological assessment of water quality. Lake Manzala is situated at the northern part of the Nile-delta, Egypt. Disposal of treated sewage into Lake Manzala appeared to have differential effects on water quality and phytoplankton populations. Marked seasonal and local variations were observed for the physical and chemical characteristics of water. 157 species of algae were identified, 59 Chlorophyta, 37 Bacillariophyta, 30 Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria), 28 Euglenophyta, one Pyrrhophyta and 2 Cryptophyta. Distribution and abundance of these algal divisions were found to differ at different sampling stations. Qualitative and quantitative growth of each algal division displayed great seasonal variations. The phytoplankton standing crop was mainly due to the contribution of Bacillariophyta whereas the species composition is dependent mainly on Chlorophyta. A great parallelism was noted between the quality of water samples based upon the chemical and physical investigations and their quality based upon the biological indices. Compound eutrophication index indicated that the nature of the investigated water ranged between eutrophic and hypereutrophic conditions. Diversity index values indicated that the water in the study area was of a moderate level of pollution. Saprobic index and saprobic quotient revealed the presence of beta- to alpha-mesosaprobic forms of algae. PMID:9258946

  9. Performance evaluation of a novel anaerobic-anoxic sludge blanket reactor for biological nutrient removal treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Díez-Montero, Rubén; De Florio, Loredana; González-Viar, Marta; Herrero, María; Tejero, Iñaki

    2016-06-01

    A novel anaerobic-anoxic sludge blanket reactor, AnoxAn, unifies the non-aerated zones of the biological nutrient removal treatment train in a single upflow reactor, aimed at achieving high compactness and efficiency. The environmental conditions are vertically divided up inside the reactor with the anaerobic zone at the bottom and the anoxic zone above. This contribution presents the performance evaluation of the novel reactor in the removal of organic matter and nutrients from municipal wastewater, coupled with an aerobic hybrid MBR. The overall system achieved total nitrogen and phosphorus removal with average efficiencies of 75% and 89%, respectively. Separate anoxic and anaerobic conditions were maintained in AnoxAn, allowing anaerobic phosphate release and nearly complete anoxic denitrification in the single reactor operating with an HRT of 4.2h. Biomass was retained in the reactor achieving TSS concentration up to 10gL(-1) and partial hydrolysis of influent particulate organic matter. PMID:26970922

  10. Evaluation of nitrogen retention and microbial populations in poultry litter treated with chemical, biological or adsorbent amendments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kimberly L; Rothrock, Michael J; Eiteman, Mark A; Lovanh, Nanh; Sistani, Karamat

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. Successful management to reduce ammonia and its harmful side-effects on poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of litter amendments. In this study, three acidifiers, two biological treatments, one chemical urease inhibitor and two adsorber amendments were added to poultry litter. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the litters were assessed at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Application of litter amendments consistently reduced organic N loss (0-15%) as compared to unamended litter (20%). Acidifiers reduced nitrogen loss through both chemical and microbiological processes. Adsorbent amendments (water treatment residuals and chitosan) reduced nitrogen loss and concentrations of ammonia-producing bacteria and fungi. The use of efficient, cost-effective litter amendments to maximum agronomic, environmental and financial benefits is essential for the future of sustainable poultry production. PMID:21371808

  11. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  12. Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation of a 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural derivative, asfural, from enzyme-treated asparagus extract.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Sato, Atsuya; Ono, Tomoko; Goto, Kazunori; Maeda, Takahiro; Takanari, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2013-09-25

    A novel 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF; 1) derivative, which is named asfural (compound 2), was isolated from enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) along with HMF (1) as a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inducible compound. The structure of compound 2 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data from HREIMS and NMR, whereas the absolute configuration was determined using chiral HPLC analysis, compared to two synthesized compounds, (S)- and (R)-asfural. As a result, compound 2 derived from ETAS was assigned as (S)-(2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate. When compound 2, synthesized (S)- and (R)-asfural, and HMF (1) were evaluated in terms of HSP70 mRNA expression-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells, compound 2 and (S)-asfural significantly increased the expression level in a concentration-dependent manner. HMF (1) also showed significant activity at 0.25 mg/mL. PMID:24000899

  13. Reactivation of human polyomavirus JC in patients affected by psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis and treated with biological drugs: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nardis, Chiara; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Rodio, Donatella M; De Pit, Ornella; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) are inter-related heritable inflammatory skin diseases. Psoriatic lesions develop as a result of abnormal immune responses, hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes, and a notable subset of psoriatic patients develops PsA, characterized by joints inflammation. Recently, biological drugs were introduced to treat these diseases. However, this therapy has already been associated with the development of serious life-threatening infections, such as the reactivation of human polyomavirus JC (JCV), responsible for the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a lethal demyelinating disease caused by oligodendrocytes lytic infection. Therefore, the aims of our study were the investigation of the possible JCV reactivation in PsV and PsA patients treated with adalimumab, etanercept, and methotrexate, performing quantitative real-time PCR in sera and skin biopsies at the time of recruitment (T0) and after 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months of treatment, and the sequencing analysis of the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR). We found JCV DNA in 5/15 PsV patients and in 2/15 PsA patients and JCV NCCR sequence analysis always showed a structure similar to non-pathogenic CY archetype, with random occurrence of a few irrelevant point mutations. Nevertheless the poor number of patients analyzed, our preliminary data can pave the way for taking into account that the follow-up of JCV DNA detection and the JCV NCCR sequence analysis in psoriatic patients may be important to evaluate the risk of PML onset, considering that patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologics continue to rise. PMID:22422468

  14. Epicardial Fat Thickness as Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Therapeutic Target in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Biological and Nonbiological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Martnez, Marcos M.; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-? inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 1.90?mm versus 9.71 1.45?mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 1.52?mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

  15. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm process to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan. The components of VOC were identified to be toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA). The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series, respectively, using 10- and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility. Experimental results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 +/- 605) mg/L of COD. A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m3 packing x d) was determined for the packed bed, in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow. A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 +/- 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system. Moreover, the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula, based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship, and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model. Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation revealed that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) were aerated into a gaseous phase, and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene were aerated. PMID:20108681

  17. Surface wettability and energy effects on the biological performance of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate films treated with RF plasma.

    PubMed

    Syromotina, D S; Surmenev, R A; Surmeneva, M A; Boyandin, A N; Nikolaeva, E D; Prymak, O; Epple, M; Ulbricht, M; Oehr, C; Volova, T G

    2016-05-01

    The surface properties of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) membranes were modified using oxygen and an ammonia radio-frequency (RF, 13.56MHz) plasma. The plasma treatment procedures used in the study only affected the surface properties, including surface topography, without inducing any significant changes in the crystalline structure of the polymer, with the exception being a power level of 250W. The wettability of the modified P3HB surfaces was significantly increased after the plasma treatment, irrespective of the treatment procedure used. It was revealed that both surface chemistry and surface roughness changes caused by the plasma treatment affected surface wettability. A treatment-induced surface aging effect was observed and resulted in an increase in the water contact angle and a decrease in the surface free energy. However, the difference in the water contact angle between the polymers that had been treated for 4weeks and the untreated polymer surfaces was still significant. A dependence between cell adhesion and proliferation and the polar component of the surface energy was revealed. The increase in the polar component after the ammonia plasma modification significantly increased cell adhesion and proliferation on biodegradable polymer surfaces compared to the untreated P3HB and the P3HB modified using an oxygen plasma. PMID:26952446

  18. Constructed wetlands design for enhanced phytoremediation of effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Sparks, B.J.; Carder, J.P.; Sumner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses constructed wetlands to solve an environmental compliance problem. Effluents from a coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) and a sewage treatment plant are both intermittently toxic based on effluent testing conducted under ORNL`s wastewater discharge permit. The CYRTF uses conventional technology (lime neutralization, flocculation); its effluent is toxic due primarily to the presence of high concentrations of calcium. Effluent from the sewage treatment plant is occasionally toxic due to a semivolatile, low-molecular weight constituent, perhaps generated when the wastewater is chlorinated prior to discharge. The two effluent are blended (about 2:8, volume:volume) before being passed through a pair of constructed wetland (CW) cells, each 1.8 m wide and 20 m long, for final equilibration. The CW system treats about 1,800 gallons of blended effluent per day. The effluent blend`s toxicity, as determined by testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia, is reduced by passage through the CW system. This simple aqueous-phase phytoremediation system is environmentally benign and provides the necessary minimal level of treatment for both effluents at low cost. We provide {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} in building and operating the CW system, and summarize the results of the chemical and toxicological tests used to demonstrate this technology`s application.

  19. Evaluation of biological removal efficiency in a UCT process treating municipal wastewater during start-up stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yong-De; Wan, Fujun

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the performance of University of Cape Town (UCT) municipal wastewater treatment plant, during the startup stage with the focus on the relationship between hydraulic retention time (HRT) and biological nutrient removal (BNR) efficiency. The entire experimental period was 144 days, divided into four periods. Results showed that the removal efficiency of TN, NH4+-N, and Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) was closely related to the HRT. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics analysis was used to calculate the specific degradation rates of pollutants. The GPS-X modeling was also used to examine the effect of the UCT pilot plant on BNR. The UCT pilot plant used in this study achieved high BNR efficiency even during the startup stage. With HRT of 24 hr (Period 1, day 1-40, data set 1-10), the highest levels of TN, NH(4+)-N and KN removal efficiency were approximately 72, 76 and 78%, respectively. The COD showed consistent high removal efficiency, with the highest level of approximately 96% at HRT of 15 hr (Period 3, day 81-120, data set 21-30). The TP removal efficiency rose at first and subsequently decreased abruptly. The maximum removal efficiency was 85% with HRT of 19 hr (Period 2, day 41-80, data set 11-20). With the optimal HRT 19 hr, the average removal efficiency values of COD, TP, TN, NH(4+)-N and KN were 89, 80, 65, 67 and 68%, respectively. The GPS-X modeling results indicated that the UCT process was effective in COD, TP and TN removal. PMID:24620618

  20. Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species. PMID:23737943

  1. Septic tank effluent pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.L.; Bounds, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Septic tank effluent pump (STEP) systems are beginning to be recognized as the preferred and most economical method of collecting and transporting partially-treated wastewater to a treatment facility. A conventional septic tank provides pretreatment, removing most settable and floatable solids from the wastewater. Specially designed pumps convey the septic tank effluent under pressure through a network of small diameter plastic piping to a treatment site. Shallow collection lines, following the contours of the terrain, eliminate the need for costly deep excavations. Changes in both vertical and horizontal alignments may be made in the field. The impetus for this rapidly developing technology has come mainly from the western US. Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality, for example, requires engineers to consider STEP systems whenever a new wastewater collection project is contemplated. The success of a STEP system depends primarily on the skill of the engineer in designing and managing the project. Guidelines for designers are discussed and brief descriptions of several successful STEP systems are included.

