Sample records for biologically treated effluent

  1. TREATABILITY EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ANAEROBICALLY-TREATED INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT IN A ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Torkian; O. Yazdani; K. Alinejad

    Performance of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) in treating municipal wastewater from primary sedimentation basin and anaerobically treated industrial effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated. The 280-L six-stage RBC pilot was operated at different organic loading rates and biodisc speeds. The overall removal efficiencies of soluble BOD decreased with increasing organic loading rates. Disk rotational

  2. Impact of Microcystis aeruginosa on membrane fouling in a biologically treated effluent.

    PubMed

    Goh, Y T; Harris, J L; Roddick, F A

    2011-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured in biologically treated municipal effluent to simulate blue-green algal bloom conditions in a treatment lagoon. The effect of algae in the early, mid and late phases of growth on membrane fouling, chemical coagulation (alum or aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH)) and hydraulic cleaning on the microfiltration of this effluent was investigated. The effect of M. aeruginosa in the early phase was negligible and gave a similar flux profile and permeate volume to that of effluent alone. The increase in M. aeruginosa concentration for the mid and late phases caused a significant reduction in permeate volume compared with the early phase. Full flux recovery was achieved with an alum dose of 1 mg Al3+ L(-1) (early phase) and 10 mg Al3+ L(-1) (mid phase), demonstrating that membrane fouling was hydraulically reversible. For the late phase, the highest flux recovery was 89%, which was achieved with an alum dose of 5 mg Al3+ L(-1). Higher alum dosages resulted in a reduction in flux recovery. The use of 1.5 pm pre-filtration after alum treatment showed little improvement in water quality but led to a drastic reduction in flux recovery, which was attributed to diminishing the protective layer on the membrane surface, thus enabling internal fouling. The performance of ACH was comparable to alum at low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and cell concentration, but was not as effective as alum at high DOC and cell concentration due to the formation of more compact ACH flocs, which resulted in a higher cake layer specific resistance, leading to the deterioration of performance. PMID:22049710

  3. Integrated Fenton Oxidation Process for Advanced Treatment of Biologically Treated Coking Plant Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenxing Jiang; Guangyu Zhang; Weichi Ying

    2009-01-01

    Experiments of Fenton oxidation, carbon adsorption, and Fenton oxidation plus carbon adsorption were conducted to develop a cost effective advanced treatment process for treating a biotreated coking plant effluent. Fenton oxidation (Fe2+ = 56 mg\\/L and H2O2 = 27.2 mg\\/L) was effective for removing >50% organic pollutants, measured as UV254 (aromatic organics), ViS380 (color ingredients) and COD and most total

  4. Heavy metals in untreated\\/treated urban effluent and sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline da Silva Oliveira; Ana Bocio; Tânia M. Beltramini Trevilato; Angela M. Magosso Takayanagui; José L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope  The presence of heavy metals in wastewater is one of the main causes of water and soil pollution. The aim of the present study\\u000a was to investigate the removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr and Zn in urban effluent by a biological wastewater treatment, as\\u000a well as to quantify the levels of As, Be, Cd,

  5. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 ?m polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. PMID:25000197

  6. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water. PMID:18575108

  7. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

  8. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater, an abundant and widely distributed impaired water source, is a promising alternative water source for thermoelectric power plant cooling. However, excessive biological growth is a major challenge associated with wastewater reuse in cooling systems as it can interfere with normal system operation as well as enhance corrosion and scaling problems. Furthermore, possible emission of biological aerosols (e.g., Legionella pneumophila) with the cooling tower drift can lead to public health concerns within the zone of aerosol deposition. In this study, the effectiveness of pre-formed and in-situ-formed monochloramine was evaluated for its ability to control biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater as the only makeup water source. Bench-scale studies were compared with pilot-scale studies for their ability to predict system behavior under realistic process conditions. Effectiveness of the continuous addition of pre-formed monochloramine and monochloramine formed in-situ through the reaction of free chlorine with ammonia in the incoming water was evaluated in terms of biocide residual and its ability to control both planktonic and sessile microbial populations. Results revealed that monochloramine can effectively control biofouling in cooling systems employing secondary-treated municipal wastewater and has advantages relative to use of free chlorine, but that bench-scale studies seriously underestimate biocide dose and residual requirements for proper control of biological growth in full-scale systems. Pre-formed monochloramine offered longer residence time and more reliable performance than in-situ-formed monochloramine due to highly variable ammonia concentration in the recirculating water caused by ammonia stripping in the cooling tower. Pilot-scale tests revealed that much lower dosing rate was required to maintain similar total chlorine residual when pre-formed monochloramine was used as compared to in-situ-formed monochloramine. Adjustment of biocide dose to maintain monochloramine residual above 3mg/L is needed to achieve successful biological growth control in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal effluent as the only source of makeup water. PMID:23063442

  9. Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.; Roy-Arcand, L.; Methot, M.; Valeanu, L.

    1998-11-01

    Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake waters occurs slowly under gentle conditions, while mill EROM is generated from lignocellulosics by faster and harsher processes. Similarity of the environmental effects of NOM and pulp and paper mill EROM are examined. Changes occurring over 4 months in biologically treated effluent from two modern Canadian mills and lake NOM when sealed in gas- and light-permeable bags and placed in a pristine Quebec lake are reported. Addition of microbial co-metabolites significantly improved the dark mineralization of organochlorines surviving mill biological treatment. Mill EROM was light sensitive, nonacutely toxic in the Microtox assay, and similar to NOM in the surrounding lake in most bulk properties. There was no evidence to suggest that placing specific limits on mill EROM (COD) emissions would be environmentally beneficial.

  10. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Swanson; R. Schryer; R. Shelast; P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens

    1994-01-01

    Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti\\/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to

  11. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Benton, E. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Environmental Science Dept.)

    1994-09-01

    Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni exhibited marked induction of P4501A compared to reference whitefish (rw), as measured by both catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein content. Similar P4501A induction was observed 4 d after rw were treated with 20 mg/kg [beta]-naphthoflavone. Whitefish P4501A levels have declined from a peak in spring 1991, following mill process modifications and concurrent with reductions in body burdens of hydrophobic compounds. Whitefish collected near the mill, moved upstream of effluent discharges, and held for 8 d showed no significant loss of hepatic P4501A-related (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) enzyme activity or P4501A protein levels. For spring 1991, correlations were found between EROD activity and measures of chronic exposure to BKME, but not between EROD and measures of acute exposure. These and other lines of evidence indicate that the P4501A-inducing agent(s) at this site may be neither waterborne nor rapidly eliminated. A second species, longnose sucker, collected near the mill exhibited modest P4501A induction. For both species, no significant correlations between P4501A induction and trends in other biological responses were found. Burbot (Lota lota) had hepatic EROD activities generally in the range of reference values, despite substantial exposure to mill-related compounds. In contrast to studies at historically degraded pulpmill sites, P4501A induction is the only major biological response observed to date at this site. As P4501A induction is not related to adverse effects, it is classified as an indicator of exposure to BKME.

  12. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.M. (Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)); Shelast, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Products, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to habitat quality. There was no evidence that fish were avoiding the effluent plume area; relative abundance was often highest near the effluent discharge due to use of this area for overwintering and rearing. Radiotelemetry and recapture studies indicated that fish movements could be both rapid and extensive, occurring during spawning periods and at other times of the year. Thus, exposure could not be assumed to be related to capture location alone; separate exposure measures were necessary. Populations of exposed mountain whitefish and longnose sucker were growing and reproducing successfully. Higher condition factors in exposed longnose suckers and greater mesenteric fat stores in exposed individuals of both species were not accompanied by any apparent disruption in allocation of energy to reproduction or growth. The age structure of the populations showed that there had been no losses of age classes through reproductive or recruitment failures, and growth curves were indistinguishable from reference curves. There were no correlations between indicators of exposure and population-level effects. Important natural phenomena, including a one-hundred-year flood and natural upstream/downstream habitat gradients, affected species distribution and were correlated with some population parameters such as condition factors and relative gonad size.

  13. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  14. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  15. Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2000-03-08

    This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

  16. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  17. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Swanson, S.M. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Marchant, T. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada))

    1994-09-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

  18. Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment of tannery effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Srinivasan; G. Prea Samita Mary; Chitra Kalyanaraman; P. S. Sureshkumar; K. Sri Balakameswari; Rangasamy Suthanthararajan; Ethirajulu Ravindranath

    During leather processing in tanneries, considerable amount of wastes with organic and inorganic pollutants are generated.\\u000a For removal of these pollutants and recovery of water, biological treatment methods and reverse osmosis (RO) based membrane\\u000a technologies are adopted. While recovering water from treated tannery effluent using RO membranes, presence of residual organics,\\u000a dye molecules, and other impurities in the effluent have

  19. The influence of physical–chemical and biological factors on the removal of faecal coliform through down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tawfik; F. El-Gohary; A. Ohashi; H. Harada

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of faecal coliform removal in down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent was the subject of this study. The results obtained revealed that the most important removal mechanism of faecal coliform in the DHS system is adsorption, followed by predation. Die-off is a relatively minor removal mechanism in the DHS system. The

  20. Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient

    E-print Network

    Julius, Matthew L.

    Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient H. L. Schoenfuss Æ 2008 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Many toxic effects of treated wastewater environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs consider- ably from that of its receiving waters

  1. The influence of physical-chemical and biological factors on the removal of faecal coliform through down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; El-Gohary, F; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism of faecal coliform removal in down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent was the subject of this study. The results obtained revealed that the most important removal mechanism of faecal coliform in the DHS system is adsorption, followed by predation. Die-off is a relatively minor removal mechanism in the DHS system. The impact of physical and chemical factors such as contact time, effective sponge bulk volume and pH values on faecal coliform removal has been investigated. Increasing the contact time and sponge bulk volume exerted positive effect on the removal of faecal coliform. Changing the pH values between 6.5 and 9.0 did not show significant impact. Reducing sponge pore size from 1.92 to 0.56 mm, increased faecal coliform removal by a value of 1.3 log10. PMID:16626779

  2. FORAGE SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION USING TREATED SWINE EFFLUENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

  3. Forage subsurface drip irrigation using treated swine effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

  4. An energy efficient evaporation process for treating bleach plant effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gidner; Å. Jernqvist; G. Aly

    1996-01-01

    Simulation results of an energy efficient evaporation process are reported for the treatment of bleach effluents in the pulp and paper industry. Due to the low concentration of the effluent stream, the evaporation process must have a high degree of energy efficiency in order to compete with other treatment alternatives, such as ultrafiltration, adsorption, ion exchange and biological treatment.For a

  5. Unhairing effluents treated by an activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Vidal, G; Nieto, J; Cooman, K; Gajardo, M; Bornhardt, C

    2004-08-01

    Leather tannery effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to beamhouse processes, generates a significantly toxic, alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids and salts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradability and toxicity of diluted unhairing wastewater after being treated by an activated sludge (AS) system. The biomass activity of the AS was also evaluated. The AS system was fed for 180 days with diluted unhairing effluent. The operation strategy increased the organic load rate (OLR) from 0.23 to 2.98 g COD/l per day while the HRT was variable until operation day 113, when the HRT was near 1.1 days. Results show that when the organic load rate was lower than 2 g COD/l per day, the biological oxygen demand (BOD5) efficiency was 99%, whereas the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was around 80%. The reactor operation was stable until 2 g COD/l per day. For higher values, the system was less efficient (COD and BOD5 removal rate lower than 40%) and the relation of food/micro-organisms (F/M) was higher than 0.15. Biomass evaluations through oxygen utilisation coefficients show that the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased from 1.11 to 0.083 g O2/g MLVSS per day, in the same way the endogenous oxygen coefficient decreased from 0.77 to 0.058 per day. The reduction of biomass activity (measured as oxygen respiration) could be attributable to the inorganic compound content (ammonia and chloride) in the unhairing effluent. Also, the bioassays with Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex showed that with these compounds, only between 24 and 31% of the toxicity of the aerobic-treated effluent can be removed. On the other hand, ultrafiltration (UF) analysis indicated that a COD fraction is recalcitrant to the aerobic treatment, principally those above 10,000 Da (around 55% of total unhairing influent COD). PMID:15225940

  6. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens; S. M. Swanson; T. Marchant; R. Schryer

    1994-01-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti\\/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between

  7. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Kloepper-Sams; E. Benton

    1994-01-01

    Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium

  8. Exploitation results of seven RO plants for recovery and reuse of treated effluents in textile industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita S. Dhodapkar; Girish R. Pophali; Tapas Nandy; Sukumar Devotta

    2007-01-01

    The paper comprises a case study on the implementation of the advance treatment process (ATP) in seven small-scale textile industries. The ATPs installed and commissioned are in compliance with the Statutory Board directions for recovery and reuse of treated effluent leading to zero effluent discharge. The textile effluents are treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by

  9. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  10. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  11. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

  12. Growth of water hyacinths in treated sewage effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean W. Wooten; John D. Dodd

    1976-01-01

    Two thousand plants of the water hyacinth,Eichornia crassipes Solms., were introduced on April 11, 1971, into a series of five ponds, each 5000 sq. ft. in area and 2.6 ft. deep. Treated waste\\u000a water effluent from the Ames sewage treatment plant filled the ponds and was added to pond 1 at 127 gallons per minute. By\\u000a growth and vegetative reproduction,

  13. Microfauna Community as an Indicator of Effluent Quality and Operational Parameters in an Activated Sludge System for Treating Piggery Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaume Puigagut; Joan García; Humbert Salvadó

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the potential use of microfauna as an indicator of effluent quality and operational parameters in an activated\\u000a sludge system for treating piggery wastewater, an experimental sequencing batch reactor was set up and evaluated by biological\\u000a and physical–chemical analyses for 12 months. Results show that microfauna (and specifically ciliate protozoa) are a good\\u000a parameter for assessing effluent quality

  14. POST BIOLOGICAL SOLIDS CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL FROM PULP MILL EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study characterized the post biological solids in pulp and paper mill secondary effluent and evaluated various suspended solids removal techniques. Characterization was performed on samples from 9 mills, representing various locations, pulping processes and treatment system t...

  15. Biological treatment of a textile effluent after electrochemical oxidation of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Vilaseca, Mercè; Gutiérrez, Maria-Carmen; López-Grimau, Victor; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Crespi, Martí

    2010-02-01

    In this work, a synthetic textile effluent containing a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Orange 4) was treated in an electrochemical cell with titanium covered by platinum oxide (Ti/PtOx) electrodes to remove color. The discolored effluent was mixed with other textile mill process effluents (scouring, bleaching, washing, etc.), according to the rate of each effluent in the mill, and was submitted to biological treatment (activated sludge plant). Two biological plants were run simultaneously to evaluate the influence of oxidant products generated during the electrochemical treatment. The final chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in both plants was 65 to 72%. The yield of the activated sludge plants was not affected by the addition of 10% of the discolored dyeing effluent (even when oxidants products were not removed), which indicates that the previous electrochemical treatment do not produce inhibition effects on the biological plant. However, in the case of direct addition of the discolored effluent, the biological treatment plant required a longer adaptation period. In addition, the electrolytic respirometry tests showed that all the biodegradable organic matter was removed, which implies that the yield in organic matter removal was the maximum possible for this type of treatment. PMID:20183984

  16. Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

    2013-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

  17. Treated mine drainage effluent benefits Maryland and West Virginia fisherman

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.C. [Mettiki Coal Corp., Oakland, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In January of 1994, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Freshwater Fisheries Division and Mettiki Coal Corporation of Oakland, Maryland entered into a cooperative agreement to construct a trout rearing facility within Mettiki`s 10 million gallons per day acid mine drainage treatment system to supplement the DNR stockings in the newly revitalized North Branch of the Potomac River. Due to pyrite oxidation and a lack of alkaline buffering capacity in the Freeport coal strata, seven thousand gallons per minute of acidic water containing oxidized sulfide minerals must be pumped through Mettiki`s AMD treatment systems and elevated to Federal standards prior to discharge into the Upper North Branch of the Potomac River. Utilizing hydrated lime, aeration, flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge recirculation, Mettiki`s treatment imparts superior trout propagation qualities to the discharge (pH of 8.1, dissolved oxygen of 8.0 ppm, temperature ranges of from 52 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and has allowed for weight gain throughout the typically dormant winter months. Presently, 30,000 brown, rainbow, and cutthroat trout are suspended in floating net pens within the systems` discharge collection pond where pH, flow, temperature, feed assimilation, and growth rates were compared with typical stream diversion hatcheries. Growth rates, lack of significant disease, and quality parameters coupled with ideal temperatures suggests treated acidic mine effluent can offer successful fish propagation opportunities.

  18. Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Seol; L. S. Lee

    2000-01-01

    The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from

  19. Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.

    PubMed

    Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

    2012-11-15

    Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

  20. Re-use of biologically treated wastewater of a brewery.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, E R; Philips, N; Dewaele, B; Boeren, S; Koning, J

    2001-01-01

    Despite excessive rainfalls, Flanders is dealing with a water deficiency. A rational use of water is a necessity. Apart from the prevention principle, the re-use of biologically treated wastewater (bio-effluent) is increasingly considered. From earlier research it is known that reverse osmosis (RO) is necessary for the elimination of salts and low molecular compounds from the bio-effluent. A thorough pretreatment is necessary to remove drastically the suspended solids, which are harmful to the reverse osmosis modules. This case study describes the experiments performed by SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. on the treatment of wastewater effluent from a brewery. A comparative study between sand filtration (SF), in-line coagulation with sand filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) as a pretreatment was made. UF proved to be the best pretreatment for RO for the treatment of brewery bio-effluent. Finally, an economic evaluation of the membrane system (UF followed by RO) was made. The calculated total cost for the system is 0.26 Euros per m3 produced water. Investment costs and operation cost are also discussed. PMID:15954568

  1. Irrigation of eucalyptus plantation using treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Rezende, A A P; de Matos, A T; Silva, C M; Neves, J C L

    2010-01-01

    The use of treated pulp mill effluent on eucalyptus plantation appears to be an attractive option for plant nutrition and water supply. It also constitutes a supplementary treatment process and a final disposal option for the mill effluent. This study aimed at the investigation and evaluation of the effects of bleached kraft pulp mill treated effluent on three typical Brazilian soils used for eucalyptus plantation. The effluent was characterized and five different application rates, defined according to the load of sodium, were tested in controlled environment experiments (greenhouse). After effluent application over a six month period an increase in the salinity of the studied soils was observed, although no soil dispersion was detected. The low content of some nutrients in the treated effluent indicated the need for fertilizer complementation. In general, the best biomass productivity and plant growth results were obtained in fine textured soil at a loading rate of 6.49 t Na ha(-1). The good response of the soil-plant system under different effluent application rates showed the feasibility for the eucalyptus irrigation if adequate management practices and monitoring are carried out. PMID:21045344

  2. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

  3. Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

    The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to develop measures to reduce the foam index. As no criterion exists for foam in rivers in Austria, as well as in Hungary, the not accepted degree of foam formation was defined as the limit at which population protests from Hungary arose. This approach resulted in a foam index higher than 3.5, which was observed with 40% probability during the investigation period. By developing and performing a simple mathematical regression model the required reduction of foam potential emissions could be calculated in order to minimize the foam index to an accepted standard. By the elimination of 75% of foam potential, a foam index lower than 3.5 would be assured with 95% probability based on long term discharge development.

  4. Treatment of strongflow wool scouring effluent by biological emulsion destabilisation.

    PubMed

    Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2004-03-01

    The stable oil-in-water emulsion contained in wool scouring effluent was destabilised by aerobic biological treatment as the basis of a potential new effluent treatment process. The de-emulsified wool wax, which is recalcitrant to biodegradation, can then be readily removed by centrifugation. In 12-day batch experiments, 97% of wool wax and 87% of COD were removed after gentle centrifuging at 200 x g, compared to only 6% and 8%, respectively, for sterile controls. Steady-state chemostat experiments under optimum conditions gave essentially complete removal of wool wax and 90% removal of COD at less than 40 h retention time, and demonstrated that the mechanism of pollutant removal was by bioflocculation rather than aerobic degradation. At 100 L pilot scale, 95% of wool wax and 82% of COD were consistently removed over a period of 116 days of continuous operation at 38 h retention time and 30 degrees C, producing a spadable sludge of 5.7 mL/g. Variable influent concentration or filamentous bacteria did not disrupt this process and foaming was readily controlled using a mechanical foam breaker. After a shutdown period of 15 days the process could be restarted easily, achieving normal performance within one retention time. The successful operation of the pilot reactor suggests this process could be developed to full scale and incorporated into an overall treatment package. PMID:15016518

  5. Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater

    E-print Network

    Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating August 2012 Available online 19 September 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Forward osmosis Wastewater treatment Bioenergy Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) are an emerging concept that integrates forward

  6. DEMINERALIZATION OF CARBON-TREATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY SPIRAL-WOUND REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 56.8 cu m/day (15,000 gallons/day) spiral-wound reverse osmosis pilot plant was operated at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility on the carbon-treated secondary effluent. The specific objectives for this study were (a) to establish the effective membrane l...

  7. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility computer software release cover sheet and revision record

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, R.J.

    1994-11-28

    This supporting document contains the computer software release cover sheet and revision records for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The previous revision was controlled by CH2M Hill which developed the software. A 7-page listing of the contents of directory C:{backslash}TEDF is contained in this report.

  8. E. coli Regrowth in a Constructed Wetland Receiving Treated Sewage Effluent: A Threat to Human Health?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands are used throughout the world to filter toxins from treated wastewater and to increase wildlife habitat. Bird and mammal excretions result in background levels of enteric bacteria in any natural wetland, but regrowth of bacteria in wastewater effluent can further increase microb...

