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1

Chemical oxidation of biologically treated phenolic effluents  

SciTech Connect

Experimental research into the oxidative purification of biologically treated phenolic effluents of the Estonian oil shale chemical industry was undertaken. The main phenolic compounds identified in this wastewater were phenol, cresols, resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinols. For chemical oxidation of phenols different advanced oxidation methods (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) were tested. For tracking of the changes in the concentration of different phenols during the treatment process, HPLC and colorimetry were applied. It was shown that, in principle, phenols can be reduced almost by any oxidation method studied. Oxidation with molecular ozone has the most potential for practical application. Methods not including ozone (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) had, in general, lower efficiency for total phenols reduction than the methods combining ozone.

Kamenev, S.; Kallas, J.; Munter, R. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia); Trapido, M. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Chemistry

1995-12-01

2

Screening and Application of High Effective Functional Bacteria for Subsequent Treating Leachate Biological Treatment Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve refractory organic pollutants degradability of landfill leachate biological treatment effluent, high effective functional bacteria for subsequent treating the effluent were cultured by bioaugmentation. Three predominant bacteria for subsequent treating organic refractory pollutants were cultured and screened from sludge in aeration pool of biochemical treatment system. Based on 16S rDNA identification, the three bacteria are named Mari-nobacter (coded Y1),

Xie Zhi-gang

2010-01-01

3

Physicochemical factors affecting the E. coli removal in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) treating UASB effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal mechanism of E. coli from UASB effluent using a Rotating Biological Contractor (RBC) has been investigated. Preliminary batch experiments in a RBC indicate a first-order removal kinetics. Variation in the dissolved oxygen concentration and E. coli counts over the depth of the RBC has been recorded and indicates that the RBC is not a completely mixed reactor. Therefore

Ahmed Tawfik; Bram Klapwijk; Joost Van Buuren; Fatma El-Gohary; Gatze Lettinga

2004-01-01

4

Heavy metals in untreated\\/treated urban effluent and sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  The presence of heavy metals in wastewater is one of the main causes of water and soil pollution. The aim of the present study\\u000a was to investigate the removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr and Zn in urban effluent by a biological wastewater treatment, as\\u000a well as to quantify the levels of As, Be, Cd,

Aline da Silva Oliveira; Ana Bocio; Tânia M. Beltramini Trevilato; Angela M. Magosso Takayanagui; José L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz

2007-01-01

5

Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake

F. Archibald; L. Roy-Arcand; M. Methot; L. Valeanu

1998-01-01

6

Treatment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Brine of RO Process Refining Effluent of Biological-Processes Treating Municipal Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of concentrated salt laden wastewater in conventional biological processes is a special problem particularly when such water is deficient in organic materials. In urban wastewater treatment, the problem arises especially in the reject water of Reverse Osmosis (RO) process when RO is used to refine effluent of conventional biological processes applied for pretreatment. RO reject content is about 10-20%

Abulbasher M. Shahalam

7

Biosorption of Colour-Imparting Substances in Biologically Treated Pulp Mill Effluent Using Aspergillus niger Fungal Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption has potential to be an economical colour removal technology. As such, the colour removal potential of inactivated\\u000a Aspergillus niger biomass was investigated for the treatment of activated sludge-treated pulp mill effluent from a northern bleached softwood\\u000a kraft mill. Biomass pretreatment methods, effects of initial pH of the effluent and preparative biomass washing methods were\\u000a examined. The most effective pretreatment

Sarah Grainger; George Yuzhu Fu; Eric R. Hall

2011-01-01

8

Physicochemical factors affecting the E.coli removal in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) treating UASB effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal mechanism of E. coli from UASB effluent using a Rotating Biological Contractor (RBC) has been investigated. Preliminary batch experiments in a RBC indicate a first-order removal kinetics. Variation in the dissolved oxygen concentration and E. coli counts over the depth of the RBC has been recorded and indicates that the RBC is not a completely mixed reactor. Therefore

A. Tafwik; A. Klapwijk; Buuren van J. C. L; F. El-Gohary; G. Lettinga

2004-01-01

9

Characterization of Effluent from Biological Trickling Filters Treating Graywater in Advanced Life Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six bench scale biological trickling filter reactors were constructed and operated for simulated advanced life support (ALS) graywater recycling. In an initial evaluation, after a reactor startup phase of 40 days, the average TOC removal for six replicate reactors packed with Tri-packs packing material was 65%. A second set of experiments was designed to assess TOC removal using several types

Sybil Sharvelle; Eric McLamore; Stephen Clark; M. Katherine Banks

2007-01-01

10

Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters  

SciTech Connect

Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake waters occurs slowly under gentle conditions, while mill EROM is generated from lignocellulosics by faster and harsher processes. Similarity of the environmental effects of NOM and pulp and paper mill EROM are examined. Changes occurring over 4 months in biologically treated effluent from two modern Canadian mills and lake NOM when sealed in gas- and light-permeable bags and placed in a pristine Quebec lake are reported. Addition of microbial co-metabolites significantly improved the dark mineralization of organochlorines surviving mill biological treatment. Mill EROM was light sensitive, nonacutely toxic in the Microtox assay, and similar to NOM in the surrounding lake in most bulk properties. There was no evidence to suggest that placing specific limits on mill EROM (COD) emissions would be environmentally beneficial.

Archibald, F.; Roy-Arcand, L.; Methot, M.; Valeanu, L.

1998-11-01

11

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti\\/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to

S. M. Swanson; R. Schryer; R. Shelast; P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens

1994-01-01

12

Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment of tannery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

During leather processing in tanneries, considerable amount of wastes with organic and inorganic pollutants are generated.\\u000a For removal of these pollutants and recovery of water, biological treatment methods and reverse osmosis (RO) based membrane\\u000a technologies are adopted. While recovering water from treated tannery effluent using RO membranes, presence of residual organics,\\u000a dye molecules, and other impurities in the effluent have

S. V. Srinivasan; G. Prea Samita Mary; Chitra Kalyanaraman; P. S. Sureshkumar; K. Sri Balakameswari; Rangasamy Suthanthararajan; Ethirajulu Ravindranath

13

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates generally to a method for treating and recycling the effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor and more specifically to a method for treating and recycling the effluent by expanding the effluent without extensive cooling. Supercritical water oxidation is the oxidation of fuel, generally waste material, in a body of water under conditions above the thermodynamic

C. M. Barnes; C. Shapiro

1995-01-01

14

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

15

Efficiency assessment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) based on activated sludge process employed for treatment of tannery effluent was analyzed for the efficiency to reduce chromium and other contaminants. Physico-chemical parameters of treated effluent were found within permissible levels of statutory limits. A significant reduction in COD and BOD levels were achieved during the course of treatment in CETP. A reduction of 98.46%, 87.5%, and 96.15% in bacterial counts especially in pathogens like Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were observed after treatment. Pathogens were not detected in the dried sludge. Complete elimination of fecal streptococci was observed in treated effluent. Around 10.8% of microbial isolates from the effluent showed ability to reduce chromate >90%. In treated effluent chromium level was 5.48 mg/L, which exceeds the statutory limit of Indian standards. Cleaner production options to reduce chromium levels before discharging into water bodies is discussed. PMID:19731056

Ramteke, Pramod W; Awasthi, S; Srinath, T; Joseph, Babu

2010-10-01

16

Cairo-East Bank effluent re-use study 3 — Effect of field crop irrigation with secondary treated wastewater on biological and chemical properties of soil and groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale field trials were conducted in fertile soil and desert (virgin) soil to evaluate the effect of irrigation with\\u000a secondary treated wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Cairo on biological and chemical properties of soil and\\u000a groundwater. Soil samples were taken for physical and chemical analysis after crop harvest. Groundwater monitoring wells were\\u000a installed in and around the

Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef; Jeremy E. Hall; Peter C. Lawrence; Mohamed S. Negm

2006-01-01

17

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and

2000-01-01

18

Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments.

Ulmer, F.J.

1995-02-06

19

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to a method for treating and recycling the effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor and more specifically to a method for treating and recycling the effluent by expanding the effluent without extensive cooling. Supercritical water oxidation is the oxidation of fuel, generally waste material, in a body of water under conditions above the thermodynamic critical point of water. The current state of the art in supercritical water oxidation plant effluent treatment is to cool the reactor effluent through heat exchangers or direct quench, separate the cooled liquid into a gas/vapor stream and a liquid/solid stream, expand the separated effluent, and perform additional purification on gaseous, liquid, brine and solid effluent. If acid gases are present, corrosion is likely to occur in the coolers. During expansion, part of the condensed water will revaporize. Vaporization can damage the valves due to cavitation and erosion. The present invention expands the effluent stream without condensing the stream. Radionuclides and suspended solids are more efficiently separated in the vapor phase. By preventing condensation, the acids are kept in the much less corrosive gaseous phase thereby limiting the damage to treatment equipment. The present invention also reduces the external energy consumption, by utilizing the expansion step to also cool the effluent.

Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

1995-12-31

20

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

Crane, A.F.

1995-03-01

21

300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

CAMPBELL, L.R.

1999-01-15

22

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

BROWN, M.J.

2000-05-18

23

POST BIOLOGICAL SOLIDS CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL FROM PULP MILL EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study characterized the post biological solids in pulp and paper mill secondary effluent and evaluated various suspended solids removal techniques. Characterization was performed on samples from 9 mills, representing various locations, pulping processes and treatment system t...

24

Post Biological Solids Characterization and Removal from Pulp Mill Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study characterized the post biological solids in pulp and paper mill secondary effluent and evaluated various suspended solids removal techniques. Characterization was performed on samples from 9 mills, representing various locations, pulping process...

R. R. Peterson J. L. Graham

1979-01-01

25

Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

CJ Chou; VG Johnson

2000-04-04

26

Seasonal UV disinfection of treated urban effluent. 1. Bacteriological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treated to the secondary level may not be disinfected before discharge—if the receiving waterway is not a source of drinking water?during periods cold enough to limit recreational use. Samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant and its receiving waterway during periods when ultraviolet disinfection of the effluent was and was not being done. Levels of Escherichia coli, fecal

Nurliza Buyong; Dean O. Cliver; Amy B. Ronner; Kenneth D. Kostenbader

1993-01-01

27

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility Quality Assurance Project Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project plan provides for the quality assurance of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility consistent with the Washington State Department of Ecology discharge monitoring permit. DQOs (data quality objective) support permit standards for data quality and quantity. Reference is made to groundwater monitoring, laboratory analyses, and data validation that are performed under related quality programs.

Jungfleisch

1995-01-01

28

Exploitation results of seven RO plants for recovery and reuse of treated effluents in textile industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper comprises a case study on the implementation of the advance treatment process (ATP) in seven small-scale textile industries. The ATPs installed and commissioned are in compliance with the Statutory Board directions for recovery and reuse of treated effluent leading to zero effluent discharge. The textile effluents are treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by

Rita S. Dhodapkar; Girish R. Pophali; Tapas Nandy; Sukumar Devotta

2007-01-01

29

Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

Not Available

1991-06-01

30

Growth of water hyacinths in treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thousand plants of the water hyacinth,Eichornia crassipes Solms., were introduced on April 11, 1971, into a series of five ponds, each 5000 sq. ft. in area and 2.6 ft. deep. Treated waste\\u000a water effluent from the Ames sewage treatment plant filled the ponds and was added to pond 1 at 127 gallons per minute. By\\u000a growth and vegetative reproduction,

Jean W. Wooten; John D. Dodd

1976-01-01

31

Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

32

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

33

Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.  

PubMed

Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology. PMID:20022642

Lundström, Elin; Björlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

2009-11-22

34

Biological treatment of the effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill using basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.  

PubMed

Three white-rot fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and one soft-rot fungi (Rhizopus oryzae) species confirmed their potential for future applications in the biological treatment of effluents derived from the secondary treatment of a bleached kraft pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus. Among the four species P. sajor caju and R. oryzae were the most effective in the biodegradation of organic compounds present in the effluent, being responsible for the reduction of relative absorbance (25-46% at 250 nm and 72-74% at 465 nm) and of chemical oxygen demand levels (74 to 81%) after 10 days of incubation. Laccase (Lac), lignin (Lip) and manganese peroxidases (MnP) expression varied among fungal species, where Lac and LiP activities were correlated with the degradation of organic compounds in the effluent treated with P. sajor caju. The first two axes of a principal component analysis explained 88.9% of the total variation among sub-samples treated with the four fungus species, after different incubation periods. All the variables measured contributed positively to the first component except for the MnP enzyme activity which was the only variable contributing negatively to the first component. Absorbances at 465 nm, LiP and Lac enzyme activities were the variables with more weight on the second component. P. sajor caju revealed to be the only species able to perform the biological treatment without promoting an increment in the toxicity of the effluent to the Vibrio fischeri, as it was assessed by the Microtox assay. The opposite was recorded for the treatments with the other three species of fungus. EC(50-5 min) values ranging between 28 and 57% (effluent concentrations) were recorded even after 10 to 13 days of treatment with P. chrysosporium, R. oryzae or with T. versicolor. PMID:19269018

Freitas, A C; Ferreira, F; Costa, A M; Pereira, R; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Diniz, M S; Castro, L; Peres, I; Duarte, A C

2009-03-06

35

Removal of hardness and COD from retanning treated effluent by membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of membrane separation process integrated with conventional tannery wastewater treatment was studied in order to reuse the treated effluent in the retanning process. Laboratory scale tests were performed to find a suitable membrane for the process and to define pretreatment, fluid dynamic conditions and membrane cleaning procedures. Hardness levels restrict effluent reutilization on the process. The effects of

A. F. Viero; A. C. R. Mazzarollo; K. Wada; I. C. Tessaro

2002-01-01

36

Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification  

SciTech Connect

The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed.

Graf, F.A. Jr.