  2. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  3. Biological treatment of hazardous aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

    1987-06-01

    Studies were conducted with a rotating biological conractor (RBC) to evaluate the treatability of leachates from the Stringfellow and New Lyme hazardous-waste sites. The leachates were transported from the waste sites to Cincinnati at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Testing and Evaluation Facility. A series of batches were run with primary effluent from Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Facility. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the effectiveness of an RBC to adequately treat leachates from Superfund sites.

  4. Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control and plants irrigated with untreated 0.65, and between the treatments 0.68. We conclude that both untreated and treated effluents contain genotoxic substances that caused DNA damage to mung beans. CETP Unnao removes some, but not all, genotoxic substances from tannery effluent. Consequently, use of both untreated and treated wastewater for irrigation poses health hazard to human and the environment. PMID:25937990

  5. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent. PMID:25944749

  6. The effect of pre-ozonation on the H2O2/UV-C treatment of raw and biologically pre-treated textile industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alaton, I Arslan; Balcioğlu, I A

    2002-01-01

    Advanced chemical oxidation of raw and biologically pretreated wastewater by ozonation, H2O2/UV-C treatment and the successive combination of ozonation and H2O2/UV-C oxidation was investigated. For the raw textile wastewater, the application of successive O3 + H2O2/UV-C oxidation enhanced the COD and TOC removal efficiency of the H2O2 (50 mM)/UV-C process by a factor of 13 and 4, respectively. In case of the biotreated textile wastewater, the preliminary ozonation step increased COD removal of the H2O2 (10 mM)/UV-C treatment system from 15% to 62%, and TOC removal from 0% to 34%, but did not appear to be more effective than applying a single ozonation process in terms of TOC abatement rates. Enhancement of the biodegradability was more pronounced for the biologically pre-treated wastewater with a two fold average increase in the BOD5/COD ratio for the studied chemical oxidation systems. PMID:12201115

  7. The effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with high NH4(+)-N concentration and low COD/TN ratio, and the effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal were investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time of 8h and 35°C. The results showed that the UMSR could treat the wastewater with a better synchronous removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN. The microaerobic UMSR allowed nitrifiers, and heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers to thrive in the flocs, revealing a multiple nitrogen removal mechanism in the reactor. Both the nitrifiers and denitrifiers would be restricted by an influent COD/TN ratio more than 0.82, resulting in a decrease of TN removal in the UMSR. To get a TN removal over 80% with a TN load removal above 0.86kg/(m(3)·d) in the UMSR, the influent COD/TN ratio should be less than 0.70. PMID:26972024

  8. A reliable monitoring of the biocompatibility of an effluent along an oxidative pre-treatment by sequential bioassays and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Amat, A M; Arques, A; García-Ripoll, A; Santos-Juanes, L; Vicente, R; Oller, I; Maldonado, M I; Malato, S

    2009-02-01

    A new approach to assess biocompatibility of an effluent, based on combination of different bioassays and chemical analyses, has been tested using a mixture of four commercial pesticides treated by a solar photo-Fenton as target effluent. A very fast elimination of the pesticides occurred (all of them were below detection limit at t30W=36 min), but mineralisation was a more time-consuming process, due to the formation of organic intermediates and to the presence of solvents, as shown by GC-MS analysis. Measurements based on activated sludge indicated that detoxification was coincident with the removal of the active ingredients, while more sensitive Vibrio fischeri bacterium showed significant toxicity until the end of the experiment, although the effluent might be compatible with biological processes. Biodegradability of the solutions was enhanced by the photochemical process, to reach BOD5/COD ratios above 0.8. Longer time bioassays, such as the Zahn-Wellens' test, support the applicability of coupling photochemical with activated sludge-based biological processes to deal with these effluents. PMID:19070346

  9. Evaluation of crystallographic orientation of biological apatite in vertebral cortical bone in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys treated with minodronic acid and alendronate.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Matsugaki, Aira; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of the orientational distribution of biological apatite (BAp) crystals is proposed as a new index of bone quality. This study aimed to analyze BAp c-axis orientation in ovariectomized (OVX) monkeys treated with amino-bisphosphonates minodronic acid and alendronate as reference. Sixty female monkeys aged 9-17 years were divided into five groups: one sham group and four OVX groups. The sham group and one OVX group were treated daily with vehicle for 17 months. The other three groups were treated daily with minodronic acid at doses of 0.015 and 0.15 mg/kg, and alendronate at 0.5 mg/kg orally, respectively. The seventh lumbar vertebrae were subjected to analysis of the preferential BAp c-axis orientation in the ventral cortical bone. The BAp c-axis orientation along the craniocaudal axis was significantly increased in the OVX monkeys. The high dose of minodronic acid suppressed the OVX-induced increase in the BAp c-axis orientation, whereas alendronate showed a non-significant tendency to suppress the increase in the orientation. In analysis with other parameters, the BAp c-axis orientation was positively correlated with bone formation indices in biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry and negatively correlated with the increase in lumbar bone mineral density. On the other hand, the BAp c-axis orientation was not correlated with bone resorption indices, except for the eroded surface. These results indicate that the increase in BAp c-axis orientation was ameliorated by minodronic acid treatment in OVX monkeys, mainly by suppression of bone formation increase. PMID:25837430

  10. A genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of epilepsy prognosis in a prospective cohort of newly treated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Speed, Doug; Hoggart, Clive; Petrovski, Slave; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Coffey, Alison; Jorgensen, Andrea; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; De Iorio, Maria; Todaro, Marian; De, Tisham; Smith, David; Smith, Philip E; Jackson, Margaret; Cooper, Paul; Kellett, Mark; Howell, Stephen; Newton, Mark; Yerra, Raju; Tan, Meng; French, Chris; Reuber, Markus; Sills, Graeme E; Chadwick, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Bentley, David; Scheffer, Ingrid; Berkovic, Samuel; Balding, David; Palotie, Aarno; Marson, Anthony; O'Brien, Terence J; Johnson, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of a prospective multicentre study to investigate genetic effects on the prognosis of newly treated epilepsy. Patients with a new clinical diagnosis of epilepsy requiring medication were recruited and followed up prospectively. The clinical outcome was defined as freedom from seizures for a minimum of 12 months in accordance with the consensus statement from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Genetic effects on remission of seizures after starting treatment were analysed with and without adjustment for significant clinical prognostic factors, and the results from each cohort were combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. After quality control (QC), we analysed 889 newly treated epilepsy patients using 472 450 genotyped and 6.9 × 10(6) imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Suggestive evidence for association (defined as Pmeta < 5.0 × 10(-7)) with remission of seizures after starting treatment was observed at three loci: 6p12.2 (rs492146, Pmeta = 2.1 × 10(-7), OR[G] = 0.57), 9p23 (rs72700966, Pmeta = 3.1 × 10(-7), OR[C] = 2.70) and 15q13.2 (rs143536437, Pmeta = 3.2 × 10(-7), OR[C] = 1.92). Genes of biological interest at these loci include PTPRD and ARHGAP11B (encoding functions implicated in neuronal development) and GSTA4 (a phase II biotransformation enzyme). Pathway analysis using two independent methods implicated a number of pathways in the prognosis of epilepsy, including KEGG categories 'calcium signaling pathway' and 'phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway'. Through a series of power curves, we conclude that it is unlikely any single common variant explains >4.4% of the variation in the outcome of newly treated epilepsy. PMID:23962720

  11. A genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of epilepsy prognosis in a prospective cohort of newly treated epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Doug; Hoggart, Clive; Petrovski, Slave; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Coffey, Alison; Jorgensen, Andrea; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; De Iorio, Maria; Todaro, Marian; De, Tisham; Smith, David; Smith, Philip E.; Jackson, Margaret; Cooper, Paul; Kellett, Mark; Howell, Stephen; Newton, Mark; Yerra, Raju; Tan, Meng; French, Chris; Reuber, Markus; Sills, Graeme E.; Chadwick, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Bentley, David; Scheffer, Ingrid; Berkovic, Samuel; Balding, David; Palotie, Aarno; Marson, Anthony; O'Brien, Terence J.; Johnson, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of a prospective multicentre study to investigate genetic effects on the prognosis of newly treated epilepsy. Patients with a new clinical diagnosis of epilepsy requiring medication were recruited and followed up prospectively. The clinical outcome was defined as freedom from seizures for a minimum of 12 months in accordance with the consensus statement from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Genetic effects on remission of seizures after starting treatment were analysed with and without adjustment for significant clinical prognostic factors, and the results from each cohort were combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. After quality control (QC), we analysed 889 newly treated epilepsy patients using 472 450 genotyped and 6.9 × 106 imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Suggestive evidence for association (defined as Pmeta < 5.0 × 10−7) with remission of seizures after starting treatment was observed at three loci: 6p12.2 (rs492146, Pmeta = 2.1 × 10−7, OR[G] = 0.57), 9p23 (rs72700966, Pmeta = 3.1 × 10−7, OR[C] = 2.70) and 15q13.2 (rs143536437, Pmeta = 3.2 × 10−7, OR[C] = 1.92). Genes of biological interest at these loci include PTPRD and ARHGAP11B (encoding functions implicated in neuronal development) and GSTA4 (a phase II biotransformation enzyme). Pathway analysis using two independent methods implicated a number of pathways in the prognosis of epilepsy, including KEGG categories ‘calcium signaling pathway’ and ‘phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway’. Through a series of power curves, we conclude that it is unlikely any single common variant explains >4.4% of the variation in the outcome of newly treated epilepsy. PMID:23962720

  12. Biologic Treatment Registry Across Canada (BioTRAC): a multicentre, prospective, observational study of patients treated with infliximab for ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Proton; Choquette, Denis; Bensen, William G; Khraishi, Majed; Chow, Andrew; Zummer, Michel; Shaikh, Saeed; Sheriff, Maqbool; Dixit, Sanjay; Sholter, Dalton; Psaradellis, Eliofotisti; Sampalis, John S; Letourneau, Vincent; Lehman, Allen J; Nantel, François; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Otawa, Susan; Shawi, May