  9. Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used

  10. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, An?l

    2013-05-15

    This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (K?rka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

  11. Management of treated pulp and paper mill effluent to achieve zero discharge.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Khan, Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Shahbaz

    2008-09-01

    Pulp and paper mills are one of the major effluent generating industries in the world. In most cases, mill effluent (treated or raw) is discharged back into a river, creek, stream or other water body; resulting in negative environmental impacts, as well as social concerns, among the downstream users. Pulp and paper mill effluent management, which could result in zero discharge into downstream water bodies, would present the best management option to address socio-environmental concerns. This paper presents such an effort aimed at closing the water cycle by using treated effluent from the mill to irrigate forage and fodder crops for producing animals feed. The treated effluent is delivered from the mill through gravity into a winter storage dam of 490 ML capacity. For irrigation applications on 110 ha of farmland, which is 42% of the total farmland, the water is pumped from the winter storage dam to five individual paddocks with Centre Pivot (CP) irrigators and one rectangular paddock with a Soft Hose Travelling (SHT) irrigator. From October 2001 to June 2006, a total of 2,651 mm of wastewater was applied at the farm. The impact assessment results, obtained from field monitoring, investigations and analysis, indicated that the closed water cycle effluent management strategy described had resulted in a lessening of the impact on water resources usually associated with paper mills. However, social attitudes to the use of crops that have been irrigated with recycled waters and the resulting impact on market value of the produce may still be a major consideration. PMID:17706860

  12. Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Chan, S S; Chow, H; Wong, M H

    1991-09-01

    The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%). PMID:1764214

  13. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic hybrid digester treating palm oil mill effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Borja; C. J. Banks; B. Khalfaoui; A. Martín

    1996-01-01

    A high?strength palm oil mill effluent was treated using a hybrid anaerobic digester, in which the bottom two?thirds were occupied by a sludge blanket and the upper one?third by submerged PVC rings, under mesophilic conditions. The influent COD concentration varied considerably (11.6–65.0 g\\/1). The digester was subjected to quantitative increases in organic loading rate (OLR) from 3.3 to 18.6 kg

  14. Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

    2014-05-01

    Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman. PMID:24338053

  15. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  16. Toxicological and ecotoxic impact of secondary and tertiary treated sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Petala, M; Kokokiris, L; Samaras, P; Papadopoulos, A; Zouboulis, A

    2009-12-01

    Secondary sewage effluents are discharged in significant quantities in aquatic environments delivering pollutants that were not removed during treatment; yet advanced treated effluents are not lacking of contaminants. In this study, biochemical biomarkers were measured in liver and kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) exposed to unchlorinated, chlorinated and tertiary treated secondary sewage effluents. In addition, organic matter, nitrogen and suspended solids were assayed, while a common bioassay, Daphnia magna 21d reproduction test was also applied in order to examine potential relation between the performed bioassay and the biomarkers. Processes using oxidative conditions, such as ozonation and chlorination, resulted in significantly increased breeding rate (up to 74%) of the organism. Biomarkers measurements incorporated the determination of total glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and an innovative biomarker in such applications, haem peroxidase. In general, the response of biomarkers was dependent upon the treatment method and it was tissue specific. Secondary effluents inhibited liver GST and haem peroxidase, while GSH levels and LPO were significantly provoked in liver. Ozonation provoked hepatic peroxidation, in terms of haem peroxidase and LPO, and GST; while the protective (to Reactive Oxidant Species - ROS) GSH was depleted, suggesting extended ROS attack to the organism. Similar response of biomarkers (but to a lesser extend) was observed after exposure of trout to effluents submitted to both coagulation and ozonation, emphasizing the significance of removing the residual organic matter by other methods than oxidative ones. Ozonation also enhanced renal LPO and GPX; however the former employment of coagulation limited the peroxidation phenomena. Chlorination mainly affected the levels of total GSH in both tissues. PMID:19767054

  17. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of the WWTP effluent. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring free, conjugated, and halogenated estrogens in secondary treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David R; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Eglinton, Timothy I; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Gschwend, Philip M

    2014-03-01

    Steroidal estrogens are potent endocrine-disrupting chemicals that enter natural waters through the discharge of treated and raw sewage. Because estrogens are detrimental to aquatic organisms at sub-nanogram per liter concentrations, many studies have measured so-called "free" estrogen concentrations in wastewater effluents, rivers, and lakes. Other forms of estrogens are also of potential concern because conjugated estrogens can be easily converted to potent free estrogens by bacteria in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters and halogenated estrogens are likely produced during wastewater disinfection. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have concurrently characterized free, conjugated, and halogenated estrogens. We have developed a method that is capable of simultaneously quantifying free, conjugated, and halogenated estrogens in treated wastewater effluent, in which detection limits were 0.13-1.3 ng L(-1) (free), 0.11-1.0 ng L(-1) (conjugated), and 0.18-18 ng L(-1) (halogenated). An aqueous phase additive, ammonium fluoride, was used to increase the electrospray (negative mode) ionization efficiency of free and halogenated estrogens by factors of 20 and 2.6, respectively. The method was validated using treated effluent from the greater Boston metropolitan area, where conjugated and halogenated estrogens made up 60-70% of the steroidal estrogen load on a molar basis. PMID:24476066

  19. What is the relationship between whole effluent toxicity and instream biological condition?

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, J.; Daley, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compiled a database of 250 dischargers across the US and examined relationships between standardized Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), whole effluent toxicity (WET) test endpoints, and instream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. Sites were included in the analysis if the effluents were not manipulated before testing (e.g., dechlorination), and standardized biological and physical habitat assessment methods were used upstream and directly downstream of the discharge. Several analyses indicated that fish endpoints were more related to instream biological condition than Ceriodaphnia WET endpoints. Dischargers that failed <25% of their tests had {le}15% chance of exhibiting instream impairment. Effluent dilution was the strongest factor affecting relationships between WET and observed biological conditions. Effluents that comprised >80% of the stream under low-flow conditions exhibited better relationships between WET and instream condition than effluents with greater dilution. Effluents that comprised <20% of the stream had a low probability of exhibiting impairment, even if several WET test failures were observed over a 1-year period. Fish acute and chronic WET information could predict instream biological conditions; however, WET compliance, based on 7Q10 stream flow, was consistently conservative. Their results indicate that WET was more predictive of instream biological condition if several tests were conducted, more than one type of test was conducted, and endpoints within a test were relatively consistent over time.

  20. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  1. Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

  2. Detection and diversity of aeromonads from treated wastewater and fish inhabiting effluent and downstream waters.

    PubMed

    Topic Popovic, Natalija; Kazazic, Snjezana P; Strunjak-Perovic, Ivancica; Barisic, Josip; Sauerborn Klobucar, Roberta; Kepec, Slavko; Coz-Rakovac, Rozelinda

    2015-10-01

    A two-season investigation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, of related waters, sludge and fish across a wide area and 11 stations, with emphasis on Aeromonas spp. was conducted. Aeromonas veronii was the prevailing aeromonad isolated by MALDI TOF MS in the summer period. A rise of Aeromonas hydrophila was observed in summer in raw sewage, treated wastewater and effluent-carrying canal. The ratio of aeromonad species retrieved from fish tissues did not correspond with the water and sludge findings, as in spring in the effluent-carrying canal fish carried Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida and Aeromonas bestiarum, while in summer mainly A. veronii and Acinetobacter johnsonii were isolated from fish tissues in the same location. No correlation was established between fecal coliforms/enterococci and aeromonad occurrence. All retrieved Aeromonas species demonstrated a distinct spectral pattern, with peaks showing unique mass distribution ranging from 4000 to 10,000Da. Hierarchical clustering separated aeromonads of all isolated species and clustered closely related strains together. Resistance was determined towards amoxicillin, and frequently towards sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In summer, a high proportion of water and sludge Aeromonas species demonstrated multiple resistance patterns towards five or more antimicrobials. The quinolone resistance of water aeromonads was mostly related to A. veronii. There are potential health concerns regarding aeromonad exposure amongst recreational fishermen who come into contact with fish inhabiting waters downstream from the WWTP, and WWTP workers who are occupationally exposed to wastewaters and their aerosols. PMID:26092555

  3. Remediation of Kraft E1 and black liquor effluents by biological and chemical processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Moraes; N. Durán; R. S. Freire

    2006-01-01

    We sutdied the application of the bacteria Azotobacter vinellandi on the treatment of effluents from pulp and paper industry. Two types of treatment employing this microorganism were studied: biological treatment isolated and combined with stages of pre- or post-treatment using ozonation or photocatalysis processes. In the biological treatment, the siderophores production by A. vinellandi had a major effect on the

  4. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) System Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility Operator Training Station (TEDF OTS) is a computer based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS). It consists of PC compatible computers and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) designed to emulate the responses of various plant components connected to or under the control of the CCS. The system trains operators by simulating the normal operation but also has the ability to force failures of different equipment allowing the operator to react and observe the events. The paper describes organization, responsibilities, system configuration management activities, software, and action plans for fully utilizing the simulation program.

  5. Nutrient Removal and Loading Rate Analysis of Louisiana Forested Wetlands Assimilating Treated Municipal Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachael Hunter; John Day; Joel Lindsey; Jason Day; Montgomery Hunter

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between nutrient removal and loading rate was examined using data from five forested wetlands in Louisiana\\u000a that have received secondarily treated effluent from 3 to 60 years. Loading rates ranged from 0.65 to 26.80 g\\/m2\\/yr for total nitrogen and 0.18 to 8.96 g\\/m2\\/yr for total phosphorus. At loading rates below 20 g\\/m2\\/yr, total nitrogen concentrations in surface waters of Louisiana forested wetlands

  6. Coal mine drainage sludge and its application for treating metallic mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) impregnated polyurethane granular composite media (PUCMDS) was prepared and used to remove arsenic and other heavy metals in a metallic mine effluent. PUCMDS was used in rapid small-scale column tests to assess the effectiveness and suitability in the application of metallic mine water treatment. As a result in column tests, good performance of PUCMDS was observed with respect to bed volumes (more than 14,000 BVs) achieved to treat arsenic and other toxic heavy metals below their regulations. Three cycles of media regeneration and four cycles of column tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of PUCMDS. PMID:24695032

  7. Nutrient removal and loading rate analysis of Louisiana forested wetlands assimilating treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rachael; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Lindsey, Joel; Day, Jason; Hunter, Montgomery

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between nutrient removal and loading rate was examined using data from five forested wetlands in Louisiana that have received secondarily treated effluent from 3 to 60 years. Loading rates ranged from 0.65 to 26.80 g/m(2)/yr for total nitrogen and 0.18 to 8.96 g/m(2)/yr for total phosphorus. At loading rates below 20 g/m(2)/yr, total nitrogen concentrations in surface waters of Louisiana forested wetlands were reduced to background concentrations (i.e., < or =3 mg/l). Similarly, at loading rates below 2 g/m(2)/yr, total phosphorus concentrations were also generally reduced to background concentrations (i.e., < or =1 mg/l). These data demonstrate that freshwater forested wetlands can reduce nutrient concentrations in treated effluent to background concentrations present in relatively undisturbed wetlands. An understanding of the relationship between loading rates and nutrient removal in natural wetlands is important, particularly in Louisiana where discharges of fresh water are being used in ecosystem restoration. PMID:19685260

  8. Nutrient Removal and Loading Rate Analysis of Louisiana Forested Wetlands Assimilating Treated Municipal Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Rachael; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Lindsey, Joel; Day, Jason; Hunter, Montgomery

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between nutrient removal and loading rate was examined using data from five forested wetlands in Louisiana that have received secondarily treated effluent from 3 to 60 years. Loading rates ranged from 0.65 to 26.80 g/m2/yr for total nitrogen and 0.18 to 8.96 g/m2/yr for total phosphorus. At loading rates below 20 g/m2/yr, total nitrogen concentrations in surface waters of Louisiana forested wetlands were reduced to background concentrations (i.e., ?3 mg/l). Similarly, at loading rates below 2 g/m2/yr, total phosphorus concentrations were also generally reduced to background concentrations (i.e., ?1 mg/l). These data demonstrate that freshwater forested wetlands can reduce nutrient concentrations in treated effluent to background concentrations present in relatively undisturbed wetlands. An understanding of the relationship between loading rates and nutrient removal in natural wetlands is important, particularly in Louisiana where discharges of fresh water are being used in ecosystem restoration.

  9. Water quality of treated sewage effluent in a rural area of the upper Thames Basin, southern England, and the impacts of such effluents on riverine phosphorus concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Margaret; Love, Alison J.; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

    2005-03-01

    Data for water quality surveys of effluent from sewage treatment works (STWs) in the rural Kennet/Dun sub-catchments of the upper Thames Basin are presented to characterize treated sewage effluent. Water quality determinand relationships with boron (B) are presented to provide information that can be used, with stream water quality information, to assess the relative inputs of treated sewage effluent pollutants to streams in rural areas. The approach is based on three points: (1) information on sewage effluent and agricultural pollution is of concern in relation to the management of UK lowland river systems in rural environments; (2) the lack of detailed information on sewage runoff chemistry and flow means that direct assessment of sewage effluent pollution to surface waters cannot be gauged; (3) B provides a clear chemically conservative marker of sewage sources in surface and ground waters. Three types of relationship to B were observed. Firstly, determinands such as Na, Cl, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and NO 3 showed a positive linear relationship with B and there is a near zero intercept; these components are essentially derived from sewage sources. Secondly, Mg and SO 4 show linear relationships with B, but there is a non-zero intercept; these components have both a sewage component and a background component linked to water supplies from surface and groundwater sources. Thirdly, there are determinands that show no relationship with boron. In this study, an erratic pattern was observed for ammonium. This probably reflects the variable removal of this pollutant from sewage sources. Near constant concentrations of components such as Ca and alkalinity, which come from the background aquifer sources, were also found. SRP and B relationships for rivers in the upper Thames Basin showed the potential importance of (a) removal processes in the stream/groundwater for SRP derived from STW effluent inputs and (b) tertiary P stripping at the STWs on river water SRP levels. The importance of agricultural sources of SRP is questioned.

  10. [Study on Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation of biologically treated coking wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chen-Yan; He, Miao; Zhang, Peng-Yi; Huang, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Tao

    2006-11-01

    The method of Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation for biologically treated coking wastewater was conducted. Based on both of the removal performance and the operating costs, optimal reaction condition was proposed. Operating at H2O2 concentration 220 mg/L, Fe2+ concentration 180 mg/L, PAM concentration 4.5 mg/L, reaction time 0.5h and pH = 7, about 44.5% of COD was removed and chroma reached 35. In addition, through analyzing of the changes of molecular weight distribution and constitute of organic compounds in effluent, the pollutant transformation rule was put forward. The result shows that the effluent treated by Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation can reach the wastewater secondary discharge standard, and the operation costs are acceptable. This implies that the technique of Fenton oxidation cooperated with coagulation has promising in practice. PMID:17326426

  11. A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Lei; Hongqiang Ren; Lili Ding; Feifei Wang; Xingsong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH4+–N (average in 86.4mg\\/L), low in COD\\/NH4+–N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD5\\/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably

  12. Biological markers in the peritoneal dialysate effluent: are they useful.

    PubMed

    Krediet, Raymond T; Sampimon, Denise E; Vlijm, Anniek; Coester, Annemieke M; Struijk, Dirk G; Smit, Watske

    2009-01-01

    A review is given on biomarkers in peritoneal effluent. It comprises methods to distinguish between diffusion and local production. This is followed by examples of various biomarkers. Their potential use is discussed in 4 situations: inherent fast transporters, longitudinal follow-up of patients, biocompatibility testing of new dialysis solutions, and their potential use in the detection of patients who are likely to develop encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. PMID:19494595

  13. Phosphorus removal mechanisms in active slag filters treating waste stabilization pond effluent.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Shilton, Andy; Pratt, Steven; Haverkamp, Richard G; Bolan, Nanthi S

    2007-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) removal mechanisms from waste stabilization pond effluent by a melter slag filter were investigated. The studied filter had treated pond effluent for a decade, but lost its P removal efficiency after 5 years. The P distribution in the slag was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical fractionation. The results showed the slag to be covered by a film comprising metal oxides/oxyhydroxides, organic resin, and Fe-phosphate precipitates. The slag porous matrix beneath this film hosted lower P concentrations and consisted of metal oxides/oxyhydroxides and calcmagnesium silicates. The study revealed the following mechanisms for P removal from effluent by the melter slag: (1) P adsorption onto metal oxides/oxyhydroxides which are ubiquitous throughout the porous slag matrix and its surface film; (2) P precipitation, mainly as Fe-phosphates (determined by SEM/EDS) on the surface film, derived from the release of metal ions into the solution phase; and (3) P sequestration by an amorphous organic resin that comprises a substantial proportion of the surface film, which was deduced by SEM/EDS and XRF. Results of chemical extractions performed on the slag demonstrated that 1 M HCl, which has been used to determine Ca-associated P in previous studies, is an unreliable Ca-P marker. By contrast, the citrate-dithionite reagent was shown to be a good indicator of Fe/Al-associated P and revealed that adsorption onto metal oxides/oxyhydroxides, in the porous matrix as well as its surface film, is the most significant P removal mechanism achieved by the slag filter. PMID:17539540

  14. Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Borba, Fernando Henrique; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Manenti, Diego Ricieri; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mora, Nora Diaz

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 33 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The oPtimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 20 g H2O2 L(-1) and pH3, for 120 min UV irradiation time. Reactor operating parameter (ROP) effects on the removal of chemical oxygen demand, colour, turbidity, total suspended solids and total volatile solids were evaluated, suggesting that a broad range of ROP values are also suitable to give results very near to those of the photo-Fenton experiments under optimal conditions. Based on the low calculated median lethal dose (LD50) values from a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test, we suggest that recalcitrant substances are present in treated TIE samples. A possible cause of the high toxicity level could partly be attributed to the nitrate concentration, which was not completely abated by the photo-Fenton process. Apart from this, the photo-Fenton process can be used as a part of an industrial effluent treatment system in order to abate high organic pollutant loads. PMID:23837315

  15. Short-term exposure to a treated sewage effluent alters reproductive behaviour in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Taylor, Nick G H; Maack, Gerd; Tyler, Charles R

    2011-09-01

    Some UK sewage treatment work (STW) effluents have been found to contain high levels of anti-androgenic activity, but the biological significance of this activity to fish has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a STW effluent with anti-androgenic activity on the reproductive physiology and behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were exposed to a STW effluent (50 and 100%, v/v) with a strong anti-androgenic activity (328.56±36.83 ?gl(-1) flutamide equivalent, as quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human androgen receptor) and a low level of oestrogenic activity (3.32±0.66 ngl(-1) oestradiol equivalent, quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human oestrogen receptor) for a period of 21 days in a flow-through system in the laboratory. Levels of spiggin, an androgen-regulated protein, were not affected by the STW effluent exposure, nor were levels of vitellogenin (a biomarker of oestrogen exposure), but the reproductive behaviour of the males was impacted. Males exposed to full strength STW effluent built fewer nests and there was a significant reduction in male courtship behaviour for exposures to both the 50 and 100% STW effluent treatments compared with controls. The effect seen on the reproduction of male sticklebacks may not necessarily have been as a consequence of the endocrine active chemicals present in the STW effluent alone, but could relate to other features of the effluent, such as turbidity that can impair visual signalling important for courtship interactions. Regardless the specific causation, the data presented show that effluents from STW have an impact on reproductive behaviour in male sticklebacks which in turn affects reproductive performance/outcome. The study further highlights the use of fish behaviour as a sensitive endpoint for assessing potential effects of contaminated water bodies on fish reproduction. PMID:21684244

  16. Effect of irrigation with municipal water or sewage effluent on the biology of soil cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie A. Orchard

    1978-01-01

    Ten soil cores representing various New Zealand soil types were irrigated with secondary treated sewage effluent to see whether the actinomycete flora differed from that of similar cores irrigated with municipal tap water. The dilution plate technique, with various selective media, was used to isolate strains of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, thermophilic, neutrophilic, and acidophilic actinomycetes. Soil differences were more important than

  17. A multivariate biological and chemical characterization of industrial effluents connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Andren; E. Gravenfors; Z. Kukulska; B. Eklund; Maria Tarkpea

    1998-01-01

    Effluents from middle-sized industries, connected to municipal treatment plants in two cities in Sweden were sampled daily during 1 week and were characterized chemically and biologically. The results were evaluated mainly with multivariate statistics to find relations between chemistry and toxicity. The principal component analysis (PCA) overview of the chemical variables displayed three main clusters: nitrogen fractions, metals, and organic

  18. VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, BACK RIVER, BALTIMORE HARBOR, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose for the study was to measure the toxicity of effluents discharged to an estuary using freshwater test species and compare the predictions with the receiving water biological impact. In addition, ambient tests were done in conjunction with salinity tolerance tests to c...

  19. Hyporheic Zone Management: Nitrate Removal from Treated Wastewater Effluent using an Engineered Hyporheic Zone as a Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, M.; Herzog, S.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor within streambed sediments. The dynamic interface of streamwater and groundwater creates a diverse microbial community that has potential to provide substantial contaminant removal. However, insufficient water exchange between the stream and the HZ is often a limiting factor for improved streamwater quality. Modular subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) modifications with the addition of organic carbon substrates have been proposed as a means to increase hyporheic exchange and enhance natural water treatment via denitrification. Subsurface K modification flow paths are well understood from previous computer modeling and tracer testing studies, but treatment capabilities have yet to be tested in physical systems. This research applied chemical and molecular biological techniques to investigate nitrate removal and microbial community structure in a bench-scale stream simulation with subsurface K and carbon modifications. The system received treated wastewater effluent containing soluble nitrogen primarily in the form of nitrate at concentrations fluctuating from 4-7mg/L. To gain insight into denitrification potential and relative microbial activity along hyporheic flow paths, profiles of nitrate fate, total bacterial presence and the density of the denitrification genes (nirS and nirK) were quantified spatially. Nitrate tests showed a decrease from ~7mg/L in the influent to less than 1mg/L along hyporheic flowpaths. This was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA copies (representative of total bacterial biomass) from approximately 200000 gene copies in the influent zone to 630000 gene copies in the effluent zone. Also, the bacterial communities had a greater presence in the upper 6cm of the sediment layer with nirS amplifying 4-5 cycles earlier than nirK in the PCR analysis. The nirS gene concentration was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the effluent zone than the carbon modified zone, suggesting that leached dissolved organic carbon was fueling the process downstream. Our findings show the value of coupled chemical, hydrological and microbial analyses for the optimization of engineered denitrification zones in HZ systems and could further present monitoring tools for assessing environmental performance in situ.

  20. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-07-01

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

  1. Anguilla anguillaL. Stress Biomarkers Recovery in Clean Water and Secondary-Treated Pulp Mill Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Ana Santos; Mario Pacheco

    1996-01-01

    The eels’ recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport is improved by the dechlorinated filtered aerated tap water temperature increase and increased water salinity. The eels’ 6-hr recovery from capture, anoxia, and transport, at 25°C in 50% secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, as plasma lactate and cortisol uptake, is depressed. However, either farm or wild eels’ exposure to the 50%

  2. Results of interim reports on the F/H effluent treatment facility biological monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1989-07-01

    A biological monitoring program was initiated in July 1987 to assess the effects of the F/H ETF on the biota of Upper Three Runs Creek. The data indicate that there have been no measurable adverse impacts on the stream community after the first six months of ETF operation. However, the ETF was operating at less than 25% of design capacity during the first six months of operation, and further studies will be necessary to determine if the effluent will impact the stream under normal operating conditions. Toxicity tests conducted on the ETF effluent indicate that the effluent should not be toxic after mixing with Upper Three Runs Creek. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Chemical versus biological pretreatment for membrane filtration of domestic wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itay Even-Ezra; Michael Beliavski; Sheldon Tarre; Carlos Dosoretz; Michal Green

    2011-01-01

    Chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) of domestic wastewater was investigated as the pretreatment for membrane filtration instead of biological treatment. CEPT was chosen in order to avoid membrane fouling that is associated with biological treated effluents. In comparison to biologically treated effluent from a sequential batch reactor (SBR), CEPT effluent was lower in quality with regard to TOC (45 vs.

  4. Performance of plastic- and sponge-based trickling filters treating effluents from an UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P G S; Marcus, A K; Rittmann, B E; Chernicharo, C A L

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the performance of two trickling filters (TFs) filled with plastic- or sponge-based packing media treating the effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), and the OLR applied to the TFs was 0.30-0.65 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The sponge-based packing medium (Rotosponge) gave substantially better performance for ammonia, total-N, and organic matter removal. The superior TF-Rotosponge performance for NH(4)(+)-N removal (80-95%) can be attributed to its longer biomass and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT), as well as enhancements in oxygen mass transfer by dispersion and advection inside the sponges. Nitrogen removals were significant (15 mgN L(-1)) in TF-Rotosponge when the OLRs were close to 0.75 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), due to denitrification that was related to solids hydrolysis in the sponge interstices. For biochemical oxygen demand removal, higher HRT and SRT were especially important because the UASB removed most of the readily biodegradable organic matter. The new configuration of the sponge-based packing medium called Rotosponge can enhance the feasibility of scaling-up the UASB/TF treatment, including when retrofitting is necessary. PMID:23416595

  5. Selenium speciation and localization in chironomids from lakes receiving treated metal mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Tse, Justin J; Gallego-Gallegos, Mercedes; Franz, Eric D; Liber, Karsten; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2012-09-01

    A lake system in northern Saskatchewan receiving treated metal mine and mill effluent contains elevated levels of selenium (Se). An important step in the trophic transfer of Se is the bioaccumulation of Se by benthic invertebrates, especially primary consumers serving as a food source for higher trophic level organisms. Chironomids, ubiquitous components of many northern aquatic ecosystems, were sampled at lakes downstream of the milling operation and were found to contain Se concentrations ranging from 7 to 80 mgkg(-1)dry weight. For comparison, laboratory-reared Chironomus dilutus were exposed to waterborne selenate, selenite, or seleno-DL-methionine under laboratory conditions at the average total Se concentrations found in lakes near the operation. Similarities in Se localization and speciation in laboratory and field chironomids were observed using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Selenium localized primarily in the head capsule, brain, salivary glands and gut lining, with organic Se species modeled as selenocystine and selenomethionine being the most abundant. Similarities between field chironomids and C. dilutus exposed in the laboratory to waterborne selenomethionine suggest that selenomethionine-like species are most readily accumulated, whether from diet or water. PMID:22608132

  6. Reduction on the anaerobic biological activity inhibition caused by heavy metals and sulphates in effluents through chemical precipitation with soda and lime.