1994-06-03

37

Case studies on biological treatment of tannery effluents in India.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge process (ASP)-based. Investigations indicated that the ASP-based plant was superior in all respects. Total annualized costs, including capital and operation and maintenance costs, for the UASB and ASP plants were Rs. 4.24 million/million liters per day (MLD) and Rs. 3.36 million/MLD, respectively. Land requirements for the two CETPs were 1.4 hectares/MLD and 0.95 hectares/ MLD, respectively. Moreover, the treated UASB effluent had higher biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD/ COD) and considerable amounts of other undesirable constituents, like chromium (Cr) and sulfide, as compared with the ASP effluent, which had lower BOD/COD and negligible concentration of sulfide and Cr. Sludge production from the UASB-based plant was also higher at 1.4 t/day/MLD, in comparison to the sludge production of 0.8 t/day/MLD for the ASP-based plant. Also, the entire sludge produced in the UASB-based plant was Cr-contaminated and, hence, hazardous, while only a small fraction of the sludge produced in the ASP-based plant was similarly contaminated. The results of this study are at variance with the conventional wisdom of the superiority of anaerobic processes for tannery wastewater treatment in tropical developing countries like India. PMID:12943317

Tare, Vinod; Gupta, Sandeep; Bose, Purnendu

2003-08-01

38

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

39

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

40

Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.  

PubMed

Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

2012-06-15

41

Use of permeable reactive barriers to treat acid mine effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most serious environmental problems facing the Canadian Mineral Industry. The AMD results from oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite or pyrrhotite) contained in mine waste or mine tailings. It is characterised by acid effluents rich in heavy metals, which are released into the environment. A new acid remediation technology is presented in

Kostas Fytas

2010-01-01

42

300 Area treated effluent disposal facility sampling schedule  

SciTech Connect

This document is the interface between the 300 Area Liquid Effluent Process Engineering (LEPE) group and the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF), concerning process control samples. It contains a schedule for process control samples at the 300 Area TEDF which describes the parameters to be measured, the frequency of sampling and analysis, the sampling point, and the purpose for each parameter.

Loll, C.M.

1994-10-11

43

Hydraulics of Peat Filters Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat is an alternative filter medium for the treatment of various waste streams including septic tank effluent. The water holding capacity and adsorption capacity of peat make it a favorable filter medium over sand or gravel which are commonly used as the filter medium for the drainage field of septic systems. This paper presents the results of a field study

Paula Kennedy; Paul J. van Geel

2000-01-01

44

Toxicity of the effluent from an anaerobic bioreactor treating cereal residues on Lactuca sativa.  

PubMed

Effluents generated during the process of anaerobic digestion should be treated before their disposal into the environment. The aim of this study was evaluating the effectiveness of the effluent treatment system from an anaerobic bioreactor, assessing the toxicity reduction with the Lactuca sativa seed germination and root elongation inhibition test. Three sampling points were selected along the effluent treatment system: inflow into the first treatment pond, outflow from the third pond and recirculated flow to the bioreactor. Effluent dilutions tested for each sampling point were 25% and 50% (v/v), undiluted sample and controls. The pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD? and COD were measured. The decrease in the organic and inorganic loads was correlated with a reduction in the phytotoxicity. The use of the seed toxicity test allows evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the studied effluent treatment system. PMID:21993347

Young, Brian Jonathan; Riera, Nicolás Iván; Beily, María Eugenia; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Ronco, Alicia Estela

2011-10-10

45

A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. PMID:22035931

Grantham, Theodore E; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

2011-10-14

46

Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

Cross, S.P.

1996-08-01

47

Combined Physical-Chemical and Biological Treatment of Poorly Biodegradable Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be

Patricia González; Claudio Zaror; Virginia Carrasco; Maria Angelica Mondaca; Hector Mansilla

2003-01-01

48

Continuous ozonation of biologically pretreated molasses fermentation effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, continuous chemical oxidation processes (single ozonation and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide) of biologically pretreated wastewaters from a beet molasses fermentation factory have been studied. Oxidation processes were carried out in a stirred tank reactor at the natural pH of the wastewater and 25 degrees C, analyzing the effect of the hydraulic residence time and applied ozone mass flow on color and organic matter removals. Ozone consumption was also measured in each experiment. The results show that continuous ozonation was effective for decolorization of molasses wastewater. Operating with a hydraulic residence time of 45 minutes and an applied ozone mass flow of 1.7 g/h, color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were about 80% and 14%, respectively. Increasing the hydraulic residence time or ozone mass flow led to a considerably increase in the ozone consumption, with similar color and organic matter reduction percentages. Slightly higher removal percentages were obtained combining ozone with hydrogen peroxide, attaining 83% color reduction and 20% COD removal. As consequence of the oxidation processes, biodegradability of the decolorized effluent increased about 40-50% and the ratio BOD5/COD was twofold higher. PMID:17474004

Peña, Mar; Coca, Mónica; González, Gerardo

2007-05-01

49

Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to

Larry B. Barber; Kathy E. Lee; Deborah L. Swackhamer; Heiko L. Schoenfuss

2007-01-01

50

Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white-rot fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived...

C. Martin S. Fajardo P. Manzanares

1996-01-01

51

Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies—Population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated

Elin Lundström; Berndt Björlenius; Markus Brinkmann; Henner Hollert; Jan-Olov Persson; Magnus Breitholtz

2010-01-01

52

What is the relationship between whole effluent toxicity and instream biological condition?  

SciTech Connect

The authors compiled a database of 250 dischargers across the US and examined relationships between standardized Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), whole effluent toxicity (WET) test endpoints, and instream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. Sites were included in the analysis if the effluents were not manipulated before testing (e.g., dechlorination), and standardized biological and physical habitat assessment methods were used upstream and directly downstream of the discharge. Several analyses indicated that fish endpoints were more related to instream biological condition than Ceriodaphnia WET endpoints. Dischargers that failed <25% of their tests had {le}15% chance of exhibiting instream impairment. Effluent dilution was the strongest factor affecting relationships between WET and observed biological conditions. Effluents that comprised >80% of the stream under low-flow conditions exhibited better relationships between WET and instream condition than effluents with greater dilution. Effluents that comprised <20% of the stream had a low probability of exhibiting impairment, even if several WET test failures were observed over a 1-year period. Fish acute and chronic WET information could predict instream biological conditions; however, WET compliance, based on 7Q10 stream flow, was consistently conservative. Their results indicate that WET was more predictive of instream biological condition if several tests were conducted, more than one type of test was conducted, and endpoints within a test were relatively consistent over time.

Diamond, J.; Daley, C.

2000-01-01

53

DEMINERALIZATION OF CARBON-TREATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY SPIRAL-WOUND REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 56.8 cu m/day (15,000 gallons/day) spiral-wound reverse osmosis pilot plant was operated at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility on the carbon-treated secondary effluent. The specific objectives for this study were (a) to establish the effective membrane l...

54

Case Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Effluents in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge

Vinod Tare; Sandeep Gupta; Purnendu Bose

2003-01-01

55

Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. (Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1991-09-01

56

Seasonal UV disinfection of treated urban effluent. 2. Virological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Seasonal disinfection” means that, if the receiving waterway is not also a source of drinking water, urban wastewater—treated to the secondary level?may not be disinfected before discharge when weather is cold enough to discourage swimming. Swimmers occasionally get waterborne virus infections. RNA coliphages (RNA?containing viruses that specifically infect Escherichia coli cells that have an F pilus) may serve better than

Nurliza Buyong; Dean O. Chver; Amy B. Ronner; Kenneth D. Kostenbader

1993-01-01

57

Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program.  

PubMed

Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge. PMID:18241892

Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David

2008-01-31

58

Implications of persistent exposure to treated wastewater effluent for breeding in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations.  

PubMed

Feminized responses are widespread in wild populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus, living in UK rivers, and some of these responses have been shown to arise as a consequence of exposure to wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluent discharges and the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) they contain. The causation of the ovotestis condition in wild roach, however, has yet to be established. Furthermore, the impact of long-term exposure to WwTW effluents on the reproductive fitness of wild fish populations is not known, and this information is crucial for population level effect assessments. We undertook a chronic exposure of roach to a treated estrogenic wastewater effluent for up to 3.5 years to assess principally for effects on subsequent reproductive fitness, as determined through parentage analysis on offspring from a competitive breeding study. In generating the fish for the breeding study we found that exposure to full strength WwTW effluent until sexual maturity resulted in sex reversal in almost all males in the population; 98% of the exposed fish were phenotypic females, containing ovaries. Furthermore, fish exposed to a 50% dilution of WwTW effluent contained ovotestis (21% of the male roach) that was absent from the control population. In competitive breeding studies, and applying DNA microsatellites to assess parentage, we show that presumptive females exposed to sexual maturity to WwTW effluent bred normally, albeit in the absence of nonexposed females, but putative sex-reversed males breeding as females contributed poorly, if at all, in a breeding population, depending on the competition. These novel findings on sex reversal add a new dimension for impact assessments of exposure to WwTW effluents on fish populations. PMID:21207934

Lange, Anke; Paull, Gregory C; Hamilton, Patrick B; Iguchi, Taisen; Tyler, Charles R

2011-01-05

59

Broad-host-range plasmids in treated wastewater effluent and receiving streams.  

PubMed

The occurrence of broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid amplicons belonging to incompatibility (Inc) groups IncA/C, IncN, IncP, and IncW in two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and effluent-receiving streams in Northwest Arkansas, Mud Creek and Spring Creek, was determined. Community DNA captured on filter membranes and plasmid DNA extracted from antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Mud Creek was used for polymerase chain reaction at amplification of partial gene sequences specific to BHR plasmids. IncP plasmid amplicons were detected in effluent and downstream sites in both streams, while IncN and IncW plasmid amplicons were detected in Spring Creek in effluent and downstream but not upstream. IncA/C plasmid amplicons, in contrast, were detected at all sites, including upstream in most samples in Spring Creek and in one sample from Mud Creek. One IncP and two IncN were the only BHR plasmid amplicons found in 85 screened antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates, and were detected only in isolates from effluent and downstream samples. Broad-host-range plasmids frequently carry antibiotic-resistance genes and can facilitate horizontal transfer of those genes. While BHR plasmids have been detected in WWTPs, WWTPs do not target these genetic elements for destruction. This study indicates that BHR plasmids are in WWTP effluent and are introducing BHR plasmids into streams. Additionally, species other than E. coli may be better targets as indicator bacteria for future studies of the impact of treated effluent on environmental dissemination of BHR plasmids. PMID:21284320

Akiyama, Tatsuya; Asfahl, Kyle L; Savin, Mary C

60

Removal of Oxygen Demand and Acute Toxicity during Batch Biological Treatment of a Petroleum Refinery Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the process streams at an operating petroleum refinery showed that desalting water from the crude and splitter units had the highest concentrations of pollutants, and accounted for approximately one-third of the BOD and COD of the combined effluent. Combined effluent (234 ± 62 mg BOD\\/L, 51 0±0m g COD\\/L, and Microtox EC50 4.9 ± 0.4%) was treated

BRIHAS P. S ARATHY; PRESTON M. HOY; SHELDON J. B. DUFF

61

Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30 +/- 1 degrees C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45-52%), lignin (30-42%), BOD (40-70%), COD (50-60%), total phenol (32-40%) and PCP (85-90%) within 168 h of incubation. However, the highest reduction in colour (62%), lignin (54%), BOD (70%), COD (90%), total phenol (90%) and PCP (100%) was recorded by mixed culture treatment. The bacterial mechanism for the degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent may be explained by an increase in the cells biomass using added co-substrates resulting liberation of significant amount of chloride due to bacterial dechlorination of chlorolignins and chlorophenols this showed reduction in colour, lignin and toxicity in the effluent. Further, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate-extractable compounds from treated pulp paper mill effluent reinforces the bacterium capability for the degradation of lignin and pentachlorophenol, as many aromatic compounds such as 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, 6-chlorohydroxyquinol and tetrachlorohydroquinone detected which were not present in the untreated effluent. PMID:18622710

Chandra, Ram; Raj, Abhay; Yadav, Sangeeta; Patel, Devendra Kumar

2008-07-12

62

Biological activity of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents before and after activated sludge and ozone treatments.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp production, an important sector of the Brazilian national economy, is responsible for generating large volume, high pollutant load effluents, containing a considerable fraction of recalcitrant organic matter. The objectives of this study were to quantify the biological activity of the effluent from a eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill, characterize the nature of compounds responsible for biological activity and assess the effect of ozone treatment on its removal. Primary and secondary effluents were collected bimonthly over the course of one year at a Brazilian bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill and their pollutant loads (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), lignin, extractives) and biological activity (acute and chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity) quantified. The effluent studied did not present acute toxicity to Daphnia, but presented the chronic toxicity effects of algal growth inhibition and reduced survival and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia, as well as estrogenic activity. Chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity were reduced but not eliminated during activated sludge biological treatment. The toxicity identification evaluation revealed that lipophilic organic compounds (such as residual lignin, extractives and their byproducts) were responsible for the toxicity and estrogenic activity. Ozone treatment (50 mg/L O(3)) of the secondary effluent eliminated the chronic toxicity and significantly reduced estrogen activity. PMID:23168632

Lopes, Alessandra Cunha; Mounteer, Ann H; Stoppa, Teynha Valverde; Aquino, Davi Santiago

2013-01-01

63

Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of the WWTP effluent. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barber, L. B.; Lee, K. E.; Swackhamer, D. L.; Schoenfuss, H. L.

2007-01-01

64

Integrated biological treatment of recalcitrant effluents from pulp mills.  