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the profile of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) treated with infliximab in Canadian routine care and to assess the effectiveness and safety of infliximab in real world. Setting 46 primary care rheumatology practices across Canada. Participants 303 biological-naïve patients with AS or patients previously treated with a biological for <6 months and who were eligible for infliximab treatment as per routine care within the Biologic Treatment Registry Across Canada (BioTRAC). Intervention Not applicable (non-interventional study). Primary and secondary outcomes Effectiveness was assessed with changes in disease parameters (AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disease Index (HAQ-DI), physician global assessment of disease activity (MDGA), patient global disease activity (PtGA), back pain, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), morning stiffness). Safety was assessed with the incidence of adverse events (AEs). Results Of the 303 patients included, 44.6% were enrolled in 2005–2007 and 55.4% in 2008–2013. Patients enrolled in 2005–2007 had significantly higher MDGA and ESR at baseline while all other disease parameters examined were numerically higher with the exception of PtGA. Treatment with infliximab significantly (p<0.001) improved all disease parameters over time in both groups. At 6 months, 56% and 31% of patients achieved clinically important (change≥1.1) and major (change≥2.0) improvement in ASDAS, respectively; at 48 months, these proportions increased to 75% and 50%, respectively. Among patients unemployed due to disability at baseline, 12.1% returned to work (mean Kaplan-Meier (KM)-based time=38.8 months). The estimated retention rate at 12 and 24 months was 78.3% and 60.1%, respectively. The profile and incidence of AEs were comparable to data previously reported for tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors. Conclusions Characteristics of patients with AS at infliximab initiation changed over time towards lower disease activity and shorter disease duration. Infliximab treatment significantly reduced disease activity independent of treatment initiation year, although patients enrolled in recent years achieved lower disease activity over 48 months. Trial registration number NCT00741793. PMID:27048632

  13. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  14. Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamlesh; Saini, Sonia; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2005-04-01

    Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects. PMID:16161973

  15. Evidence of ATP assay as an appropriate alternative of MTT assay for cytotoxicity of secondary effluents from WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yun; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying; Chen, Ying-Hua; Liu, Wan-Li

    2015-12-01

    Biological tests are effective and comprehensive methods to assess toxicity of environmental pollutants to ensure the safety of reclaimed water. In this study, the canonical MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) of secondary effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It was surprising that most concentrated DOMs treated HepG2 cells yielded much higher signal compared with vehicle control regardless of difference of treatment technologies and seasons. However, there was actually no obvious enhancement of the cell proliferation by microscopy. In order to find out potential reason for the discrepancy, another three assays were performed. The results of ATP assay and flow cytometry showed expected toxicity, which was consistent with microscopy and previous studies, while DNA assay did not exhibit apparent change in treated cells. The possible mechanisms of abnormal MTT signal could be that some materials in secondary effluents isolated by solid extraction with HLB resin directly reacted with MTT and/or enhanced the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase. Therefore, the MTT assay is not suitable to assess cytotoxicity of complex mixtures such as secondary effluents, while ATP assay is an optional sensitive method. This study also suggests the importance of choosing both suitable extraction methods and detection assays for toxicity evaluation of component-unknown environmental samples. PMID:26410194

  16. Coupled photocatalytic-biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol: effects of photolytic and photocatalytic effluent composition on bioreactor process performance, community diversity, and resistance and resilience to perturbation.

    PubMed

    Marsolek, Michael D; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Gray, Kimberly A; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-03-01

    Sequentially coupled advanced oxidation-biodegradation systems have proven effective for treating a variety of wastewaters, but in several cases the pretreatment did not improve, or even hindered, subsequent biodegradation. Therefore, investigating the relationship between advanced oxidation pretreated effluent and subsequent bioreactor performance can help to optimize these systems. Here, a photocatalytic reactor was used to produce four unique effluents from 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) by varying light wavelength, catalyst presence, and reaction time, demonstrating that the conditions of photocatalytic pretreatment can be tuned to achieve a variety of treatment objectives. The photocatalytic effluents were characterized for chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride release, aromaticity, and residual TCP concentration. The four effluents were normalized to 40 mg COD/L, combined with biological medium components, and fed to continuous bioreactors. Bioreactors were assayed for COD removal, TCP removal, optical density (OD), and microbial diversity via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In general COD removal in the bioreactors increased as aromatic character of the photoeffluent decreased, but the least aromatic effluent performed poorly indicating the nuanced relationship between photoreactor effluent composition and bioreactor performance. While neither indicator of community diversity, richness nor evenness, correlated with COD removal or biomass accumulation, each effluent produced a unique community as indicated through similarity indices. All conditions demonstrated strong overall TCP removal. After two weeks at steady state, the reactors were perturbed with a 120-μM spike of TCP. Overall the most aromatic photoeffluent produced the most resistant community to the perturbation, while the optimum effluents at steady state produced communities with poor resistance in terms of biomass accumulation and COD removal. These results highlight the tradeoffs between steady state performance and resistance to perturbation that are necessary to optimize a combined advanced oxidation-biodegradation treatment strategy. PMID:24361703

  17. Process and system for treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  18. Textiles wastewater treatment using anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhimin; Zhang, Yugao; Wang, Xiaojun

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the performance of the anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter (AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF) process treating real textile dyeing wastewater was investigated. After more than 2 month process operation, the average effluent COD concentration of the AFB, BWB, O(3)-BAF were 704.8 mg/L, 294.6 mg/L and 128.8 mg/L, with HRT being 8.1-7.7h, 9.2h and 5.45 h, respectively. Results showed that the effluent COD concentration of the AFB decreased with new carriers added and the average removal COD efficiency was 20.2%. During operation conditions, HRT of the BWB and O(3)-BAF was increased, resulting in a decrease in the effluent COD concentration. However, on increasing the HRT, the COD reduction capability expressed by the unit carrier COD removal loading of the BWB reactor increased, while that of the O(3)-BAF reactor decreased. This study is a beneficial attempt to utilize the AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF combine process for textile wastewater treatment. PMID:21186119

  19. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment. PMID:12892505

  20. Delayed wound healing and postoperative surgical site infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with or without biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Tada, Masahiro; Inui, Kentaro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Okano, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Hidaka, Noriaki; Koike, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have become more popular for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Whether or not bDMARDs increase the postoperative risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has remained controversial. We aimed to clarify the effects of bDMARDs on the outcomes of elective orthopedic surgery. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to analyze risk factors for SSI and delayed wound healing among 227 patients with RA (mean age, 65.0 years; disease duration, 16.9 years) after 332 elective orthopedic surgeries. We also attempted to evaluate the effects of individual medications on infection. Rates of bDMARD and conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD) administration were 30.4 and 91.0 %, respectively. Risk factors for SSI were advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; P = 0.045), prolonged surgery (OR, 1.02; P = 0.03), and preoperative white blood cell count >10,000/μL (OR, 3.66; P = 0.003). Those for delayed wound healing were advanced age (OR, 1.16; P = 0.001), prolonged surgery (OR, 1.02; P = 0.007), preoperative white blood cell count >10,000/μL (OR, 4.56; P = 0.02), and foot surgery (OR, 6.60; P = 0.001). Risk factors for SSI and medications did not significantly differ. No DMARDs were risk factors for any outcome examined. Biological DMARDs were not risk factors for postoperative SSI. Foot surgery was a risk factor for delayed wound healing. PMID:27129711

  1. NITRIFICATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTE EFFLUENTS BY ROTATING BIO-DISCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of nitrifying secondary effluent with rotating biological surfaces (RBS). Two municipal effluents were evaluated; one was from a high rate trickling filter and the other was from two-stage, flow through lagoon. RBS pilot pla...

  2. Method for removing and decolorizing aqueous waste effluents containing dissolved or dispersed organic matter

    DOEpatents

    Case, F.N.; Ketchen, E.E.

    1975-10-14

    A method is provided for treating organic waste material dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous effluent, which comprises contacting the effluent with an inert particulate carbonaceous sorbent at an oxygen pressure up to 2000 psi, irradiating the resultant mixture with high energy radiation until a decolorized liquid is produced, and then separating the decolorized liquid.

  3. Assessment of industrial effluent and its impact on soil and plants.

    PubMed

    Barman, S C; Kisku, G C; Salve, P R; Misra, D; Sahu, R K; Ramteke, P W; Bhargava, S K

    2001-10-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of industrial water of an electronic component manufacturing unit with electroplating and its subsequent effects on soil and plants receiving the effluent. The physico-chemical parameters of the effluent samples showed higher value than that of ground water. The treated effluent was within the permissible limit. Microtox test was conducted and determined the degree of toxicity of untreated, treated effluents as well as the water sample collected at effluent discharge point of receiving river (confluence point). The physico- mechanical parameters of the soil samples were not changed due to irrigation of the treated effluent, but the concentration of metals were comparatively higher than the control soil. Higher accumulation of metals was found in the plant parts in naturally growing weeds and cultivated crop plant irrigated with treated effluent. Elevated accumulation of metals in Eichhornia crassipes and Marsilea sp. growing along the effluent channel has been identified as a potential source of biomonitoring of metals particularly for Cu and Ca and can be utilised for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater. PMID:12018593

  4. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Gustavo; Barra, Ricardo; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Rivas, Meyling; Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-07-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and laboratory assays at the higher PPME concentration (60-85% PPME). This study confirms estrogenic effects in Chilean fish exposed to PPME and the necessity for biological effects monitoring in addition to the assessment of physical-chemical endpoints as required in current government regulations. PMID:25956323

  5. Effluent blending in constructed wetlands: Pollution prevention applications at a coal yard treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, J.P.; Hoylman, A.M.; Sparks, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent blending, in combination with constructed wetland biotechnology, is a promising method for reducing the loading rates of pollution to receiving streams. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a project is underway to demonstrate this principle. An 8:2 ratio of sewage treatment plant to coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) effluent will be polished by 2 constructed wetland cells containing emergent wetland plants in saturated pea gravel at a rate of 3600 gallons per day. The relatively high concentration of nutrients in the STP effluent should stimulate biological processes leading to the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and the conversion of excess sulfate (in the CYRTF effluent) to alkalinity. Chlorine, which is added to the STP effluent to control bacteria, should also be eliminated. Measurements of wastewater toxicity, before and after the effluent blend has passed through the constructed wetlands, will be used to assess the technology`s effectiveness at reducing pollution.