    PubMed

    Alves, L de Carvalho; Cammarota, M C; De França, F P

    2006-12-01

    The School of Chemistry Environmental Technology Laboratory generates 43.4 1 of effluent with low pH (0.7) and high contents of COD (1908 mgO2 l(-1)), phenol (132.1 mg l(-1)), sulfate (36700 mg l(-1)) and heavy metals (28.2 mg Hg l(-1); 82.1 mg Cr(total) l(-1); 30.8 mg Cu l(-1); 57.4 mg Fe(total) l(-1); 16.2 mg Al l(-1)) weekly. These data show that this effluent presents high toxicity for biological treatment, with a physical-chemical step being necessary before a biological step. Preliminary studies showed that the most toxic constituents of the effluent were sulfate, phenol and total chromium. In this work, a chemical precipitation step with sodium hydroxide or lime was evaluated for the toxicity reduction on anaerobic microbial consortium. These experiments were carried out with increasing concentrations of alkalis in the effluent in order to obtain pH initial values of 8-12. Similar results were obtained for COD (15-28%), turbidity (95-98%), phenol (13-24%) and total chromium (99.8-99.9%) removals in each condition studied with soda or lime. Sulfate was only removed by precipitation with lime, obtaining reductions from 84 to 88%. The toxicity on the anaerobic sludge was studied employing specific methanogenic activity (SMA) analysis of raw and treated effluent (after chemical precipitation step). The SMA experiments showed that chemical precipitation at pH 8 reduces the toxic effect of the effluent on anaerobic microbial consortium three times (with soda) and thirteen times (with lime). These results indicate that precipitation with lime is more efficient at toxicity removal, however the produced sludge volume is around two times higher than that produced with soda. PMID:17285944

  7. Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Parkkonen, Jari; Arvidsson, Björn; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2010-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. Analyses of pharmaceuticals in blood plasma of fish could provide means to assess risk for pharmacological effects, as these concentrations could be compared with available human therapeutic plasma levels. In this study we investigated if fish exposed to sewage effluents have plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals that are approaching human therapeutic levels. We also evaluated how well the bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals into fish blood plasma can be predicted based on lipophilicity. Rainbow trout were exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents at three sites in Sweden for 14 days. Levels of 25 pharmaceuticals in blood plasma and effluents were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The progestin pharmaceutical levonorgestrel was detected in fish blood plasma at concentrations (8.5-12 ng mL(-1)), exceeding the human therapeutic plasma level. In total 16 pharmaceuticals were detected in fish plasma at concentrations higher than 1/1000 of the human therapeutic plasma concentration. Twenty-one pharmaceuticals were detected in either plasma or effluent, and 14 were detected in both compartments, allowing plasma bioconcentration factors to be determined. For 11 of these, theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values were in reasonably good agreement. However a few drugs, including levonorgestrel, did not bioconcentrate according to the screening model used. This study shows that rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents have blood plasma levels of pharmaceuticals similar to human therapeutic concentrations, suggesting a risk for pharmacological effects in the fish. There is a particular concern about effects of progestin pharmaceuticals. For levonorgestrel, the measured effluent level (1 ng/L) was higher than water levels shown to reduce the fertility of fish. PMID:20222725

  8. Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®) resin as a pre-treatment to a submerged membrane system in the treatment of biologically treated wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Zhang; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Huu Hao Ngo; H. Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®) resin can remove a majority of hydrophilic compounds and a significant amount of hydrophobic compounds from biologically treated secondary effluent within a short contact time of 20 min. It removed a majority of small molecular weight organic compounds from the wastewater. MIEX® resin can easily be regenerated and even after several regenerations, it gives almost the

  9. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  10. Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

  11. Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castano; Milagros Vega; Teresa Blazquez; Jose V. Tarazona

    1994-01-01

    Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be

  12. [Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by ozone-biological aerated filter].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Guo; Wu, Chang-Yong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Pei-Chao; Yang, Qi; Dong, De

    2014-02-01

    The advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary wastewater by ozone- aerated biological filter was carried out in this study. The effect of pH on ozonation and the removal of COD and UV254 by the ozone-aerated biological filter combined process were investigated. In addition, the variation of relative molecular mass distribution of organics and the characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the wastewater were also investigated. The results showed that the suitable operating conditions of the ozonation unit were: ozone dosage 10 mg x L(-1), contact time 4 min and slightly alkaline pH. Ozonation can transfer macromolecular organics into small molecular organics, resulting in a 15% increase in the percentage of the organics with small relative molecular mass (less than 1 000). The biodegradability of the petrochemical secondary effluent was significantly improved by ozonation, making it more suitable for the treatment by aerated biological filter. The removal efficiency of COD and UV254 were 40.8% and 45.8% when the hydraulic retention time was 3 hours and the gas to water ratio was 3:1 for BAF. The average COD of the petrochemical wastewater was 86.5 mg x L(-1) while the average COD of the effluent of the combined process was 49.4 mg x L(-1) when it was operated under optimal conditions. PMID:24812960

  13. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

  14. Mutagenicity and toxicity of treated aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J.I.; Klein, J.A.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Rao, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    Coal gasification and hydrocarbonization wastewaters were treated in a series of bench-scale unit operations representative of a conceptual treatment process. Ammonia stripping, biological oxidation, ozonation and carbon adsorption were performed with sampling before and after each major unit operation. In addition to monitoring more traditional parameters of treatment effectiveness, such as total carbon and phenol removal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity studies were done on these samples, both before and after fractionation. The major mutagenic activity of these wastes was in the basic and neutral fractions. Toxicity of untreated wastes was primarily due to organics, but toxicity after removal of the organics was also significant. Significant reduction in mutagenicity during primary processing steps was accompanied by high concentrations of known mutagens in the sludges produced during these steps, thus indicating that future research focusing on these sludges is desirable.

  15. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  16. Feasibility of biological aerated filters (BAFs) for treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, T; Pollard, S J T; Cartmell, E

    2004-03-01

    Ammonia can be removed from landfill leachate using aerobic biological treatment processes. The biological aerated filter (BAF) combines biological treatment and subsequent biomass separation in one reactor providing a small footprint alternative to conventional systems. Leachate from an operational landfill was found to be aerobically treatable using the OECD recommended Modified Zahn-Wellens test. This leachate was used as feed to a pilot-scale BAF at influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal-nitrogen concentrations of 765 mg l(-1) and 568 mg l(-1) respectively. During an initial period of stable operation without pH control, 33 %w/w of influent ammonia was removed. The reactor pH was 9.2 with little conversion to total oxidized nitrogen (< 45 mg l(-1)), this removal was accounted for primarily by air stripping. In a second period of stable operation, the reactor pH was reduced to pH 7.2 and ammonia removal increased to 97 %w/w with a concomitant increase in effluent nitrite concentration to an average of 524 mg l(-1). Biological aerated filters (BAFs) can be used to nitrify landfill leachates though onward denitrification of nitrite-nitrogen and COD polishing is required to reach typical discharge consent standards. PMID:15176749

  17. Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tawfik; A. Ohashi; H. Harada

    2010-01-01

    The performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent at different sponge volume of 38.2,\\u000a 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6% was investigated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and flow rate were kept constant at 2.6 h and 0.46 m3\\/day, respectively. The results obtained indicated that reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1% significantly\\u000a decreased the

  18. Feasibility study of a compact process for biological treatment of highly soluble VOCs polluted gaseous effluent.

    PubMed

    Daubert, I; Lafforgue, C; Maranges, C; Fonade, C

    2001-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), representing a wide range of products mainly generated by industrial activity, are involved in air pollution. This study deals with a new biological treatment process of gaseous effluent combining a gas/liquid contactor called an "aero-ejector" and a membrane bioreactor. Combining these two innovative technologies enables a high elimination efficiency to be reached. We first focus on transfer phenomena characterization in a pilot installation on a laboratory scale, using a gaseous effluent polluted with a low ethanol concentration (7.1 x 10(-3) kg.m(-3)). These experiments demonstrated the good transfer performances since 90% of the ethanol was absorbed in the liquid phase in one step. After this physical characterization, the biological aspect of the system was studied using the yeast Candida utilis as microorganism. During the experiment, no ethanol was measured in the fermentation broth nor in the outlet gas, confirming the efficiency of ethanol elimination by C. utilis. The experimental procedure emerging from the present study strongly validates the suitability of this process for ethanol removal from air. PMID:11735445

  19. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

  20. Denitrification in a South Louisiana wetland forest receiving treated sewage effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.; Crozier, C.R.; Rybczyk, J.M.; Twilley, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Although denitrification has the potential to reduce nitrate (NO3a??) pollution of surface waters, the quantification of denitrification rates is complex because it requires differentiation from other mechanisms and is highly variable in both space and time. This study first measured potential denitrification rates at a wetland forest site in south Louisiana before receipt of secondary wastewater effluent, and then, following 30 months of effluent application, landscape gradients of dissolved nitrate (NO3a??) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured. A computer model was developed to quantify N transformations. Floodwater NO3a?? and N2O concentrations were higher in the forest receiving effluent than in the adjacent control forest. Denitrification rates of NO3a?? -amended soil cores ranged from 0.03a??0.45 g N ma??2 da??1 with an overall mean of 0.10 g N ma??2 da??1. Effluent N is being applied at a rate of approximately 0.034 g N ma??2 da??1, with approximately 95% disappearing along a 1 km transect. In the treatment forest, floodwater NO3a?? concentrations decreased from 1000 M at the inflow point to 50 M along the 1 km transect. Nitrous oxide concentrations increased from 0.25 M to 1.2 M within the first 100 m, but decreased to 0.1 M over the next 900 m. The initial increase in N2O was presumably a result ofin situ denitrification. Model analyses indicated that denitrification was directly associated with nitrification and was limited by the availability of NO3a?? produced by nitrification. Due to different redox potential optima, coupling of nitrification and denitrification was a function of a balance of environmental conditions that was moderately favorable to both processes. N removal efficiency was largely dependent on the proportion of effluent NH4+ to NO3a?? . When NH4+ /NO3a?? was 1, average N removal efficiency ranged from 95a??100%, but ratios that were >1 reduced average efficiencies to as low as 57%. Actual effluent NH4+ /NO3a?? loading ratios at this site are approximately 0.2 and are consistently <1.

  1. Improving the case-based reasoning prediction of the compliance of treated effluent from constructed wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Crapper; Ruth Ellis; Alison Furber

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to improve a case-based reasoning system designed to predict the compliance for BOD5 of effluent from constructed wetlands in terms of simple-to-measure parameters. The data set was extended, similarity matching improved, the variable (field) weightings used in similarity scoring were refined using a genetic algorithm and the system was tested with an alternative CBR engine to verify

  2. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL TOXICITY ASSAY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A chemical analysis procedure was developed to measure within 1.5 hours compounds responsible for the toxicity of pulp mill effluents to fish. Analytical results for 113 samples of raw and biologically-treated bleached and unbleached kraft, sulphite and groundwood effluents were ...

  4. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  5. New possibilities of biological treatment of effluents from different stages of sulphate pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Janezic, T.S.; Bujanovic, B. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-10-01

    We present the results obtained upon incubation of Penicillium thomii with the sulphate pulping waste waters from different stages of pulping: brown stock washing water, chlorine bleaching waste water, final waste water leaving the pulp mill, partly aerated lagoon purified water and waste water entering the river Sava downstream from the mill. All waste waters were filtered and sterilized prior to inoculation and the liquid media were added 0.5% sucrose and standard mineral salts for fungal growth. The pH, absorbance at 450 nm and COD were determined for the filtered waste waters before the inoculation and after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation with the mould. Incubation of P. thomii produced the best effects with the brown stock water and the least with chlorine bleaching waste water. The positive effects even in the latter case, however, recommend P. thomii as a convenient microorganism for biological treatments of sulphate pulping effluents.

  6. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana

    2015-09-01

    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12?h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20?mg?S(0)?g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9?mg?S(0)?g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24?h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6?mg?L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24?h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater. PMID:25737383

  7. Sequencing batch reactor as a post-treatment of anaerobically treated dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Benítez, A; Ferrari, A; Gutierrez, S; Canetti, R; Cabezas, A; Travers, D; Menes, J; Etchebehere, C

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater from dairy industries, characterized by its high COD content and relative high COD/TKN ratio, requires post-treatment after anaerobic treatment to complete the removal of organic matter and nutrients. Due to its simplicity, robustness and low maintenance costs, sequencing batch reactors (SBR) result in an attractive system, especially in case of small dairy industries in order to comply with the emission standards. The goal of this work was to determine the operational parameters, optimize the performance, and study the stability of the microbial population of a SBR system for the post-treatment of an anaerobic pond effluent. High and stable removal of COD and TKN was achieved in the reactor, which can easily be set up in dairy industries. An active nitrifying population was selected during reactor operation and maintained relatively stable, while the heterotrophic (total and denitrifying) communities were more unstable and susceptible to changes in the operating conditions. PMID:16939103

  8. Performance of a pilot-scale nitrifying trickling filter treating municipal aerated lagoon effluent.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Watson, Ben; Lee, Kiersten; Hammer, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Colfax, WA, operates an aerated lagoon to achieve compliance with its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which currently requires biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal. However, ammonia removal may soon be required, and Colfax is considering a nitrifying trickling filter (NTF) that would allow them to also maintain the lagoons. To obtain data from which to ultimately design a full-scale system, a four-year NTF pilot study was performed. Results demonstrated that an NTF would be an effective, reliable NH3 removal method and could produce effluent NH3 concentrations < 1.0 mg/L. NTF performance was characterized by zero- and first-order kinetics; zero-order rates correlated with influent NH3 concentrations and mass load. Utilizing data from these investigations it was determined that the pilot NTF could be reduced by 19%, which demonstrates the value of pilot testing. Finally, pilot data was evaluated to provide a data set that will be useful to engineers designing full-scale NTFs. PMID:25630125

  9. Removal processes of disinfection byproducts in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Cai, Yanlong; Zhou, Qi

    2014-03-15

    The removal efficiencies and the kinetics of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were studied in six greenhouse laboratory-scale SSF CWs. Cattail (Typha latifolia) and its litter (collected from the aboveground samples of cattail in autumn) were used as a potential phytoremediation technology and as a primary substrate, respectively, for DBP removal. Results showed that most of the 11 DBPs (except chloroform and 1, 1-dichloropropanone) were efficiently removed (>90%) in six SSF CWs with hydraulic retention time of 5 d and there were no significant differences among the systems. Under the batch mode, the removal of DBPs in SSF CWs followed first-order kinetics with half-lives of 1.0-770.2 h. As a primary DBP in wastewater effluent, removal efficiencies for chloroform were higher in planted systems than in unplanted ones and plant uptake accounted for more than 23.8% of the removal. Plant litter greatly enhanced the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) by supplying primary substrates and reducing conditions, and the formation of dichloromethane supported the anaerobic biodegradation of THMs via reductive dechlorination in SSF CWs. Trichloroacetonitrile was completely removed within 10 h in each system and hydrolysis was considered to be the dominant process as there was a rapid formation of the hydrolysis byproduct, trichloroacetamide. PMID:24440896

  10. Treatment of biologically treated leachate by oxidation and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H Y; Zhao, Y C; Qi, J Y

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to investigate removal efficiency of oxidation and coagulation/flocculation processes, to provide an effective method for the treatment of biologically pre-treated leachate. Leachate containing 985 mg L(-1) COD was treated by using three treatment schemes, i.e. oxidation, coagulation/flocculation and the combined process of coagulation/flocculation followed by oxidation. The application of single oxidation resulted in the effective removal of COD and color up to 80.4 and 83.2%, respectively. However, residual COD values lower than 200 mg L(-1) could only be achieved under intensive experimental conditions (high dosage of Ca(ClO)(2) and prolonged oxidation time). Coagulation/flocculation yielded residual COD values higher than 200 mg L(-1) even at the optimum coagulation conditions. The combined treatment by coagulation/flocculation followed by oxidation yielded final COD lower than 100 mg L(-1) at the following conditions: pre-coagulation with 250 mg L(-1) PFS (poly-ferric sulfate) and over 30-min post-oxidation, or pre-coagulation with 300 mg L(-1) PFS and over 20-min post-oxidation. Hence, pre-coagulation with PFS followed by oxidation with Ca(ClO)(2) was recommended for advanced treatment of biologically treated leachate. PMID:22179637

  11. Principals of Water Pollution Control and Assessing the Impact of Treated Sewage Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Touw

    Wastewater treatment plants are designed to remove from municipal sewage a wide variety of substances that individuals discard into sanitary sewers. These substances fall into three categories, each of which is treated differently within a sewage treatment plant. Insoluble materials (i.e., grease, fats, sticks, beverage cans, and other assorted materials) are mechanically screened or skimmed from the surface. Suspended substances

  12. The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400?ng/L and 2400?ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

  13. Ecological health assessments based on whole effluent toxicity tests and the index of biological integrity in temperate streams influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don; Chang, Nam Ik; An, Kwang-Guk

    2007-09-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests and ecosystem health assessments, based on test guidelines of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and index of biological integrity (IBI), were conducted on various streams located in Youngsan River watershed, Korea. The WET tests showed that about 33 and 82% of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exhibited significant toxicity to Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, respectively. Small WWTPs with low discharge volumes contributed less than 1% to the total stream toxicity. Fish community compositions and trophic guild analysis showed that the diversity index was greater in the control than in impacted streams, and the proportion of omnivore species was less in the control. Also, ecosystem health assessments, based on the IBI, showed distinct differences between the control and impacted sites of WWTPs. Model values of the IBI, based on 12 stream data sets, averaged 28, which is judged as a fair to poor condition according to the U.S. EPA criteria. The mean IBI in the control sites was 42, indicating good stream condition, whereas the impacted sites was scored 21, indicating poor condition. Overall, WET tests and ecosystem health assessments suggested the WWTP effluents had evident toxic effects on the biota, and impacted the species compositions and trophic guilds, resulting in degradation of the stream ecosystem health. PMID:17705646

  14. Effects of ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration of an activated sludge effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Nguyen; F. A. Roddick

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration on the characteristics and ultrafiltration (UF) performance of a highly coloured activated sludge (AS) effluent was investigated. The major dissolved organic membrane foulants were identified as proteins, polysaccharides, protein-like and polysaccharide-like materials, and humic substances (HS). Ozonation at a dose of 10mgL?1 reduced the true colour of the raw

  15. Infrared overtone spectroscopy measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the effluent of a biological water processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Claps; D. Leleux; F. V. Englich; F. K. Tittel; M. E. Webber; J. B. Jeffries; R. K. Hanson; J. C. Graf; L. M. Vega

    NH3 and CO2 concentration measurements performed on a Biological Water Processor (BWP), under development at NASA-JSC for water recycling, using near infrared laser diode absorption spectroscopy are reported. The gaseous effluents from the bioreactor are a concern for potentially introducing harmful amounts of NH3 in a spacecraft environment. Furthermore, NH3 and CO2 monitoring is important for understanding the nitrogen and

  16. Removal of Fatty Acids from Palm Oil Effluent by Combined Electro-Fenton and Biological Oxidation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ramesh Babu; K. Seeni Meera; P. Venkatesan; D. Sunandha

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to find out a cost-effective treatment methodology for the treatment of palm oil effluent\\u000a (POE) obtained from a food processing industry. An electro-Fenton pretreatment and biological oxidation has been suggested\\u000a for the removal of recalcitrant contaminants present in POE. An initial COD of about 6,700 mg\\/L of POE was subjected to electrolytic\\u000a degradation for

  17. Brackish water pond polyculture of estuarine fishes in power plant thermal effluent and their use as biological monitors of water quality 

    E-print Network

    Branch, Mark Roy

    1977-01-01

    BRACKISH WATER POND POLYCULTURE OF ESTUARINE FISHES IN POWER PLANT THERMAL EFFLUENT AND THEIR USE AS BIOLOGICAL MONITORS OF WATER QUALITY A Thesis by MARK ROY BRANCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences BRACKISH WATER POND POLYCULTURE OF ESTUARINE FISHES IN POWER PLANT THERMAL EFFLUENT AND THEIR USE AS BIOLOGICAL MONITORS...

  18. Using transcriptomic tools to evaluate biological effects across effluent gradients at a diverse set of study sites in Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Martinovi?-Weigelt, Dalma; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Escalon, Lynn; Perkins, Edward J; Ankley, Gerald T; Villeneuve, Daniel L

    2014-02-18

    The aim of this study was to explore the utility of "omics" approaches in monitoring aquatic environments where complex, often unknown stressors make chemical-specific risk assessment untenable. We examined changes in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovarian transcriptome following 4-day exposures conducted at three sites in Minnesota (MN, USA). Within each site, fish were exposed to water from three locations along a spatial gradient relative to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. After exposure, site-specific impacts on gene expression in ovaries were assessed. Using an intragradient point of comparison, biological responses specifically associated with the WWTP effluent were identified using functional enrichment analyses. Fish exposed to water from locations downstream of the effluent discharges exhibited many transcriptomic responses in common with those exposed to the effluent, indicating that effects of the discharge do not fully dissipate downstream. Functional analyses showed a range of biological pathways impacted through effluent exposure at all three sites. Several of those impacted pathways at each site could be linked to potential adverse reproductive outcomes associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows, specifically signaling pathways associated with oocyte meiosis, TGF-beta signaling, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB), and gene sets associated with cyclin B-1 and metalloproteinase. The utility of this approach comes from the ability to identify biological responses to pollutant exposure, particularly those that can be tied to adverse outcomes at the population level and those that identify molecular targets for future studies. PMID:24433150

  19. Bacterial community involved in the nitrogen cycle in a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Martins, K E L; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of a down-flow sponge-based trickling filter treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent was investigated by pyrosequencing. Bacterial community composition considerably changed along the reactor and over the operational period. The dominant phyla detected were Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. The abundance of denitrifiers decreased from the top to the bottom and it was consistent with the organic matter concentration gradients. At lower loadings (organic and nitrogen loading rates), the abundance of anammox bacteria was higher than that of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the upper portion of the reactor, suggesting that aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation occurred. Nitrification occurred in all the compartments, while anammox bacteria prominently appeared even in the presence of high organic carbon to ammonia ratios (around 1.0-2.0 gCOD gN(-1)). The results suggest that denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and anammox bacteria coexisted in the reactor; thus, different metabolic pathways were involved in ammonium removal in the post-UASB reactor sponge-based. PMID:26114279

  20. Performance of a sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur-producing membrane biofilm reactor treating sulfide-containing bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Hasar, Halil; Kaksonen, Anna H; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-05-01

    Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated in mining, petrochemical plants, tanneries, viscose rayon manufacture, and the gasification of coal. Colorless sulfur bacteria can oxidize sulfide to elemental sulfur (S°), which can be recovered, when oxygen is their electron acceptor. This study evaluated sulfide oxidation and S° recovery in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating the effluent from a sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor. Sulfide oxidation efficiency (37-99%) and S° recovery (64-89% of oxidized sulfide) could be controlled by manipulating the sulfide loading, oxygen pressure to the fibers, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). For example, too-low oxygen pressure decreased S° recovery due to decreased sulfide oxidation, but too-high oxygen pressure lowered S° recovery due to its oxidation to sulfate. Most importantly, high sulfide oxidation (>98%) and conversion to S° (>75%) could be achieved together when the sulfide loading was less than 1.7 mol/m²·d and the O? pressure was sufficient to give an O? flux of at least 1.5 mol/m²·d. However, higher sulfide loading could be compensated by a higher O? pressure, and the best performance occurred when the sulfide loading was high (2 molS/m²·d), the O? pressure was high (?1 atm), and the HRT was short (1.9 h). Membrane fouling caused a low O? flux, which led to low sulfide-oxidation efficiency, but fouling could be reversed by mild acid washing. PMID:21452867

  1. Toxicity Assay in Kraft E1 Effluent Treated by Ozone: Algae Growth Inhibition and Cytotoxicity in V79 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcia Regina Assalin; João Batista Fabrin-Neto; Nelson Durán; Marcela Haun

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of an ozonation process in the degradation of the Kraft E1 effluent was evaluated. The investigation was focused on the reduction of chemical oxygen demand, total phenols, color and the absorbance at 254 nm. The chronic toxicity was evaluated by growth inhibition of algae Selenatrum capricornutum and cytotoxicity evaluation of effluents samples by determination of the nucleic acid

  2. The relevance of physicochemical and biological parameters for setting emission limit values for plants treating complex industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Diane; Weltens, Reinhilde; Jacobs, Griet; Borburgh, Ab; Smets, Toon; Hoebeke, Lut; Polders, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    The influents of plants treating complex industrial wastewaters from third parties may contain a large variety of often unknown or unidentified potentially harmful substances. The conventional approach of assessing and regulating the effluents of these plants is to set emission limit values for a limited set of physicochemical parameters, such as heavy metals, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogen compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of physicochemical parameters for setting emission limit values for such plants based on a comparison of effluent analyses by physicochemical and biological assessment tools. The results show that physicochemical parameters alone are not sufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of the water treatment plants for removing hazardous compounds and to protect the environment. The introduction of toxicity limits and limits for the total bioaccumulation potential should be considered to supplement generic parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogens. A recommendation is made to include toxicity screening as a technique to consider in the determination of best available techniques (BAT) during the upcoming revision of the BAT reference document for the waste treatment industries to provide a more rational basis in decisions on additional treatment steps. PMID:24142491

  3. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Estrogenicity in Effluents from WWTPs in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Sousa; René Schönenberger; Niels Jonkers; Marc J.-F. Suter; Shinsuke Tanabe; Carlos M. Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are responsible for the input of estrogenic contaminants into aquatic ecosystems,\\u000a leading to widespread effects in wildlife. In the present work, levels of estrone (E1), 17?- and 17?-estradiol (E2), 17?-ethinylestradiol\\u000a (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP) were quantified in effluents from WWTPs located in Ria de Aveiro (NW Portugal),\\u000a as well as in