PubMed

This work aimed at determining the degree of depuration of a recalcitrant effluent (weak black liquor, WBL) achieved in a series treatment consisting of a first stage methanogenic fluidised bed reactor followed by a second stage aerobic, upflow reactor packed with "biocubes" of Trametes versicolor immobilised onto small cubes of holm oak wood. The mesophilic, lab scale methanogenic fluidised bed reactor contained a microbial consortium immobilised onto granular activated carbon 500 microm average size. The process removed decreasing amounts of organic matter at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRT), eventually reaching an average of 50% at 0.5 day HRT. Colour and ligninoid removals also decreased with decreasing HRT. Although the methanogenic fluidised bed reactor provided an effective treatment for the degradable organic matter, important concentrations of recalcitrant organic matter and colour still remained in the anaerobic effluent. This anaerobic effluent was fed to the aerobic packed bed reactor. Two HRT were tested in this unit, namely 5 and 2.5 days. The reactor averaged an organic matter removal in the range of 32% COD basis, during an experimental run of 95 days. Colour and ligninoid contents were removed in high percentages (69% and 54%, respectively). There was no significant difference in reactor performance at 5- and 2.5-day HRT. There was a positive correlation between pollutant removal efficiencies and Laccase activity in crude extracts of the reactor liquor. No supplemental soluble carbohydrate was required to sustain the fungus activity and the consistent reactor performance. Overall, the two-stage treatment achieved approximately a 78% removal of the original organic matter of the WBL (COD basis) and ca. 75% of colour and ligninoid contents. PMID:15461409

Ortega-Clemente, A; Estrada-Vázquez, C; Esparza-García, F; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N; Poggi-Varaldo, H M

2004-01-01

65

Aquifer Storage and Recovery of Treated Sewage Effluent in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treated sewage effluent (TSE) is becoming a critical resource in arid parts of the world. The high costs of desalinated potable\\u000a water and the depletion of fresh groundwater resources necessitate increased use of TSE as an important component of water\\u000a resource management throughout the Middle East. TSE can replace potable-quality water in irrigation, with the latter becoming\\u000a too valuable a

Robert G. Maliva; Thomas M. Missimer; Frank P. Winslow; Rolf Herrmann

2011-01-01

66

Comparison of an Anaerobic Filter and an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laborator-scale anaerobic filter (AF) and a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were compared for their ability to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactors were operated at mesophilic temperature (35°C). Reactor performance was assessed by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), gas composition and gas production. Sand of 0·3–0·5 mm diameter was used as a biomass support

C. J. Banks

1995-01-01

67

Survival of enteric microorganisms on grass surfaces irrigated with treated effluent.  

PubMed

Treated effluent can be reused for the irrigation of parks and sports grounds but there is an associated potential public health risks from microbial pathogens present on the grass surface, particularly when used for contact sports. The main aim of this study was to investigate the survival of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms on the grass surface of a sports ground irrigated with treated effluent under differing climatic conditions. Results showed that Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus decayed faster under direct sunlight than MS2 with one log(10) reduction (T(90)) varying from 3 to 11 hours. Rapid decay (T(90) 3 to 4 hours) of bacterial pathogens occurred in both sunlight and shade during the summer. In contrast, T(90) times for the bacteria during the winter varied from 6 to 11 hours in direct sunlight and from 23 to 38 hours in shade. No significant seasonal variation was observed in the inactivation of the bacteriophage MS2. Enteric viruses are expected to show inactivation rates similar to MS2. The results show that rapid inactivation of enteric bacteria can be expected on grass surface irrigated with treated effluent at higher ambient temperatures, in direct sunlight and low moisture content. PMID:18209287

Sidhu, J P S; Hanna, J; Toze, S G

2008-06-01

68

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, BACK RIVER, BALTIMORE HARBOR, MARYLAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose for the study was to measure the toxicity of effluents discharged to an estuary using freshwater test species and compare the predictions with the receiving water biological impact. In addition, ambient tests were done in conjunction with salinity tolerance tests to c...

69

Application of Rotating Biological Contactor Technology for Mine Effluent Treatment and Metal Bioleaching Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating biological contactor (RBC) technology is commonly used for municipal and industrial effluent treatment. RBCs have also been successfully used in the mining industry for the removal of contaminants such as ferrous iron (Fe2+) (Nokolov et al. 2001; Olem and Unz, 1977,1980), cyanide and its various species (Whitlock, 1995), oxalate (Brassinga et. al. 1992; Beaudette et al. 1993), and selenium

A. Kapoor; O. Dinardo; W. D. Gould; A. Kuiper; J. Kawaja; P. Bédard

2001-01-01

70

Treatment of textile effluent by chemical (Fenton's Reagent) and biological (sequencing batch reactor) oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of organic compounds and colour from a synthetic effluent simulating a cotton dyeing wastewater was evaluated by using a combined process of Fenton's Reagent oxidation and biological degradation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The experimental design methodology was first applied to the chemical oxidation process in order to determine the values of temperature, ferrous ion concentration and

Carmen S. D. Rodrigues; Luis M. Madeira; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2009-01-01

71

BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BEACH, LEACHATE, AND EFFLUENT SITES AT LAKE TEXOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

A biological assessment of five beach areas, five leachate areas, and four effluent areas was initiated in June 1999. The target sites are being monitored for total and fecal coliform. The average of the total samples taken at each beach site: total coliform ranged from 1877 to...

72

Enhanced biological treatment of bleached kraft mill effluents — I. Removal of chlorinated organic compounds and toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale biological treatment studies with bleached kraft mill effluents assessed and optimized the removal of chlorinated organic compounds as well as aquatic and microbial toxicity. Three conventional biological processes, namely activated sludge and two stabilization basin treatment systems, were compared under conservative conditions of elevated sludge age (i.e. 15–25days) and hydraulic retention times (i.e. 0.5–1day and 15days for the respective

A. Schnell; P. Steel; H. Melcer; P. V. Hodson; J. H. Carey

2000-01-01

73

Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)  

SciTech Connect

The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

Carter, R.L. Jr.

1994-11-07

74

Impact of a secondary treated bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent in both sexes of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of a secondary treated effluent from a modern pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus on both sexes of goldfish. The effects in the exposed fish were investigated by measuring biomarkers which have been used to assess the effects of BKME on aquatic biota, with particular emphasis in fish. However, few studies have been focused on effluents from pulp mill plants processing eucalyptus. The relative proportion of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG) induction were analyzed in the livers of males and females goldfish, exposed to different concentrations of a bleached Kraft pulp mill (BKPM) effluent. Somatic indices such as HSI (hepatosomatic index) and GSI (gonadosomatic index) were calculated and a significant reduction was found in males GSI. A significant increase of HSI was recorded for both sexes exposed to 50% BKPM effluent. Exposure to BKPM effluent induced CYP1A synthesis in both sexes and decreased VTG synthesis in females according to the different effluent concentrations suggesting that the secondary treated effluent contained compounds that affect fish negatively. The results suggest that BKPM effluent can cause sex-related biochemical changes in xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:20954041

Diniz, M S; Peres, I; Castro, L; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Pereira, R; Duarte, A C

2010-12-01

75

Nutrient Removal and Loading Rate Analysis of Louisiana Forested Wetlands Assimilating Treated Municipal Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between nutrient removal and loading rate was examined using data from five forested wetlands in Louisiana\\u000a that have received secondarily treated effluent from 3 to 60 years. Loading rates ranged from 0.65 to 26.80 g\\/m2\\/yr for total nitrogen and 0.18 to 8.96 g\\/m2\\/yr for total phosphorus. At loading rates below 20 g\\/m2\\/yr, total nitrogen concentrations in surface waters of Louisiana forested wetlands

Rachael Hunter; John Day; Joel Lindsey; Jason Day; Montgomery Hunter

2009-01-01

76

Water quality of treated sewage effluent in a rural area of the upper Thames Basin, southern England, and the impacts of such effluents on riverine phosphorus concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for water quality surveys of effluent from sewage treatment works (STWs) in the rural Kennet/Dun sub-catchments of the upper Thames Basin are presented to characterize treated sewage effluent. Water quality determinand relationships with boron (B) are presented to provide information that can be used, with stream water quality information, to assess the relative inputs of treated sewage effluent pollutants to streams in rural areas. The approach is based on three points: (1) information on sewage effluent and agricultural pollution is of concern in relation to the management of UK lowland river systems in rural environments; (2) the lack of detailed information on sewage runoff chemistry and flow means that direct assessment of sewage effluent pollution to surface waters cannot be gauged; (3) B provides a clear chemically conservative marker of sewage sources in surface and ground waters. Three types of relationship to B were observed. Firstly, determinands such as Na, Cl, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and NO3 showed a positive linear relationship with B and there is a near zero intercept; these components are essentially derived from sewage sources. Secondly, Mg and SO4 show linear relationships with B, but there is a non-zero intercept; these components have both a sewage component and a background component linked to water supplies from surface and groundwater sources. Thirdly, there are determinands that show no relationship with boron. In this study, an erratic pattern was observed for ammonium. This probably reflects the variable removal of this pollutant from sewage sources. Near constant concentrations of components such as Ca and alkalinity, which come from the background aquifer sources, were also found. SRP and B relationships for rivers in the upper Thames Basin showed the potential importance of (a) removal processes in the stream/groundwater for SRP derived from STW effluent inputs and (b) tertiary P stripping at the STWs on river water SRP levels. The importance of agricultural sources of SRP is questioned.

Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Margaret; Love, Alison J.; Hill, Linda; Wickham, Heather

2005-03-01

77

Treatment of textile effluent by chemical (Fenton's Reagent) and biological (sequencing batch reactor) oxidation.  

PubMed

The removal of organic compounds and colour from a synthetic effluent simulating a cotton dyeing wastewater was evaluated by using a combined process of Fenton's Reagent oxidation and biological degradation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The experimental design methodology was first applied to the chemical oxidation process in order to determine the values of temperature, ferrous ion concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration that maximize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour removals and increase the effluent's biodegradability. Additional studies on the biological oxidation (SBR) of the raw and previously submitted to Fenton's oxidation effluent had been performed during 15 cycles (i.e., up to steady-state conditions), each one with the duration of 11.5h; Fenton's oxidation was performed either in conditions that maximize the colour removal or the increase in the biodegradability. The obtained results allowed concluding that the combination of the two treatment processes provides much better removals of DOC, BOD(5) and colour than the biological or chemical treatment alone. Moreover, the removal of organic matter in the integrated process is particularly effective when Fenton's pre-oxidation is carried out under conditions that promote the maximum increase in wastewater biodegradability. PMID:19729241

Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luis M; Boaventura, Rui A R

2009-08-13

78

A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH4+–N (average in 86.4mg\\/L), low in COD\\/NH4+–N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD5\\/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably

Ge Lei; Hongqiang Ren; Lili Ding; Feifei Wang; Xingsong Zhang

2010-01-01

79

Short-term exposure to a treated sewage effluent alters reproductive behaviour in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).  

PubMed

Some UK sewage treatment work (STW) effluents have been found to contain high levels of anti-androgenic activity, but the biological significance of this activity to fish has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a STW effluent with anti-androgenic activity on the reproductive physiology and behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were exposed to a STW effluent (50 and 100%, v/v) with a strong anti-androgenic activity (328.56±36.83 ?gl(-1) flutamide equivalent, as quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human androgen receptor) and a low level of oestrogenic activity (3.32±0.66 ngl(-1) oestradiol equivalent, quantified in a recombinant yeast assay containing the human oestrogen receptor) for a period of 21 days in a flow-through system in the laboratory. Levels of spiggin, an androgen-regulated protein, were not affected by the STW effluent exposure, nor were levels of vitellogenin (a biomarker of oestrogen exposure), but the reproductive behaviour of the males was impacted. Males exposed to full strength STW effluent built fewer nests and there was a significant reduction in male courtship behaviour for exposures to both the 50 and 100% STW effluent treatments compared with controls. The effect seen on the reproduction of male sticklebacks may not necessarily have been as a consequence of the endocrine active chemicals present in the STW effluent alone, but could relate to other features of the effluent, such as turbidity that can impair visual signalling important for courtship interactions. Regardless the specific causation, the data presented show that effluents from STW have an impact on reproductive behaviour in male sticklebacks which in turn affects reproductive performance/outcome. The study further highlights the use of fish behaviour as a sensitive endpoint for assessing potential effects of contaminated water bodies on fish reproduction. PMID:21684244

Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Taylor, Nick G H; Maack, Gerd; Tyler, Charles R

2011-05-27

80

Study of biological aerated filters for the treatment of effluents from the citrus industry.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this research study was to test the applicability and optimize the design parameters of a system of biological aerated filters in order to obtain an optimal effluent from the citrus industry, which would allow its drainage into the municipal sewer system. Expanded clay was used as a support material. After experimenting with both countercurrent and cocurrent flows as well different aeration levels, it was found that cocurrent flow was more efficient. Backwashing was carried out on a daily basis. The results of our study showed that for an aeration of 10.47 Nm3/h/m2, the volumetric load should be less than 20 Kg. COD/m3/d in order to obtain an effluent with a maximum concentration of 600 mgCOD/L, and the hydraulic load should be less than 0.36 m/h. PMID:17114100

Osorio, Francisco; Torres, Juan C; Hontoria, Ernesto

2006-01-01

81

Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process.  

PubMed

In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 33 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The oPtimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 20 g H2O2 L(-1) and pH3, for 120 min UV irradiation time. Reactor operating parameter (ROP) effects on the removal of chemical oxygen demand, colour, turbidity, total suspended solids and total volatile solids were evaluated, suggesting that a broad range of ROP values are also suitable to give results very near to those of the photo-Fenton experiments under optimal conditions. Based on the low calculated median lethal dose (LD50) values from a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test, we suggest that recalcitrant substances are present in treated TIE samples. A possible cause of the high toxicity level could partly be attributed to the nitrate concentration, which was not completely abated by the photo-Fenton process. Apart from this, the photo-Fenton process can be used as a part of an industrial effluent treatment system in order to abate high organic pollutant loads. PMID:23837315

Borba, Fernando Henrique; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Manenti, Diego Ricieri; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mora, Nora Diaz

82

Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine

M. C. F. Moraes; M. F. Romanelli; H. C. Sena; G. Pasqualini da Silva; M. H. O. Sampa; S. I. Borrely

2004-01-01

83

Dissolved and Total Copper in a Coal Ash Effluent and Receiving Stream: Assessment of In Situ Biological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in situ chemical and biological study was conducted in the lower Muskingum River (southeast Ohio, U.S.A.) to evaluate potential effects of copper (Cu) discharged from a coal ash effluent. Effluent total Cu, dissolved Cu, TSS and pH measurements were performed monthlyduring January–December 1995. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled at five river locations using artificial substrate samplers, and in situ Cu

Robin J. Reash

2004-01-01

84

Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be

A. Castano; Milagros Vega; Teresa Blazquez; Jose V. Tarazona

1994-01-01

85

Altered Sexual Maturation and Gamete Production in Wild Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Living in Rivers That Receive Treated Sewage Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and\\/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete produc- tion. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Go- nadal

S. Jobling; N. Beresford; M. Nolan; T. Rodgers-Gray; G. C. Brighty; J. P. Sumpter; C. R. Tyler

2002-01-01

86

UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.  