  6. Ten years experience of treating all flows from combined sewerage systems using package plant and constructed wetland combinations.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P

    2003-01-01

    Severn Trent Water have been using constructed wetlands since 1991 as part of a flowsheet in which 6 DWF (Dry Weather Flow) is treated by rotating biological contactors (RBCs), and constructed reed beds used to provide both tertiary treatment and stormwater treatment. The company now has over 50 such sites using this flowsheet. Dimensioning and effluent quality achievable is reported and data presented showing the performance of reed beds treating stormwater alone or in admixture with RBC effluent. After 8-10 years of operation the condition of a number of storm reed beds was assessed to determine the remaining asset life. The majority seem likely to achieve at least another five years of operation before further review is needed. PMID:14753523

  7. In-Plant Corrosion Study of Steels in Distillery Effluent Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    The present study deals with corrosion and performance of steels observed in an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a distillery. For this purpose, the metal coupons were exposed in primary (untreated effluent) and secondary tank (anaerobic treatment effluent) of the ETP. The extent of attack has been correlated with the composition of the effluent with the help of laboratory immersion and electrochemical tests. Untreated distillery effluent found to be more corrosive than the anaerobic-treated effluents and is assigned due to chloride, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and nitrite ions, which enhances corrosivity at acidic pH. Mild steel showed highest uniform and localized corrosion followed by stainless steels 304L and 316L and lowest in case of duplex 2205.

  8. Reutilization of effluents from laccase-mediator treatments of kraft pulp for biobleaching.

    PubMed

    Moldes, D; Vidal, T

    2011-02-01

    Several effluents from laccase-mediator treatments of kraft pulp were recovered and subsequently reused with fresh pulp in order to simulate recirculation of effluents during biobleaching. The effluents were used as a new bleaching stage without any modification except enzyme addition. Pulp treated with effluents were afterwards chemically bleached by using the simple sequence LQPo, where L represents the treatment with effluent and laccase addition, Q is a chelating stage and Po is an alkaline peroxide stage. This system showed a promising potential on delignification, with kappa number ranging from 5.5 to 6.6 after LQPo sequence, depending on the type of effluent employed in L stage. Improvements on pulp brightness were also reported compared with control experiment. PMID:21111614

  9. Land application of pulp and paper mill effluents -- A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, A.A.; Edwards, E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews the literature on land application of pulp and paper mill effluents with emphasis on secondary treated effluents from kraft bleach pulp mills. It discusses the current status of effluent land application in the industry and the need for further studies. The literature review showed that considerable research had been undertaken, including full-scale land application of effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies dealt almost exclusively with crop productivity aspects. Soil salinity and sodicity problems, as well as application rates were extensively studied. However, relatively little attention has been given to the behavior of toxic organic compounds from pulp mill effluents in the soil environment and the long-term environmental impact of the effluent disposal practices is not fully understood.

  10. Measurement and removal of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Dorn, P.B.; Means, J.C.; Jenkins, K.D.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Public concern regarding the presence of persistent, bioconcentratable compounds in fish and shellfish has led the petroleum industry to investigate methods for the measurement of bioconcentratable compounds in refinery effluents. Research has focused on developing methods to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons directly in the effluent and in bivalves exposed to refinery effluents in the field and in the laboratory. Results from a multi-refinery study in the San Francisco Bay Area using selective ion monitoring GC/MS-MS indicated that alkylated and non-substituted 2--3 ring PAHs are rarely present in refinery effluents at concentrations greater than 100 ng/L. Higher MW PAHs were rarely detected. PAHs did not substantially bioconcentrate in bivalves exposed in the laboratory to refinery effluent and reference sea water. Total PAHs were generally less than 50 {mu}g/g in the effluent-exposed bivalves. A comparison of the waste water treatment facilities at each refinery suggest that biological treatment already required by existing regulations is sufficient to reduce PAH concentrations to these low levels.

  11. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sa’ed, R.

    2007-01-01

    Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

  12. Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lúcia Regina

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour. PMID:24031372

  13. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

  14. Bioaugmentation and treatment of cephalexin drug-based pharmaceutical effluent in an upflow anaerobic fluidized bed system.

    PubMed

    Saravanane, R; Murthy, D V; Krishnaiah, K

    2001-02-01

    Cephalexin is a constituent of the cephalosporin group used for the treatment of bronchitis and other heart diseases due to its enhanced oral activity. The effluent from these industries contains a disintegrated form of the drug contributing high chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile solids and organic solvent. A laboratory-scale study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a fluidized bed reactor operated under anaerobic condition with bioaugmentation to treat the cephalexin containing pharmaceutical factory effluent. The main objective of the study was to show that bioaugmentation could be used to promote biological treatment to applications where conventional operation might be difficult or unfavourable. The effluent, with COD of 12,000-15,000 mg/l, was diluted and studied in single and multiple inoculation experiments with hydraulic retention times of 3-12 h. The removal efficiency after inoculation from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was related to influent concentration, mass of inoculum and hydraulic retention time characterized by calculating the initial food to microorganism ratio. Continuous COD removal efficiency attained a maximum value of 88.5% using bioaugmentation through periodic addition of acclimated cells every 2 days with 30-73.2 g of cells from an off-line enricher-reactor. PMID:11198183

  15. 40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste water and mine dewatering discharges, shall not exceed the following limitations: Effluent... if the facilities are designed, constructed and maintained to contain or treat the volume of waste water which would result from a 10-year 24-hour precipitation event....

  16. 40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste water and mine dewatering discharges, shall not exceed the following limitations: Effluent... if the facilities are designed, constructed and maintained to contain or treat the volume of waste water which would result from a 10-year 24-hour precipitation event....

  17. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...—Extrusion Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Metric Units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy heat treated on an...

  18. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...—Extrusion Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly average Metric Units—mg/off-kg of copper or copper alloy heat treated on an...

  19. 40 CFR 419.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)(3). (c) The following allocations constitute the quantity and quality of pollutants or pollutant... water flow, as kg/cu m (lb/1000 gal), shall be based on those ballast waters treated at the refinery. Pollutant or pollutant property BCT Effluent limitations for ballast water Maximum for any 1 day Average...

  20. 40 CFR 419.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(3). (c) The following allocations constitute the quantity and quality of pollutants or pollutant... water flow, as kg/cu m (lb/1000 gal), shall be based on those ballast waters treated at the refinery. Pollutant or pollutant property BCT Effluent limitations for ballast water Maximum for any 1 day Average...

  1. 40 CFR 419.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(3). (c) The following allocations constitute the quantity and quality of pollutants or pollutant... water flow, as kg/cu m (lb/1000 gal), shall be based on those ballast waters treated at the refinery. Pollutant or pollutant property BCT Effluent limitations for ballast water Maximum for any 1 day Average...

  2. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 0.051 (d) Subpart A—Solution Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant... heat treated English units—pounds per 1,000,000 off-pounds of copper or copper alloy heat...

  3. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid... are treated with cold rolling wastewaters. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Bar, billet and...

  4. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid... are treated with cold rolling wastewaters. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Bar, billet and...

  5. Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs were present in both WWTP effluents and receiving streams, (3) some effluents may be important sources of estrogenicity in weakly diluted streams, (4) measured levels of biological estrogenicity were often higher than estimated levels of chemical estrogenicity, and (5) the type of treatment had a large effect on the removal efficacy, and consequently, the estrogenicity levels observed in treated effluents.

  6. Effect of hot acid hydrolysis and hot chlorine dioxide stage on bleaching effluent biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Gomes, C M; Colodette, J L; Delantonio, N R N; Mounteer, A H; Silva, C M

    2007-01-01

    The hot acid hydrolysis followed by chlorine dioxide (A/D*) and hot chlorine dioxide (D*) technologies have proven very useful for bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. Although the characteristics and biodegradability of effluents from conventional chlorine dioxide bleaching are well known, such information is not yet available for effluents derived from hot acid hydrolysis and hot chorine dioxide bleaching. This study discusses the characteristics and biodegradability of such effluents. Combined whole effluents from the complete sequences DEpD, D*EpD, A/D*EpD and ADEpD, and from the pre-bleaching sequences DEp, D*Ep, A/D*Ep and ADEp were characterized by quantifying their colour, AOX and organic load (BOD, COD, TOC). These effluents were also evaluated for their treatability by simulation of an activated sludge system. It was concluded that treatment in the laboratory sequencing batch reactor was efficient for removal of COD, BOD and TOC of all effluents. However, colour increased after biological treatment, with the greatest increase found for the effluent produced using the AD technology. Biological treatment was less efficient at removing AOX of effluents from the sequences with D*, A/D* and AD as the first stages, when compared to the reference D stage; there was evidence of the lower treatability of these organochlorine compounds from these sequences. PMID:17486833

  7. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential endocrine disrupting compounds. Such information could provide a scientific framework for establishing the need for environmental regulations. PMID:22197110

  8. Hospital effluents management: Chemical, physical, microbiological risks and legislation in different countries.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bertino, C; Lorenzi, E; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G

    2016-03-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) can contain hazardous substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, chemical hazardous substances, pathogens and radioisotopes. Due to these substances, hospital wastewater can represent a chemical, biological and physical risk for public and environmental health. In particular, several studies demonstrate that the main effects of these substances can't be neutralised by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These substances can be found in a wide range of concentrations due to the size of a hospital, the bed density, number of inpatients and outpatients, the number and the type of wards, the number and types of services, the country and the season. Some hazardous substances produced in hospital facilities have a regulatory status and are treated like waste and are disposed of accordingly (i.e., dental amalgam and medications). Legislation is quite homogeneous for these substances in all industrial countries. Problems that have emerged in the last decade concern substances and microorganisms that don't have a regulatory status, such as antibiotic residues, drugs and specific pathogens. At a global level, guidelines exist for treatment methods for these effluents, but legislation in all major industrial countries don't contain limitations on these parameters. Therefore, a monitoring system is necessary for these effluents as well as for substances and pathogens, as these elements can represent a risk to the environment and public health. PMID:26708649

  9. Urban wastewater effluent increases antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in a receiving northern European river.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Björn; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stångån River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stångån River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. PMID:25331227

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  11. Impacts of treated municipal wastewaters on early life stages of fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P. ); Weis, J.S. ); Greenberg, A. )

    1988-09-01

    The Hudson-Raritan Estuary is a typical urban estuary that receives a tremendous burden of pollutants from many point- and non-point sources. Treated municipal wastewater (TMW) accounts for about 13% of the freshwater input, 90% of point-source volume and >98% of point-source pollutants. Most sources of TMW have a substantial industrial input, so the effluents include organics and heavy metals. While secondary treatment substantially reduces TMW toxicity, chlorination of the effluent restores the toxicity by producing oxidized and chlorinated compounds not previously present. The authors are attempting to assess the biological impacts of such effluents. They report here results to date of laboratory analyses of realistic dilutions of such secondarily-treated and chlorinated TMW. They have targeted three species of fish common to the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, the winter flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus), the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The estuary is a spawning area for the first two species and a significant overwintering area for the third, a protected species. Because the early life stages of fish are especially sensitive, they are focusing on development and growth.