  4. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  5. Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2010-09-01

    The performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent at different sponge volume of 38.2, 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6% was investigated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and flow rate were kept constant at 2.6 h and 0.46 m(3)/day, respectively. The results obtained indicated that reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1% significantly decreased the removal efficiency of COD(total) from 80 +/- 8 to 62 +/- 14%; COD(soluble) from 71.2 +/- 10 to 53.7 +/- 18% and COD(particulate) from 86 +/- 10 to 62 +/- 15%. With further reduction of the sponge volume down to 9.6%, the removal efficiency was dropped to 54 +/- 15% for COD(total); 44.1 +/- 14% for COD(soluble) and 42 +/- 12% for COD(particulate). Likewise, the nitrification efficiency and fecal coliform (FC) removal was strongly affected by decreasing the sponge volume of the DHS system, i.e., the nitrification efficiency was dropped by a value of 48.3% when reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1%. At sponge volume of 38.2%, the DHS system removes 2.6 +/- 0.3 log(10)/100 ml of FC which is significantly higher than that at sponge volume of 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6%. Accordingly, it is recommended to design and operate such a system at a bulk sponge volume not exceeding 38.2% of the total reactor volume and at an HRT of 2.6 h. PMID:20013130

  6. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  7. Algal uptake of hydrophobic and hydrophilic dissolved organic nitrogen in effluent from biological nutrient removal municipal wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Jeong, Joonseon; Gray, Holly; Smith, Scott; Sedlak, David L

    2012-01-17

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) accounts for a large fraction of the total nitrogen discharged to surface waters by municipal wastewater treatment plants designed for biological nutrient removal (BNR). Previous research indicates that some but not all of the DON in wastewater effluent is available to bacteria and algae over time scales that are relevant to rivers and estuaries. To separate bioavailable DON from nitrate and less reactive DON species, an XAD-8 resin coupled with an anion exchange treatment was employed prior to chemical analysis and algal bioassays. Analysis of effluent samples from a range of municipal BNR plants (total DON concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 1.8 mg N/L) employing a range of technologies indicated that hydrophilic DON, which typically accounted for approximately 80% of the total DON, stimulated algal growth, whereas hydrophobic DON, which accounted for the remaining DON, remained at nearly constant concentrations and had little or no effect on algal growth during a 14-day incubation period. The hydrophobic DON exhibits characteristics of humic substances, and is likely to persist for long periods in the aquatic environment. The distinct differences between these two classes of DON may provide a basis for considering them separately in water quality models and effluent discharge regulations. PMID:22206266

  8. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    PubMed

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system. PMID:25805372

  9. Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

    2005-09-01

    Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

  10. Effluent quality and reuse potential of domestic wastewater treated in a pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Selma Ç; Akta?, Özgür; Akça, Lütfi; F?nd?k, Nur

    2015-06-01

    The study investigates treatment and reuse potential of domestic wastewater of a small community of about 30 people sequentially by anaerobic pretreatment followed by horizontal (HSSF-CW) and vertical (VSSF-CW) sub-surface flow constructed wetlands operated in series. The organic and suspended solids load to the hybrid wetland system was decreased by anaerobic pretreatment. HSSF-CW mainly removed organic matter and supported denitrification whereas VSSF-CW mainly obtained nitrification and phosphorus removal. Recirculation of the effluent increased particularly total nitrogen removal in the wetland system. The study involves evaluation of the whole system in terms of effluent quality. It was achieved on average >95% organic matter and >90% nitrogen removal in the hybrid constructed wetland system with anaerobic pretreatment at a specific wetland surface area of only about 1 m(2) per person. Average mass removal rates were 21.17 gCOD/m(2)day, 5.58 gBOD5/m(2)day, 2.78 gTKN/m(2)day, 1.35 gTN/m(2)day, 0.44 gTP/m(2)day and 5.21 gTSS/m(2)day throughout the total duration of the operation. Consequently, the effluent met the regulations for discharge limits for organic matter and suspended solids. COD and TN concentrations decreased to below 20 mg/L in the effluent. It was also shown that effluent of the system could be reused for irrigation if it is disinfected properly. PMID:25841192

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1?mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2-3, and 0.5-1?mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  13. Observations on Root Disease of Container Whitebark Pine Seedlings treated with Biological Controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a non-treated control. Seedlings treated with the biological controls and non-symptomatic seedlings in the control treatment had

  14. Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Plant Growth and Biological Activity in Three Soil Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Adrover; Gabriel Moyà; Jaume Vadell

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two types of treated wastewater on soil biological activity were studied in a pot experiment. Four irrigation treatments were tested on both soils sown with barley and unsown soils: distilled water (DW), half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (NS), treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW), and treated wastewater from a lagoon (LWW). Three types of soils were

  15. Use of a Coupled Biological System to Treat a Chemically Complex Air Stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Manninen; B. A. Niemi; G. T. Kleinheinz

    2003-01-01

    The use of biological systems to remove contaminants from waste streams has been well documented. However, when dealing with complex waste streams, the use of one biological treatment system may not be the best alternative. When treating a complex waste stream, the use of “treatment trains” or “coupled systems” may be advantageous compared with any single biological technology. This article

  16. Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions. PMID:15176911

  17. The presence of the top prescribed pharmaceuticals in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in Southwest Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Fox, Shannon; Tong, Anthony Z

    2015-01-01

    From a list of the top prescribed drugs in Canada, 11 pharmaceuticals and two metabolites were selected for study in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants across Southwest Nova Scotia including the Annapolis Valley, South Shore, and Metropolitan Halifax. Samples were also collected between 100 and 200 m downstream of effluent outflows. Seven pharmaceuticals were found above ?g/L levels with their highest concentrations as follows: metformin (10.6 ?g/L), acetaminophen (28.9 ?g/L), paraxanthine (18.2 ?g/L), cotinine (3.10 ?g/L), caffeine (115 ?g/L), naproxen (29.1 ?g/L), and venlafaxine (2.65 ?g/L). Metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, naproxen, ramipril, and venlafaxine were detected in every wastewater effluent sample. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in pharmaceutical occurrence by treatment methods, weak dependence of pharmaceutical concentrations on populations, and the co-occurrence of some pharmaceuticals. Experimental results might indicate the limitation of primary only treatment methods in breaking down pharmaceuticals. PMID:25099660

  18. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. PMID:23774187

  19. Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed. PMID:24620597

  20. Biological treatment of chemically flocculated agro-industrial waste from the wool scouring industry by an aerobic process without sludge recycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Poole; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; F. William Jones

    1999-01-01

    A new agro-industrial effluent known as Sirolan CF effluent is the aqueous phase remaining after the chemical flocculation of wool scouring effluent by the Sirolan CF process. This effluent has been characterized, and shown to be effectively treated by biological degradation. It has a high concentration of organic material (5750mg\\/L COD), with a low BOD5\\/COD ratio (0.29). Aerobic biological treatment

  1. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active culture, and excellent settling velocity. This integrated two-stage design for immobilized hydrogen fermentation and methane production offers a promising approach for modifying current anaerobic wastewater treatment processes to harvest hydrogen from the existing systems.

  2. Effect of Khirbet As-Samra treated effluent on the quality of irrigation water in the Central Jordan Valley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Shatanawi; Manar Fayyad

    1996-01-01

    Khirbet As-Samra (KA) treated wastewater is being used in irrigation in the Central Jordan Valley. The treated water is collected in King Talal Dam (KTD) and then mixed with King Abdullah Canal (KAC) water, which is diverted from the Yarmouk River for further use in agriculture. The treated water has adversely affected the water quality of Yarmouk River. Comparison of

  3. Application of submerged membrane bioreactor for aquaculture effluent reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pulefou; V. Jegatheesan; C. Steicke; Seung-Hyun Kim

    2008-01-01

    Discharging the nutrient rich aquaculture effluents into inland water bodies and oceans is becoming a serious concern due to the adverse effect that brings in the form of eutrophication and subsequent damages to those waters. A laboratory scale biological reactor consisting of a denitrifying compartment followed by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) compartment was used to treat 40 L d?1

  4. Cross-flow microfiltration of biologically treated wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Vera; R. Villarroel-López; S. Delgado; S. Elmaleh

    1997-01-01

    Water requirement for irrigation dramatically exceeds the traditional resources of Tenerife island that are becoming more and more brackish. An important programme of wastewater recovery is actually implemented; it is focused on the reuse of the secondary treated wastewater of the City of Santa Cruz for the irrigation of banana and tomato crops. Considering the hard competition with South American

  5. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  6. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

  7. BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN A MULTISTAGE ENGINEERED WETLANDS TREATING A SUITE OF HEAVY METALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al Mattes; Bill Duncan; Doug Gould

    A biological engineered wetlands treatment system designed to treat high concentrations of heavy metals built for Teck Cominco in Trail, BC has treated leachate since 1998. Leachate is collected from an historical landfill (now capped) and arsenic storage areas. Metal loadings have averaged more than 350 ppm Zn, 85 ppm As and 5 ppm Cd with peaks of 790 ppm

  8. Use of Air Stripping Technology to Remove Ammonia from Biologically Treated Blue Crab Processing Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Boardman; P. J. McVeigh

    1998-01-01

    Crab cooker wastewater contains high concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Anaerobic biological treatment of the wastewater releases high concentrations of ammonia. In this study, the potential for air stripping to remove ammonia from wastewater which was treated biologically under anaerobic conditions was evaluated. An air stripping tower's ammonia removal efficiency

  9. Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Biology of primary breast cancer in older women treated by surgery: with correlation with long, Nottingham, UK Background: As age advances breast cancer appears to change its biological characteristics breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic. In all, 813 underwent primary surgery and 575 good

  10. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes. PMID:12523504

  11. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  12. Three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of Chlorella sorokiniana for treating dairy farm effluent and lipid enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hena, S; Fatihah, N; Tabassum, S; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production. PMID:26043271

  13. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p?

  14. Coal cinder filtration as pretreatment with biological processes to treat pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Hao, Zhi-ming; Wang, Dong-bo; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at coupling coal cinder filter with biological process to improve pharmaceutical wastewater quality and reduce the disposal cost. In the coal cinder filter, the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5), SS and color were 90+/-2%, 72+/-2%, 95+/-2% and 80+/-2%, respectively. The results attribute to the big specific surface area and strong adsorption ability. Coal cinder filter removes a large portion of the pollutants in the influent wastewater, which would strongly stable the effluent waste water quality, and reduce the load of follow-up biological treatment process. The average removal efficiencies for COD, BOD(5), SS and color of the combined process were about 99.7+/-3%, 98.2+/-4%, 98.5+/-3% and 96.3+/-2%, respectively, with the average effluent quality of COD 16+/-1 mg/L, BOD(5) 11+/-1 mg/L, SS 10+/-0.6 mg/L and color 22+/-1 (multiple), which are consistent with the national requirements of the waste pollutants for pharmaceutical industry of chinese traditional medicine discharge standard (GB 21906-2008). The results indicated that the combined procedure could offer an attractive solution for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment with considerable low cost. PMID:20595748

  15. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  16. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  17. EFFECTS OF LIQUID DETERGENT PLANT EFFLUENT ON THE ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on the treatment of wastewaters from a liquid detergent manufacturing plant by a rotating biological contactor and presents the findings of an analytical effort to determine the presence or absence of metals and organic compounds which were among those...

  18. Quantification of synthetic organic chemicals in biological treatment process effluent using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Magbanua, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, D.R.; Fehniger, S.M.; Bowyer, R.L.; Grady, C.P.L. Jr.

    2000-02-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a technique that uses a polymer-coated, fused-silica fiber to selectively extract organic analyses from a sample matrix, followed by gas chromatography (GC), was used to quantify selected synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) in biological reactor effluent. By selecting an appropriate combination of SPME fiber, GC column, and GC detector, assays to quantify either a suite of SOCs or single selected SOCs were developed. Phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4,-dinitrophenol, isophorone, m-toluate, m-sylene, and di-n-butylphthalate were quantified simultaneously using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a flame ionization detector. m-Xylene was quantified using a 100-{micro}m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a mass spectrometric detector. Dichloromethane was quantified using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a Carbopack B/1% SP-1000 packed column, and an electron capture detector. All three assays enabled detection of the target analyses to low concentrations ({micro}g/L) with minimal sample volume and processing requirements.

  19. Treatment of effluents polluted by nitrogen with new biological technologies based on autotrophic nitrification-denitrification processes.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, A; Poyatos, J M; Hontoria, E; Gonzalez-Lopez, J; Osorio, F

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, various technologies have been developed for the removal of nitrogen from wastewater that is rich in nitrogen but poor in organic carbon, such as the effluents from anaerobic digesters and from certain industries. These technologies have resulted in several patents. The core of these technologies is some of the processes and patents described in this paper: Aerobic denitrification, Sharon, Anammox, OLAND, CANON, NOx process, DEMON. More specifically, one of the first innovative options described for removing nitrogen include partial nitrification under aerobic conditions (partial Sharon process) followed by autotrophic anaerobic oxidation (Anammox process). The partial Sharon-Anammox process can be performed under alternating oxic and anoxic conditions in the same bioreactor or in two steps in two separate bioreactors. This overview focuses on the technical and biological aspects of these new types of treatment system, and compares them to other technologies. Given the fact that nitrification is a sensitive process, special attention is paid to conditions such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, hydraulic retention time, free ammonia, nitrous acid concentration, and pH. A discussion of the pros and cons of such treatment systems is also included since autotrophic nitrogen removal has advantages as well as drawbacks. The paper concludes with a discussion of future research that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs. PMID:21619549

  20. Evaluation of UV/TiO(2) and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems coupled to a biological process for the treatment of bleaching pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Botía, Diana C; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Sarria, Víctor M

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of pulp mill bleaching effluent treatment by a biological-photocatalytic coupled system. A fungus, Trametes pubescens, immobilized on polyurethane foam was used to inoculate the biological pre-treatment system. The pretreated effluent was then exposed to a photocatalytic treatment in which two catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) and two supports (aluminum foil and Luffa cylindrica) were tested. Catalyst characterization was carried out by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Information about crystalline structure, chemical composition, morphology, homogeneity and distribution on the support surface area was obtained. The overall biological-photocatalytic coupled system achieved degradation of 96% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), 97% of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 90% of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-CP) and 99% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). This approach of synergistic coupling of T. pubescens and a semiconductor photocatalyst appears to be a viable alternative for the treatment of these non-biodegradable effluents. PMID:22818977

  1. MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD\\/PCDF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Ahokas; D. A. Holdway; S. E. Brennan; R. W. Goudey; H. B. Bibrowska

    1994-01-01

    European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding

  2. Role of vegetation (Typha latifolia) on nutrient removal in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland treating UASB reactor-trickling filter effluent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; Martins, Weber Luiz Pinto; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to characterize the role of plants in a constructed wetland in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The experiments were carried out in a full-scale system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, with two parallel horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units (one planted with Typha latifolia and one unplanted) treating the effluent from a system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter (TF). Each wetland unit received a mean flow of approximately 8.5 m³ d(-1) (population equivalent around 60 inhabitants each), with a surface hydraulic loading rate 0.12 m(3)m(-2)d(-1). The experiments were conducted from September 2011 to July 2013. Mean effluent concentrations from the wetlands were: (a) planted unit total nitrogen (TN) 22 mg L(-1), ammonia-N 19 mg L(-1), nitrite-N 0.10 mg L(-1), nitrate-N 0.25 mg L(-1), P-total 1.31 mg L(-1); and (b) unplanted unit TN 24 mg L(-1), ammonia-N 20 mg L(-1), nitrite-N 0.54 mg mL(-1), nitrate-N 0.15 mg L(-1), P-total 1.31 mg L(-1). The aerial part of the plant contained mean values of 24.1 gN (kg dry matter)(-1) and 4.4 gP (kg dry matter)(-1), and the plant root zone was composed of 16.5 gN (kg dry matter)(-1) and 4.1 gP (kg dry matter)(-1). The mean extraction of N by the plant biomass was 726 kgN ha(-1)y(-1), corresponding to 17% of the N load removed. For P, the extraction by the plant biomass was 105 kgP ha(-1)y(-1), corresponding to 9% of the P load removed. These results reinforce the reports that N and P removal due to plant uptake is a minor mechanism in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands operating under similar loading rates, typical for polishing of sanitary effluent. PMID:25860702

  3. Alkali-treated titanium selectively regulating biological behaviors of bacteria, cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guifang; Wang, Donghui; Wu, Qianju; Jiang, Xinquan; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-15

    Many attentions have been paid to the beneficial effect of alkali-treated titanium to bioactivity and osteogenic activity, but few to the other biological effect. In this work, hierarchical micro/nanopore films were prepared on titanium surface by acid etching and alkali treatment and their biological effects on bacteria, cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells were investigated. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and human cholangiocarcinoma cell line RBE were used to investigate whether alkali-treated titanium can influence behaviors of bacteria and cancer cells. Responses of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) to alkali-treated titanium were also subsequently investigated. The alkali-treated titanium can potently reduce bacterial adhesion, inhibit RBE and BMMSCs proliferation, while can better promote BMMSCs osteogenesis and angiogenesis than acid-etched titanium. The bacteriostatic ability of the alkali-treated titanium is proposed to result from the joint effect of micro/nanotopography and local pH increase at bacterium/material interface due to the hydrolysis of alkali (earth) metal titanate salts. The inhibitory action of cell proliferation is thought to be the effect of local pH increase at cell/material interface which causes the alkalosis of cells. This alkalosis model reported in this work will help to understand the biologic behaviors of various cells on alkali-treated titanium surface and design the intended biomedical applications. PMID:25268820

  4. Nitrogen removal from on-site treated anaerobic effluents using intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactors at low temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Luostarinen; Sami Luste; Lara Valentín; Jukka Rintala

    2006-01-01

    On-site post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated dairy parlour wastewater (DPWWe; 10°C) and mixture of kitchen waste and black water (BWKWe; 20°C) was studied in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). The focus was on removal of nitrogen and of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD). Moreover, the effect of intermittent aeration and continuous vs. sequencing batch operation was studied. All MBBRs removed 50–60%

  5. Toxicity evaluation and biological treatment of lead and zinc mine-mill effluents in southeast Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Erten, Z.M.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of biological treatment system was developed consisting of a large tailings lagoon followed by a series of artificially constructed meanders and polishing lagoon. This system provided additional time and distance for removal of heavy metals by algae and sedimentation. Application of a Waste Load Allocation model was evaluated to determine the system treatment efficiency for handling and removing an increased discharge of metal concentration from the primary tailings pond. Alternative analytical extraction techniques have been tested to determine the best recovery of the heavy metals. Static acute toxicity tests using Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) found that lead, cadmium and zinc are much less toxic in hard, alkaline waters typical of New Lead Belt rivers and streams. However, determining the toxic fraction of the metal in this environment in regard to an acid soluble metal would not be representative of the toxic form of the metal that would cause lethality in test organisms because, no correlation was found between the toxicity results and chemical extraction results in regard to the available, easily dissolved, total and nominal concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc.

  6. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

  7. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  8. Filtration device for active effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Valduc (France)

    1994-12-31

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter.

  9. Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

  10. Genomic and phenotypic response of hornyhead turbot exposed to municipal wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Ribecco, Cataldo; Sprague, L James; Angert, Mila; Ludka, Colleen; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Carnevali, Oliana; Greenstein, Darrin J; Schlenk, Daniel; Kelley, Kevin M; Reyes, Jesus A; Snyder, Shane; Vanderford, Brett; Wiborg, Lan C; Petschauer, Dawn; Sasik, Roman; Baker, Michael; Hardiman, Gary

    2013-09-15

    Laboratory tests with marine flatfish were conducted to investigate associations among gene expression, higher biological responses and wastewater effluent exposure. In the present study, male hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) were exposed to environmentally realistic (0.5%) and higher (5%) concentrations of chemically enhanced advanced-primary (PL) and full-secondary treated (HTP) effluents from two southern California wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Hepatic gene expression was examined using a custom low-density microarray. Alterations in gene expression (vs. controls) were observed in fish exposed to both effluent types. Fish exposed to 0.5% PL effluent showed changes in genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, steroids, and lipids, among other processes. Fish exposed to 5% PL effluent showed expression changes in genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress responses, xenobiotic metabolism, and steroid synthesis, among others. Exposure to 5% HTP effluent changed the expression of genes involved in lipid, glutathione and xenobiotic metabolism, as well as immune responses. Although no concentration-dependent patterns of response to effluent exposure were found, significant Spearman correlations were observed between the expression of 22 genes and molecular and/or higher biological responses. These results indicate that microarray gene expression data correspond to higher biological responses and should be incorporated in studies assessing fish health after exposure to complex environmental mixtures. PMID:23796538

  11. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-06-07

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF.

  12. Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

    2009-04-01

    Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting. PMID:19081715

  13. Biological treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a Lab-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Jing Chan; Mei Fong Chong; Chung Lim Law

    2010-01-01

    The production of highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has resulted in serious environmental hazards. While anaerobic digestion is widely accepted as an effective method for the treatment of POME, anaerobic treatment of POME alone has difficulty meeting discharge limits due to the high organic strength of POME. Hence, subsequent post-treatment following aerobic treatment is vital to meet the

  14. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  15. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Bougas, Bérénice; Couture, Patrice; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Lair, Stéphane; Verreault, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p<0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p<0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found at the gene and cellular levels. Present results suggest that relating transcriptomic analyses to phenotypic responses is important to better understand impacts of environmental contamination on wild fish populations. PMID:25137380

  16. Predicting the Unmet Need for Biologically Targeted Coverage of Insecticide-Treated Nets in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M.; Alegana, Victor A.; Patil, Anand P.; Snow, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In some countries the biological targeting of universal malaria prevention may offer optimal impact on disease and significant cost-savings compared with approaches that presume universal risk. Spatially defined data on coverage of treated nets from recent national household surveys in Kenya were used within a Bayesian geostatistical framework to predict treated net coverage nationally. When combined with the distributions of malaria risk and population an estimated 8.1 million people were not protected with treated nets in 2010 in biologically defined priority areas. After adjusting for the proportion of nets in use that were not long lasting, an estimated 5.5 to 6.3 million long-lasting treated nets would be required to achieve universal coverage in 2010 in Kenya in at-risk areas compared with 16.4 to 18.1 million nets if not restricted to areas of greatest malaria risk. In Kenya, this evidence-based approach could save the national program at least 55 million US dollars. PMID:20889879

  17. The influence of different substrate pH values on the performance of a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating a petrochemical effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Nel; T. J. Britz

    1986-01-01

    Summary Neutralizing requirements for the anaerobic treatment of an acidic petrochemical effluent in a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor were examined. Neutralization (pH 6.0 with NaOH) of the effluent prior to digestion resulted in a Na+ concentration of over 3 g\\/l which was detrimental. Decreasing the Na+ concentration and subsequent replacement of NaOH by a mixture of Ca(OH)2, NaOH and

  18. Adherence to guidelines in the use of biological agents to treat psoriasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Miriam Sanches do Nascimento; de Camargo, Iara Alves; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Guyatt, Gordon; de Camargo, Mayara Costa; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective In São Paolo, Brazil, patients can appeal to the courts, registering law suits against the government claiming the need for biological agents for treatment of psoriasis. If the lawsuits are successful, which is usually the case, the government then pays for the biologic agent. The extent to which the management of such patients, after gaining access to government payment for their biologic agents, adheres to authoritative guidelines, is uncertain. Methods We identified patients through records of the State Health Secretariat of São Paulo from 2004 to 2011. We consulted guidelines from five countries and chose as standards only those recommendations that the guidelines uniformly endorsed. Pharmacy records provided data regarding biological use. Guidelines not only recommended biological agents only in patients with severe psoriasis who had failed to respond to topical and systemic therapies (eg, ciclosporin and methotrexate) but also yearly monitoring of blood counts and liver function. Results Of 218 patients identified in the database, 3 did not meet eligibility criteria and 12 declined participation. Of the 203 patients interviewed, 91 were still using biological medicine; we established adherence to laboratory monitoring in these patients. In the total sample, management failed to meet standards of prior use of topical and systemic medication in 169 (83.2%) patients. Of the 91 patients using biological medicine at the time of the survey, 23 (25.2%) did not undergo appropriate laboratory tests. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between clinical practice and the recommendations of guidelines in the management of plaintiffs using biological drugs to treat psoriasis. PMID:24598304

  19. Removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater by chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hey, G; Ledin, A; Jansen, J la Cour; Andersen, H R

    2012-01-01

    Removal of six active pharmaceutical ingredients in wastewater was investigated using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) as chemical oxidants. Four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid) and two lipid-regulating agents (gemfibrozil and clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate) were used as target substances at 40 microg/L initial concentration. Three different wastewaters types originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were used. One wastewater was collected after extended nitrogen removal in activated sludge, one after treatment with high-loaded activated sludge without nitrification, and one from the final effluent from the same plant where nitrogen removal was made in trickling filters for nitrification and moving-bed biofilm reactors for denitrification following the high-loaded plant. Of the six investigated compounds, only clofibric acid and ibuprofen were not removed when treated with ClO2 up to 20 mg/L. With increasing PAA dose up to 50 mg/L, significant removal of most of the pharmaceuticals was observed except for the wastewater with the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD). This indicates that chemical oxidation with ClO2 could be used for tertiary treatment at WWTPs for active pharmaceutical ingredients, whereas PAA was not sufficiently efficient. PMID:22720432

  20. Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:18717619

  1. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. PMID:25108712

  2. Accumulation of ligands for aryl hydrocarbon and sex steroid receptors in fish exposed to treated effluent from a bleached sulfite/groundwood pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, L Mark; Pryce, Andrea C; Parrott, Joanne L; Marlatt, Vicki; Wood, Craig; Oakes, Kenneth; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2003-12-01

    The accumulation of ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and fish sex steroid receptors was investigated using two separate controlled fish exposures to final effluent from a bleached sulfite/groundwood mill in New Brunswick, Canada. In the first experiment, hepatic tissue extracts from exposed fish were fractionated according to lipophilicity. Fractions with different octanol-water (Kow) partition coefficients were tested for the presence of bioavailable chemicals that function as ligands for the AhR in H4IIE cells, rainbow trout hepatic estrogen receptors (ER), goldfish testicular androgen receptors (AR), and goldfish sex steroid binding protein (SSBP). Fish accumulated ligands for each receptor after 4-d exposure to effluent. Single fractions contained ligands for the AhR and the ER, while multiple fractions competed for the AR and SSBP. Fish also accumulated ligands for the AhR and SSBP from Saint John River dilution water, indicating upstream sources of bioactive substances. Semipermeable-membrane devices deployed concurrently with fish accumulated ligands from effluent for all receptors except the ER. In the second experiment, accumulated ligands were evaluated after exposure of fish to effluent for two different durations and following a depuration period. Hepatic mixed function oxygenase activity and whole-liver hormonal activity, measured as binding to SSBP, returned to background following 6 d depuration and were reduced but still significant after 12-d exposure to effluent. Whole-liver extract affinities for the AR were maintained after extended exposure and depuration, indicating the potential for AR ligands to bioaccumulate. The accumulation of AhR ligands and ligands for sex steroid receptors provides a mechanistic linkage to effects on growth, development, and performance of fish exposed to effluent from this and other mills. PMID:14713028

  3. Studies on water hyacinth as a biological filter for treating contaminants from agricultural wastes and industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, K.; Madhavendra, S.S.; Jamil, M.Z.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) showed a remarkable capacity to withstand the effects of pH changes ranging from 5 to 8 in the aquatic environment. Growth continued to be normal except when placed for longer periods in medium containing iron ions at pH 3.3. The ability of this plant to neutralize some very acid solutions of heavy metals such as salts of copper, cadmium and zinc individually and in combinations, is being reported. Plants placed in pure acid and alkali solutions were also able to neutralize the medium. Calcium appears to play an important role in the mechanism involved in the adaptability of these plants to such environments.