PubMed

The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation. PMID:17953980

Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

2007-10-04

87

Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) containing wastewater in a hybrid bioreactor system with effluent recycle.  

PubMed

Due to the toxic effects of trichlorophenol (TCP) on microorganisms, biological treatment efficiencies of TCP containing wastewaters are usually low. Synthetic wastewater containing 2,4,6-TCP was biologically treated in a hybrid-loop bioreactor system consisting of a packed column biofilm and an aerated tank bioreactor with effluent recycle in order to improve COD and TCP removals. Effects of the feed TCP concentration on COD, TCP and toxicity removal performance of the system were investigated for the feed TCP between 50 and 450 mg L(-1) while the sludge age (solids retention time, SRT) and hydraulic residence time (HRT) were kept constant at 20 d and 25 h, respectively. Biomass concentrations in the packed column and in the aeration tank decreased with increasing feed TCP concentrations due to toxic effects of TCP on the organisms. Low biomass concentrations in the system at high feed TCP contents resulted in low COD, TCP and toxicity removals. Therefore, percent TCP, COD and toxicity removals decreased with increasing feed TCP concentrations especially above 400 mg L(-1). The effluent TCP concentrations were lower than 20 mg L(-1) for the feed TCP concentrations below 390 mg L(-1) resulting in TCP and COD removals above 90%. Specific rates of TCP and COD removals increased with the feed TCP due to low biomass concentrations at high TCP contents. The system should be operated at a feed TCP lower than 400 mg L(-1) in order to obtain more than 90% TCP, COD and toxicity removals under the specified experimental conditions. PMID:18276060

Eker, Serkan; Kargi, Fikret

2008-02-13

88

Feasibility study of a compact process for biological treatment of highly soluble VOCs polluted gaseous effluent.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), representing a wide range of products mainly generated by industrial activity, are involved in air pollution. This study deals with a new biological treatment process of gaseous effluent combining a gas/liquid contactor called an "aero-ejector" and a membrane bioreactor. Combining these two innovative technologies enables a high elimination efficiency to be reached. We first focus on transfer phenomena characterization in a pilot installation on a laboratory scale, using a gaseous effluent polluted with a low ethanol concentration (7.1 x 10(-3) kg.m(-3)). These experiments demonstrated the good transfer performances since 90% of the ethanol was absorbed in the liquid phase in one step. After this physical characterization, the biological aspect of the system was studied using the yeast Candida utilis as microorganism. During the experiment, no ethanol was measured in the fermentation broth nor in the outlet gas, confirming the efficiency of ethanol elimination by C. utilis. The experimental procedure emerging from the present study strongly validates the suitability of this process for ethanol removal from air. PMID:11735445

Daubert, I; Lafforgue, C; Maranges, C; Fonade, C

89

A case study on algal response to raw and treated effluents from an aluminum plating plant and a pharmaceutical plant.  

PubMed

The algal growth responses to the effluents of an aluminum plating plant and to the wastewater from an analgesic/antiinflammatory-drug-producing pharmaceutical plant were investigated. Growth response of the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta was monitored by measuring the two response parameters optical density (OD(640)) and in vitro chlorophyll fluorescence for a period of 14 days. Generally, the two response measurements gave similar results for all effluents but the raw effluents of the aluminum plating plant due to the composition of the wastewater. All wastes affected algal growth either by inhibition only or by stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at high concentrations. Since pollutant tolerance of algae biased toxicity test results, acclimation of algae to the raw effluent of the aluminum plating plant was examined. Although the water quality parameters of treated effluent of both plants were in the permitted range reported by the Turkish Water Pollution Control Act, they inhibited growth at higher concentrations, implying that the two treatment plants were inefficient. Therefore, the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations was emphasized. PMID:16406580

Türker Saçan, Melek; Akmehmet Balcio?lu, I?il

2006-06-01

90

Octanol-water partitioning of chemical constituents in river water and treated sewage effluent.  

PubMed

A shake-flask approach has been employed to determine the n-octanol-water partitioning of chemical constituents in various river waters and in treated sewage effluent. The bulk inorganic composition of the water samples (conductivity, pH and the concentrations of major solutes: Ca, K, Mg, Na) was unaffected by the presence of solvent. Boron, however, exhibited increasing partition with decreasing sample pH, because its dominant form in freshwaters, B(OH)3, is neutral, covalent and acidic. Constituents having significant association with dissolved organic matter (DOM), including components of DOM itself (C, S) and trace metals that form complexes with organic ligands (Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn), exhibited measurable partition into the solvent in most cases, with conditional partition coefficients, D(ow), in the region 0.03-2.5. Significant differences in the partitioning among these constituents and among the environments studied did not appear to be related to bulk sample characteristics or the degree of association of the constituent with DOM. These observations suggest that partition is sensitive to the nature of the organic matter (C, S) and the availability of specific binding ligands (trace metals). Thus, although D(ow) is critical for defining the biogeochemical behaviour and potential impacts of chemical constituents in the environment, it appears to be a difficult parameter to model or predict. PMID:16225903

Turner, Andrew; Williamson, Ian

2005-10-12

91

Selenium speciation and localization in chironomids from lakes receiving treated metal mine effluent.  

PubMed

A lake system in northern Saskatchewan receiving treated metal mine and mill effluent contains elevated levels of selenium (Se). An important step in the trophic transfer of Se is the bioaccumulation of Se by benthic invertebrates, especially primary consumers serving as a food source for higher trophic level organisms. Chironomids, ubiquitous components of many northern aquatic ecosystems, were sampled at lakes downstream of the milling operation and were found to contain Se concentrations ranging from 7 to 80 mgkg(-1)dry weight. For comparison, laboratory-reared Chironomus dilutus were exposed to waterborne selenate, selenite, or seleno-DL-methionine under laboratory conditions at the average total Se concentrations found in lakes near the operation. Similarities in Se localization and speciation in laboratory and field chironomids were observed using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Selenium localized primarily in the head capsule, brain, salivary glands and gut lining, with organic Se species modeled as selenocystine and selenomethionine being the most abundant. Similarities between field chironomids and C. dilutus exposed in the laboratory to waterborne selenomethionine suggest that selenomethionine-like species are most readily accumulated, whether from diet or water. PMID:22608132

Tse, Justin J; Gallego-Gallegos, Mercedes; Franz, Eric D; Liber, Karsten; Pickering, Ingrid J

2012-05-17

92

Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application. The spray-irrigated effluent affected the ground-water quality of the shallow aquifer differently on the hilltop and hillside topographic settings of the watershed where spray irrigation was being applied (application area). Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) and chloride (Cl) in the effluent were higher than concentrations of these constituents in shallow ground water from wells on the hilltop and hillside prior to start of spray irrigation. In water from wells on the hilltop, concentrations of nitrate N and Cl increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. In water from wells on the hillside, which were on the eastern part of the application area, nitrate N and Cl concentrations increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. However, on the hillside of the western application area, the ground-water quality was not affected by the spray-irrigated effluent because of the greater thickness of unconsolidated material and higher amounts of clay present in those unconsolidated sands. Although nitrate N concentrations increased in water from hilltop and hillside wells in the application area, the nitrate N concentrations were below the effluent concentration. A combination of plant uptake, biological activity, and denitrification may be the processes accounting for the lower nitrate N concentrations in shallow ground water compared to the spray-irrigated effluent. Cl concentrations in water from hilltop western application area well Ch-5173 increased during the study period but were an order of magnitude less than the input effluent concentration. Cl concentrations in shallow ground water in the e

Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

2005-01-01

93

Exposure of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) to treated sewage effluent induces dose-dependent and persistent disruption in gonadal duct development.  

PubMed

Wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) have been found with intersex gonads in rivers throughout the United Kingdom. The incidence of intersexuality is strongly correlated with discharges of estrogenic treated sewage effluent into those rivers, and this has led to the hypothesis that estrogenic chemicals in effluents are feminizing wild male fish. In this study, early-life stage roach (50 days post hatch, dph) were exposed for 150 days to a graded concentration (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) of treated sewage (primarily domestic) effluent to examine the effects of exposure on sexual differentiation and development. Measurement of steroid estrogens and alkylphenolic chemicals in the effluent and a resulting dose-dependent induction of vitellogenin (VTG; a female-specific, estrogen-dependent plasma protein) confirmed that the fish had been exposed and responded to "estrogen" in the effluent. Exposure to treated sewage effluent induced feminization of the reproductive ducts in "male" roach in a dose-dependent manner (in full-strength effluent, 100% of the fish had feminized ducts), indicating that the disruption of the gonad ducts seen in wild roach is the result of exposure to treated sewage effluents during early-life stages. There were no effects of treated sewage effluent exposure on germ cell development; therefore, no oocytes occurred in the testes of the feminized male roach. Subsequent, depuration of the effluent exposed fish in "clean" water for 150 days resulted in a reduction in plasma VTG but no alteration of the feminized ducts, indicating that the effect of the treated sewage effluent on reproductive duct development was permanent. The causality of oocytes in the testes of wild male roach therefore remains to be elucidated. PMID:11351715

Rodgers-Gray, T P; Jobling, S; Kelly, C; Morris, S; Brighty, G; Waldock, M J; Sumpter, J P; Tyler, C R

2001-02-01

94

Synergistic effect of biological activated carbon and enhanced coagulation in secondary wastewater effluent treatment.  

PubMed

The use of secondary wastewater effluent (SWWE) is an essential strategy for making better use of limited water resources. However, a wide range of organic compounds eventually renders them unsuitable for recycling. In water treatment processes, biologically activated carbon (BAC) is adopted after physicochemical treatment. However, the effectiveness of such combination for SWWE remains poorly understood. This study investigates the effectiveness of various combinations: BAC/enhanced coagulation (EC) or EC/BAC, especially in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal. The results showed that distinct advantage could be obtained by adopting BAC/EC combination rather than EC/BAC, as microbes in BAC not only remove non-coagulable compounds but also synergize the removal efficiency by releasing some coagulable humic substances. PMID:22233913

Aryal, A; Sathasivan, A; Vigneswaran, S

2012-01-01

95

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

96

Effect of Treated Rum Distillery Effluents on the Distribution and Survival of Potential Bacterial Pathogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study determines the efficiency of the methane anaerobic digestion treatment on rum distillery effluents and its capacity to change population of potentially pathogenic bacteria. It was concluded that methane anaerobic digestion treatment fails to sig...

T. C. Hazen G. Toranzos

1987-01-01

97

Potential biologic agents for treating rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

The encouraging clinical results observed in trials using anti-TNF therapy clearly warrant further studies to determine whether TNF inhibitors are capable of modifying the destructive component of this disease in long-term follow-up studies as well as to assess the safety of long-term use (see the article by Keystone in this issue). It is also reasonable to propose that interfering with the cytokine cascade earlier in the course of disease may be of even greater therapeutic benefit. As the pathogenetic mechanisms in RA are more clearly defined, especially in early disease and in those individuals destined to develop severe disease, the potential of other biologic agents to specifically inhibit these critical pathways may provide better treatments for our patients. Many potential targets in the immune-mediated process of RA are currently being rigorously evaluated in clinical trials. Use of combinations of biologic therapies, perhaps in human patients with RA, should be of considerable interest in future trials. PMID:11396103

Moreland, L W

2001-05-01

98

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

99

Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.  

PubMed

A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. PMID:22218195

Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

100

Impact of ozonation on ecotoxicity and endocrine activity of tertiary treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Tertiary wastewater treatment plant effluent before and after ozonation (0.6-1.1g O?/g DOC) was tested for aquatic ecotoxicity in a battery of standardised microbioassays with green algae, daphnids, and zebrafish eggs. In addition, unconjugated estrogen and 17?-hydroxyandrogen immunoreactive substances were quantified by means of enzyme immunoassays, and endocrine effects were analysed in a 21-day fish screening assay with adult male and female medaka (Oryzias latipes). Ozonation decreased estrogen-immunoreactivity by 97.7±1.2% and, to a lesser extent, androgen-immunoreactivity by 56.3±16.5%. None of the short-term exposure ecotoxicity tests revealed any adverse effects of the tertiary effluent, neither before nor after the ozonation step. Similarly in the fish screening assay, reproductive fitness parameters showed no effects attributed to micropollutants, and no detrimental effects of the effluents were observed. Based on the presented screening, ozonation effectively reduced steroid hormone levels in the wastewater treatment plant effluent without increasing the effluent's ecotoxicity. PMID:22551818

Altmann, Dominik; Schaar, Heidemarie; Bartel, Cordula; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Miller, Ingrid; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Grillitsch, Britta

2012-04-17

101

Treated municipal sewage discharge affects multiple levels of biological organization in fish.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine cellular-, organ-, and organism-level responses in longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and fish community structure in a stream in which treated municipal sewage effluent is discharged and in a nearby reference stream with little surrounding land use. A modified version of the U.S.E.P.A. Rapid Bioassessment Protocol V, which combines a habitat assessment with Karr's index of biotic integrity, was used on 400-m reaches of each stream. The study site had a higher proportion of tolerant species and omnivores and a lower proportion of top predators, suggesting alterations in the fish community and a slight level of water quality impairment. Significant increases in condition factor, hepatosomatic index, serum testosterone, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were observed in male sunfish collected from the study stream in comparison to fish collected from the reference stream. There were no differences between sites in hepatic expression of the 70-kDa stress protein (HSP70). In conclusion, effects were observed at cellular, organ, organism, and community levels of biological organization in fishes exposed to treated municipal sewage effluent. PMID:12550098

Porter, Clint M; Janz, David M

2003-02-01

102

Application of secondary-treated effluents for cultivation of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and celosia ( Celosia argentea L.) as cut flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have examined the effects of irrigation with municipal secondary-treated effluents on growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and celosia (Celosia argentea var cristata L.) plants for cut flower production. The applied treated effluents contained higher levels of Na (?X6), Cl (?X4.5), N–NH4 (30–50mg\\/l), B, HCO3, P, K, and Fe than the potable water. The effect of

Haya Friedman; Nirit Bernstein; Moshe Bruner; Ilona Rot; Zeev Ben-Noon; Atara Zuriel; Ron Zuriel; Sima Finkelstein; Nakdimon Umiel; Amir Hagiladi

2007-01-01

103

Production of ligninolytic activities when treating paper pulp effluents by Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the ability of Trametes versicolor to decolorize the effluents from the alkaline cooking of cereal straw produced at a paper and paper pulp making plant is studied. Enzymatic activities related to the metabolism of lignin during fungal treatment have also been evaluated. The results that have been attained show the necessity of a carbon source for the

P. Manzanares; S. Fajardo; C. Martin

1995-01-01

104

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could

C. Ménoret; C. Boutin; A. Liénard; F. Brissaud

105

Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.  