  12. Determination of organic compounds in landfill leachates treated by Fenton-Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ramrez-Sosa, Dorian R; Castillo-Borges, Elba R; Mndez-Novelo, Roger I; Sauri-Riancho, Mara R; Barcel-Quintal, Manuel; Marrufo-Gmez, Jos M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the organic compounds removed from the leachate when treated with Fenton-Adsorption by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify toxic compounds that could be harmful for the environment or human health. The physicochemical characterization of the raw leachate was carried out before and after the Fenton-Adsorption process. The effluent from each stage of this process was characterized: pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD(5)), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Carbon (TC), Inorganic Carbon (IC), Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Color. The organic compounds were determined by GC-MS. The removal of COD and color reached over 99% in compliance with the Mexican Standard NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996, which establishes the maximum permissible limits for contaminants present in wastewater discharges to water and national goods. The chromatographic analysis from the Fenton-Adsorption effluent proved that this treatment removed more than 98% of the organic compounds present in the initial sample. The mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid persisted, although it is not considered as toxic compound by the NOM-052-SEMARNAT-2005. Therefore, the treated effluent can be safely disposed of into the environment. PMID:23146815

  13. Biodegradable dissolved organic carbon for indicating wastewater reclamation plant performance and treated wastewater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, E.; Babcock, R.W. Jr.; Viriyavejakul, S.; Suffet, I.H.; Stenstrom, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    Various methods for measuring biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) in water have been introduced in the last decade. Applications of the methods have been limited to drinking water. The measure of BDOC has been used mainly to indicate the quality of raw and finished waters and evaluate the performance of biological activated carbon (ozone/granular activated carbon) systems in water treatment plants. Recently, a modified BDOC protocol was developed for examining reclaimed and secondary-treated wastewaters. Use of the new BDOC method can be extended to the wastewater treatment and reclamation fields. Samples collected from a wastewater reuse pilot facility were tested for BDOC. The modified BDOC method was able to detect the increase in biodegradability of ozonated tertiary-treated wastewater. Good relationships among BDOC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soluble biochemical oxygen demand were obtained. The modified protocol was later used to measure BDOC in secondary-effluent samples from 13 municipal wastewater treatment plants. The results show that BDOC can also be used as an indicator of secondary-effluent quality. Likewise, strong and significant correlations were found among BDOC, DOC, and soluble chemical oxygen demand in secondary effluents.

  14. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. PMID:25917290

  15. Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Filloux, Emmanuelle; Gallard, Hervé; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks). Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. PMID:22884373

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  17. Effluent from bulk drug production is toxic to aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunnar; Orn, Stefan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2009-12-01

    Very high levels of a range of pharmaceuticals have been reported recently in the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant near Hyderabad, India. The plant serves approximately 90 manufacturers of bulk drugs that primarily are exported to the world market. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found at levels that are highly toxic to various microorganisms. Even though milligram-per-liter levels of drugs targeting human proteins also have been found, it is difficult to conclude whether these levels are sufficiently high to adversely affect fish or amphibians due to the lack of relevant chronic toxicity data for most human pharmaceuticals. To assess potential effects on aquatic vertebrates, tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis were exposed to three dilutions of effluent (0.2, 0.6, and 2%) over 14 d, starting at developmental stage 51. Additionally, newly fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to diluted effluent in 96-well plates for up to 144 h postfertilization (hpf). The tadpoles' body lengths, weights, and developmental stages were recorded, whereas a larger number of sublethal and lethal endpoints were studied in the zebrafish. A 40% reduced growth of the exposed tadpoles was demonstrated at the lowest tested effluent concentration (0.2%), indicating potent constituents in the effluent that can adversely affect aquatic vertebrates. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for zebrafish at 144 hpf was between 2.7 and 8.1% in different experiments. Reduced spontaneous movements, pigmentation, and heart rate were recorded within 48 hpf at 8 and 16% effluent concentrations. Treated effluent from a plant that serves as an important link in the global supply chain for bulk drugs is thus shown to cause adverse effects to aquatic vertebrates even at very high dilutions. PMID:19186889

  18. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

  19. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites. PMID:11902769

  20. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  1. A decade of research on the environmental impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents in Canada: field studies and mechanistic research.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Mark E; Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L

    2006-01-01

    Studies conducted in Sweden in the early 1980s provided some of the first evidence that effluents from some pulp mills were capable of inducing toxic responses in fish at very low concentrations in the receiving environment. In response to these findings, studies were initated in Canada and impacts of primary treated bleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive function in fish were found. Reproductive impacts in fish were not limited to mills that used chlorine in the bleaching process and were also evident at some mills that employed secondary effluent treatment. In 1992, new federal regulations were passed under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to control releases of dioxins and furans, and a new Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulation under the Fisheries Act set stricter limits for biological oxygen demand and total suspended solids. Very importantly, the new regulations included requirements for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) at all mill sites. This allowed the effectiveness of the control limits in protecting fish, fish habitat, and human use of fisheries resources to be assessed. At the same time, the Minister of the Environment launched an intensive government, industry, and university research program. Results from this research program along with feedback from the EEM program would then be used to define what additional control actions might be necessary. This article reviews the field studies and mechanistic research conducted in Canada following the implementation of the new federal regulations. Great progress has been made in this area, first demonstrating reproductive effects at various locations, then determining the mechanisms responsible for the reproductive effects at specific sites, followed by the demonstration of partial recovery in reproductive function following process and treatment changes in response to the new regulations. However, it is clear from the results of the first two cycles of the EEM program that mill effluents still affect the local receiving environments at a number of locations across Canada, and that continued research combining field studies, bioassay application, and chemical identification is required. PMID:16723330

  2. Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

  3. NEW MEMBRANES FOR TREATING METAL FINISHING EFFLUENTS BY REVERSE OSMOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term reverse osmosis tests were conducted with electroplating wastes on a new membrane referred to as NS-100. This membrane consists of a polyurea layer, formed by the reaction of tolylene diisocyanate with polyethylenimine, deposited on a porous polysulfone support film. Th...

  4. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

  5. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  6. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  11. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  12. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  13. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  14. Clinical features, tumor biology, and prognosis associated with MYC rearrangement and Myc overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Tu, Meifeng; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Tzankov, Alexander; Xia, Yi; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ruifang; Visco, Carlo; Dybkaer, Karen; Yin, Lihui; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Møller, Michael B; Parsons, Ben M; Zhao, Xiaoying; Winter, Jane N; Piris, Miguel A; McDonnell, Timothy J; Miranda, Roberto N; Li, Yong; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2015-12-01

    MYC dysregulation, including MYC gene rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, is of increasing clinical importance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the roles of MYC and the relative importance of rearrangement vs overexpression remain to be refined. Gaining knowledge about the tumor biology associated with MYC dysregulation is important to understand the roles of MYC and MYC-associated biology in lymphomagenesis. In this study, we determined MYC rearrangement status (n=344) and Myc expression (n=535) in a well-characterized DLBCL cohort, individually assessed the clinical and pathobiological features of patients with MYC rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, and analyzed the prognosis and gene expression profiling signatures associated with these MYC abnormalities in germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like DLBCL. Our results showed that the prognostic importance of MYC rearrangement vs Myc overexpression is significantly different in germinal center B-cell-like vs activated B-cell-like DLBCL. In germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL, MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients with Myc overexpression significantly contributed to the clinical, biological, and prognostic characteristics of the overall Myc-overexpressing germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL group. In contrast, in activated B-cell-like DLBCL, the occurrence, clinical and biological features, and prognosis of Myc overexpression were independent of MYC rearrangement. High Myc levels and Myc-independent mechanisms, either tumor cell intrinsic or related to tumor microenvironment, conferred significantly worse survival to MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients, even among Myc(high)Bcl-2(high) DLBCL patients. This study provides new insight into the tumor biology and prognostic effects associated with MYC dysregulation and suggest that detection of both MYC translocations and evaluation of Myc and Bcl-2 expression is necessary to predict the prognosis of DLBCL patients. PMID:26541272

  15. Effects of a municipal effluent on the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata following challenge with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    François, Gagné; Mélanie, Douville; Marlène, Fortier; Michel, Fournier

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of exposure to a pathogenic bacteria and municipal effluent in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of an ozone-treated effluent at 15°C for 7days. A sub-group of mussels was inoculated with Vibrio anguillarum and exposed to the same conditions as above. After the exposure period, mussels were collected to assess hemocyte count and viability, immunocompetence (phagocytosis and nitrite production), oxidative stress/inflammation (cyclooxygenase and lipid peroxidation) and oxygen radical/xenobiotic scavenging activity (metallothioniens, glutathione S-transferase). The results showed that mussels exposed to municipal effluent had increased hemocyte counts, phagocytosis, nitrites, lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins. In the inoculated mussels, the same responses were observed, in addition to cyclooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Multivariate analyses revealed that (1) the response pattern changed with effluent concentration, where increased responses observed at low effluent concentrations (>10%, V/V) were attenuated at higher effluent concentrations, (2) the effluent produced more pronounced changes in lipid peroxidation, metallothionein and hemocyte viability, and (3) the simultaneous presence of V. anguillarum led to more important changes in hemocyte count and viability and nitrite levels. In conclusion, the presence of V. anguillarum could alter the response of mussels to municipal effluent, which could lead to increased inflammation in mussels. PMID:26574092

  16. Remedy of dye manufacturing process effluent by UV/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Hsieh, Wen-Pin

    2006-01-16

    The effluent from dye manufacturing industry is more difficult to be treated than laboratory synthesized wastewater according to high variability of composition and color intensity. Thus, this study aimed to propose the method for remedying industrial effluent by UV/H2O2 process in a recirculated batch reactor system while considering the effects on hydrogen peroxide dosage, UV power and wastewater intensity for the removal of color and COD. From the experimental results, it was feasibly treated that the distinguished removal of color and COD by increasing the hydrogen peroxide dosage and UV power, but not by the strong intensity of industrial effluent. Therefore, UV/H2O2 process of the developed reactor was a positively superior treatment or pre-treatment for dye manufacturing plant effluent to comply the regulated requirements. PMID:16125312

  17. Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Hye; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM) was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA), hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW) distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF), humic-like fluorescence (HLF), the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation) and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation. PMID:22315538

  18. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vidal, G; Nieto, J; Mansilla, H D; Bornhardt, C

    2004-01-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pretreatment. The relationships of H2O2/Fe2+ and H2O2/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L x day. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. PMID:15077985

  19. Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 μg L(-1) for influent and 0.08 μg L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 μg kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

  20. Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

    2010-10-01

    In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

  1. [Investigation of bacterial diversity in the biological desulfurization reactor for treating high salinity wastewater by the 16S rDNA cloning method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Guo; Liang, Cun-Zhen; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Ping; Liu, Miao-Miao