  4. The evaluation of fouling effects in membrane process dealing with the biologically pre-treated textile effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gul Kaykioglu; Asli Coban; Eyup Debik; Bergin Beril Kayacan; Ismail Koyuncu

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater reuse is necessary in the textile industry due to its consumption of large amounts of freshwater. However, the main problem with the membranes is the decline of permeate flux due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic molecules on the membrane surface when the raw wastewater is used. This study focused on the fouling effect of aerobically and anaerobically

  5. Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

  6. The presence of acidic and neutral drugs in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in the Cornwallis and Annapolis River watersheds and the Mill CoveSewage Treatment Plant in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Brian A; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Tong, Anthony Z

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are designed to have physiological effects on target organisms. Their presence and effect in aquatic ecosystems in the Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia is relatively unknown. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs are continually introduced to aquatic ecosystems through treated sewage effluent outflows into rivers and other bodies of water. Fouracidic and two neutral pharmaceuticals were monitored in the effluents from nine sewage treatment plants in the Annapolis Valley and Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) in Nova Scotia. Naproxen and ibuprofen, two highly used OTC drugs, were the most prominent and were detected at high ng/L to low ?g/L levels. Caffeine, salicylic acid (a metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid) and cotinine were detected in the ng/L range. Warfarin was not detected above the detection limits. The urban sewage treatment plant in Mill Cove, HRM showed much higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals than rural facilities in the Annapolis Valley, despite the fact that more advanced facilities are used at the urban plant. Receiving waters both downstream and upstream from STP effluent outfalls were also studied, and trace levels of caffeine at several sites indicate some degree of pollution propagation into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22178020

  7. PHYSICAL CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF A COMBINED SEWER IMPACTED SECONDARY EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical-chemical treatment of conventional biological secondary effluent for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants is used and considered applicable in areas where secondary treatment alone is incapable of producing satisfactory effluent quality. This report describes ...

  8. ADVANCED TREATMENT BY CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PULP AND PAPER EFFLUENT FROM A PLANT MANUFACTURING HARDBOARD FROM WASTE PAPER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tünay; E. Erdeml; I. Kabda?li; T. Ölmez

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the applicability of chemical oxidation processes to polish biologically treated effluent of a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper to comply with the discharge limit of 120 mg l chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the first step, a chemically assisted settling was applied. The optimum results were obtained with alum plus lime with the alum

  9. Degradation of diethyl phthalate in treated effluents from an MBR via advanced oxidation processes: Effects of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot?scale AOP operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Park; C. G. Park; J. W. Lee; K. B. Ko

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to delineate the oxidation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water, using bench?scale UV\\/H2O2 and O3\\/H2O2 processes, and to determine the effects of nitrate (NO3 ?N, 5 mg L) on this oxidation. The oxidation of DEP was also investigated through a pilot?scale advanced oxidation process (AOP), into which a portion of the effluent from

  10. Impact of pharmaceutical industry treated effluents on the water quality of river Uppanar, South east coast of India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodhar, Usha; Vikram Reddy, M.

    2013-06-01

    The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.

  11. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  12. Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelsman, Martijn, E-mail: mengelsman@partners.or [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S. [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

  13. Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

  14. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  15. Monitoring drug and antidrug levels: a rational approach in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with biologic agents who experience inadequate response while being on a stable biologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Mazilu, Diana; Opri?, Daniela; Gainaru, Cecilia; Iliuta, Mihaela; Apetrei, Natalia; Luca, Giorgiana; Borangiu, Andreea; Gudu, Tania; Peltea, Alexandra; Groseanu, Laura; Constantinescu, Cosmin; Saulescu, Ioana; Bojinca, Violeta; Balanescu, Andra; Predeteanu, Denisa; Ionescu, Ruxandra

    2014-01-01

    Clinical response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with biologic agents can be influenced by their pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity. The present study evaluated the concordance between serum drug and antidrug levels as well as the clinical response in RA patients treated with biological agents who experience their first disease exacerbation while being on a stable biologic treatment. 154 RA patients treated with rituximab (RTX), infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADL), or etanercept (ETN) were included. DAS28, SDAI, and EULAR response were assessed at baseline and reevaluated at precise time intervals. At the time of their first sign of inadequate response, patients were tested for both serum drug level and antidrug antibodies level. At the next reevaluation, patients retreated with RTX that had detectable drug level had a better EULAR response (P = 0.038) with lower DAS28 and SDAI scores (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03). The same tendency was observed in patients treated with IFX and ETN regarding EULAR response (P = 0.002 and P = 0.023), DAS28 score (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003), and SDAI score (P = 0.001 and P = 0.026). Detectable biologic drug levels correlated with a better clinical response in patients experiencing their first RA inadequate response while being on a stable biologic treatment with RTX, IFX, and ETN. PMID:24982902

  16. Study of impacts of treated wastewater to the Krka river, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Cotman, M; Zagorc-Koncan, J; Droic, A

    2001-01-01

    Surface waters are used for disposal of treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants. These effluents usually contain only small amounts of various contaminants but these harmful components accumulate over time in the river, especially in sediments. An integrated approach for the evaluation of the impact of treated effluents was used to predict an ecological risk assessment to the Krka river beside Novo Mesto. The effluents from pharmaceutical and municipal wastewater treatment plants were discharged too closely into the receiving stream, so that separate impacts could not be distinguished. Biologically treated industrial effluents contained great amounts of barely biodegradable organic pollution, organic nitrogen, ammonia and phosphorus, and sometimes zinc. The toxicity of effluents was mostly dependent on their chemical composition. The municipal discharge contained greater amounts of organic pollution that was completely biodegraded but still had a great nutrient pollution load. The effluents were nontoxic. The harmful substances from the effluents were traced in the river. In the downstream site slightly higher concentration of organic pollutants, organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc were detected due to discharges. The river water was over-saturated with oxygen, especially in the summer. In toxicity tests, samples of the river water were nontoxic. Sediments at the downstream site accumulated from discharged organic nitrogen, phosphorus, or zinc. The results of our study show that the main problem is eutrophication of the river Krka, so it is obvious we must reduce the quantity of nutrients in the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. In both effluents it will be necessary to reduce the polluting load of phosphorus, the limiting element for growth of algae and macrophytes in the receiving stream. In the industrial effluent it will be necessary to reduce substances which cause toxicity, such as zinc and nonbiodegradable organic compounds that may be accumulatec the water ecosystem over time. PMID:11700663

  17. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment. PMID:25277708

  18. Biological denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating aquaculture system effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-Ming; Deng, Ya-Le; Ruan, Yun-Jie; Guo, Xi-Shan; Shi, Ming-Ming; Shen, Jia-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53±0.19kgNO3(-)-Nm(-3)d(-1) (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66±0.12kgNO3(-)-Nm(-3)d(-1) (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance. PMID:26093254

  19. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 147,445-450 (1991) Altered Cell Fate in LiCI-Treated Sea Urchin Embryos

    E-print Network

    Ernst, Susan G.

    1991-01-01

    DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 147,445-450 (1991) Altered Cell Fate in LiCI-Treated Sea Urchin Embryos in the sea urchin, Strongykxentrotus purpuratus. We have examined the effects of various concentrations of lithium chloride, awell-known vegetalizing agent, on End016 expression in whole sea urchin embryos. Our

  1. Biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluents from anaerobic reactors using a down-flow hanging sponge reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi Hatamoto; Hiroki Yamamoto; Tomonori Kindaichi; Noriatsu Ozaki; Akiyoshi Ohashi

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment plants discharge dissolved methane, which is usually not recovered. To prevent emission of methane, which is a greenhouse gas, we utilized an encapsulated down-flow hanging sponge reactor as a post-treatment to biologically oxidize dissolved methane. Within 3 weeks after reactor start-up, methane removal efficiency of up to 95% was achieved with a methane removal rate of 0.8 kg COD m?3 day?1

  2. Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaan Yetilmezsoy; Zehra Sapci-Zengin

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH4PO4·6H2O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+–N=1318mg\\/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl2·6H2O+KH2PO4, MgSO4·7H2O+NaHPO4·7H2O, and MgO+85% H3PO4 were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg2+:NH4+–N:PO43?–P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from

  3. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

  4. Biomarker responses along a pollution gradient: Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on caged whitefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reino Soimasuo; Ilmari Jokinen; Jussi Kukkonen; Tiina Petänen; Tiina Ristola; Aimo Oikari

    1995-01-01

    Lake Saimaa (SE Finland) is a large oligotrophic lake receiving biologically treated effluent from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill. Hatchery-reared juvenile whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L. s.l.), a species known to feed on plankton and other particulates, were caged using a technique developed and optimized for this species and were exposed for one month in five downstream stations (3.3–16

  5. Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ?2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse. PMID:22814960

  6. In search of a reliable technique for the determination of the biological stability of the organic matter in the mechanical-biological treated waste.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Raquel; d'Imporzano, Giuliana; Ponsá, Sergio; Gea, Teresa; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni; Adani, Fabrizio

    2009-03-15

    The biological stability determines the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed. In this work, a massive estimation of indices suitable for the measurement of biological stability of the organic matter content in solid waste samples has been carried out. Samples from different stages in a mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant treating municipal solid wastes (MSW) were selected as examples of different stages of organic matter stability in waste biological treatment. Aerobic indices based on respiration techniques properly reflected the process of organic matter biodegradation. Static and dynamic respirometry showed similar values in terms of aerobic biological activity (expressed as oxygen uptake rate, OUR), whereas cumulative oxygen consumption was a reliable method to express the biological stability of organic matter in solid samples. Methods based on OUR and cumulative oxygen consumption were positively correlated. Anaerobic methods based on biogas production (BP) tests also reflected well the degree of biological stability, although significant differences were found in solid and liquid BP assays. A significant correlation was found between cumulative oxygen consumption and ultimate biogas production. The results obtained in this study can be a basis for the quantitative measurement of the efficiency in the stabilization of organic matter in waste treatment plants, including MBT plants, anaerobic digestion of MSW and composting plants. PMID:18606494

  7. Collagen tissue treated with chitosan solutions in carbonic acid for improved biological prosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Gallyamov, Marat O; Chaschin, Ivan S; Khokhlova, Marina A; Grigorev, Timofey E; Bakuleva, Natalia P; Lyutova, Irina G; Kondratenko, Janna E; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Khokhlov, Alexei R

    2014-04-01

    Calcification of bovine pericardium dramatically shortens typical lifetimes of biological prosthetic heart valves and thus precludes their choice for younger patients. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the calcification is to be mitigated by means of treatment of bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with carbon dioxide at high pressure. This acidic aqueous fluid unusually combines antimicrobial properties with absolute biocompatibility as far as at normal pressure it decomposes spontaneously and completely into H2O and CO2. Yet, at high pressures it can protonate and dissolve chitosan materials with different degrees of acetylation (in the range of 16-33%, at least) without any further pretreatment. Even exposure of the bovine pericardium in pure carbonic acid solution without chitosan already favours certain reduction in calcification, somewhat improved mechanical properties, complete biocompatibility and evident antimicrobial activity of the treated collagen tissue. The reason may be due to high extraction ability of this peculiar compressed fluidic mixture. Moreover, exposure of the bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid introduces even better mechanical properties and highly pronounced antimicrobial activity of the modified collagen tissue against adherence and biofilm formation of relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Yet, the most important achievement is the detected dramatic reduction in calcification for such modified collagen tissues in spite of the fact that the amount of the thus introduced chitosan is rather small (typically ca. 1wt.%), which has been reliably detected using original tritium labelling method. We believe that these improved properties are achieved due to particularly deep and uniform impregnation of the collagen matrix with chitosan from its pressurised solutions in carbonic acid. PMID:24582232

  8. Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-04-01

    Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100 mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75 mg L(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100 mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200 Lux), whereas 0.67 mg L(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg L(-1)). The prevention of dark repair is ensured with 25-50% lower concentration of total oxidants. An increase of the TSS concentration from 11 mg L(-1) to 75 mg L(-1) leads to a triplication of the need of total oxidants from 0.6 mg L(-1) to 1.8 mg L(-1) (3*10(5)E. coli per 100 mL). The energy consumption of the hybrid reactor varies from 0.17 kWh m(-3) to 0.94 kWh m(-3) depending on the TSS concentration (11-75 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, biofilm formation on quartz glass surfaces, of which the sleeves of UV lamps consist, can be suppressed by electrochemically produced total oxidants at a concentration of at least 1 mg L(-1) which ensures high operational safety of the hybrid reactor combined with large maintenance intervals. PMID:24447954

  9. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-07-29

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations. PMID:26061210

  10. Brackish water pond culture of fishes and their use as biological monitors of the water quality of thermal effluent from a power station

    E-print Network

    Kaehler, Todd

    1975-01-01

    Quality of Thermal Effluent from a Power Station (December 1975) Todd Kaehler, B. S. , University of Wisconsin--Stevens Point Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kirk Strawn Channel catfish, Zctalurus punctatus; Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus...

  11. Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2012-04-15

    This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 ?g L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

  12. Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra

    2009-07-15

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N=1318 mg/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O+NaHPO(4).7H(2)O, and MgO+85% H(3)PO(4) were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg(2+):NH(4)(+)-N:PO(4)(3-)-P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from 4.45 to 11. Preliminary test results indicated that maximum NH(4)(+)-N removal, as well as maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions, were obtained as 85.4%, 53.3% and 49.8% at pH 9.0 with the addition of MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), respectively. The paired experimental data obtained from batch studies were statistically evaluated by a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and a two-sample t-test. Based on the previous results, another batch experiments were then performed at pH 9.0 using MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4) for different molar ratios applied as overdose (1.2:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 1:1:1.2, 1:1:1.5) and underdose (0.5:1:1, 0.8:1:1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:0.8). In the final step, the fertility of the MAP precipitate as struvite was also tested on the growth of three test plants including purslane (Portulaca oleracea), garden cress (Lepidum sativum) and grass (Lolium perenne). Findings of this experimental study clearly confirmed the recovering of NH(4)(+)-N from UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation, and also the application of recovered MAP sludge as a valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:19097699

  13. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

  16. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must be removed and disposed of properly, in order to make future piling removals as effective and beneficial to ecosystem health as possible.

  17. Census of cultivable bacterial community in common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tannery discharge and computational scrutiny on their leading residents

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Thangaiyan; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Arunprasanna, Vimalanathan; Shanmugam, Ponnusamy; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2013-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) for tannery effluent, is the combination of physical, chemical and biological treatment to facilitate the degradation of industrial waste water. Obviously, the biomass which survives in this extreme environment may have the ability to utilize the effluent as the sole carbon source for its survival. The ultimate aim of the present investigation is to expose the microbial diversity in each stage of the CETP through the culture dependent way. Bacterial diversity in the effluent were analysed through 16S rRNA gene. The community study revealed the dominance of firmicutes and the dominant genus was Bacillus sp, with variable species diversity. Notably, Putative Bacillus sp, B. firmus and B. licheniformis were observed in all stages of treatment. The dominant residents were analysed by BProm and TF site scan to prove their uniqueness. This species richness indicates the capability of liveliness in treatment plant and whose can be exploited for treating the effluent by using modern molecular approach. Abbreviations CETP - Common Effluent Treatment Plant, PTIET - Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company Ltd. PMID:23390354

  18. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  19. The culture of selected marine fish in ponds receiving thermal effluent from a power station and their use as biological monitors of water quality

    E-print Network

    Pane, Joseph John

    1976-01-01

    to determine their significance in thermal effluent fish culture. This study was conducted from March 24, 1975 to June 8, 1976. Striped mullet, NugLL oephaLus, was cultured with Florida pompano, Tzachinotus caroLinus; Atlantic croaker, Nioropogon undu...

  20. Trickle irrigation: Predominant bacteria in treated Colorado River water and biologically clogged emitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Gilbert; F. S. Nakayama; D. A. Bucks; O. F. French; K. C. Adamson; R. M. Johnson

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial numbers and predominant bacterial types were determined in trickle irrigation systems receiving treated Colorado River water. Fourteen bacterial genera were isolated and identified from 86 water and sediment samples collected from trickle emitter systems receiving six water treatments. The bacteria identified were common aquatic and soil microbes and the genera in order of prevalence were Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Brevibacterium,

  1. Diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in a sponge-based trickling filter treating effluent from a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Zerbini, A M; Brandt, E M F; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) population dynamics were examined in a new sponge-based trickling filter (TF) post-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and these changes were linked to relevant components influencing nitrification (chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N)). The sponge-based packing media caused strong concentration gradients along the TF, providing an ecological selection of AOB within the system. The organic loading rate (OLR) affected the population dynamics, and under higher OLR or low ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentrations some AOB bands disappeared, but maintaining the overall community function for NH4(+)-N removal. The dominant bands present in the upper portions of the TF were closely related to Nitrosomonas europaea and distantly affiliated to Nitrosomonas eutropha, and thus were adapted to higher NH4(+)-N and organic matter concentrations. In the lower portions of the TF, the dominant bands were related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha, commonly found in environments with low levels of NH4(+)-N. From a technology point of view, changes in AOB structure at OLR around 0.40-0.60 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) did not affect TF performance for NH4(+)-N removal, but AOB diversity may have been correlated with the noticeable stability of the sponge-based TF for NH4(+)-N removal at low OLR. This study is relevant because molecular biology was used to observe important features of a bioreactor, considering realistic operational conditions applied to UASB/sponge-based TF systems. PMID:23925194

  2. Treatment of industrial effluent water

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskii, Yu.N.

    1982-09-01

    This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

  3. A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic. PMID:17583772

  4. H2S gas biological removal efficiency and bacterial community diversity in biofilter treating wastewater odor.

    PubMed

    Omri, Ilhem; Bouallagui, Hassib; Aouidi, Fathia; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a biofilter system to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contaminated air and to characterize its microbial community. The biofilter system was packed with peat. During the experimental work, the peat was divided in three layers (down, middle, and up). Satisfactory removal efficiencies of H2S were proved and reached 99% for the majority of the run time at an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 60 s. The polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method was used to uncover the changes in the microbial community between the different layers. Analysis of SSCP profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure from a layer to another with a strong decrease in species diversity towards the up layer. It was found that the used support was suitable for microorganism growth, and may have a potential application in H2S biofiltration system. PMID:21945209

  5. EVAPORATIVE PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE CONTAINING EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A unique evaporation/humidification process for treating wastewater effluent has been developed at Alcoa Laboratories. A major portion of the effluent is recovered as water of high purity suitable for recycle or reuse, and the small volume of concentrated chemicals can be either ...

  6. Structural biology contributions to the discovery of drugs to treat chronic myelogenous leukaemia

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W., E-mail: sandra.jacob@novartis.com; Fendrich, Gabriele; Floersheimer, Andreas; Furet, Pascal; Liebetanz, Janis; Rummel, Gabriele; Rheinberger, Paul; Centeleghe, Mario; Fabbro, Doriano; Manley, Paul W. [Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-01-01

    A case study showing how the determination of multiple cocrystal structures of the protein tyrosine kinase c-Abl was used to support drug discovery, resulting in a compound effective in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) results from the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, which has a constitutively activated Abl tyrosine kinase domain. Although most chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib as first-line therapy maintain excellent durable responses, patients who have progressed to advanced-stage CML frequently fail to respond or lose their response to therapy owing to the emergence of drug-resistant mutants of the protein. More than 40 such point mutations have been observed in imatinib-resistant patients. The crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Abl kinase in complex with imatinib and other small-molecule Abl inhibitors were determined, with the aim of understanding the molecular basis of resistance and to aid in the design and optimization of inhibitors active against the resistance mutants. These results are presented in a way which illustrates the approaches used to generate multiple structures, the type of information that can be gained and the way that this information is used to support drug discovery.

  7. Advanced oxidation of bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Mounteer, A H; Pereira, R O; Morais, A A; Ruas, D B; Silveira, D S A; Viana, D B; Medeiros, R C

    2007-01-01

    In this study a poorly biodegradable (BOD/COD = 0.3) industrial alkaline ECF bleaching filtrate was treated using different advanced oxidation processes to evaluate their use in combined chemical-biological treatment aimed at increasing recalcitrant COD removal and improving final effluent quality. Oxidative treatments included ozonation combined with hydrogen peroxide (2, 5, 10, 20 mmol L(-1) O3/0.7, 2, 5, 10 mmol L(-1) H2O2) and photocatalysis with hydrogen peroxide (UV/2, 4 and 8 mmolL(-1) H2O2) and with TiO2 (UV/TiO2/0.7 and 4 mmol L(-1) H2O2). The O3/H2O2 process increased effluent biodegradability by up to 68% as a result of increasing BOD and decreasing COD. Increasing the O3 dose had a greater effect on biodegradability improvement and lignin and colour removal efficiencies than increasing the H2O2 dose. A combined oxidant dose of 5 mmol L(-1) O3 and 2 mmol L(-1) H2O2 resulted in 75% lignin removal, 40% colour removal and 6% carbohydrate loss without mineralizing the organic carbon. The photocatalytic processes led to a decrease in effluent biodegradability through combined decrease in BOD and increase in COD and did not result in efficient lignin or colour removal. Photocatalytic oxidation was apparently inhibited by the high chloride and COD levels in the alkaline filtrate, and may be more efficient in recalcitrant COD removal if performed after biological. PMID:17486841

  8. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Lansdell, M.