PubMed

A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

2010-01-01

106

Chemical modifications of groundwater contaminated by recharge of treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of the chemical composition of recharge sewage effluent and associated contaminated groundwater from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project shows, after 16 years of recharge operation, the presence of a distinct saline plume (up to 400 mg\\/l Cl), extending 1600 m downgradient in the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel. The recorded electrolyte composition of groundwater in the vicinity

Avner Vengosh; Rami Keren

1996-01-01

107

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

108

Removal of Fatty Acids from Palm Oil Effluent by Combined Electro-Fenton and Biological Oxidation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to find out a cost-effective treatment methodology for the treatment of palm oil effluent\\u000a (POE) obtained from a food processing industry. An electro-Fenton pretreatment and biological oxidation has been suggested\\u000a for the removal of recalcitrant contaminants present in POE. An initial COD of about 6,700 mg\\/L of POE was subjected to electrolytic\\u000a degradation for

B. Ramesh Babu; K. Seeni Meera; P. Venkatesan; D. Sunandha

2010-01-01

109

Enhancing biological nitrogen removal from tannery effluent by using the efficient Brachymonas denitrificans in pilot plant operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Laboratory scale and pilot plant reactors were inoculated with an efficient denitrifier, Brachymonas denitrificans(CCUG 45880), in order to evaluate whether a bio-augmentation approach can be used to enhance biological nitrogen removal from tannery effluents. To determine the effectiveness of the introduced strain, denitrifying activity in the activated sludge was monitored by nitrate uptake rate (NUR) measurement of NO3-N. Fluorescent

Seyoum Leta; Fassil Assefa; Gunnel Dalhammar

2005-01-01

110

Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent at different sponge volume of 38.2,\\u000a 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6% was investigated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and flow rate were kept constant at 2.6 h and 0.46 m3\\/day, respectively. The results obtained indicated that reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1% significantly\\u000a decreased the

A. Tawfik; A. Ohashi; H. Harada

2010-01-01

111

USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM DATE SEEDS TO TREAT TEXTILE AND TANNERY EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon from date seed has activated by treatment with zinc chloride and with steam, and sieved into 250, 500 and 1000 ìm particle sizes. Reduction of zinc, nickel and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) from tannery effluent was found to decrease with increase in particle size, and the carbon activated by ZnCl2\\/steam recorded the highest waste removal. The ZnCl2 only activated

M. K. Yakubu; M. S. Gumel; A. M. Abdullahi

112

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

PubMed

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

2002-01-01

113

Selection of membrane separation processes for treatment of tannery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from four units of a tannery, namely, soaking, liming, deliming-bating and dyeing were tested using molecular weight cut-off membranes in separation processes using a stirred cell in continuous mode. A suitable membrane was selected and the effluent was treated with the selected membrane, in a continuous cross flow cell. Various properties, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand

Chandan Das; Sunando DasGupta; Sirshendu De

114

DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL TOXICITY ASSAY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A chemical analysis procedure was developed to measure within 1.5 hours compounds responsible for the toxicity of pulp mill effluents to fish. Analytical results for 113 samples of raw and biologically-treated bleached and unbleached kraft, sulphite and groundwood effluents were ...

115

Effect of effluent-treated water on mosquito development in simulated ponds at the Prado Wetlands of southern California.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water quality on mosquito development at the Prado Wetlands in southern California during 2003-04. In field experimental ponds, mosquito abundance was significantly higher in the sewage effluent-treated water than in untreated control. As compared to untreated control, treated water had higher dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity, and it showed lower electrical conductivity, sulfate, carbonates, and bicarbonates. Diverse vegetation and invertebrate fauna as influenced by water quality may have contributed to higher mosquito breeding in the treated ponds. In laboratory studies, the treated water did not significantly affect the developmental rate, adult emergence, sex ratio, and overall mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis, known vectors of encephalitides in southern California. However, the ovipositional response, especially of the former species, was numerically higher to the treated than to untreated control water. Besides smaller body size of 3rd/4th instars of both species, 4th-stage larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus reared in the treated pond water weighed lighter than the control larvae. PMID:19852226

Mian, Lal S; Lovett, Joseph; Dhillon, Major S

2009-09-01

116

Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30\\u000a ± 1°C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45–52%), lignin (30–42%),\\u000a BOD (40–70%), COD (50–60%), total phenol (32–40%) and PCP (85–90%) within

Ram Chandra; Abhay Raj; Sangeeta Yadav; Devendra Kumar Patel

2009-01-01

117

Size distribution of TOC in mixed municipal-textile effluents after biological and advanced treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular size distribution of total organic carbon in a secondary textile\\/domestic effluent and in tertiary effluents (multi-media filtration, flocculation + parallel plate settling and granular activated carbon at pilot scale) has been determined by membrane separation (3×103 MWCO to 0.22 ?m cut-offs). Cross-flow and dead end filtration schemes were used. The removal efficiency related to each dimensional class provides

F. Malpei; A. Rozzi; S. Colli; M. Uberti

1997-01-01

118

Isolation of enterovirus and reovirus from sewage and treated effluents in selected Puerto Rican communities.  

PubMed

Sewage treatment plant effluents were surveyed for viral contributions to gastroenteritis outbreaks in Puerto Rico. Of the 15 sewage treatment plants studied, all discharged their effluents upstream from water treatment plant intakes. No base-line data on the degree of viral challenge to these sewage treatment plants or the subsequent reduction of viruses before discharge existed. Enterovirus counts were generally much higher than those found in the continental United States. At four plants, viruses in the incoming sewage exceeded 100,000 PFU/liter, and one of these, a trickling filter plant, was discharging 24,000 PFU/liter to receiving waters. Virus identification showed that more than 80% of the enterovirus isolates were coxsackievirus B5. These overwhelming viral numbers pointed to defects in the sewage treatment processes. Without reasonable barriers to protect receiving waters, several of the downstream communities were using raw waters that posed extraordinary demands on the ability of their water treatment plants to supply virologically safe drinking water. PMID:2541664

Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S; Wright, B A

1989-02-01

119

An aerobic fixed-phase biofilm reactor system for the degradation of the low-molecular weight aromatic compounds occurring in the effluents of anaerobic digestors treating olive mill wastewaters.  

PubMed

An aerobic co-culture, prepared by combining Ralstonia sp. LD35 and Pseudomonas putida DSM1868, was recently found to be capable of extensively degrading many of the hydroxylated and/or methoxylated benzoic, phenylacetic and 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acids occurring in the olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the degradation of low-molecular weight (MW) aromatic compounds occurring in the effluents of anaerobic digestors treating OMWs, the capability of this bacterial co-culture of biodegrading a synthetic mix of the above mentioned compounds and the aromatic compounds of an anaerobic OMW-treatment plant effluent in the physiological state of immobilised cells was investigated. Two aerobic fixed-bed biofilm reactors were developed by immobilising the co-culture cells on Manville silica beads and on polyurethane foam cubes. Both supports were found to give rise to a microbiologically stable and biologically active biofilm. The two biofilm reactors were found to be similarly capable of rapidly and completely biodegrading the components of a synthetic mix of nine monocyclic aromatic acids typically present in OMWs and the low-MW aromatic compounds occurring in the anaerobic effluent in batch conditions. However, in the same conditions, the silica bead-packed reactor was found to be more effective in the removal of high-MW phenolic compounds from the anaerobic effluent with respect to the polyurethane cube-packed reactor. These results are encouraging in the perspective of using the co-culture as immobilized cells for developing a continuous biotechnological process for the post-treatment of effluents with low-MW aromatic compounds produced by anaerobic digestors treating OMWs. PMID:11278039

Bertin, L; Majone, M; Di Gioia, D; Fava, F

2001-05-01

120

Effect of feed strategy on methane production and performance of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different feeding times (2, 4 and 6 h) and applied volumetric organic loads (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating effluent from biodiesel production. Polyurethane foam cubes were used as inert support in the reactor, and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. The effect of feeding time on reactor performance showed to be more pronounced at higher values of applied volumetric organic loads (AVOLs). Highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved at AVOL of 4.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1) were 87 % at 4-h feeding against 84 % at 2-h and 6-h feeding. At AVOL of 6.0 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved with 4-h and 6-h feeding were 84 %, against 71 % at 2-h feeding. At AVOL of 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), organic material removal efficiency achieved with 4-h feeding was 77 %. Hence, longer feeding times favored minimization of total volatile acids concentration during the cycle as well as in the effluent, guaranteeing process stability and safety. PMID:22373928

Lovato, Giovanna; Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo

2012-02-29

121

Altered sexual maturation and gamete production in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) living in rivers that receive treated sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete production. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Gonadal growth was inhibited only in severely intersex fish, whereas progression of spermatogenesis was delayed in a large proportion of all intersex and exposed male fish. In contrast to the effects observed in the intersex and exposed male fish, the maturation of ovaries in female fish inhabiting effluent-contaminated rivers appeared to be less obviously affected, although a higher incidence of oocyte atresia was found in the effluent-exposed fish compared with the reference fish. A positive correlation was found between the proportion of female tissue in the gonads of intersex fish and their plasma vitellogenin concentration, suggesting that vitellogenin can be an indicator for the level of gonadal disruption in intersex roach. The estradiol-17beta concentration in intersex fish was intermediate between the concentration found in males and females, and the plasma testosterone was between 2- and 3-fold higher in intersex fish compared with male fish. These data suggest a link between altered endocrine status in intersex and female fish and gonadal disruption. Spermiation was also affected in roach living in effluent-impacted rivers: a lower proportion of fish were found releasing sperm, and in those intersex fish that were spermiating, a reduced milt volume and a reduced sperm density were found. All intersex fish had malformations of the reproductive duct(s), and in severely affected fish, the ducts were occluded, thus preventing release of gametes. In view of the widespread occurrence of intersexuality in wild fish populations in rivers throughout the United Kingdom, assessment of the reproductive capabilities of these intersex roach is clearly needed to understand the impact of this phenomenon on roach fertility. PMID:11804939

Jobling, S; Beresford, N; Nolan, M; Rodgers-Gray, T; Brighty, G C; Sumpter, J P; Tyler, C R

2002-02-01

122

Algal uptake of hydrophobic and hydrophilic dissolved organic nitrogen in effluent from biological nutrient removal municipal wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) accounts for a large fraction of the total nitrogen discharged to surface waters by municipal wastewater treatment plants designed for biological nutrient removal (BNR). Previous research indicates that some but not all of the DON in wastewater effluent is available to bacteria and algae over time scales that are relevant to rivers and estuaries. To separate bioavailable DON from nitrate and less reactive DON species, an XAD-8 resin coupled with an anion exchange treatment was employed prior to chemical analysis and algal bioassays. Analysis of effluent samples from a range of municipal BNR plants (total DON concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 1.8 mg N/L) employing a range of technologies indicated that hydrophilic DON, which typically accounted for approximately 80% of the total DON, stimulated algal growth, whereas hydrophobic DON, which accounted for the remaining DON, remained at nearly constant concentrations and had little or no effect on algal growth during a 14-day incubation period. The hydrophobic DON exhibits characteristics of humic substances, and is likely to persist for long periods in the aquatic environment. The distinct differences between these two classes of DON may provide a basis for considering them separately in water quality models and effluent discharge regulations. PMID:22206266

Liu, Haizhou; Jeong, Joonseon; Gray, Holly; Smith, Scott; Sedlak, David L

2011-12-29

123

Comparative animal and plant toxicities of 10 treated effluents discharged to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The chemical quality and acute and chronic toxicities of 10 effluents discharged to near-coastal areas in Northwest Florida were determined using standard and nonstandard toxicity tests. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the toxicities of different types of effluents and to assess the ability of a variety of toxicity tests to differentiate effluent-specific effects. Focus was placed on animal-plant sensitivity comparisons because phytotoxicity is rarely determined for effluents discharged to coastal estuaries. The standard toxicity test organisms included two algae, two invertebrates, and two fish. In addition, effluent toxicity was evaluated using three rapid bioassays and an early-seedling-growth toxicity test. Most concentrations of potentially toxic inorganic and organic contaminants in the effluents were low, a finding that contrasted with the sometimes elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations. With the exception of their effects on algae, the toxicities of most effluents were considered moderate. Chronic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia and Mysidopsis bahia were observed consistently for five effluents; the lowest first-effect levels were typically 35 or 71% effluent. Inhibitory effects on fish and macrophyte seedling growth were infrequent, as were those determined using the three rapid bioassays. Nine of the ten effluents were either phytotoxic or phytostimulatory to algae; first effects were noted in some cases at effluent concentrations less than 6%.

Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.; Stanley, R.S.

1998-09-01

124

Effects of a secondary-treated thermomechanical pulp mill effluent on aquatic organisms as assessed by short- and long-term laboratory tests.  