    2013-02-01

    The bacterial diversity in the biological desulfurization reactor operated continuously for 1 year was studied by the 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing method. Forty clones were randomly selected and their partial 16S rDNA genes (ca. 1,400 bp) were sequenced and blasted. The results indicated that there were dominant bacterias in the biological desulfurization reactor, where 33 clones belonged to 3 different published phyla, while 1 clone belonged to unknown phylum. The dominant bacterial community in the system was Proteobacteria, which accounted for 85.3%. The bacterial community succession was as follows: the gamma-Proteobacteria(55.9%), beta-Proteobacteria(17.6%), Actinobacteridae (8.8%), delta-Proteobacteria (5.9%) , alpha-Proteobacteria(5.9%), and Sphingobacteria (2.9%). Halothiobacillus sp. ST15 and Thiobacillus sp. UAM-I were the major desulfurization strains. PMID:23668153

  2. Acute toxicity of textile dye wastewaters (untreated and treated) of Sanganer on male reproductive systems of albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Suryavathi, V; Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, Shweta; Saxena, Pratibha; Pandey, Shipra; Grover, Ruby; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, K P

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the toxic effects of 15-days oral administration of untreated (Influent) and treated (Effluent) textile dye wastewaters on male reproductive systems of adult Swiss albino rats (age: 85-90 days) and mice (40-50 days). Textile dye wastewaters decreased body weight (7-25%) and reproductive organ weight (testis, epididymis, prostate gland and seminal vesicle, 2-48%). Similar trends were noted for total protein (14-70%), cholesterol (14-91%) and total lipid (10-30%) content of reproductive organs and spermatozoa, and for fructose levels in seminal vesicle (18-44%). Acid phosphatase activity in prostate however, was increased (11-44%) in the wastewater-exposed animals. Histopathological studies of treated animals revealed altered spermatogenesis, with higher sperm abnormalities, reduction in sperm counts (10-59%), and altered motility (14-56%). The magnitude of these abnormalities was stronger in rats versus mice, while among treatments, it was stronger in the Influent animals. Adverse effects improved when treated rats were allowed to recover 45 days in the control condition. Only recovered Effluent rats were capable of fertilizing normal females indicating that treated wastewater was less toxic; however, in comparison to control rats, litter size and body weight gains of F(1) and F(2) generations were adversely affected. Thus, the present study has established toxicity of both untreated and treated textile dye wastewater on reproductive biology of male Albino mice and rats. PMID:15749270

  3. "Black"-Appearing Peritoneal Effluent.

    PubMed

    Headley, Carol M; Naseer, Adnan; Ramaiah, Manjunath; Wall, Barry; Gyamlani, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    When encountering unusually appearing dialysate effluent from a patient doing peri- toneal dialysis, it is important to review the patient's recent exposures. In the case of "black"-appearing dialysate effluent, consideration needs to be given to the possibility of someone having undergone a colonoscopy and having tattooing with India ink. Nephrology nurses are frequently the first to be notified when there has been a change in the character of a patient's peritoneal dialysis dialysate effluent. This article describes a case of "black"-appearing dialysate and includes some of the potential differentials that were considered in the evaluation process. Even though "black"-appearing dialysate is a rare occurrence, nephrology nurses need to be aware of some of the potential etiologies, including exposure to India ink. PMID:26875232

  4. Effluent Tenascin-C Levels Reflect Peritoneal Deterioration in Peritoneal Dialysis: MAJOR IN PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Ichiro; Kusano, Eiji; Imai, Toshimi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Akimoto, Tetsu; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal deterioration causing structural changes and functional decline is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study was to explore effluent biomarkers reflecting peritoneal deterioration. In an animal study, rats were intraperitoneally administered with PD fluids adding 20 mM methylglyoxal (MGO) or 20 mM formaldehyde (FA) every day for 21 days. In the MGO-treated rats, tenascin-C (TN-C) levels in the peritoneal effluents were remarkably high and a cluster of TN-C-positive mesothelial cells with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT-) like change excessively proliferated at the peritoneal surface, but not in the FA-treated rats. Effluent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels increased in both the MGO- and FA-treated rats. In a clinical study at 18 centers between 2006 and 2013, effluent TN-C and MMP-2 levels were quantified in 182 PD patients with end-stage renal disease. Peritoneal function was estimated using the peritoneal equilibration test (PET). From the PET results, the D/P Cr ratio was correlated with effluent levels of TN-C (ρ = 0.57, p < 0.001) and MMP-2 (ρ = 0.73, p < 0.001). We suggest that TN-C in the effluents may be a diagnostic marker for peritoneal deterioration with EMT-like change in mesothelial cells in PD. PMID:26770971

  5. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

  6. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  7. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  8. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  9. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  10. Exposure to municipal wastewater effluent impacts stress performance in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ings, Jennifer S; Servos, Mark R; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of municipal wastewater effluents on the functioning of the cortisol stress axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were caged upstream (reference) and downstream (100% and 10% effluent) of a tertiary-treated municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sampled at 14d later (0 time samples). A second set of fish were then subjected to a 5 min handling disturbance and sampled at 1 and 24h post-stressor exposure. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations, liver and brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels, head kidney mRNA abundances of corticosteroidogenesis genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 11β-hydroxylase and melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), and key liver metabolic enzyme activities, were measured. Exposure to effluent for 14d significantly elevated plasma cortisol and lactate levels in 100% effluent group compared to the reference and 10% effluent sites. There was a significantly higher StAR mRNA abundance in the effluent groups compared to the upstream control. GR protein levels in the liver, but not the brain, were significantly higher in the 100% effluent group compared to the upstream control group. Chronic exposure to 100% effluent for 14d significantly lowered liver hexokinase and glucokinase activities, but did not affect glycogen content or the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the other two groups. Subjecting these fish to a secondary acute stressor elicited a physiological stress response, including significant transient elevation in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels at 1h which dropped to pre-stress levels at 24h after stressor exposure, in the control and 10% effluent groups, but this conserved stress response was impaired in the 100% effluent group. The 100% effluent group fish also had significantly higher StAR and P450scc mRNA abundances at 1h post-stress, while transcript abundances of all the major corticosteroidogenesis genes were suppressed at 24h post-stressor compared to the control and 10% effluent groups. Considered together, exposure to full-strength MWWE for 14d elicits a chronic stress response in rainbow trout, and perturbs the conserved adaptive response to an acute stressor. Our results reveal that the impact of tertiary-treated MWWE on stress performance in rainbow trout is abolished by 90% effluent dilution. PMID:21392498

  11. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists

  13. Determination of the acute toxicities of physicochemical pretreatment and advanced oxidation processes applied to dairy effluents on activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivrioğlu, Özge; Yonar, Taner

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of raw, physicochemical pre-treated, ozonated, and Fenton reagent applied samples of dairy wastewater toward activated sludge microorganisms, evaluated using the International Organization for Standardization's respiration inhibition test (ISO 8192), are presented. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was measured to determine the biodegradability of physicochemical treatment, ozonation, Fenton oxidation or no treatment (raw samples) of dairy wastewater. Chemical pretreatment positively affected biodegradability, and the inhibition exhibited by activated sludge was removed to a considerable degree. Ozonation and the Fenton process exhibited good chemical oxygen demand removal (61%) and removal of toxins. Low sludge production was observed for the Fenton process applied to dairy effluents. We did not determine the inhibitory effect of the Fenton-process on the activated sludge mixture. The pollutant-removal efficiencies of the applied processes and their associated operating costs were determined. PMID:25704971

  14. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  15. Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

    2005-04-15

    Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

  16. Characterizing shipboard bilgewater effluent before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra; Danesi, Robin; Albert, Ryan

    2014-04-01

    Operational discharges from oceangoing vessels, including discharges of bilgewater, release oil into marine ecosystems that can potentially damage marine life, terrestrial life, human health, and the environment. Bilgewater is a mix of oily fluids and other pollutants from a variety of sources onboard a vessel. If bilgewater cannot be retained onboard, it must be treated by an oily water separator before discharge for larger ocean-going vessels. We evaluated the effectiveness of bilgewater treatment systems by analyzing land-based type approval data, collecting and analyzing shipboard bilgewater effluent data, assessing bilgewater effluent concentrations compared to regulatory standards, evaluating the accuracy of shipboard oil content monitors relative to analytical results, and assessing additional pollution reduction benefits of treatment systems. Land-based type approval data were gathered for 20 treatment systems. Additionally, multiple samples of influent and effluent from operational bilgewater treatment systems onboard three vessels were collected and analyzed, and compared to the land-based type approval data. Based on type approval data, 15 treatment systems were performing below 5 ppm oil. Shipboard performance measurements verified land-based type approval data for the three systems that were sampled. However, oil content monitor readings were more variable than actual oil concentration measurements from effluent samples, resulting in false negatives and positives. The treatment systems sampled onboard for this study generally reduced the majority of other potentially harmful pollutants, which are not currently regulated, with the exception of some heavy metal analytes. PMID:24420560

  17. Unraveling a municipal effluent's toxicity to Tripneustes gratilla sperm fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Lourdes C

    2013-06-01

    A tiered investigative approach was employed to characterize and identify substances responsible for the persistent toxicity of a primary-treated municipal effluent to gametes of the Hawaiian sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency were modified to account for the tolerance of T. gratilla gametes to various sample manipulations. Microtox rapid toxicity screening was applied in some aspects of the study after verifying a correlation between the pattern of toxic responses of T. gratilla gametes and that of the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Toxicity identification evaluation phase I manipulations revealed a toxicity profile implicating surfactants as possible toxicants, and TIE phase II toxicity assessment of isolated fractions coupled with colorimetric surfactant analyses confirmed the possible role of surfactants in effluent toxicity. The toxic effects of standard reference surfactants on T. gratilla fertilization indicated a concordance with the effects of the more nonpolar effluent fractions. Treatability studies showed that biodegradation by activated sludge eliminated effluent toxicity to urchin gametes. PMID:23440743

  18. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  19. Novel synthesis of dihydropyrimidines for α-glucosidase inhibition to treat type 2 diabetes: in vitro biological evaluation and in silico docking.