    1993-07-20

    An activated sludge wastewater treatment process is described comprising: (a) providing a reactor including first, second and third basins each defining an elongated flow path and each having an inlet end and an outlet end, means for hydraulically interconnecting the basins, first, second and third wastewater inlet means for respectively feeding wastewater from a wastewater receiver to the first or the second or the third basin, and first and second treated effluent outlet means for respectively discharging treated effluent from the outlet ends of the first and third basins, (b) the first phase steps of: (i) feeding wastewater from the wastewater receiver to the inlet end of the first basin while interrupting flow from the wastewater receiver to the second and third basins; (ii) permitting flow from the outlet end of the first basin into inlet end of the second basin and from the outlet end of the second basin into the inlet end of the third basin, (iii) discharging treated effluent from the outlet end of the third basin through the second treated effluent outlet means while preventing flow through the first treated effluent outlet means; (iv) subjecting wastewater in at least a portion of the rim and second basins to aerobic treatment while interrupting aerobic treatment of the wastewater in the third basin to allow settling of the sludge in the third basin; (c) the second phase steps of: (i) feeding wastewater to be treated from the wastewater receiver to the inlet end of the second basin while preventing flow from the wastewater receiver to the first and third basins; (ii) permitting flow from the outlet end of the second basin into the inlet end of the third basin; (iii) discharging treated effluent from the outlet end of the third basin through the second treated effluent outlet means while preventing flow through the first treated effluent outlet means.

  9. Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of recalcitrant organic compounds in biologically treated municipal solid waste leachate in a flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xuejun; Cheng, Zhiliang; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Xincai

    2013-10-01

    Biologically-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate still contains many kinds of bio-recalcitrant organic matter. A new plate and frame electrochemical reactor was designed to treat these materials under flow conditions. In the electrochemical oxidation process, NH3 and color could be easily removed by means of electro-generated chlorine/hypochlorite within 20 min. The effects of major process parameters on the removal of organic pollutants were investigated systematically. Under experimental conditions, the optimum operation parameters were current density of 65 mA/cm2, flow velocity of 2.6 cm/sec in electrode gap, and initial chloride ion concentration of 5000 mg/L. The COD in the leachate could be reduced below 100 mg/L after 1 hr of treatment. The kinetics and mechanism of COD removal were investigated by simultaneously monitoring the COD change and chlorine/hypochlorite production. The kinetics of COD removal exhibited a two-stage kinetic model, and the decrease of electro-generated chlorine/hypochlorite production was the major mechanism for the slowing down of the COD removal rate in the second stage. The narrowing of the electrode gap is beneficial for COD removal and energy consumption. PMID:24494488

  11. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M.; Mermelstein, Claudia S.; Costa, Manoel L.; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  12. Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Carey, Richard O; Migliaccio, Kati W

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. PMID:19458999

  13. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in intermittent UASB reactors: influence of effluent recirculation.

    PubMed

    Couras, C S; Louros, V L; Gameiro, T; Alves, N; Silva, A; Capela, M I; Arroja, L M; Nadais, H

    2015-09-01

    This work studied the influence of effluent recirculation upon the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in the feedless phase of intermittent upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. Several laboratory-scale tests were performed with different organic loads in closed circuit UASB reactors inoculated with adapted flocculent sludge. The data obtained were used for determination of specific substrate removal rates and specific methane production rates, and adjusted to kinetic models. A high initial substrate removal was observed in all tests due to adsorption of organic matter onto the anaerobic biomass which was not accompanied by biological substrate degradation as measured by methane production. Initial methane production rate was about 45% of initial soluble and colloidal substrate removal rate. This discrepancy between methane production rate and substrate removal rate was observed mainly on the first day of all experiments and was attenuated on the second day, suggesting that the feedless period of intermittent UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater should be longer than one day. Effluent recirculation expressively raised the rate of removal of soluble and colloidal substrate and methane productivity, as compared with results for similar assays in batch reactors without recirculation. The observed bed expansion was due to the biogas production and the application of effluent recirculation led to a sludge bed contraction after all the substrates were degraded. The settleability of the anaerobic sludge improved by the introduction of effluent recirculation this effect being more pronounced for the higher loads. PMID:25803484

  15. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 ?m) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

  16. USE OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETE, 'LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS', FOR EFFLUENT BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of toxic agents in industria...

  17. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D; Sim, Marissa K; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%). PMID:25999243

  18. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

  19. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...That Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

  20. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  1. Factors influencing the efficiency of constructed wetlands used for the treatment of intensive trout farm effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul-Daniel Sindilariu; Alexander Brinker; Reinhard Reiter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the factors influencing treatment performance of subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF wetlands) treating aquaculture effluents were identified and quantified. The financial impact of advanced aquaculture effluent treatment with SSF wetlands was calculated.It is the first long-term, commercial-scale trial of SSF wetland treatment for effluents from intensive trout farming, a highly diluted effluent at very high flow rates

  2. Land application of poultry lagoon effluent

    E-print Network

    Aldrich, Lance John

    1996-01-01

    lagoons used to treat caged laying hen manure. Informed decisions can be made about the safe and practical rates of effluent application when the environmental impacts are known. Eighteen small plots were installed at the Texas A&M University Farm near...

  3. Waste effluent treatment and solvent recovery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A system for treating waste effluent and recovering solids and solvent material including a reservoir mounted on a stand connected by means to a solvent migrator including an adjustable trough for receiving new solution, a secondary reservoir with a cloth or absorbent material designed to contact the fluid in the secondary reservoir, while parallel to the sun's rays, an automatic

  4. Deammonification reaction in digested swine effluents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers that would like to implement biological nitrogen (N) removal from the effluent of anaerobic digesters (AD) – for example to comply with regional surplus nitrogen regulations or to take advantage of environmental nutrient credit programs – are often limited by the low amount of endogenous ca...

  5. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Application of a sensitive chemiluminescent technique for comparison of cytochrome P4501A induction in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela J. Kloepper-Sams; Elizabeth Benton

    1995-01-01

    In conjunction with an environmental assessment of biologically-treated bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) in a Western Canadian river, data indicated that lipophilic compounds were transferred to the mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni through ingestion of filter-feeding benthic caddisflies. P4501A induction was correlated with lipophilic body burdens, not with indices of recent BKME exposure. P4501A contents in hepatic and intestinal tissues of

  7. Implementation of a minimal set of biological tests to assess the ecotoxic effects of effluents from land-based marine fish farms.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, C; De Orte, M R; Viana, I G; Carballeira, A

    2012-04-01

    Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30 min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC(5), EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC(20), efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms. PMID:22137361

  8. Performance of an AnMBR pilot plant treating high-strength lipid wastewater: biological and filtration processes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C; García, A; Diez, V

    2014-12-15

    The performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating wastewater with high levels of oil and grease content from a snacks factory is studied and its effectiveness is demonstrated. The relation between the reversible and the irreversible fouling rate and the fouling propensity of the fatty matter were evaluated under a subcritical flux of 7.9 and 8.3 L/m(2) h. Low Oil and Grease (O&G) concentrations of 500 mg/L produced an irreversible fouling rate of only 0.09 mbar/d, while the fouling rate was between 0.96 and 3.95 mbar/d for an average O&G concentration of 6 g/L. In spite of the significant increase in filtration resistance from 0.31 to 6.08 × 10(12) m(-1) after 40 days of continuous operation, the critical flux level hardly decreased from 11.1 to 9.7 L/(m(2) h). With regard to the biological process, after a start-up period with an organic loading rate (OLR) of below 2 kg COD/(m(3) d), the system was able to treat wastewater between 4.6 and 36 g O&G/L and the system remained stable for OLR at around 17 kg COD/(m(3) d) for 2.8 d, without inhibitory signals. Acclimated sludge quickly reached maximum methane production and digested substrate with high oil and grease content, observing an increase in palmitic acid the first days and constant levels of propionic acid while fatty acids were in the medium. PMID:25282089

  9. Toxicity assessment of textile effluents treated by advanced oxidative process (UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2) in the species Artemia salina L.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana Carla; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoly; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Ambrósio, Elizangela; Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio

    2013-03-01

    Textile industry wastes raise a great concern due to their strong coloration and toxicity. The objective of the present work was to characterize the degradation and mineralization of textile effluents by advanced oxidative processes using either TiO(2) or TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and to monitor the toxicity of the products formed during 6-h irradiation in relation to that of the in natura effluent. The results demonstrated that the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association was more efficient in the mineralization of textile effluents than TiO(2), with high mineralized ion concentrations (NH (4) (+) , NO (3) (-) , and SO (4) (2-) ) and significantly decreased organic matter ratios (represented by the chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon). The toxicity of the degradation products after 4-h irradiation to Artemia salina L. was not significant (below 10 %). However, the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association produced more toxicity under irradiation than the TiO(2) system, which was attributed to the increased presence of oxidants in the first group. Comparatively, the photogenerated products of both TiO(2) and the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association were less toxic than the in natura effluent. PMID:22638725

  10. Effects of municipal effluent on algal growth 

    E-print Network

    Sung, Yeh-Min

    1975-01-01

    'fluent to 1(Fjl by volume can significantly reduce algal grow*h. The unneutralized (pH over 1 0) effluent did not, support alga. l growth. This *udy shows promise as a me~ns to predict the effectiveness of treating a wastewater to diff'erent level:. " f... but produce an effluent usually high in *he nutrient forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. After being discharged to lakes, reservoirs or streams, the nutrients often cause an acceleration in eutrophication rate measured by a stimulation of the growth of algae...

  11. Influence of operating conditions and wastewater-specific parameters on the electrochemical bulk disinfection of biologically treated sewage at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Haaken; Thomas Dittmar; Viktor Schmalz; Eckhard Worch

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate an electrochemical process for bulk disinfection of biologically treated sewage. The influence of operating conditions (current density and flow rate) on the electrochemical formation of free chlorine in the sewage was determined. Furthermore, the effect of wastewater-specific parameters on the inactivation of Escherichia coli was studied. The disinfection capacity is primarily influenced

  12. Biological wastewater treating system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.S.K.; Spector, M.L.

    1988-03-15

    This patent describes a method for operating an activated sludge system to produce a non-bulking sludge having rapid settling characteristics and containing an activated biomass species capable of removing phosphate values which comprises: (a) forming a mixed liquor in a BOD sorption zone, the mixed liquor being formed by mixing an activated biomass with a soluble BOD/sub 5/ containing wastewater influent under conditions such that at least 25% of the soluble BOD/sub 5/ is sorbed by the biomass; (b) oxidizing the BOD/sub 5/ in the mixed liquor, including at least part of the BOD/sub 5/ sorbed in the biomass; in an oxidation zone by contacting the mixed liquor with an oxidizing agent; (c) settling the resulting oxidized mixed liquor in a settling zone thereby forming a supernatent liquor and a dense sludge containing activated biomass; and (d) recycling at least a portion of the dense sludge to the BOD sorption zone. The improvement comprises: incorporating oxidizing agent into the oxidation zone at a rate not substantially exceeding the rate of oxidation.

  13. Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    is a major activity on the ORR. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurementsEffluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, D. S. Cicerone, J. G. Smith, G. R. Southworth, A. J. Stewart, and L. F. Wicker Abstract Effluent monitoring

  14. Effluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    is a major activity on the ORR. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurementsEffluent Monitoring 4-1 4. Effluent Monitoring S. M. Adams, S. Baloga, D. C. Bonner, M. L. Coffey. Smith, G. R. Southworth, M. M. Stevens, A. J. Stewart, and L. F. Wicker Abstract Effluent monitoring

  15. Comparing biological effects and potencies of estrone and 17 B-estradiol in mature fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of endocrine active compounds such as estrogens in treated wastewater effluent and their effects on aquatic life are causing concern among aquatic resource managers. In contrast to 17B-estradiol (E2), the steroid hormone produced by all vertebrates, the biological effects of estrone (E1...

  16. Integrated treatment scheme for rubber thread wastewater: Sulfide precipitation and biological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Anotai; Pasuta Tontisirin; Piyarat Churod

    2007-01-01

    In this study, acidic latex wastewater containing high average zinc and acetic contents of 816mgL?1 and 20,862mgCODL?1, respectively, was treated successfully by a series of chemical and biological processes without any addition of acid or base for pH adjustment. Total dissolved solids of the treated effluent increased by only 1.1-fold on average for sulfide precipitation as compared to 2.8-fold for

  17. Enhancement of membrane filtration ability by pretreatment of secondary effluent using a new photocatalytic oxidation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ren-Yang Horng; Chih-Pin Huang; Min-Chao Chang; Hsin Shao; Mathias Ernst; Martin Jekel

    2009-01-01

    Secondary effluent including different kinds of foulants, e.g. extracellar polymeric substances (EPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and humic acids was considered as a major barrier for wastewater reuse and reclamation when a membrane was applied to obtain high quality treated water. A new hybrid system of photocatalytic oxidation and non-woven membrane separation was studied for treating secondary effluent. Initially, the

  18. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

  19. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Denitrification and biofilm growth in a pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers for biological nitrogen removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhong; Wu, Guangxue; Wei, Nan; Hu, Hongying

    2015-06-01

    Tertiary denitrification is an effective method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. A pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers was operated for tertiary denitrification with ethanol as the organic carbon source. Long-term performance, biokinetics of denitrification and biofilm growth were evaluated under filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14m/hr. The pilot-scale biofilter removed nitrate from the secondary effluent effectively, and the nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) removal percentage was 82%, 78% and 55% at the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14m/hr, respectively. At the filtration velocities of 6 and 10m/hr, the nitrate removal loading rate increased with increasing influent nitrate loading rates, while at the filtration velocity of 14m/hr, the removal loading rate and the influent loading rate were uncorrelated. During denitrification, the ratio of consumed chemical oxygen demand to removed NO3-N was 3.99-4.52mg/mg. Under the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14m/hr, the maximum denitrification rate was 3.12, 4.86 and 4.42gN/(m(2)·day), the half-saturation constant was 2.61, 1.05 and 1.17mg/L, and the half-order coefficient was 0.22, 0.32 and 0.24(mg/L)(1/2)/min, respectively. The biofilm biomass increased with increasing filtration velocity and was 2845, 5124 and 7324mg VSS/m(2) at filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14m/hr, respectively. The highest biofilm density was 44mg/cm(3) at the filtration velocity of 14m/hr. Due to the low influent loading rate, biofilm biomass and thickness were lowest at the filtration velocity of 6m/hr. PMID:26040729

  1. Evaluation of two types of bioflocs derived from biological treatment of fish effluent as feed ingredients for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Kuhn; Addison L. Lawrence; Gregory D. Boardman; Susmita Patnaik; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Under laboratory-scale conditions, two types of bioflocs were used as a feed ingredient for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This feeding trial was conducted indoors in recirculating aquaculture systems with seawater renewal. Bioflocs were produced in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using carbon supplementation (sucrose) and in a membrane biological reactor (MBR) without carbon supplementation. Both types of bioflocs were produced

  2. Cost Effective Treatment of Textile Mill Effluents by Water Reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ero?lu; ?. öztürk; ?. Toroz; N. Kor

    \\u000a The treatment results of a full scale plant treating the effluents from an integrated woolen textile industry have been presented.\\u000a Effluents from the wool finishing process were recirculated after chemical treatment followed by rapid sand filtration. This\\u000a practice provides a reduction of about one million US Dollars per year in the treatment cost, which corresponds to a pay back\\u000a period

  3. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  4. Study on feed pretreatment for membrane filtration of secondary effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L Kim; J Paul Chen; Y. P Ting

    2002-01-01

    In this study, membrane filtration was used to treat a secondary effluent emanating from a sewage treatment works that treats a combined industrial and municipal wastewater. Three feed pretreatments for a spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration were evaluated, including: (i) membrane ultrafiltration (System I); (ii) dual media filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption (System II); (iii) dual

  5. Nitrogen dioxide and ultrafine particles dominate the biological effects of inhaled diesel exhaust treated by a catalyzed diesel particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Thomson, Errol M; Kumarathasan, Prem; Guénette, Josée; Rosenblatt, Debbie; Chan, Tak; Rideout, Greg; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-10-01

    We studied the impact of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) on the toxicity of diesel exhaust. Rats inhaled exhaust from a Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine, with and without DPF after-treatment, or HEPA-filtered air for 4h, on 1 day (single exposure) and 3 days (repeated exposures). Biological effects were assessed after 2h (single exposure) and 20h (single and repeated exposures) recovery in clean air. Concentrations of pollutants were (1) untreated exhaust (-DPF), nitric oxide (NO), 43 ppm; nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 4 ppm; carbon monoxide (CO), 6 ppm; hydrocarbons, 11 ppm; particles, 3.2×10(5)/cm(3), 60-70nm mode, 269 ?g/m(3); (2) treated exhaust (+DPF), NO, 20 ppm; NO2, 16 ppm; CO, 1 ppm; hydrocarbons, 3 ppm; and particles, 4.4×10(5)/cm(3), 7-8nm mode, 2 ?g/m(3). Single exposures to -DPF exhaust resulted in increased neutrophils, total protein and the cytokines, growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lung lavage fluid, as well as increased gene expression of interleukin-6, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, metallothionein 2A, tumor necrosis factor-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, glutathione S-transferase A1, heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in the lung, and ET- 1 in the heart. Ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 peptide increased in plasma in conjunction with a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the lungs after exposure to diesel exhaust, suggesting endothelial dysfunction. Rather than reducing toxicity, +DPF exhaust resulted in heightened injury and inflammation, consistent with the 4-fold increase in NO2 concentration. The ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 was similarly elevated after -DPF and +DPF exhaust exposures. Endothelial dysfunction, thus, appeared related to particle number deposited, rather than particle mass or NO2 concentration. The potential benefits of particulate matter reduction using a catalyzed DPF may be confounded by increase in NO2 emission and release of reactive ultrafine particles. PMID:23897985

  6. Detection of tannery effluents induced DNA damage in mung bean by use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Raj, Abhay; Kumar, Sharad; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control and plants irrigated with untreated 0.65, and between the treatments 0.68. We conclude that both untreated and treated effluents contain genotoxic substances that caused DNA damage to mung beans. CETP Unnao removes some, but not all, genotoxic substances from tannery effluent. Consequently, use of both untreated and treated wastewater for irrigation poses health hazard to human and the environment. PMID:25937990

  7. Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.

    PubMed

    Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-02-01

    The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

  8. BIODIVERSITY OF CYANOBACTERIA IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramaniyan VIJAYAKUMAR; Nooruddin THAJUDDIN; Chokkaiya MANOHARAN

    Biodiversity of cyanobacteria in industrial effluents. In order to study the biodiversity of cyanobacteria in industrial effluents, four different effluents such as dye, paper mill, pharmaceutical and sugar were selected. The physicochemical characteristics of all the effluents studied were more or less similar. Totally 59 species of cyanobacteria distributed in four different effluents were recorded. Among the effluents, sugar mill

  9. The potential of a salt-tolerant plant (Distichlis spicata cv. NyPa Forage) to treat effluent from inland saline aquaculture and provide livestock feed on salt-affected farmland.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C

    2013-02-15

    Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle. PMID:23333515

  10. Vadose Zone Microbial Transport Below At-Grade Distribution of Wastewater Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin C. Motz; Edwin Cey; M. Cathy Ryan; Angus Chu

    The attenuation of Escherichia coli and total coliform from secondary treated wastewater effluent under two “at-grade” effluent distribution systems was evaluated\\u000a in a sandy silt vadose zone in a cold climate. The two at-grade distribution lines had different designs and hydraulic loading\\u000a rates. Effluent transport was examined using chloride as a tracer. Coliform fate was evaluated relative to the chloride

  11. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-10-18

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document.

  12. Evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated Parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Chhavi; Chadha, B S; Nain, Lata; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, ?-?rabinofuranosidase and ? xylosidase, respectively. The saccharification of alkali and biologically treated carrot grass by culture extract of M. cinnamomea was further enhanced by supplementation of ?-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus sp. mutant "O". The resultant hydrolysates containing glucose/xylose were fermented efficiently to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to presence of xylose isomerase (0.8 units/gds) activity in culture extract of M. cinnamomea resulting in production of 16.5 and 15.0 g/l of ethanol from alkali treated rice straw and carrot grass, respectively. PMID:24835742

  13. Removal of chromium and pentachlorophenol from tannery effluents.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shaili; Ahmad, A H; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2007-03-01

    Three bacterial strains, including one Acinetobacter sp. PCP3, grown in the presence of minimal salt medium and pentachlorophenol (PCP) as sole carbon source in the chemostat showed higher utilization of PCP and adsorption of chromium. In sequential bioreactor, tannery effluents treated initially by bacterial consortium followed by fungus removed 90% and 67% chromium and PCP respectively, whereas in another set of bioreactor in which effluents was treated initially by fungi followed by bacteria could remove 64.7% and 58% chromium and PCP, respectively. PMID:16762546

  14. Comparative toxicity of effluents processed by different treatments in V79 fibroblasts and the algae Selenastrum capricornutum.

    PubMed

    Melo, Patricia Silva; Fabrin-Neto, João Batista; de Moraes, Sandra Gomes; Assalin, Márcia Regina; Durán, Nelson; Haun, Marcela

    2006-03-01

    The efficacy of ozonation and of photocatalysis processing in the treatment of pulp mill ECF (elementary chlorine free) bleaching and textile effluents was evaluated by determining total organic carbon reduction (TOC) and the toxicity. The chronic toxicity of the effluents was evaluated by the ability to inhibit the growth of algae Selenastrum capricornutum. Cultured hamster V79 fibroblasts were used to assess the cytotoxicity of effluents submitted to different detoxification processes. Two endpoints were measured in V79 cells: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and neutral red uptake (NRU). Both treatment processes were able to reduce the TOC, although ozonization was less effective for pulp mill ECF bleaching. The pulp mill ECF bleaching and textile effluents reduced the growth of S. capricornutum by 39% and 27%, respectively. However, at the highest concentration tested, the textile effluents treated by photochemical process for 60 min showed increased cytotoxicity in V79 cells compared to the untreated effluent when assessed by the NRU and MTT reduction assays (increases of 30% and 40%, respectively). Pulp mill ECF bleaching effluent treated by ozonization had a similar cytotoxicity to that of untreated effluent in the NRU assay. In contrast, the MTT reduction assay indicated that effluents treated with ozone were around 20% more cytotoxic than untreated effluents. These results show that cultured fibroblasts may be useful for studying cellular responses to pollutants and may be included in tests to monitor the efficiency of effluent detoxification processes. PMID:16337671

  15. Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konrad Egli; Urs Fanger; Pedro J. J. Alvarez; Hansruedi Siegrist; Jan R. van der Meer; Alexander J. B. Zehnder

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite to N2 (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial reaction with interesting potential for nitrogen removal from wastewater. We enriched an anammox culture from a rotating disk contactor (near Kölliken, Switzerland) that was used to treat ammonium-rich leachate with low organic carbon content. This enrichment led to a relative population size of 88% anammox bacteria. The

  16. Neural networks as a tool for control and management of a biological reactor for treating hydrogen sulphide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Elías; G. Ibarra-Berastegi; R. Arias; A. Barona

    2006-01-01

    Based on an experimental database consisting of 194 daily cases, artificial neural networks were used to model the removal efficiency of a biofilter for treating hydrogen sulphide (H2S). In this work, the removal efficiency of the reactor was considered as a function of the changes in the air flow and concentration of H2S entering the biofilter. In order to obtain

  17. Populations of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria change rapidly in a wastewater effluent dominated stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Akiyama; Mary C. Savin

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete elimination of bacteria and pharmaceutical drugs during wastewater treatment results in the entry of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into receiving streams with effluent inputs. In Mud Creek in Fayetteville, AR, ofloxacin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in water and sediment, and tetracycline has been detected in sediment downstream of treated effluent input. These antibiotics have been measured repeatedly,

  18. On-line liquid-effluent monitoring of sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dreicer; J. L. Cate; D. W. Rueppel; C. J. Huntzinger; M. A. Gonzalez

    1983-01-01

    LLNL's sanitary sewer system is a possible route for the escape of toxic materials. Liquid effluents are released to Livermore's sanitary sewer system and the effluent is treated at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP). The plant is a secondary-treatment operation that returns most of the water to the San Francisco Bay via a transport pipeline. The remaining portion is

  19. Supply of organic matter and bacteria to aquatic ecosystems through waste water effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Servais; Josette Garnier; Nadia Demarteau; Natacha Brion; Gilles Billen

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the impact on the river Seine of the waste water effluents from the city of Paris and its suburbs, a detailed characterisation was made of both raw and treated effluents from the three main treatment plants in this area which differ both in size and type of treatment. The waste water samples were subjected to analyses

  20. NITRIFICATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTE EFFLUENTS BY ROTATING BIO-DISCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of nitrifying secondary effluent with rotating biological surfaces (RBS). Two municipal effluents were evaluated; one was from a high rate trickling filter and the other was from two-stage, flow through lagoon. RBS pilot pla...