PubMed

The chronic effects of secondary-treated effluent from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill were assessed by means of long-term and short-term laboratory toxicity tests. The effluent used for the tests was sampled at a western Canadian mill using mostly softwoods and < 10% recycled fiber as furnish. In the long-term test, the effects of the effluent on the life cycle of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were studied. In this experiment, which began with the egg stage and continued through to sexual maturity and reproduction, the fish were exposed in the laboratory to well water (control) and five concentrations (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 20%) of effluent for 202 d. None of the effluent concentrations significantly affected the hatching of the eggs, the mortality, weight, length, gonad size, gender balance, and reproduction of the hatched fish, the prevalence of gross morphological and histopathological changes, and the hatchability of the first generation eggs. Two short-term tests, each lasting 7 d, were also performed. In these tests, 100% effluent caused no change in the survival/growth of minnow larvae or in the survival/reproduction of Ceriodaphnia. PMID:7723080

Kovacs, T G; Gibbons, J S; Martel, P H; O'Connor, B I; Voss, R H

1995-04-01

125

A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park.  

PubMed

A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH(4)(+)-N (average in 86.4 mg/L), low in COD/NH(4)(+)-N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD(5)/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably below 100mg/L COD and 20mg/L NH(4)(+)-N, separately, with organic loading rate of 4954 kg COD/d and 92.5 kg NH(4)(+)-N/d. It is found that the BOD(5)/COD ratio could be raised from 0.24 to 0.35, and the production of total VFAs account for 9.57% of the total COD via the treatment of hydrolysis/acidification. MBBR and oxidation ditch represent 35.4% and 60.7% of NH(4)(+)-N removal, 30.2% and 61.5% of COD removal, separately, of the total treatment process. PCR-DGGE is used for microbial community analysis of MBBR and oxidation ditch. PMID:20335031

Lei, Ge; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Wang, Feifei; Zhang, Xingsong

2010-03-23

126

Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research

C. D. Becker; W. G. Woodfield; J. A. Strand

1978-01-01

127

Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were

C. L Duarte; M. H. O Sampa; P. R Rela; H. Oikawa; E. H Cherbakian; H. C Sena; H. Abe; V. Sciani

2000-01-01

128

A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.  

PubMed

Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD? L?¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD? method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p < 0.001; slope = 0.94) between BOD? and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD? assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD? analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

2012-11-14

129

Vegetative evaluation of procedures used to treat aqueous effluents derived from in situ fossil fuel processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of synthetic fuel waste water treatment in removing compounds toxic to a rangeland grass was evaluated. Treated and untreated tar sand and oil shale in situ produced waste water were applied to bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) and phytotoxic effects were observed. Different waste water concentrations (volume\\/volume dilutions with distilled water) were tested to help determine a full range

Q. D. Skinner; J. M. Carson

1985-01-01

130

Biological ammonia removal from anaerobically pre-treated landfill leachate in sequencing batch reactors (SBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate both the use of the SBR technology in biological ammonia removal from landfill leachate, and the suitability of raw landfill leachate as external carbon source in denitrification step. The SBR was fed with diluted leachate for the first 42 days and then the effluent of UASBR was used as the feed. The

G. Yalmaz; I. Öztürk

131

Biological nutrient removal in a full-scale SBR treating piggery wastewater: results and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research activities carried out at ENEA during the last few years allowed development of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) that is able to remove biologically organic waste, nitrogen and phosphorus and that showed to be particularly suited to obtain low effluent nutrient concentrations even starting from concentrated wastes. This plant, in more than one year of operation, is quite steadily

A. Tilche; G. Bortone; F. Malaspina; S. Piccinini; L. Stante

132

Anal fin morphology and gonadal histopathology in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) exposed to treated municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

Feral mosquitofish living in undiluted treated municipal sewage in Queensland, Australia, were examined for morphologic abnormalities indicative of reproductive dysfunction. Male and female mosquitofish were captured at two sites receiving undiluted treated sewage and compared with those captured at a reference site. Several morphologic end points were examined, including length of the fourth and sixth anal fin rays and gonadal histology. Both male and female mosquitofish at one site exhibited minor elongation of the fourth anal fin ray consistent with exposure to androgenic stimulation, although the spatial extent of the effect was limited and not significant at other sites further downstream. No incidences of intersex were found. These findings suggest that the level of treatment of domestic sewage at the two sewage treatment plants assessed is adequate to prevent reproductive abnormalities in exposed mosquitofish populations. PMID:16446994

Leusch, F D L; Chapman, H F; Kay, G W; Gooneratne, S R; Tremblay, L A

2006-01-30

133

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash, subjected to hydrothermal treatment is used as adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic samples. The effect of initial stock solution, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH were studied in a batch experiment. Results are compared with powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon and untreated fly ash. The capacity of adsorption was found to be increased in the case of treated fly ash and it follows the order of powdered activated carbon >granular activated carbon >treated fly ash >untreated fly ash. The adsorption isotherms of Langmuir constants and Freundlich constants for all the adsorbents were determined. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was recommended.

Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Basava Rao, V. V.

134

Biological degradation of MSW in a methanogenic reactor using treated leachate recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a methanogenic reactor using treated leachate recirculation, the effects of 12 effective microorganisms (EMs), isolated from Hangzhou Tianzhiling landfill, on the degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated. The preliminary experiment indicated that the EMs increased the biodegradability of MSW, enhanced 24% of organic mass effluent from the landfill reactor, and shortened methane production period to about 91

Ruo He; Dong-sheng Shen; Jun-qin Wang; Yong-hua He; Yin-mei Zhu

2005-01-01

135

Combined Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes for treating a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate.  

PubMed

The present study is to investigate the treatment of a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate by Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes. The operating conditions have been optimized. Working at an initial pH value of 8, a Fe2+ dosage of 600mgL(-1) and a H2O2 dosage of 120mgL(-1), the chemical oxidation demand (COD) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were decreased from 1500 and 490mgL(-1) to 230 and 23mgL(-1) after 40min of Fenton oxidation, respectively. Advanced oxidation pretreatment using Fenton reagent was very effective at enhancing the biodegradability of this kind of wastewater. The wastewater was further treated by a bio-chemical treatment process based on an immobilized biomass reactor with a hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 20h after Fenton oxidation pretreatment under the optimal operating conditions. It was found that the COD and LAS of the final effluent were less than 100 and 5mgL(-1), corresponding to a removal efficiencies of over 94% and 99%, respectively. PMID:18406053

Wang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Yang; Mai, Jun-Sheng

2008-03-08

136

Flotation technique with coagulant and polymer application applied to the post-treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactor treating sewage.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study performed with a lab-scale batch DAF unit fed with previously coagulated (with FeCl3 and/or cationic polymer) effluent from a pilot-scale expanded bed anaerobic reactor treating domestic sewage. The association between ferric chloride and polymers was studied, aimed at sludge reduction. Ferric chloride dosages ranging from 15 to 65 mg.l-1, and polymer dosages from 0.25 to 7.0 mg.l-1 were investigated. Flocculation conditions were kept constant: 20 min of time (Tf) and 80 s-1 of mean velocity gradient (Gf). Air requirement was kept to 19.0 g of air.m-3 wastewater, using 20% recycle ratio and saturation pressure at 450 kPa. When the anaerobic reactor was operating at steady state conditions, it was possible to reduce the FeCl3 dosage from 65 to 30 mg.l-1 after applying 0.4 mg.l-1 of non-ionic polymer, before the DAF process. For these dosages, 79% COD removal (residual of 23 mg.l-1), 86% total phosphate removal (residual of 0.9 mg.l-1) and 98% turbidity removal (residual of 2.6 NTU) were observed. Furthermore, the use of adequate polymer together with 30 mgFeCl3.l-1 leads to the production of high rising rate flocs. PMID:11575086

Reali, A P; Penetra, R G; de Carvalho, M E

2001-01-01

137

Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.  

PubMed

The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions. PMID:15176911

Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

138

Performances of a full-scale novel multiplate anaerobic reactor treating cheese whey effluent.  

PubMed

A 450-m(3) multiplate anaerobic reactor (MPAR) has been started-up in April 1992 for treating wastewater (whey permeate and domestic wastewater) at the Nutrinor (Lactel) cheese factory in Chambord (Québec, Canada). The MPAR consists of four superimposed sections. The liquid flows upwards from one section to the next, while the gas is collected below each plate and evacuated through side-outlets. The wastewater is concurrently distributed at the bottom of the first, second, and third sections, as 50%, 33%, and 17% of the total influent stream, respectively. Granular anaerobic sludge at an initial concentration of 30 kg of volatile suspended solids (VSS) per cubic meter of reactor liquid volume was used to inoculate the reactor. Under normal operation of the factory, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of the influent ranged from 20 to 37 kg COD m(-3). The reactor organic loading rate (OLR) fluctuated between 9 and 14.7 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) for hydraulic retention times (HRT) maintained between 55 and 68 h. At the highest OLR, the MPAR showed an efficiency of 98% and 92% for soluble and total COD removal, respectively, and a methane production rate averaging around 4 m(3) m(-3) d(-1).Biomass-specific activities ranged between 7 and 51, 1.3 and 8.5, 5.3 and 12.2, 60 and 119, and 119 and 211 mmol g(-1) VSS d(-1) for glucose, propionate, acetate, formate, and hydrogen, respectively. Average equivalent-diameter of the granules was around 0.65 mm. The MPAR reactor generally showed a large capacity for solid retention with a biomass content between 32 and 37 kg VSS m(-3). PMID:18623232

Guiot, S R; Safi, B; Frigon, J C; Mercier, P; Mulligan, C; Tremblay, R; Samson, R

1995-03-01

139

Removal of Dyes from the Effluent of Textile and Dyestuff Manufacturing Industry: A Review of Emerging Techniques With Reference to Biological Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological removal of dyes from effluents of textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry offers some distinct advantages over the commonly used chemicals and physicochemical methods. These include possible mineralization of the dyes to harmless inorganic compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and formation of a lesser quantity of relatively harmless sludge. Removal of dyes from these wastewaters has been reviewed with

HARPREET SINGH RAI; MANI SHANKAR BHATTACHARYYA; JAGDEEP SINGH; T. K. BANSAL; PURVA VATS; U. C. BANERJEE

2005-01-01

140

Seasonal and diurnal variations of temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen in advanced integrated wastewater pond system ® treating tannery effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature were investigated in a pilot-scale advanced integrated wastewater pond system (AIWPS®) treating tannery effluent. The AIWPS® was comprised of advanced facultative pond (AFP), secondary facultative pond (SFP) and maturation pond (MP) all arranged in series. The variations of pH, DO and temperature in the SFP and MP followed the

I. Tadesse; F. B. Green; J. A. Puhakka

2004-01-01

141

Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.  

PubMed

Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes. PMID:12523504

Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

2002-12-01

142

Biological Characterization of Radiation Exposure and Dose Estimates for Inhaled Uranium Milling Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparison of chemical properties and the biological behaviors of yellowcake are made to identify important properties that influence organ distribution patterns. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures, health ris...

A. F. Eidson

1980-01-01

143

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

144

Chemical catalytic reaction and biological oxidation for treatment of non-biodegradable textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a combined reduction–biological treatment system for the decolorization of non-biodegradable textile dyeing wastewater was investigated. In this treatment system, a bisulfite-catalyzed sodium borohydride reduction followed by activated sludge technique was used in order to remove the color at ambient temperature and pressure. This experimental study consisted of two major parts: reduction treatment and biological oxidation. Both synthetic

S. M. Ghoreishi; R. Haghighi

2003-01-01

145

Effect of sponge volume on the performance of down-flow hanging sponge system treating UASB reactor effluent.  

PubMed

The performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent at different sponge volume of 38.2, 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6% was investigated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and flow rate were kept constant at 2.6 h and 0.46 m(3)/day, respectively. The results obtained indicated that reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1% significantly decreased the removal efficiency of COD(total) from 80 +/- 8 to 62 +/- 14%; COD(soluble) from 71.2 +/- 10 to 53.7 +/- 18% and COD(particulate) from 86 +/- 10 to 62 +/- 15%. With further reduction of the sponge volume down to 9.6%, the removal efficiency was dropped to 54 +/- 15% for COD(total); 44.1 +/- 14% for COD(soluble) and 42 +/- 12% for COD(particulate). Likewise, the nitrification efficiency and fecal coliform (FC) removal was strongly affected by decreasing the sponge volume of the DHS system, i.e., the nitrification efficiency was dropped by a value of 48.3% when reducing the sponge volume of the DHS system from 38.2 to 19.1%. At sponge volume of 38.2%, the DHS system removes 2.6 +/- 0.3 log(10)/100 ml of FC which is significantly higher than that at sponge volume of 28.7, 19.1 and 9.6%. Accordingly, it is recommended to design and operate such a system at a bulk sponge volume not exceeding 38.2% of the total reactor volume and at an HRT of 2.6 h. PMID:20013130

Tawfik, A; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

2009-12-15

146

How safe are the biologicals in treating asthma and rhinitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of biological agents are available or being investigated for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis. The safety profiles of these biologic agents, which may modify allergic and immunological diseases, are still being elucidated. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy, the oldest biologic agent in current use, has the highest of frequency of the most serious and life-threatening reaction, anaphylaxis. It is

Linda S Cox

2009-01-01

147

Treated municipal sewage discharge affects multiple levels of biological organization in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to examine cellular-, organ-, and organism-level responses in longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and fish community structure in a stream in which treated municipal sewage effluent is discharged and in a nearby reference stream with little surrounding land use. A modified version of the U.S.E.P.A. Rapid Bioassessment Protocol V, which combines a habitat assessment with

Clint M. Porter; David M. Janz

2003-01-01

148

Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).  

PubMed

The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality. PMID:23903932

Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Delmas, François; Coste, Michel

2013-08-01

149

Treatment of effluents polluted by nitrogen with new biological technologies based on autotrophic nitrification-denitrification processes.  