    PubMed

    Yar, Muhammad; Bajda, Marek; Shahzadi, Lubna; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Ahmed, Maqsood; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alam, Umber; Khan, Islam Ullah; Khan, Ather Farooq

    2014-06-01

    A convenient and efficient new method has been established for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidines by inexpensive and non-toxic N-acetyl glycine (NAG) catalysed reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ethyl acetoacetate and urea/thiourea. This method is applicable for various substituted aldehydes as well as urea and thiourea. It has also been used to synthesize bicyclic oxygen-bridged pyrimidine derivatives (4d, 4j). The biological assay revealed that the majority of compounds synthesized displayed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase at low micro-molar concentrations. Molecular docking studies were also performed on the most active compound, 4f (with IC50 value 112.21±0.97 μM), to show the enzyme - inhibitor interactions. PMID:24880489

  20. Chlorination strategies for direct groundwater recharge of tertiary effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.; Wang, L.; Johnson, P.C.; Houston, S.; Houston, W.N.; Brown, P.

    1998-07-01

    Chlorination for the control of biological activity during direct recharge of tertiary effluent was studied in bench-scale simulated aquifers. Both free chlorine and chloramine were studied at darcy velocities of 360 cm/d to 720 cm/d. A free chlorine residual of 5 mg/L or above inhibited biological activity in the 1.2 m of soil that was studied. A free chlorine residual concentration of 2 mg/L prevented biological activity in the first 0.9 m of exposed soil and significant biological clogging was observed in soil greater than 0.9 m from the injection point. A 2 mg/L residual concentration of chloramine resulted in biological clogging over the 0.9 m of soil adjacent to the injection point. No chlorine addition resulted in clogging adjacent to the injection point indicating that the chloramine inhibited biological activity and allowed biological activity to occur over a greater distance from the injection point. Dissolved oxygen levels decreased to zero in aquifers where significant biological activity was observed and trihalomethane concentrations decreased in these aquifers. Free chlorine appears to effectively control biological clogging adjacent to the injection point while permitting biological activity to develop after the chlorine has decayed.

  1. Wastewater Treatment Effluent Reduces the Abundance and Diversity of Benthic Bacterial Communities in Urban and Suburban Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Bradley; Rosi-Marshall, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In highly urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can represent a significant component of freshwater ecosystems. As it is impossible for the composition of WWTP effluent to match the composition of the receiving system, the potential exists for effluent to significantly impact the chemical and biological characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. We assessed the impacts of WWTP effluent on the size, activity, and composition of benthic microbial communities by comparing two distinct field sites in the Chicago metropolitan region: a highly urbanized river receiving effluent from a large WWTP and a suburban river receiving effluent from a much smaller WWTP. At sites upstream of effluent input, the urban and suburban rivers differed significantly in chemical characteristics and in the composition of their sediment bacterial communities. Although effluent resulted in significant increases in inorganic nutrients in both rivers, surprisingly, it also resulted in significant decreases in the population size and diversity of sediment bacterial communities. Tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed significant effects of effluent on sediment bacterial community composition in both rivers, including decreases in abundances of Deltaproteobacteria, Desulfococcus, Dechloromonas, and Chloroflexi sequences and increases in abundances of Nitrospirae and Sphingobacteriales sequences. The overall effect of the WWTP inputs was that the two rivers, which were distinct in chemical and biological properties upstream of the WWTPs, were almost indistinguishable downstream. These results suggest that WWTP effluent has the potential to reduce the natural variability that exists among river ecosystems and indicate that WWTP effluent may contribute to biotic homogenization. PMID:23315724

  2. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  3. Prognostic and biological significance of survivin expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-CHOP therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyu; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Cao, Xin; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Tzankov, Alexandar; Xia, Yi; Li, Xin; Visco, Carlo; Sun, Ruifang; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Parsons, Ben M; Møller, Michael B; Piris, Miguel A; Winter, Jane N; O'Malley, Dennis P; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2015-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is overexpressed in a variety of human neoplasms. The prognostic significance of survivin expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) is unclear. We used standard immunohistochemistry methods to quantify survivin expression in 463 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received the R-CHOP. Of the 463 patients, 269 (58%) had survivin overexpression with a cutoff of >25%, associated with an International Prognostic Index score of >2 (P=0.015), disease in ≥2 extranodal sites (P=0.011), and a high Ki-67 index (P<0.0001). Among patients with activated B cell-like disease, the overall survival rate of survivin-positive patients was significantly lower than that of survivin-negative patients (P=0.033); multivariate analysis confirmed that in these patients, survivin overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Among patients with wild-type p53 overexpression, the overall survival and progression-free survival rates of the survivin-positive group were significantly lower than those of the survivin-negative group (P=0.035 and P=0.04 respectively). In STAT3-positive patients, survivin overexpression was associated with significantly better survival. Among patients with activated B cell-like disease, survivin-positive compared with survivin-negative groups had significantly different gene expression signatures, including genes involved in mitosis or tumor cell proliferation. Our results indicate that survivin is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in patients with activated B cell-like disease treated with the R-CHOP regimen, and patients with survivin-positive activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma seem to benefit less from this treatment and may require additional novel agents. PMID:26248897

  4. Characterization of Wastewater Effluents Releasing from Slaughterhouses in and around Hyderabad City (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, E; Madhava Rao, T; Prabhuprasadini; Krishnaiah, N; Vijaya, Kumar A

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the pollution load to the environment causing by the wastewater effluents releasing from organized and unorganized slaughterhouses in and around Hyderabad city. The wastewater effluents collected from three slaughterhouses, at the sites of releasing out to the surrounding environment,were characterized in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, total suspended solids, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, calcium, NH4-N, nitrates and phosphates were estimated in the wastewater effluents collected from three different slaughterhouses. The heavy metals, such as lead, nickel and cadmium contents were detected. The microbiological characteristics, such as total viable count, total coliform count recorded and also the pathogens of public health significance, such as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated and identified. The results revealed significantly much higher values of almost all pollution parameters both physicochemical and microbiological of wastewater effluents collected from three slaughterhouses, and these values exceeding the effluent discharge standards for releasing the effluents into public sewers and inland surface waters, recommended by the pollution control board. The slaughterhouses must maintain the wastewater collection and treatment facilities and modify the existing treatment systems in order to comply the general effluents discharge standardsrecommended by the pollution control board. PMID:26563081

  5. Investigating the relationship between toxicity and organic sum-parameters in kraft mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Raptis, Catherine E; Juraske, Ronnie; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Elaborate toxicity diagnostics, such as toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effects-directed analysis (EDA) have helped in identifying the causative agents of effluent wastewater toxicity. However, simpler means of relating ecotoxicological effects to effluent composition could be useful for effluent management practices when there is no scope for more complex procedures. The aim of this work was to investigate and isolate the relationship between biological responses and commonly measured organic sum-parameters, such as chemical- and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD, respectively) in kraft mill effluents. In a top-down approach, the whole effluent toxicity (WET) of effluent samples was first determined from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays. The theoretical toxicity that could be attributed to the metal content was then estimated, via a combination of equilibrium chemical speciation- and metal toxicity modelling. By assuming concentration addition, the metal toxicity was subtracted from the WET, isolating the toxicity thought to be caused by the organics. Strong and significant correlations between the 'corrected' toxicity and organic sum-parameters were found for both species. The growth of P. subcapitata was negatively associated with increasing COD concentrations, whereas reproduction of C. dubia was negatively associated with increasing BOD concentrations. The linear relationships, along with robust estimations of their uncertainty bounds, can provide valuable, albeit rough, guidance for kraft mill effluent management practices. PMID:25213683

  6. Toxicity of different industrial effluents in Taiwan: a comparison of the sensitivity of Daphnia similis and Microtox.

    PubMed

    Liu, M C; Chen, C M; Cheng, H Y; Chen, H Y; Su, Y C; Hung, T Y

    2002-01-01

    Industrial effluents are known to exhibit toxicity toward different aquatic organisms. In Taiwan management of these discharges still relies on chemical and physical and physical characteristics of water, although various standard method for assessing aquatic toxicity have been proposed by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. In this study we examined the toxicity and compared the sensitivity of different types of industrial effluents using two proposed toxicity tests: the Daphnia similis acute toxicity test and the Microtox acute assay (Vibrio fischeri). Results showed that electroplating effluents were the most toxic of all the effluents tested, followed by acrylonitrile manufacturing, pulp/paper, and tannery effluents. The EC50 of an electroplating effluent for D. similis and V. fischeri (15 min) was as low as, respectively, 2.9% and 3.9% of the whole effluent. The other effluents were not acutely toxic to either organism tested. However, the tests exhibited different sensitivity toward various discharges. Only the electroplating and acrylonitrile manufacturing effluents had effects on both organisms. These results indicate the importance of the incorporation of aquatic toxicity tests into the management scheme for treated wastewaters. PMID:11979586

  7. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent. PMID:26686478

  8. Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

  9. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  10. Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) for wastewater management from a cluster of small scale tanneries.

    PubMed

    Pathe, P P; Kumar, M Suresh; Kharwade, M R; Kaul, S N

    2004-05-01

    Effluent treatment plants need land for construction, capital cost, power and specialized manpower for their operation and maintenance. Because of these constraints, small scale tanneries can not afford to have their own effluent treatment facilities and therefore, combined effluent from all tanneries are to be brought to a centralized place for treatment. This facility is called a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP). For operation and maintenance of CETP, small scale tanners formed a co-operative society. The expenses for operation and maintenance of CETP are being shared by participating tanneries. Wastewater management for the cluster of small scale tanneries was studied in details and various measures were incorporated to improve performance of the CETP and also to improve treated effluent quality to confirm standard prescribed by regulatory agencies. Performance of existing CETP was evaluated. Based on the results, bench scale laboratory treatability studies were conducted for improvement in treated effluent quality and also to suggest appropriate modifications to the CETP. These studies are detailed in this paper. PMID:15242231

  11. Is Biological Subtype Prognostic of Locoregional Recurrence Risk in Women With pT1-2N0 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy?