  1. Activated Carbon Adsorption Technology for the Advanced Treatment of Municipal Secondary Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-xue Li; Juan Liu; Ping Wu

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals remained in secondary effluent have a harmful effect on human physiology and other biological systems when they exceed the tolerance levels. In this paper, removal of heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Ag, Cd, In, Ba, Pb, U) in secondary effluent of municipal wastewater plant using activated carbon adsorption technology was studied. The results showed

  2. Fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes by dairy industry effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Turan; A. Ates; B. Inanc

    Fouling experiments of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are reported for treatment of the effluent of chemical-biological treatment plant and the original effluent of dairy industry respectively. In the experiments, a thin film composite type of spiral wound was used and fitted with flowmeters and pressure sensors. The feed water was stored into a feed tank and passed a

  3. Nutrient reduction evaluation of sewage effluent treatment options for small communities.

    PubMed

    Beavers, P D; Tully, I K

    2005-01-01

    Small communities that are sewered by either package sewage treatment plants or on-site sewerage facilities are finding that the ground and surface waters are being contaminated. Nitrogen, which typically is not removed in these conventional systems, is a major concern. This project evaluated the capability of four sewage treatment technologies to reduce the amount of nitrogen being discharged in the effluent to the receiving environment. The four sewage treatment processes evaluated include a recirculating sand filter, biofilter, slow sand filter and constructed subsurface flow wetland. These processes were evaluated for their capability to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD5 and TSS. The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the capability of these treatment processes to reduce nitrogen using biological processes nitrification and denitrification. This paper reports on the performance of these processes to reduce nitrogen. The study demonstrated that the biofilter was capable of removing from a primary treated influent 40% of the total nitrogen. For the same quality influent the recirculating sand filter was capable of removing 35% of the total nitrogen. Secondary treated effluent was fed to the slow sand filter and the subsurface flow wetland. There was a 52% reduction in total nitrogen through the wetland however there was virtually no reduction in total nitrogen through the slow sand filter. PMID:16104425

  4. BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2010-09-15

    Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and effective tool in the treatment of water contaminated with BTEX mixture. Therefore, the raw petroleum refinery effluent might be a source of hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:20655572

  5. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Gustavo; Barra, Ricardo; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Rivas, Meyling; Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-07-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and laboratory assays at the higher PPME concentration (60-85% PPME). This study confirms estrogenic effects in Chilean fish exposed to PPME and the necessity for biological effects monitoring in addition to the assessment of physical-chemical endpoints as required in current government regulations. PMID:25956323

  6. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  7. Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1994-05-01

    A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Epicardial Fat Thickness as Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Therapeutic Target in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Biological and Nonbiological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M.; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-? inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 ± 1.90?mm versus 9.71 ± 1.45?mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 ± 1.52?mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

  9. The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

    2012-11-01

    An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (< 10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ?X174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

  10. Medical Plant Extracts for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: a Snapshot of Recent Clinical Trials and Their Biological Background.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Sonja M; Weinmann, Daniela; Toegel, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In light of the growing global health problem associated with osteoarthritis, herbal remedies have become an important research focus in the scientific and medical community, and numerous studies have been published to identify their biological effects and mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. This review is a snapshot of the most recent clinical trials on the efficacy of medical plant extracts in knee osteoarthritis patients, and provides relevant background information on the biological mechanisms that may underlie the clinical observations. Therefore, we performed a PubMed literature survey and discussed a selection of clinical trials in the field, with special attention being drawn to the design and outcome measures of the studies. We further spotlighted on issues relating to the efficacy and safety of the plant extracts and discussed major challenges for upcoming studies in the field, which include the need for rigorously designed in vivo and in vitro studies, as well as the elucidation of potential additive effects and structure-modifying activities beyond symptom relief. PMID:26163305

  11. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by an aerobic bacterial consortium using a rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, T Emilia; Senan, Resmi C; Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, Jegan J; Poulose, T P; Thomas, P P

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye mixture by an aerobic bacterial consortium was studied in a rotating biological reactor. Laterite pebbles of particle size 850 microm to 1.44 mm were fixed on gramophone records using an epoxy resin on which the developed consortium was immobilized. Rate of degradation, BOD, biomass determination, enzymes involved, and fish bioassay were studied. The RBC has a high efficiency for dye degradation even at high dye concentrations (100 microg/mL) and high flow rate (36 L/h) at alkaline pH and salinity conditions normally encountered in the textile effluents. Bioassays (LD-50) using Thilapia fish in treated effluent showed that the percentage mortality was zero over a period of 96 h, whereas the mortality was 100% in untreated dye water within 26 h. Fish bioassay confirms that the effluent from RBC can be discharged safely to the environment. PMID:12892505

  12. Biological treatment and ozone oxidation: Integration or coupling?

    PubMed

    Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2012-02-01

    Wastewaters generated by many economically relevant industrial activities contain recalcitrant organic compounds which pass unaltered through biological stage of the treatment plant making it difficult to meet the discharge limits currently in force. Therefore, an additional treatment is usually required to remove these compounds. In this study, the application of ozonation together with biological treatment was investigated. In particular, the effectiveness of biological degradation followed by or integrated with ozonation for treating the effluents produced by three environmentally relevant activities (i.e., leather and textile processing and municipal waste landfilling) are compared in the present paper. The results show that biological treatment followed by ozonation does not guarantee depurative levels sufficient for discharge for landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. On the contrary, thanks to the synergy between biological degradation and ozonation, integrated treatment significantly improves the process performance for all the investigated wastewaters, thus allowing the discharge limits to be met. PMID:22206914

  13. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

  14. Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation–electroflotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ben Mansour; I. Kesentini

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation\\/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation–electroflotation process was

  15. Honeycomb monoliths of activated carbons for effluent gas purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yates; J. Blanco; P. Avila; M. P. Martin

    2000-01-01

    During the incineration of urban waste incomplete mineralisation of some organic species can give rise to effluents contaminated with VOCs, furans and dioxins. These units produce large volumes of gas to be treated, but with low contents of these toxic species, for which the pressure drop caused by passing through a conventional pellet adsorption bed can be considerable. Another solution

  16. Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation of a 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural derivative, asfural, from enzyme-treated asparagus extract.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Sato, Atsuya; Ono, Tomoko; Goto, Kazunori; Maeda, Takahiro; Takanari, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2013-09-25

    A novel 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF; 1) derivative, which is named asfural (compound 2), was isolated from enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) along with HMF (1) as a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inducible compound. The structure of compound 2 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data from HREIMS and NMR, whereas the absolute configuration was determined using chiral HPLC analysis, compared to two synthesized compounds, (S)- and (R)-asfural. As a result, compound 2 derived from ETAS was assigned as (S)-(2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate. When compound 2, synthesized (S)- and (R)-asfural, and HMF (1) were evaluated in terms of HSP70 mRNA expression-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells, compound 2 and (S)-asfural significantly increased the expression level in a concentration-dependent manner. HMF (1) also showed significant activity at 0.25 mg/mL. PMID:24000899

  17. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  18. Fate and effect of benzalkonium chlorides in a continuous-flow biological nitrogen removal system treating poultry processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2012-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are used for sanitation in many poultry processing facilities. This work investigated the fate and effect of a mixture of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), a class of QACs widely used in commercial antimicrobial formulations, on the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes. A laboratory-scale BNR system was operated continuously for 670 days, fed with poultry processing wastewater amended with a mixture of BACs. Initially, the nitrogen removal efficiency deteriorated at a BAC feed concentration of 5 mg/L due to the complete inhibition of nitrification. However, after 27 days of operation, the system recovered and achieved 100% ammonia removal. High nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved even after the feed BAC concentration was stepwise increased up to 120 mg/L. Batch nitrification assays performed before, during, and after BAC exposure, showed that rapid microbial acclimation and BAC biodegradation contributed to the recovery of nitrification achieving efficient and stable long-term BNR system operation. PMID:22705509

  19. Evaluation of nitrogen retention and microbial populations in poultry litter treated with chemical, biological or adsorbent amendments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kimberly L; Rothrock, Michael J; Eiteman, Mark A; Lovanh, Nanh; Sistani, Karamat

    2011-07-01

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. Successful management to reduce ammonia and its harmful side-effects on poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of litter amendments. In this study, three acidifiers, two biological treatments, one chemical urease inhibitor and two adsorber amendments were added to poultry litter. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the litters were assessed at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Application of litter amendments consistently reduced organic N loss (0-15%) as compared to unamended litter (20%). Acidifiers reduced nitrogen loss through both chemical and microbiological processes. Adsorbent amendments (water treatment residuals and chitosan) reduced nitrogen loss and concentrations of ammonia-producing bacteria and fungi. The use of efficient, cost-effective litter amendments to maximum agronomic, environmental and financial benefits is essential for the future of sustainable poultry production. PMID:21371808

  20. BIOLOG

    EPA Science Inventory

    BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

  1. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm process to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan. The components of VOC were identified to be toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA). The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series, respectively, using 10- and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility. Experimental results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 +/- 605) mg/L of COD. A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m3 packing x d) was determined for the packed bed, in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow. A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 +/- 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system. Moreover, the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula, based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship, and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model. Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation revealed that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) were aerated into a gaseous phase, and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene were aerated. PMID:20108681

  2. Evaluation of biological removal efficiency in a UCT process treating municipal wastewater during start-up stage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yong-De; Wan, Fujun

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the performance of University of Cape Town (UCT) municipal wastewater treatment plant, during the startup stage with the focus on the relationship between hydraulic retention time (HRT) and biological nutrient removal (BNR) efficiency. The entire experimental period was 144 days, divided into four periods. Results showed that the removal efficiency of TN, NH4+-N, and Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) was closely related to the HRT. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics analysis was used to calculate the specific degradation rates of pollutants. The GPS-X modeling was also used to examine the effect of the UCT pilot plant on BNR. The UCT pilot plant used in this study achieved high BNR efficiency even during the startup stage. With HRT of 24 hr (Period 1, day 1-40, data set 1-10), the highest levels of TN, NH(4+)-N and KN removal efficiency were approximately 72, 76 and 78%, respectively. The COD showed consistent high removal efficiency, with the highest level of approximately 96% at HRT of 15 hr (Period 3, day 81-120, data set 21-30). The TP removal efficiency rose at first and subsequently decreased abruptly. The maximum removal efficiency was 85% with HRT of 19 hr (Period 2, day 41-80, data set 11-20). With the optimal HRT 19 hr, the average removal efficiency values of COD, TP, TN, NH(4+)-N and KN were 89, 80, 65, 67 and 68%, respectively. The GPS-X modeling results indicated that the UCT process was effective in COD, TP and TN removal. PMID:24620618

  3. Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species. PMID:23737943

  4. Chromium removal from flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings using powdered activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Ayotamuno; R. N. Okparanma; S. O. T. Ogaji; S. D. Probert

    2007-01-01

    The practice of injecting the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings (LP-OBDCs) into the ground is a popular current disposal-option for this type of drilling waste in Nigeria. Unfortunately, this practice leads to environmental degradation because this flocculation effluent contains high concentrations of chromium (Cr6+), which is a heavy-metal pollutant. Consequently, it is recommended that the flocculation effluent be treated

  5. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    PubMed

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential endocrine disrupting compounds. Such information could provide a scientific framework for establishing the need for environmental regulations. PMID:22197110

  6. Managing wastewater effluent to enhance aquatic receiving ecosystem productivity: a coastal lagoon in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel A; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-05-30

    Large amounts of waste are generated in urban centers that if properly managed could promote ecological services. In order to promote nutrient cycling and productivity without endangering aquatic ecosystems, management of wastewater treatment and effluent discharges to receiving waters must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. We applied this premise to examine a municipal wastewater treated effluent discharge in a shallow oligotrophic coastal lagoon in Western Australia. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological modeling (ELCOM-CAEDYM) was used to assess the reaction of ecosystem for effluent quality. Two scenarios were evaluated for the summer 2000-2001 period, the actual or "current" (conventional secondary treatment) and an "alternative" (involving substitution of biological nutrient removal by advanced treatment). The residence time of the simulated numerical domain averaged 8.4 ± 1.3 days. For the current scenario the model successfully estimated phytoplankton biomass, as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), that is within field-measured ranges and previously recorded levels. The model was able to reproduce nitrogen as the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the coastal ecosystem. Simulated surface Chl-a means were 0.26 (range 0.19-0.38) ?g Chl-a/L for the current scenario and 0.37 (range 0.19-0.67) ?g Chl-a/L for the alternative one. Comparison of the alternative scenario with field-measured Chl-a levels suggests moderate primary production increase (16-42%), within local historical variability. These results, suggest that such a scenario could be used, as part of a comprehensive wastewater management optimization strategy, to foster receiving ecosystem's productivity and related ecological services maintaining its oligotrophic state. PMID:22322127

  7. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. PMID:25917290

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  9. The use of high rate algal ponds for the treatment of marine effluent from a recirculating fish rearing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Pagand; J-P Blancheton; J Lemoalle; C Casellas

    2000-01-01

    A high rate algal pond (HRAP) system was used to treat effluent from a recirculating sea water aquaculture system in southern France. Dicentrarchus labrax L. were farmed at a high density, with effluents containing an average of 10 mg L1 dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 1.3 mg L1 reactive phosphorus (RP). On a yearly basis, the algal pond removed 59%

  10. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Barnett; M. P. Bergeron; C. R. Cole; M. D. Freshley; S. K. Wurstner

    1997-01-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model

  11. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations...Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations...the flow from metal bearing waste streams for the metals and times the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total...

  12. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations...Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations...the flow from metal bearing waste streams for the metals and times the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total...

  13. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations...Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations...the flow from metal bearing waste streams for the metals and times the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total...

  14. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 ?m, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. PMID:25721977

  15. LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

  16. Radiation treatment of municipal effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-10-01

    The recycling of municipal wastewater is an effective means of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. After irradiation, the refractory organic substances in wastewater were decomposed. COD, light brown color, offensive odor and foaminess in the effluents were reduced with increasing dose. Inactivation efficiencies (D 10) of six microorganisms added to the secondary effluents and return sludge supernatant by irradiation were investigated. The survival curves of total bacteria, total coliforms and enterococci in the secondary effluents were compared. The number of total coliforms exponentially decreased with increasing dose and fell to undetectable levels at 0.5 kGy. The elimination of suspended solids in the secondary effluents is effective in diminishing the dose required to disinfect and prevent bacteria regrowth.

  17. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

  18. The sublethal effects of petroleum refinery effluents: Mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Parrott, J.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Canada uses a single biological parameter which is based on the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to survive a 24 hour exposure to assess and regulate the toxicity of refinery effluents. The acute toxicity of Canadian refinery effluents is generally well controlled. Long term exposures to sublethal toxicants, which are not covered by the current regulations, could have adverse ecological effects. Since PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, can occur in refinery effluents, the authors tested the hypothesis that refinery effluents can induce mixed-function oxygenase measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) activity in fish. Two end of pipe effluent samples were collected from each of four Ontario refineries. All effluents induced EROD activity in young trout in a dose dependent manner. The EROD parameter has potential as a bioindicator of exposure to refinery effluents. The samples were also tested for toxicity to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and to a fish cell line (Ictalurus nebulosus). Fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by six out of eight samples, and larval survival was affected by one sample. The in vitro data were less consistent: weak toxicity was detected in some samples but the dose response relationship was poor. Direct acting mutagens were detected in two effluents using the Ames Fluctuation assay.

  19. Removing textile mill effluent recalcitrant COD and toxicity using the H2O2/UV system.

    PubMed

    Mounteer, A H; Leite, T A; Lopes, A C; Medeiros, R C

    2009-01-01

    The potential of the H2O2/UV process for improving quality of an industrial textile effluent before biological treatment was evaluated in the laboratory using a multivariate experimental design to determine the effects of pH, H2O2 dose and reaction time on colour, COD and toxicity removal efficiencies. Increasing reaction time (from 10 to 120 min) and H2O2 dose (from 0 to 5 mmol L(-1)) significantly improved removal efficiencies, while increasing pH (from 4 to 10) had a negative effect on colour and toxicity removals. Laboratory H2O2/UV treatment of the mill effluent under optimum conditions (pH 7, 5 mmol L(-1) H2O2, 120 min) resulted in decreases in colour (70%), COD (21%) and toxicity (67%), without lowering BOD. H2O2 was consumed within the first 30-60 min, while the effluent average oxidation state stabilized after 60 min. Decreasing reaction time to 60 min resulted in similar colour (63%) and COD (20%) removals but lower toxicity removal (44%). Spectrophotometric monitoring of the optimized reaction indicated partial destruction of residual aromatic azo dyes. H2O2 and residual peroxide and average oxidation state of the effluent Effluent biodegradability (BOD/COD) increased by 28% after the H2O2/UV treatment. Improvements observed in effluent quality are expected to enhance combined AOP-biological treatment efficiency of the mill effluent. PMID:19809153

  20. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 415.227 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 415.667 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chlorate Production Subcategory § 415.667 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 415.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 415.143 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 406.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 424.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  6. 40 CFR 424.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 415.347 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.347 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 415.343 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  20. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  1. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  2. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  3. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  4. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  5. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  6. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  7. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  8. 40 CFR 419.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  9. 40 CFR 419.34 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PETROLEUM REFINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Petrochemical Subcategory § 419.34 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  10. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  1. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  2. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  3. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. Subsurface flow constructed wetland: treatment of domestic wastewater by gravel and tire chip media and ultraviolet disinfection of effluent 

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Amanda Yvette

    2002-01-01

    spray application, wetland effluent must be disinfected (traditionally by chlorine). This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater and the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV...

  6. Treatment of Selenium in Simulated Refinery Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetland Treatment System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Spacil; John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Cynthia L. Murray Gulde; James E. Myers

    Effective and reliable treatment is needed to treat selenium (Se) in petroleum refinery effluents to meet water discharge\\u000a limits established under the Clean Water Act through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. As a byproduct of\\u000a petroleum refining processes, effluent containing Se may be produced due to geochemistry of the formations from which petroleum\\u000a is derived. Pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment

  7. Degradation rates of advanced treatment effluents anticipated in the Trinity River Basin, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Esmond, Steven Earl

    1974-01-01

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. Harold W. Wolf The aerobic degradation rates of advanced treatment effluents were studied, and a kinetic model is proposed. Both the carbon- aceous and nitrogenous deoxygenation rates followed pseudo-first- order... at this point is relatively inert, and will not degrade much fur- ther by either biological or chemical treatment. However, the granular activated carbon columns are able to effect a 50/ TKN removal by adsorption, which routinely brings the final effluent...

  8. Biogenic nanoscale colloids in wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Song, Guixue; Wang, Jun; Chiu, Chao-An; Westerhoff, Paul

    2010-11-01

    The size, surface area, metal complexation capacity, organic pollutant sorption potential, reactivity with disinfectants, and elevated nitrogen content of biogenic organic nanoscale material (BONM) can potentially affect aquatic environments. BONM in effluents from 11 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which use a range of biological processes, were characterized in two ways. First, BONM was measured by hydrodynamic size-exclusion chromatography coupled with an online organic carbon and UV detector. Second, BONM was isolated from the wastewater using rotary evaporation and dialysis and then characterized by elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wastewaters contained 6-10 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). BONM accounted for 5%-50% of the DOC in wastewater effluent organic matter, and the largest size fraction (>10 kDa) of organic carbon correlated with the organic carbon content determined after rotary evaporation and dialysis. Membrane bioreactor WWTPs had the lowest fraction of BONM (<10% of the DOC), followed by conventional activated sludge (10% to 30% of the DOC), with other processes (e.g., trickling filters, aerated lagoons) containing larger BONM percentages. BONM had a lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (6.2 ± 1.7) compared with the literature values for humic or fulvic acids, exhibited chemical bonds that were indicative of amides and polysaccharides, and contained fibril entangled networks. This work has important implications for operations efficiency of WWTPs, including controlling membrane fouling and release of organic nitrogen into sensitive environments. PMID:20886826

  9. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on lemon trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Pedrero; Juan José Alarcón

    2009-01-01

    This research is focused on evaluating the effects of applying treated wastewater on citrus trees. Two experimental plots irrigated with two different treated wastewater effluents were compared. The experimental sites were located in Murcia, southeastern Spain. The first experimental plot was located in Cartagena, where the treated wastewater had received a secondary treatment. The second experimental plot was located in

  10. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples. PMID:20525867

  11. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in anoxic-aerobic circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR).

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Nakhla, G; Zhu, J; Patel, A

    2004-06-01

    Biological nutrient removal (BNR) in municipal wastewater treatment to remove carbonaceous substrates and nutrients, has recently become increasingly popular worldwide due to increasingly stringent regulations. Biological fluidized bed (BFB) technology, which could be potentially used for BNR, can provide some advantages such as high efficiency and a compact structure. This work shows the results of simultaneous elimination of organic carbon and nitrogen using a circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR, which has been developed recently for chemical engineering processes. The CFBBR has two fluidized beds, running as anoxic and aerobic processes to accomplish simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, with continuous liquid recirculation through the anoxic bed and the aerobic bed. Soluble COD concentrations in the effluent ranging from 4 to 20 mg l(-1) were obtained at varying COD loading rates; ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies averaged in excess of 99% at a minimum total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.0 hours over a temperature range of 25 degrees C to 28 degrees C. Effluent nitrate nitrogen concentration of less than 5 mg l(-1) was achieved by increasing effluent recycle rate. No nitrite accumulation was observed either in the anoxic bed or in the aerobic bed. The system was able to treat grit chamber effluent wastewater at a HRT of 2.0 hours while achieving average effluent BOD, COD, NH3-N, TKN, nitrates, total phosphate, TSS and VSS concentrations of 10 mg l(-1), 18 mg l(-1), 1.3 mg l(-1), 1.5 mg l(-1), 7 mg l(-1), 2.0 mg l(-1), 10 mg l(-1) and 8 mg l(-1) respectively. The CFBBR appears to be not only an excellent alternative for conventional activated sludge type BNR technologies but also capable of processing much higher loadings that are suitable for industrial applications. PMID:15369290

  12. (Bi*ol"o*gy) n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. The science of life; that branch of knowledge which treats of

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    Biology (Bi*ol"o*gy) n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. biologie.] The science of life; that branch and plants. science of life Marine Bioptechnology is: The discovery and development of products or processes

  13. Exposure to municipal wastewater effluent impacts stress performance in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ings, Jennifer S; Servos, Mark R; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of municipal wastewater effluents on the functioning of the cortisol stress axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were caged upstream (reference) and downstream (100% and 10% effluent) of a tertiary-treated municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sampled at 14d later (0 time samples). A second set of fish were then subjected to a 5 min handling disturbance and sampled at 1 and 24h post-stressor exposure. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations, liver and brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels, head kidney mRNA abundances of corticosteroidogenesis genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 11?-hydroxylase and melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), and key liver metabolic enzyme activities, were measured. Exposure to effluent for 14d significantly elevated plasma cortisol and lactate levels in 100% effluent group compared to the reference and 10% effluent sites. There was a significantly higher StAR mRNA abundance in the effluent groups compared to the upstream control. GR protein levels in the liver, but not the brain, were significantly higher in the 100% effluent group compared to the upstream control group. Chronic exposure to 100% effluent for 14d significantly lowered liver hexokinase and glucokinase activities, but did not affect glycogen content or the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the other two groups. Subjecting these fish to a secondary acute stressor elicited a physiological stress response, including significant transient elevation in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels at 1h which dropped to pre-stress levels at 24h after stressor exposure, in the control and 10% effluent groups, but this conserved stress response was impaired in the 100% effluent group. The 100% effluent group fish also had significantly higher StAR and P450scc mRNA abundances at 1h post-stress, while transcript abundances of all the major corticosteroidogenesis genes were suppressed at 24h post-stressor compared to the control and 10% effluent groups. Considered together, exposure to full-strength MWWE for 14d elicits a chronic stress response in rainbow trout, and perturbs the conserved adaptive response to an acute stressor. Our results reveal that the impact of tertiary-treated MWWE on stress performance in rainbow trout is abolished by 90% effluent dilution. PMID:21392498

  14. In vitro immunotoxicity of untreated and treated urban wastewaters using various treatment processes to rainbow trout leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Gagné, François; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel; Smyth, Shirley-Anne