PubMed

In recent years, various technologies have been developed for the removal of nitrogen from wastewater that is rich in nitrogen but poor in organic carbon, such as the effluents from anaerobic digesters and from certain industries. These technologies have resulted in several patents. The core of these technologies is some of the processes and patents described in this paper: Aerobic denitrification, Sharon, Anammox, OLAND, CANON, NOx process, DEMON. More specifically, one of the first innovative options described for removing nitrogen include partial nitrification under aerobic conditions (partial Sharon process) followed by autotrophic anaerobic oxidation (Anammox process). The partial Sharon-Anammox process can be performed under alternating oxic and anoxic conditions in the same bioreactor or in two steps in two separate bioreactors. This overview focuses on the technical and biological aspects of these new types of treatment system, and compares them to other technologies. Given the fact that nitrification is a sensitive process, special attention is paid to conditions such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, hydraulic retention time, free ammonia, nitrous acid concentration, and pH. A discussion of the pros and cons of such treatment systems is also included since autotrophic nitrogen removal has advantages as well as drawbacks. The paper concludes with a discussion of future research that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs. PMID:21619549

González-Martínez, A; Poyatos, J M; Hontoria, E; Gonzalez-Lopez, J; Osorio, F

2011-08-01

150

Quantification of synthetic organic chemicals in biological treatment process effluent using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a technique that uses a polymer-coated, fused-silica fiber to selectively extract organic analyses from a sample matrix, followed by gas chromatography (GC), was used to quantify selected synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) in biological reactor effluent. By selecting an appropriate combination of SPME fiber, GC column, and GC detector, assays to quantify either a suite of SOCs or single selected SOCs were developed. Phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4,-dinitrophenol, isophorone, m-toluate, m-sylene, and di-n-butylphthalate were quantified simultaneously using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a flame ionization detector. m-Xylene was quantified using a 100-{micro}m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a mass spectrometric detector. Dichloromethane was quantified using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a Carbopack B/1% SP-1000 packed column, and an electron capture detector. All three assays enabled detection of the target analyses to low concentrations ({micro}g/L) with minimal sample volume and processing requirements.

Magbanua, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, D.R.; Fehniger, S.M.; Bowyer, R.L.; Grady, C.P.L. Jr.

2000-02-01

151

Evaluation of UV/TiO(2) and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems coupled to a biological process for the treatment of bleaching pulp mill effluent.  

PubMed

This paper presents an exploratory study of pulp mill bleaching effluent treatment by a biological-photocatalytic coupled system. A fungus, Trametes pubescens, immobilized on polyurethane foam was used to inoculate the biological pre-treatment system. The pretreated effluent was then exposed to a photocatalytic treatment in which two catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) and two supports (aluminum foil and Luffa cylindrica) were tested. Catalyst characterization was carried out by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Information about crystalline structure, chemical composition, morphology, homogeneity and distribution on the support surface area was obtained. The overall biological-photocatalytic coupled system achieved degradation of 96% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), 97% of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 90% of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-CP) and 99% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). This approach of synergistic coupling of T. pubescens and a semiconductor photocatalyst appears to be a viable alternative for the treatment of these non-biodegradable effluents. PMID:22818977

Botía, Diana C; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Sarria, Víctor M

2012-07-20

152

Endocrine Active Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, and Other Chemicals of Concern in Surface Water, Wastewater-Treatment Plant Effluent, and Bed Sediment, and Biological Characteristics in Selected Streams, Minnesota Design, Methods, and Data, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative ...

H. L. Schoenfuss J. H. Writer K. E. Lee L. B. Barber M. L. Ferrey S. K. Langer

2010-01-01

153

Use of a Coupled Biological System to Treat a Chemically Complex Air Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biological systems to remove contaminants from waste streams has been well documented. However, when dealing with complex waste streams, the use of one biological treatment system may not be the best alternative. When treating a complex waste stream, the use of “treatment trains” or “coupled systems” may be advantageous compared with any single biological technology. This article

M. R. Manninen; B. A. Niemi; G. T. Kleinheinz

2003-01-01

154

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

PubMed Central

Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in the biofilter throughout the treatment. Conclusion The silica-bead packed bed biofilm reactor developed and characterized in this study was able to significantly decontaminate anaerobically digested OMWs. Therefore, the application of an integrated anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in an improved system for valorization and decontamination of OMWs.

Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

2006-01-01

155

Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents  

SciTech Connect

The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. Samples of airborne uranium from operating mills and deposition models were used to predict appreciable deposition rates in the upper respiratory tract of workers, if respiratory protection were not used. A biokinetic model of retention and excretion of yellowcake inhaled by Beagle dogs was developed. Comparison of the results with available data from human exposures showed that organ burdens in an exposed worker can be estimated from urinary bioassay results and in vivo counting, if the chemical composition, or soluble fraction, of the inhaled yellowcake is known. 34 refs., 31 figs., 24 tabs.

Eidson, A.F. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

156

The combined use of a biosurfactant and an enzyme preparation to treat an effluent with a high fat content.  

PubMed

The combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an enzyme pool produced by solid-state fermentation with Penicillium simplicissimum using babassu cake as culture medium in the anaerobic treatment of an effluent with a high fat content from a poultry processing plant was evaluated. Central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the enzyme pool and biosurfactant concentrations and the treatment temperature of the effluent containing about 2400 mg oil and grease per liter. The combination that yielded the highest specific methane production was 0.19% (w/v) enzyme pool and 114 mg/L biosurfactant at 33 °C. It could therefore be concluded that the combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant with an enzyme preparation obtained from solid-state fermentation may enhance methane production and enable the use of anaerobic technology in this sector, eliminating the need for physicochemical processes or the addition of costly commercial enzymes. PMID:22465048

Damasceno, Fernanda R C; Cammarota, Magali C; Freire, Denise M G

2012-03-15

157

Apparent Rapid Loss of Endocrine Disruptors from Wetlands Used to Store Either Tertiary Treated Sewage Effluent or Stormwater Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disruption of endocrine systems due to environmental contaminants potentially impacts on the developmental, behavioural,\\u000a regulatory and reproductive systems of animals. A major source of exposure of animals (terrestrial and aquatic) to endocrine-disrupting\\u000a compounds is through contact with contaminated surface waters contaminated with sewage effluent and\\/or stormwater discharge.\\u000a We studied the response to endocrine-disrupting compounds of Gambusia holbrooki mosquito fish

Andrew Norris; Shelley Burgin

2011-01-01

158

A case study on algal response to raw and treated effluents from an aluminum plating plant and a pharmaceutical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algal growth responses to the effluents of an aluminum plating plant and to the wastewater from an analgesic\\/antiinflammatory-drug-producing pharmaceutical plant were investigated. Growth response of the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta was monitored by measuring the two response parameters optical density (OD640) and in vitro chlorophyll fluorescence for a period of 14 days. Generally, the two response measurements gave similar

Melek Türker Saçan; I??l Akmehmet Balc?o?lu

2006-01-01

159

Exposure to treated sewage effluent disrupts reproduction and development in the seasonally breeding Ramshorn snail (subclass: Pulmonata, Planorbarius corneus).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of exposure to sewage treatment works (STW) effluent upon the growth, reproductive function, and sexual development of the European mollusc, Planorbarius corneus under seasonally varying temperatures and photoperiodic conditions. In river water, a clear seasonal change in the number and weight of egg masses (during both 2003 and 2004), and in the number of eggs produced, was found, providing evidence for profound effects of both changing temperature and photoperiod on reproduction. Exposure to STW effluent caused disturbances in this seasonal reproductive cycle at all concentrations tested. The effects included significant dose-dependent increases in fecundity and in the overall length of the reproductive cycle in adult snails exposed to both 50% and 100% effluent relative to river water for a period of up to 14 weeks. Disturbances in the development of both the male and female gametes of the both the adult snails and their developmentally exposed offspring were also seen. These effects were more evident in the offspring than in the adults. PMID:19368219

Clarke, Neil; Routledge, Edwin J; Garner, Anthony; Casey, Daire; Benstead, Rachel; Walker, David; Watermann, Burkard; Gnass, K; Thomsen, A; Jobling, Susan

2009-03-15

160

Biological treatment of steroidal drug industrial effluent and electricity generation in the microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

The single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to treat steroidal drug production wastewater (SPW) and generate electricity simultaneously. The results indicated that the maximum COD removal efficiency reached 82%, total nitrogen and sulfate removal rate approached 62.47% and 26.46%, respectively. The maximum power density and the Coulombic efficiency reached to 22.3Wm(-3) and 30%, respectively. The scanning electron microscope showed that the dominant microbial populations were remarkably different in morphology on the surface of SPW and acetate-fed anodes. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the microbial community structure fed with different concentrations of SPW presented a gradual succession and unique bacterial sequences were detected on the SPW and acetate-fed anodes. This research demonstrates that MFCs fed with SPW achieved a high efficiency of power density and simultaneous nutrient removal, and the dominant microorganisms on the anode were related to the types and the concentrations of substrates. PMID:22940303

Liu, Ru; Gao, Chongyang; Zhao, Yang-Guo; Wang, Aijie; Lu, Shanshan; Wang, Min; Maqbool, Farhana; Huang, Qing

2012-08-02

161

Effect of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of UASB reactors treating dairy effluents.  

PubMed

Recent environmental concerns have prompted a re-evaluation of conventional management strategies and refueled the search of innovative waste management practices. In this sense, the anaerobic digestion of both fat and the remaining complex organic matter present in dairy wastewaters is attractive, although the continuous operation of high rate anaerobic processes treating this type of wastewaters causes the failure of the process. This work accesses the influence of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of mesophilic UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater, in order to allow the biological degradation to catch up with adsorption phenomenon. During the experiments, two UASB reactors were subject to three organic loading rates, ranging from 6 to 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), with the same daily load applied to both reactors, each one with a different non-feeding period. Both reactors showed good COD removal efficiencies (87-92%). A material balance for COD in the reactors during the feeding and non-feeding periods showed the importance of the feedless period, which allowed the biomass to degrade substrate that was accumulated during the feeding period. The reactor with the longest non-feeding period had a better performance, which resulted in a higher methane production and adsorption capacity for the same organic load applied with a consequent less accumulation of substrate into the biomass. In addition, both reactors had a stable operation for the organic load of 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), which is higher than the maximum applicable load reported in literature for continuous systems (3-6 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1)). PMID:16900520

Coelho, N M; Rodrigues, A A; Arroja, L M; Capela, I F

2007-02-01

162

Biological filtration of treated waste water by Daphnia: an alternative for technical filtration, or an addition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several years of research on the island of Texel proofed that Daphnia magna are very well capable to remove faecal coli bacteria effectively from treated wastewater by biological filtration. The Daphnia population, mainly Daphnia magna, is maintained by activated sludge particles and loose bacteria from the treated waste water. Because of the filtration by Daphnia the ponds fed with treated

Ruud Kampf; Lluis Sala; Joaquim Comas; Theo Claassen; Remmie Neef; Wilbert Menkveld

163

Effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L.  

PubMed

Present study deals the effect of bacteria treated and untreated post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on germination, seedling growth and amylase activity in Phaseolus mungo L. seeds. Results revealed that untreated PMDE was highly toxic in nature carrying high BOD, COD values along with high metals content. But, after bacterial treatment, these values were reduced by 64.58 and 74.20%, respectively. It was observed that 40% untreated PMDE has no inhibitory effect on seed germination but 60, 80 and 100% PMDE has inhibited 20, 40 and 60% germination, respectively while 100% germination was recorded up to 60% treated PMDE. Moreover, 40 and 60% PMDE has shown deleterious effects on seedling growth parameter and seeds treated with 80 and 100% PMDE showed no root development. However, 20% bacteria treated PMDE was found most suitable for plant growth possibly due to presence of optimum level of nutrients. Further, Phaseolus seeds treated with 60 and 80% untreated PMDE showed reduced amylase activity and no amylase activity was observed in seeds treated with 100% untreated PMDE. But, seeds treated with bacterial degraded PMDE showed amylase activity and molecular weight of alpha-amylase enzyme determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 47.5, 46 and 44.5 kDa, respectively. PMID:20483537

Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Chandra, Ram

2010-05-18

164

How safe are the biologicals in treating asthma and rhinitis?  

PubMed Central

A number of biological agents are available or being investigated for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis. The safety profiles of these biologic agents, which may modify allergic and immunological diseases, are still being elucidated. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy, the oldest biologic agent in current use, has the highest of frequency of the most serious and life-threatening reaction, anaphylaxis. It is also one of the only disease modifying interventions for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Efforts to seek safer and more effective allergen immunotherapy treatment have led to investigations of alternate routes of delivery and modified immunotherapy formulations. Sublingual immunotherapy appears to be associated with a lower, but not zero, risk of anaphylaxis. No fatalities have been reported to date with sublingual immunotherapy. Immunotherapy with modified formulations containing Th1 adjuvants, DNA sequences containing a CpG motif (CpG) and 3-deacylated monophospholipid A, appears to provide the benefits of subcutaneous immunotherapy with a single course of 4 to 6 preseasonal injections. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events or anaphylaxis in the clinical trials of these two immunotherapy adjuvants. Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IgE, has been associated with a small risk of anaphylaxis, affecting 0.09% to 0.2% of patients. It may also be associated with a higher risk of geohelminth infection in patients at high risk for parasitic infections but it does not appear to affect the response to treatment or severity of the infection. Clinical trials with other biologic agents that have targeted IL-4/IL-13, or IL-5, have not demonstrated any definite serious treatment-related adverse events. However, these clinical trials were generally done in small populations of asthma patients, which may be too small for uncommon side effects to be identified. There is conflicting information about the safety TNF-alpha blocking agents, which have been primarily used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, with serious infections, cardiovascular disease and malignancies being the most frequent serious adverse events. An unfavorable risk-benefit profile led to early discontinuation of a TNF-blocking agent in a double-blind placebo controlled of severe asthmatics. In summary, the risk of anaphylaxis and other treatment-related serious events with of all of the biological agents in this review were relatively small. However, most of the clinical trials were done in relatively small patient populations and were of relatively short duration. Long term studies in large patient populations may help clarify the risk-benefit profile of these biologic agents in the treatment of asthma.