    SciTech Connect

    Truong, Pauline T.; Sadek, Betro T.; Lesperance, Maria F.; Alexander, Cheryl S.; Shenouda, Mina; Raad, Rita Abi; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine locoregional and distant recurrence (LRR and DR) in women with pT1-2N0 breast cancer according to approximated subtype and clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods and Materials: Two independent datasets were pooled and analyzed. The study participants were 1994 patients with pT1-2N0M0 breast cancer, treated with mastectomy without radiation therapy. The patients were classified into 1 of 5 subtypes: luminal A (ER+ or PR+/HER 2−/grade 1-2, n=1202); luminal B (ER+ or PR+/HER 2−/grade 3, n=294); luminal HER 2 (ER+ or PR+/HER 2+, n=221); HER 2 (ER−/PR−/HER 2+, n=105) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (ER−/PR−/HER 2−, n=172). Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LRR were 1.8% in luminal A, 3.1% in luminal B, 1.7% in luminal HER 2, 1.9% in HER 2, and 1.9% in TNBC cohorts (P=.81). The 5-year KM DR was highest among women with TNBC: 1.8% in luminal A, 5.0% in luminal B, 2.4% in luminal HER 2, 1.1% in HER 2, and 9.6% in TNBC cohorts (P<.001). Among 172 women with TNBC, the 5-year KM LRR were 1.3% with clear margins versus 12.5% with close or positive margins (P=.04). On multivariable analysis, factors that conferred higher LRR risk were tumors >2 cm, lobular histology, and close/positive surgical margins. Conclusions: The 5-year risk of LRR in our pT1-2N0 cohort treated with mastectomy was generally low, with no significant differences observed between approximated subtypes. Among the subtypes, TNBC conferred the highest risk of DR and an elevated risk of LRR in the presence of positive or close margins. Our data suggest that although subtype alone cannot be used as the sole criterion to offer postmastectomy radiation therapy, it may reasonably be considered in conjunction with other clinicopathologic factors including tumor size, histology, and margin status. Larger cohorts and longer follow-up times are needed to define which women with node-negative disease have high postmastectomy LRR risks in contemporary practice.

  12. Abiotic effects on effluent dissolved organic nitrogen along an estuarine transect.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Latour, Robert J; Bronk, Deborah A

    2015-03-01

    Biological nutrient removal is a process commonly used in water resource recovery facilities to reduce dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in effluent; this process is less effective at removing all of the effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (EDON). The goal of this study was to investigate the fate of EDON after it undergoes the disinfection process and enters receiving waters. The authors quantified the abiotic effects of effluent exposure to sunlight, increased salinity, and a combination of the two factors. Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen showed significant breakdown during the disinfection process (UV and chlorine) and when exposed to sunlight and increasing salinity. Approximately 7% of the EDON was transformed to DIN and dissolved primary amines after exposure to 9 hours of sunlight and a salinity increase from 0 to 33. The production of DIN and primary amines should be taken into account when considering sources of labile nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25842537

  13. 11C-Methionine positron emission tomographic imaging of biologic activity of a recurrent glioblastoma treated with stereotaxy-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Galldiks, Norbert; von Tempelhoff, Wernholt; Kahraman, Deniz; Kracht, Lutz W; Vollmar, Stefan; Fink, Gereon R; Schroeter, Michael; Goldbrunner, Roland; Schmidt, Matthias; Maarouf, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), local minimally invasive treatment modalities have gained increasing interest recently because they are associated with fewer side effects than open surgery. For example, local tumor coagulation by laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is such a minimally invasive technique. We monitored the metabolic effects of stereotaxy-guided LITT in a patient with a recurrent GBM using amino acid positron emission tomography (PET). Serial 11C-methyl-L-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) were performed using a hybrid PET/CT system in a patient with recurrent GBM before and after LITT. To monitor the biologic activity of the effects of stereotaxy-guided LITT, a threshold-based volume of interest analysis of the metabolically active tumor volume (MET uptake index of ≥ 1.3) was performed. A continuous decline in metabolically active tumor volume after LITT could be observed. MET-PET seems to be useful for monitoring the short-term therapeutic effects of LITT, especially when patients have been pretreated with a multistep therapeutic regimen. MET-PET seems to be an appropriate tool to monitor and guide experimental LITT regimens and should be studied in a larger patient group to confirm its clinical value. PMID:22954142

  14. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

  15. Controlled electrophoretic deposition of HAp/β-TCP composite coatings on piranha treated 316L SS for enhanced mechanical and biological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prem Ananth, K.; Nathanael, A. Joseph; Jose, Sujin P.; Oh, Tae Hwan; Mangalaraj, D.; Ballamurugan, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioactive materials have been used as individual coatings on steel implants employed in the fields of orthopedics and dentistry due to their excellent properties, which foster effective healing of the repair site. However, slow dissolution of HAp and fairly little fast dissolution of β-TCP present a major obstacle for such applications and this leads to the focus on the investigation of a mixture of HAp and β-TCP composite that forms biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). The BCP coatings were achieved by thickness controlled electrophoretic deposition on piranha treated 316L SS. This method is well controlled and the anticipated dissolution rate could be attained with faster formation of new bone at the implant site, when compared to the individual HAp or β-TCP coating. The structural, functional, morphological and elemental composition of the coatings were characterized by using various analytical techniques. The BCP coating has been shown to have a role in obstructing the corrosion to a greater extent when in contact with SBF solution. The BCP coating also shows excellent in vitro and mechanical properties and osteoblasts cellular tests revealed that the coating was more effective in improving biocompatibility. This makes it an ideal candidate material for hard tissue replacement.

  16. Impact of system management on vegetative treatment system effluent concentrations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Daniel S; Burns, Robert T; Moody, Lara B; Helmers, Matthew J; Bond, Brad; Khanijo, Ishadeep; Pederson, Carl

    2013-08-15

    Beef feedlots of all sizes are looking for more cost-effective solutions for managing feedlot runoff. Vegetative treatment systems are one potential option, but require performance evaluation for use on concentrated animal feeding operations. The performance of six vegetative treatment systems on open beef feedlots throughout Iowa was monitored from 2006 through 2009. These feedlots had interim, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permits that allowed the use of vegetative treatment systems to control and treat runoff from the open feedlots. This manuscript focuses on making within site comparisons, i.e., from year-to-year and component-to-component within a site, to evaluate how management changes and system modifications altered performance. The effectiveness, in terms of effluent concentration reductions, of each system was evaluated; nutrient concentration reductions typically ranged from 60 to 99% during treatment in the vegetative components of the vegetative treatment systems. Monitoring results showed a consistent improvement in system performance during the four years of study. Much of this improvement can be attributed to improved management techniques and system modifications that addressed key performance issues. Specifically, active control of the solid settling basin outlet improved solids retention and allowed the producers to match effluent application rates to the infiltration rate of the vegetative treatment area, reducing the occurrence of effluent release. Additional improvements resulted from system maturation, increased operator experience, and the addition of earthen flow spreaders within the vegetative treatment area to slow flow and provide increased effluent storage within the treatment area, and switching to active management of settling basin effluent release. PMID:23644590

  17. Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichenbaugh, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents--status quo and new developments.

    PubMed

    Habets, Leo; Driessen, Willie

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents has found widespread application in the pulp and paper industry. Over 200 installations are treating a large variety of different pulp and paper mill effluents. Amongst various anaerobic systems the UASB and IC are the most applied anaerobic reactor systems. Anaerobic treatment is well feasible for effluents originated from recycle paper mills, mechanical pulping (peroxide bleached), semi-chemical pulping and sulphite and kraft evaporator condensates. The advantages of anaerobic pre-treatment are (1) net production of renewable energy (biogas), (2) minimized bio-solids production, (3) minimal footprint and (4) reduced emission of greenhouse gases. Via in-line application of anaerobic treatment in closed circuits (paper kidney technology) further savings on cost of fresh water intake and effluent discharge levies are generated. PMID:17486855

  19. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

    1988-08-01

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Jagadale, Ashwini D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2015-01-01

    A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant-bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent. PMID:25464312

  1. Controlled decomposition and oxidation: A treatment method for gaseous process effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, Roger J. B., Sr.

    1990-01-01

    The safe disposal of effluent gases produced by the electronics industry deserves special attention. Due to the hazardous nature of many of the materials used, it is essential to control and treat the reactants and reactant by-products as they are exhausted from the process tool and prior to their release into the manufacturing facility's exhaust system and the atmosphere. Controlled decomposition and oxidation (CDO) is one method of treating effluent gases from thin film deposition processes. CDO equipment applications, field experience, and results of the use of CDO equipment and technological advances gained from the field experiences are discussed.

  2. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking study of novel piperidine and piperazine derivatives as multi-targeted agents to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Meena, Poonam; Nemaysh, Vishal; Khatri, Manisha; Manral, Apra; Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Tiwari, Manisha

    2015-03-01

    Development of Multi-Target Directed Ligands (MTDLs) has emerged as a promising approach for targeting complex etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Following this approach, a new series of N'-(4-benzylpiperidin-/piperazin-/benzhydrylpiperazin-1-yl)alkylamine derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated as inhibitors of cholinesterases (ChEs), amyloid-beta (Aβ) self aggregation and also for their radical scavenging activity. The in vitro studies showed that the majority of synthesized derivatives strongly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) with IC50 values in the low-nanomolar range, and were clearly more potent than the reference compound donepezil in this regard. Among them, inhibitors 5h and 5k, strongly inhibited AChE, with IC50 value of 6.83nM and 2.13nM, respectively, and particularly, compound 5k was found to be highly selective for AChE (∼38-fold). Moreover, both kinetic analysis of AChE inhibition and the docking study suggested that 5k binds simultaneously to catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site of AChE. Besides, these compounds also exhibited greater ability to inhibit self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation at 25μM with percentage inhibition from ∼54% to 89% and specially compound 5k provided highest inhibition (88.81%). Also, the derivatives containing methoxy and hydroxy groups showed potent oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) ranging from 2.2- to 4.4-fold of the Trolox value. Furthermore, results of ADMET studies suggested that all compounds exhibited appropriate drug like properties. Taken together, these results suggest that 5k might be a promising lead compound for further AD drug development. PMID:25624107

  4. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells to treat tissue damage in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: Correlation of biological markers with clinical responses

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fang; Battiwalla, Minoo; Ito, Sawa; Feng, Xingmin; Chinian, Fariba; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Koklanaris, Eleftheria; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David; Samsel, Leigh; Klotz, Jeffrey; Hensel, Nancy F.; Robey, Pamela G.; Barrett, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been used to treat acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We conducted a phase I trial using third party, early passage BMSCs for patients with steroid-refractory GVHD, tissue injury or marrow failure following SCT to investigate safety and efficacy. To identify mechanisms of BMSC immunomodulation and tissue repair, patients were serially monitored for plasma GVHD biomarkers, cytokines and lymphocyte phenotype. Ten subjects were infused a fixed dose of 2 × 106 BMSCs/kg intravenously weekly for 3 doses. There was no treatment related toxicity (primary endpoint). Eight subjects were evaluable for response at 4 weeks after the last infusion. Five of the seven patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD achieved a complete response (CR), two of two patients with tissue injury (pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax) achieved resolution but there was no response in two subjects with delayed marrow failure. Rapid reductions in inflammatory cytokines were observed. Clinical responses correlated with a fall in biomarkers (Reg 3α, CK18, and Elafin) relevant for the site of GVHD or tissue injury. The GVHD complete responders survived significantly longer, had higher baseline absolute lymphocyte and central memory CD4 and C