    2013-07-01

    Municipal effluents are known to impede the immune system of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of urban wastewaters before and after 6 treatment processes from 12 cities toward trout leucocytes. Freshly prepared trout leucocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of solid phase (C18) extracts of wastewaters for 24 hr at 150C. Immunocompetence was determined by following changes in leucocyte viability and the proportion of cells able to ingest at least one (immunoactivity) and at least three (immunoefficiency) fluorescent beads. The influents were treated by six different treatment strategies consisting of facultative aerated lagoons, activated sludge, biological aerated filter, biological nutrient removal, chemically-assisted physical treatment and trickling filter/solid contact. Water quality parameters of the wastewaters revealed that the plants effectively removed total suspended solids and reduced the chemical oxygen demand. The results revealed that the effluents' immunotoxic properties were generally more influenced by the properties of the untreated wastewaters than by the treatment processes. About half of the incoming influents decreased leucocyte viability while 4 treatment plants were able to reduce toxicity. The influents readily increased phagocytosis activity for 8/12 influents while it was decreased in 4/12 influents. This increase was abolished for 4/12 of the effluents using treatments involving biological and oxidative processes. In conclusion, municipal effluents have the potential to alter the immune system in fish and more research will be needed to improve the treatments of wastewaters to better protect the quality of the aquatic environment. PMID:24218853

  15. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

  16. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  17. Pollution Indicators in Gaborone Industrial Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Emongor; E. Nkegbe; B. Kealotswe; I. Koorapetse; S. Sankwasa; S. Keikanetswe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine pollution indicators in and around Gaborone industrial effluent, generate relevant baseline information on industrial effluents; and determine the major sources of industrial pollution in Gaborone, Botswana. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged by the four different industry types in Gaborone, Botswana, differed significantly. Brewery, chemical, paints, food and

  18. Industrial effluent treatment: Theoretical and experimental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Velmurugan; K. Srithar

    2011-01-01

    Industries like textile and tannery are facing effluent disposal as well as water scarcity problems. To solve these two problems, an attempt has been made to convert the industrial effluent into potable water by using solar desalination methods. Effluent from textile industry is taken for analysis. In this work, single basin type solar still with fin at basin, stepped solar

  19. Using sewage effluent and liquid digested sludge to establish grasses and legumes on bituminous strip-mine spoils. Research project technical completion rept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Sopper; L. T. Kardos; B. R. Edgerton

    1974-01-01

    Six large lysimeters were filled with strip-mine spoil material. The spoil was then seeded with eight grass and eight legume species and then treated with sewage effluent and liquid digested sludge at the following treatment rates: control (no treatment), one-inch effluent plus one-inch sludge combination (1E + 1S), and two-inch effluent plus two-inch sludge combination (2E + 2S). The spoil

  20. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vidal, G; Nieto, J; Mansilla, H D; Bornhardt, C

    2004-01-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pretreatment. The relationships of H2O2/Fe2+ and H2O2/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L x day. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. PMID:15077985

  1. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Leal, Lucía Hernández; Vieno, Niina; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-09-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic+aerobic). All selected xenobiotics were detected in gray water samples in the low microg L(-1) range. Generally, lower concentrations were measured after biological treatment and removal efficiencies were higher under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions. However, most of the xenobiotics were still detected in biologically treated gray water. The most persistent compounds were the fragrance tonalide and the UV-filters 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. Estimated estrogenic potential of the effluent ranged between 0.07 and 0.72 ng L(-1) of 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Depending on the application of the effluent and its environmental risk, physical-chemical processes might be required to increase the removal efficiency of these compounds from gray water. PMID:20681737

  2. Application of struvite precipitation coupled with biological treatment to slaughterhouse wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kabda?li, I; Tünay, O; Ozcan, P

    2009-09-01

    In this study, struvite precipitation coupled with an activated sludge process was applied to slaughterhouse wastewaters. Biological treatability characteristics of the wastewater were evaluated in a wide organic loading range of 0.06-0.42 g COD (g MLVSS)(-1)d(-1) to assess COD removal as well as the extent of nitrification. Results of biological treatment of raw wastewater indicated that COD removal varied between 88% and 99% and complete nitrification was achieved at 0.1 g COD (g MLVSS)(-1)d(-1) and lower organic loadings. Biological treatment of the struvite-precipitated sample, which required no nitrification, yielded 86% COD removal at the organic removal of 0.3 g COD (g MLVSS)(-1)d(-1). Struvite precipitation of both raw and biologically treated wastewater was at effective stoichiometric magnesium and phosphate doses to ammonia and between pH values of 9.0 and 9.5, providing ammonia concentrations of 20-30 mg N L(-1) in the effluent and being independent of initial concentrations. The application of struvite precipitation both prior to and after biological treatment resulted in similar effluent qualities and provided the additional benefit of having a high-rate activated sludge system instead of a low organic loading system with nitrification-denitrification. An additional benefit of struvite precipitation was the production of sludge which had recovery potential as a fertilizer. Among the tested treatment schemes, biological treatment following struvite precipitation seemed to be more advantageous in terms of process stability. PMID:19886434

  3. [Online aeration backwashing in the inverse direction of effluent applied in dynamic membrane bio-reactor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Qiu, Xian-Feng; Gao, Bao-Yu; Zhang, Cheng-Lu; Liu, Dong-Mei; Jing, Yu-Ming

    2007-06-01

    Aeration in the inverse direction of effluent was applied as the measure of online backwashing to control membrane pollution in the dynamic membrane bio-reactor treating sewage wastewater. When the intensity of aeration was 5.6 m3/(m2 x h) and the aeration time was 5 min, it took 45 min for the dynamic membrane to recover filtration capacity. With the recovery of dynamic membrane filterability, effluent turbidity was below 5 NTU. The backwashing interval of the reactor could maintain about 15 h. SEM pictures showed that online aeration backwashing in the inverse direction of effluent could efficiently destroy part of dynamic membrane layer. After the dynamic membrane recovery, dynamic membrane could check more than 50% TOC of various molecule weights range > 3 x 10(4). Aeration in the inverse direction of effluent was an economical and effective means of online backwashing in the dynamic membrane bio-reactor. PMID:17674729

  4. Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichenbaugh, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Controlled decomposition and oxidation: A treatment method for gaseous process effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, Roger J. B., Sr.

    1990-01-01

    The safe disposal of effluent gases produced by the electronics industry deserves special attention. Due to the hazardous nature of many of the materials used, it is essential to control and treat the reactants and reactant by-products as they are exhausted from the process tool and prior to their release into the manufacturing facility's exhaust system and the atmosphere. Controlled decomposition and oxidation (CDO) is one method of treating effluent gases from thin film deposition processes. CDO equipment applications, field experience, and results of the use of CDO equipment and technological advances gained from the field experiences are discussed.

  6. Abiotic effects on effluent dissolved organic nitrogen along an estuarine transect.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Latour, Robert J; Bronk, Deborah A

    2015-03-01

    Biological nutrient removal is a process commonly used in water resource recovery facilities to reduce dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in effluent; this process is less effective at removing all of the effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (EDON). The goal of this study was to investigate the fate of EDON after it undergoes the disinfection process and enters receiving waters. The authors quantified the abiotic effects of effluent exposure to sunlight, increased salinity, and a combination of the two factors. Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen showed significant breakdown during the disinfection process (UV and chlorine) and when exposed to sunlight and increasing salinity. Approximately 7% of the EDON was transformed to DIN and dissolved primary amines after exposure to 9 hours of sunlight and a salinity increase from 0 to 33. The production of DIN and primary amines should be taken into account when considering sources of labile nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25842537

  7. Impact of system management on vegetative treatment system effluent concentrations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Daniel S; Burns, Robert T; Moody, Lara B; Helmers, Matthew J; Bond, Brad; Khanijo, Ishadeep; Pederson, Carl

    2013-08-15

    Beef feedlots of all sizes are looking for more cost-effective solutions for managing feedlot runoff. Vegetative treatment systems are one potential option, but require performance evaluation for use on concentrated animal feeding operations. The performance of six vegetative treatment systems on open beef feedlots throughout Iowa was monitored from 2006 through 2009. These feedlots had interim, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permits that allowed the use of vegetative treatment systems to control and treat runoff from the open feedlots. This manuscript focuses on making within site comparisons, i.e., from year-to-year and component-to-component within a site, to evaluate how management changes and system modifications altered performance. The effectiveness, in terms of effluent concentration reductions, of each system was evaluated; nutrient concentration reductions typically ranged from 60 to 99% during treatment in the vegetative components of the vegetative treatment systems. Monitoring results showed a consistent improvement in system performance during the four years of study. Much of this improvement can be attributed to improved management techniques and system modifications that addressed key performance issues. Specifically, active control of the solid settling basin outlet improved solids retention and allowed the producers to match effluent application rates to the infiltration rate of the vegetative treatment area, reducing the occurrence of effluent release. Additional improvements resulted from system maturation, increased operator experience, and the addition of earthen flow spreaders within the vegetative treatment area to slow flow and provide increased effluent storage within the treatment area, and switching to active management of settling basin effluent release. PMID:23644590

  8. Impact of green algae on the measurement of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in lagoon-treated wastewater with an algae online analyser.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2015-03-01

    Tests on the algae online analyser (AOA) showed that there was a strong direct linear correlation between cell density and in vivo Chl-a concentration for M. aeruginosa over the range of interest for a biologically treated effluent at a wastewater treatment plant (25,000-65,000?cells?mL(-1), equivalent to a biovolume of 2-6?mm(3?)L(-1)). However, the AOA can provide an overestimate or underestimate of M. aeruginosa populations when green algae are present in the effluent, depending on their species and relative numbers. The results from this study demonstrated that the green algae (e.g., Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sp.) in the field phytoplankton population should be considered during calibration. In summary, the AOA has potential for use as an alert system for the presence of M. aeruginosa, and thus potentially of cyanobacterial blooms, in wastewater stabilization ponds. PMID:25204421

  9. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

  10. Sex and low-level sampling stress modify the impacts of sewage effluent on the rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Hoeger; Bettina Hitzfeld; Bernd Köllner; Daniel R. Dietrich; Michael R. van den Heuvel

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of chronic exposure to municipal sewage treatment effluent at environmentally relevant concentrations on immune parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), including the assessment of potential differences in reactivity between sexually mature male and female fish. Trout were exposed to 1.5 and 15% (v\\/v) secondary treated municipal sewage effluent for

  11. A Decade of Research on the Environmental Impacts of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents in Canada: Field Studies and Mechanistic Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. McMaster; L. Mark Hewitt; Joanne L. Parrott

    2006-01-01

    Studies conducted in Sweden in the early 1980s provided some of the first evidence that effluents from some pulp mills were capable of inducing toxic responses in fish at very low concentrations in the receiving environment. In response to these findings, studies were initated in Canada and impacts of primary treated bleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive function in fish

  12. Effluent Treatment Facility: Challenged to meet environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, S. [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Day, J.E. [ADTECHS Corp. (United States); Rickenbach, K.D. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, J.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) located in the center of the Hanford Site is designed to receive liquid effluents from several of onsite sources, process them to eliminate hazardous and radioactive materials, and then discharge in compliance with applicable laws in a suitable location. The design incorporates several technologies selected as the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for their particular purpose in the context of the wastes to be treated. These technologies include the following: Filtration; Ultraviolet (UV) oxidation of organic materials; Staged pH adjustment; CO{sub 2} removal (degasification); Reverse osmosis; Ion exchange; Forced circulation evaporation; Thin-film drying. In addition to these process technologies, the facility design includes semi-automated waste packaging systems, and an advanced integrated monitoring and process control system.

  13. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  14. Electrochemical-assisted photodegradation of mixed dye and textile effluents using TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lee, Chong Yong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Kassim, Anuar; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2007-07-19

    Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The photoelectrochemical degradation of mixed dye was found to follow the Langmuir Hinshelwood pseudo-first order kinetic while pseudo-second order kinetic model for effluents by using TOC analyses. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of mixed dye and raw effluents were reported. Photoelectrochemical characteristic of pollutants was studied using the cyclic voltammetry technique. Raw effluent was found to exhibit stronger reduction behaviour at cathodic bias potential but slightly less photoresponse at anodic bias than mixed dye. PMID:17196740

  15. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  16. Biological significance of DNA adducts investigated by simultaneous analysis of different endpoints of genotoxicity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Brink; Berta Schulz; Helga Stopper; Werner K. Lutz

    2007-01-01

    The biological significance of DNA adducts is under continuous discussion because analytical developments allow determination of adducts at ever lower levels. Central questions refer to the biological consequences of adducts and to the relationship between background DNA damage and exposure-related increments. These questions were addressed by measuring the two DNA adducts 7-methylguanine (7-mG) and O6-methyl-2?-deoxyguanosine (O6-mdGuo) by LC–MS\\/MS in parallel

  17. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

  18. Emerging Contaminant Sources Fate in Recharged Treated Wasterwater, Lake Havasu City, Arizona

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008 the City of Lake Havasu, Arizona, began a subsurface, effluent injection program to store treated wastewater effluent, which will eventually be seasonally recovered to balance the demand for irrigation during the summer months. As a proactive measure, the City decided to ...

  19. Effect of upflow velocity on the effluent membrane fouling potential in membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Hale; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Tao, Yu; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of upflow velocity (Vup) on biological removal efficiency and effluent filterability in a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Upflow velocities of 1.2, 0.6 and 1.2m/h were applied in three successive stages over a total operation period of 116 days. Filterability tests were carried out during each stage in order to assess the effect of Vup on subsequent membrane performance. Results indicated a significant impact of Vup on both biological performance and physicochemical effluent characteristics. The observed differences in protein/carbohydrate ratio and particle size distribution (PSD), which play important roles in membrane fouling, lead to the hypothesis that Vup is a critical parameter for effluent filterability in membrane coupled UASB reactors. Results showed that filterability of the effluent during the operation at 0.6m/h was better than that during the operation at 1.2m/h. PMID:23999261

  20. Active slag filters: rapid assessment of phosphorus removal efficiency from effluent as a function of retention time.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Andy; Chen, Leon; Elemetri, Ibrahim; Pratt, Chris; Pratt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing pressure to upgrade effluent ponds for phosphorus removal. Active slag filters offer a solution, but design information is limited. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) is a key factor in filter design because it controls filter treatment efficiency as well the filter substrate lifespan. This paper reports on a rapid method of continual looping of effluent through a filter column to obtain a relationship between HRT and phosphorus removal efficiency. Phosphorus removal declined logarithmically with respect to retention time. While the mechanisms that yield this relationship involve complex mass transfer and adsorption of phosphorus to Fe oxyhydroxide sites, in general terms, the adsorption rate is proportional to the adsorbate effluent concentration. Waste stabilization pond effluent treated by the slag achieved phosphorus removal efficiencies over 90% at extended HRTs greater than 70 hours, while 80% removal was obtainable in 30 hours. Higher phosphorus removal was achieved for slag treating real effluent compared with synthetic phosphate solution. This can be explained by: (1) different starting phosphorus concentrations in the synthetic phosphate solution and real effluent; and (2) the presence of constituents in real effluent that can enhance phosphorus removal, such as oxidized iron compounds, cations, algae and humic complexes. This new technique, which proved capable of replicating treatment efficiencies obtained from long-term column studies, offers rapid assessment of phosphorus removal efficiency as a function of retention time and thus will enable design engineers to size active filters on the basis of achieving the required phosphorus removal standards. PMID:23530330

  1. Optimization of effects-assessment of greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides) exposed to tertiary treated municipal wastewater based on seasonal changes of reproductive endpoints.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Servos, Mark Roy; McMaster, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    The present study describes the seasonal changes in reproductive endpoints of the greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides) and its implications for environmental monitoring. Fish collections conducted at the appropriate time for the site-specific sentinel fish species can provide a wide variety of population-level information including recruitment, reproduction, and energy storage. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in reproductive endpoints of the greenside darter (both sexes) to determine the appropriate period for monitoring of this sentinel species; and 2) evaluate the effect of exposure of this sentinel species to tertiary treated municipal effluent at the selected monitoring period. Based on the selected parameters (gonadosomatic index [GSI], liver somatic index [LSI], condition factor, and in vitro gonadal steroid production [testosterone (T) in both sexes; estradiol (E2) in females; and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in males]), the present study provides evidence for the value of collecting darters during recrudescence (late fall/early winter) to ensure temporal stability, minimum variability, and stable steroid production capacity. Darters exposed to tertiary treated municipal effluent tended to be larger and heavier relative to reference fish but did not demonstrate any consistent responses in terms of condition or relative liver size. No effect on gonadal development was observed, even though these tertiary-effluent-exposed fish demonstrated a significant reduction in the ability to produce hormones. The present study suggests that although fish exposed to tertiary treated effluent demonstrate no population-level effects, they are still responding at a physiological level. Documentation of the reproductive cycle of sentinel species allows for selection of the most appropriate sampling period to reduce variability and greatly enhances the reliability and interpretation of biological responses. PMID:24459008

  2. Microbe removal in secondary effluent by filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franca Zanetti; Giovanna De Luca; Rossella Sacchetti

    2006-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the efficiency of filtration in reducing microbial contamination in municipal secondary\\u000a effluent. After primary and secondary treatments, the wastewater underwent filtration through sand\\/hydroanthracite filters.\\u000a A total of 20 samplings were made, each consisting of two instant samples (secondary effluent and filtered effluent). Each\\u000a of the 40 samples was tested for: total and faecal

  3. Single cell protein from pineapple cannery effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Nigam

    1998-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source. These effluents are rich in microbially utilizable nutrients. The principal sugars in the effluent were glucose, fructose and sucrose, and when supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate to prevent nitrogen limitation they supported good growth. The maximum specific growth rate (µm=0.46h–1) and cell yield coefficient (Yc\\/s=0.30)

  4. Electrochemical-assisted photodegradation of mixed dye and textile effluents using TiO 2 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Chong Yong Lee; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Anuar Kassim; Nor Azah Yusof

    2007-01-01

    Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV–vis spectrophotometer (UV–vis) and total

  5. Periphyton photosynthesis as an indicator of effluent toxicity: Relationship to effects on animal test species

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of freshwater and marine plants in effluent toxicity evaluations is uncommon despite the presence of test methods and recommendations for their use. It has been assumed that aquatic plants are less sensitive than animal test species and consequently, results from toxicity tests with invertebrates and fish have been used often as a surrogate data base. The study evaluated the ability of these animal toxicity tests to provide safe concentrations for in-stream periphyton. The toxicity of several samples of a treated municipal effluent were determined during a five-month period by monitoring short-term changes in periphyton photosynthesis (carbon-14 uptake) and by observing the effects on young production and survival of cultured daphnids and the fathead minnow. The effect levels from the various tests were compared. The effluent was seldom acutely toxic to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) but it was consistently acutely and chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic effect levels ranged between 17 and 71% effluent. Significant inhibition and stimulation of periphyton photosynthesis occurred at concentrations of 6 to 39% effluent. Periphyton photosynthesis was a more sensitive effect parameter than animal survival and in some cases than Ceriodaphnia reproductive performance. The results indicate that effluent toxicity tests conducted routinely with daphnids and fish may not be sufficient to predict effects on indigenous flora in receiving waters.

  6. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

  7. Prediction analysis of effluent removal in a septic sludge treatment plant: a biomimetics engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ting Sie; Malek, M A; Ismail, Amelia Ritahani

    2014-09-20

    Effluent discharge from septic tanks is affecting the environment in developing countries. The most challenging issue facing these countries is the cost of inadequate sanitation, which includes significant economic, social, and environmental burdens. Although most sanitation facilities are evaluated based on their immediate costs and benefits, their long-term performance should also be investigated. In this study, effluent quality-namely, the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solid (TSS)-was assessed using a biomimetics engineering approach. A novel immune network algorithm (INA) approach was applied to a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP) for effluent-removal predictive modelling. The Matang SSTP in the city of Kuching, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, was selected as a case study. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 were used for training, validating, and testing purposes using MATLAB 7.10. The results showed that the BOD effluent-discharge prediction was less than 50% of the specified standard after the 97(th) month of operation. The COD and TSS effluent removals were simulated at the 85(th) and the 121(st) months, respectively. The study proved that the proposed INA-based SSTP model could be used to achieve an effective SSTP assessment and management technique. PMID:25005632

  8. Release of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes in the effluent and biosolids of five wastewater utilities in Michigan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariya Munir; Kelvin Wong; Irene Xagoraraki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the occurrence and release of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) into the environment through the effluent and biosolids of different wastewater treatment utilities including an MBR (Membrane Biological Reactor) utility, conventional utilities (Activated Sludge, Oxidative Ditch and Rotatory Biological Contactors-RBCs) and multiple sludge treatment processes (Dewatering, Gravity Thickening,

  9. DISPOSAL OF AN INTEGRATED PULP-PAPER MILL EFFLUENT BY IRRIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1973, Simpson Paper Company initiated a research program to explore the use of the fully-treated secondary effluent from its Shasta Mill for beneficial crop irrigation. This report describes the operation of laboratory soil columns and field test plots, plus hydrological studi...

  10. REMOVAL OF LAGOON EFFLUENT SUSPENDED SOLIDS BY A SLOW-ROCK FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to examine the removal of algae cells and other suspended solids contained in the effluents from facultative lagoons treating domestic wastewaters by means of rock filters. Two rock filters were constructed and operational over a 16 month period ...

  11. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Daniel D. Snow; Teyona Damon; Johnette Shockley; Kyle Hoagland

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a

  12. Posttreatment of effluent from coke-plant wastewater treatment system in sequencing batch reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanqing Yu; Guowei Gu; Leping Song

    1997-01-01

    The performance of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for the treatment of effluent from a conventional coke-plant wastewater biological treatment system has been evaluated. The results showed that an operating mode that incorporated two anoxic portions, one ahead of the aeration period and one after the aeration, was superior to the other modes (prearranged denitrification and postarranged denitrification) for nitrogen removal.

  13. Treatment of simulated Reactive Yellow 22 (Azo) dye effluents using Spirogyra species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Venkata Mohan; N Chandrasekhar Rao; K Krishna Prasad; J Karthikeyan

    2002-01-01

    The potential of commonly available green algae belonging to Spirogyra species was investigated as viable biomaterials for biological treatment of simulated synthetic azo dye (Reactive Yellow 22) effluents. The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the algal species in removing the dye colour and was dependent both on the dye concentration and algal biomass. Maximum dye

  14. Potential use of thermophilic dark fermentation effluents in photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru Özgür; Nilüfer Afsar; Truus de Vrije; Meral Yücel; Ufuk Gündüz; Pieternel A. M. Claassen; Inci Eroglu

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production by a sequential operation of dark and photofermentation is a promising route to produce hydrogen. The possibility of using renewable resources, like biomass and agro-industrial wastes, provides a dual effect of sustainability in biohydrogen production and simultaneous waste removal. In this study, photofermentative hydrogen production on effluents of thermophilic dark fermentations on glucose, potato steam peels (PSP)

  15. Integrated treatment of olive oil mill effluents (OME): Study of ozonation coupled with anaerobic digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andreozzi; G. Longo; M. Majone; G. Modesti

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of coupling a chemical treatment (ozonation) with a biological treatment (anaerobic digestion), is investigated for olive oil mill effluents (OME). Preliminary tests showed that both total phenols and unsaturated lipids are reduced to about 50% in 3h of ozonation and that the total COD remains about unvaried. Nevertheless ozonated OME exhibit in general a longer lag phase and

  16. Treatment of effluents from petroleum production by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes; Geraldo, Lucia Limoeiro; Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino P.; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    During the offshore oil production large volumes of aqueous waste with high salinity are produced. The produced water originates mainly from the oil-bearing formation but may also include seawater, which has been injected to maintain reservoir pressure. This water is normally separated from oil on the platform generating aqueous effluent with metals, sulfite, ammonium and organic compounds. The conventional treatment used includes filtration, flotation, ionic change and adsorption in activated charcoal, but the high salinity of this water decreases the treatment efficiency. The high efficiency of electron beam irradiation on removing organic compound in industrial effluent has been shown, and the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of this new technology to treat the oil water production. Experiments were conducted using samples from two platforms processed in the radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The results showed that the electron beam technology has high efficiency in destroying organic compounds even in the presence of high salinity and complex effluent.

  17. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S. [ADVENT Group, Inc., Brentwood, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  18. (Bi*ol"o*gy) n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. The science of life; that branch of knowledge which treats of

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    of knowledge which treats of living matter as distinct from matter which is not living; the study of living:545-558. Learning objectives: Knowledge of properties of complex systems1. Knowledge of animal behaviour which.edu/~aviary/Newtechniques.htm) Computer simulation of bird flock. (from Reynolds 1987, Computer Graph- ics 21:25-34) Set-up (left

  19. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  20. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  3. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  8. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  9. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  10. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  11. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  12. 40 CFR 409.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.87 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 409.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 409.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 417.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Air-SO3 Sulfation and Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 405.117 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.117 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  6. 40 CFR 405.127 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dry Whey Subcategory § 405.127 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  7. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  9. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 417.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Concentration Subcategory § 417.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  12. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  13. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.242 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  14. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.242 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  15. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Diatomite Subcategory § 436.242 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  16. 40 CFR 427.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  17. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  18. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...