2009-01-01

165

From Effluent to New Water: Performance Evaluation and Quality Assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As water reuse becomes increasingly important to satisfy water demand, ensuring the quality of recycled wastewater becomes ever more vital. Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) metabolites are two groups of chemicals that are commonly present in treated effluent and have received attention for their demonstrated or potential biological effects. In this paper we present data on the effects of

Martin Reinhard; John Montgomery-Brown; Jennifer S. Louie; Birgit Gross

2003-01-01

166

Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor\\u000a productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional\\u000a bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation,\\u000a including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic

Bo Hu; Shulin Chen

2008-01-01

167

Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

1980-01-01

168

Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. PMID:23411455

García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

2013-01-03

169

Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 ?g/L of THMs and 1140.6 ?g/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively. PMID:23535379

Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

2013-03-13

170

IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

171

IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

172

Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a baker's yeast industry. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and unacceptable dark brown color characterized effluents from both industries. Effluents from the biologically treated opium alkaloid and baker's yeast industries were both applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1:1:1) and above the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1.1:1:1.1) to MAP precipitation. NH4 removals of 61-80% were achieved at the pH of 9.2 at the stoichiometric ratio, whereas 83% NH4 removal was obtained at the pH of 9.2 above the stoichiometric ratio. Experimental studies performed on both anaerobically and/or aerobically treated baker's yeast and opium alkaloid industry effluents have clearly indicated that MAP precipitation was an appropriate treatment option for NH4 removal or struvite recovery from high ammonia content agro industry effluents. Additional ammonia recovery studies were conducted on ozonated and Fenton's oxidation applied effluents and these have also indicated that the amounts of struvite and the quality of MAP precipitate was increased significantly. In this framework, MAP sludge recovered from combined biological and Fenton's oxidation treatment effluents were considered as a more valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:12201102

Altinbas, M; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

2002-01-01

173

A novel biological approach to treat chondromalacia patellae.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells from several sources (bone marrow, synovial tissue, cord blood, and adipose tissue) can differentiate into variable parts (bones, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue), representing a promising new therapy in regenerative medicine. In animal models, mesenchymal stem cells have been used successfully to regenerate cartilage and bones. However, there have been no follow-up studies on humans treated with adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the chondromalacia patellae. To obtain ADSCs, lipoaspirates were obtained from lower abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The stromal vascular fraction was separated from the lipoaspirates by centrifugation after treatment with collagenase. The stem-cell-containing stromal vascular fraction was mixed with calcium chloride-activated platelet rich plasma and hyaluronic acid, and this ADSCs mixture was then injected under ultrasonic guidance into the retro-patellar joints of all three patients. Patients were subjected to pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Pre- and post-treatment subjective pain scores and physical therapy assessments measured clinical changes. One month after the injection of autologous ADSCs, each patient's pain improved 50-70%. Three months after the treatment, the patients' pain improved 80-90%. The pain improvement persisted over 1 year, confirmed by telephone follow ups. Also, all three patients did not report any serious side effects. The repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at three months showed improvement of the damaged tissues (softened cartilages) on the patellae-femoral joints. In patients with chondromalacia patellae who have continuous anterior knee pain, percutaneous injection of autologous ADSCs may play an important role in the restoration of the damaged tissues (softened cartilages). Thus, ADSCs treatment presents a glimpse of a new promising, effective, safe, and non-surgical method of treatment for chondromalacia patellae. PMID:23700485

Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Sang Hee

2013-05-20

174

Micropollutants Produced by Disinfection of Wastewater Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to th...

R. L. Jolley R. B. Cumming N. E. Lee J. E. Thompson L. R. Lewis

1981-01-01

175

Solvent Refined Coal Studies: Effects and Characterization of Treated Solvent Refined Coal Effluent. Progress Report, FY 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual compon...

C. D. Becker W. G. Woodfield J. A. Strand

1978-01-01

176

Biological assessment of aquaculture effects on effluent-receiving streams in Ghana using structural and functional composition of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages.  

PubMed

Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream (P = 0.0214) and upstream (P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream (P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations (P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area. PMID:22555961

Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Amisah, Stephen

2012-05-04

177

Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

2012-07-01

178

Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.  

PubMed

Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

2011-08-05

179

Nitrogen removal from on-site treated anaerobic effluents using intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactors at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated dairy parlour wastewater (DPWWe; 10°C) and mixture of kitchen waste and black water (BWKWe; 20°C) was studied in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). The focus was on removal of nitrogen and of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD). Moreover, the effect of intermittent aeration and continuous vs. sequencing batch operation was studied. All MBBRs removed 50–60%

Sari Luostarinen; Sami Luste; Lara Valentín; Jukka Rintala

2006-01-01

180

Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic\\u000a marine sediments from 1989–2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing\\u000a residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna\\u000a and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences

Arny L. Blanchard; Howard M. Feder; David G. Shaw

2011-01-01

181

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs

Lorenzo Bertin; Maria Chiara Colao; Maurizio Ruzzi; Leonardo Marchetti; Fabio Fava

2006-01-01

182

Post-traumatic Vertebral Compression Fracture Treated with Minimally Invasive Biologic Vertebral Augmentation for Reconstruction.  

PubMed

In the United States, there is a high incidence of motor vehicle and sports injuries among the active population causing symptomatic post-traumatic vertebral compression fracture. At our institution, 28 cases of painful post-traumatic vertebral compression fractures (PPT-VCFs) were successfully treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (VA) for stabilization and reconstruction with intravertebral polyethylene mesh sac (OptiMesh®, Spineology, Inc., Stillwater, MN) and biological morcelized bone graft. The surgical approach provides an efficacious and controlled minimally invasive delivery mechanism to stabilize and reconstruct VCFs, as well as avoiding serious complications from Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The construct for biological bone graft/vertebral augmentation is osteoconductive and osteoinductive, and is used to create biologic vertebral stabilization and reconstruction. The adjacent vertebra integrity is protected by the construct with similar elasticity and physical characteristics of the biologic morcelized bone, more matched to that of adjacent bone than PMMA. The surgical techniques are described herein. PMID:22505001

Chiu, John C; Maziad, Ali M

2011-12-01

183

Start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process using low activity anammox inoculum to treat low strength UASB effluent.  

PubMed

The start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using low activity anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) inoculum. The SBR received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) that treated low strength wastewater. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was first 0.24±0.11kg Nm(-3)d(-1) and then reduced to 0.10±0.02 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). The average specific anammox activity was 2.27±1.31mg N (gVSS h)(-1), at 30°C representing an increase of 161% compared to the inoculum. The decrease in vNLR did not significantly affect anammox activity, but resulted in a decrease of denitrifying heterotrophic activity to very low levels after the first 30days owing to the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the stable presence of anammox bacteria in biomass. Numerous filamentous microorganisms were present, several of which were in a state of endogenous respiration. PMID:24077156

Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Di Fabio, S; Noutsopoulos, C; Fatone, F

2013-08-31

184

Effects of pH adjustment by parawood ash and effluent recycle ratio on the performance of anaerobic baffled reactors treating high sulfate wastewater.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the performance of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating concentrated rubber latex wastewater under different pH adjustment substances and recycling ratios (R). Two ABRs, one received wastewater pretreated with NaOH and the other with ash, were operated at 35 degrees C under identical HRTs from 10 to 1.25d. Results show that both ABRs had highest COD and sulfate removal efficiencies at HRT 10d (averaged 82.71% and 96.16% of ABR-NaOH, and 80.77% and 96.60% of ABR-Ash, respectively), where majority of the influent COD and sulfate were removed by the first compartment of the ABR at all conditions tested. Increasing R (0, 0.3 and 0.5) raised the hydraulic loading on the system and resulted in a drop of organic removal efficiency and methane yield. Translocation of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens in the ABRs caused by increased organic loading and effluent recycle is discussed. The results show great potential of parawood ash as a pH adjustment substance for acidic wastewaters. PMID:18617396

Saritpongteeraka, Kanyarat; Chaiprapat, Sumate

2008-07-09

185

Treatment of 2-phenylamino-3-methyl-6-di-n-butylaminofluoran production effluent by combination of biological treatments and Fenton's oxidation.  

PubMed

High strength refractory organic stream is produced during the production of 2-phenylamino-3-methyl-6-di-n-butylaminofluoran (One Dye Black 2, abbr. ODB 2), a novel heat-sensitive material with a promising market. In this study, a combination of acidification-precipitation, primary biological treatment, Fenton's oxidation and another biological treatment was successfully used for the removal of COD from 18000-25000 mg/L to below 200 mg/L from the ODB 2 production wastewater in a pilot experiment. A COD removal of 70%-80% was achieved by acidification-precipitation under a pH of 2.5-3.0. The first step biodegradation permitted an average COD removal of 70% under an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 30 h. By batch tests, the optimum conditions of Fenton's oxidation were acquired as: Fe2+ dose 6.0 mmol/L; H202 dose 3000 mg/L; and reaction time 6 h. The second step biological treatment could ensure an effluent COD below 200 mg/L under an HRT of 10 h following the Fenton's treatment. PMID:18062414

Ding, Wei; Gao, Ying-xin; Yang, Min; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu

2007-01-01

186

Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

2014-01-01

187

Biologically Active Cortisol in Plasma of Oestrogen-treated and Normal Subjects  

PubMed Central

Biologically active (non-protein-bound) cortisol levels in the plasma of 13 women taking oral contraceptives and of 67 normal subjects were compared, using a new method—steady-state gel filtration. Both total and unbound cortisol levels in the 67 normal subjects showed a skew distribution, which was roughly log-normal. Unbound cortisol levels in 11 of the oestrogen-treated women were in the normal range, but the median value was significantly increased in this group. Total plasma cortisol levels in the oestrogen-treated group were, as expected, increased threefold, and all were outside the normal range.

Burke, C. W.

1969-01-01

188

Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:18717619

Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

2009-01-01

189

Biologically Treated Sugar Beet Pulp as a Supplement in Goat Rations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to determine the use of biologically treated sugar beet pulp as a supplement in goat rations. Fungus treatments (Trichoderma viride) fermented with sugar beet pulp was supplemented at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% (w\\/w) to complete feed mixture and mixed well just before feeding for treatments 2, 3 and 4, respectively. While, un-supplemented complete feed mixture

F. M. SALMAN; R. I. EL-KADI; H. ABDEL-RAHMAN; S. M. AHMED; M. I. MOHAMED; M. M. SHOUKRY

190

Identifying the Growth Limiting Physiochemical Parameter for Chives Grown in Biologically Treated Graywater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can play an important role in wastewater treatment and water reuse in terrestrial and space systems. Chive growth in\\u000a biologically treated graywater, simulating the anticipated early planetary base graywater, was evaluated in this study for\\u000a NASA. Phytotoxicity due to physiochemical parameters such as ammonium-nitrogen (NH4\\u000a +-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2\\u000a ?-N), pH, and sodium (Na+) was assessed using a series of

Bala Vairavan; W. Andrew Jackson; Cary Green; Audra Morse

2007-01-01

191

Performance of Conventional and Antimicrobial-Treated Filtering Facepiece Respirators Challenged with Biological Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the filtration performance of four commercially available models of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH)-certified filtering facepiece respirators(FFR) against both biological and inert aerosols at a flow rate of 85 L\\/min. Conventional N95 and P100 FFRs and two antimicrobial (AM)-treated FFRs (an N95 and a P95, both with iodine-based AM treatments) were tested for both physical

Michael B. Lore; John M. Sebastian; TeAnne L. Brown; Andrew S. Viner; Nicole V. McCullough; Steven H. Hinrichs

2012-01-01

192

Protozoan and metazoan communities treating a simulated petrochemical industry wastewater in a rotating disc biological reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microfauna of adhered biofilms treating a simulated petrochemical plant wastewater was investigated in relation to the organic loading and the toxicity. Experiments in a six-compartment laboratory rotating biological reactor were performed at organic loadings of 0.99, 1.38 and 1.97g\\/l.day. The concentration of organic compounds in the artificial wastewater (phenol, acetophenone and styrene), toxicity of the wastewater, number of representative

S. Y. Selivanovskaya; A. M. Petrov; K. V. Egorova; R. P. Naumova

1997-01-01

193

Gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates and their relationships to enzyme activities and the soil microbial biomass in soils treated with dairy shed effluent and ammonium fertilizer at different water potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and their relationships to microbial biomass C and N and enzyme (protease,\\u000a deaminase and urease) activities were determined in soils treated with dairy shed effluent (DSE) or NH4\\u000a + fertilizer (NH4Cl) at a rate equivalent to 200 kg N ha–1 at three water potentials (0, –10 and –80 kPa) at 20??°C using a closed

M. Zaman; H. J. Di; K. C. Cameron; C. M. Frampton

1999-01-01

194

The influence of different substrate pH values on the performance of a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating a petrochemical effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Neutralizing requirements for the anaerobic treatment of an acidic petrochemical effluent in a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor were examined. Neutralization (pH 6.0 with NaOH) of the effluent prior to digestion resulted in a Na+ concentration of over 3 g\\/l which was detrimental. Decreasing the Na+ concentration and subsequent replacement of NaOH by a mixture of Ca(OH)2, NaOH and

L. H. Nel; T. J. Britz

1986-01-01

195

Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.  

PubMed

Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the polishing of secondary effluents. Elimination of bacteria (total and coliforms, faecal streptococci) and their relationship with the hydraulic load and the temperature were investigated. PMID:11464749

Makni, H

2001-01-01

196

Removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater by chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid.  

PubMed

Removal of six active pharmaceutical ingredients in wastewater was investigated using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) as chemical oxidants. Four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid) and two lipid-regulating agents (gemfibrozil and clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate) were used as target substances at 40 microg/L initial concentration. Three different wastewaters types originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were used. One wastewater was collected after extended nitrogen removal in activated sludge, one after treatment with high-loaded activated sludge without nitrification, and one from the final effluent from the same plant where nitrogen removal was made in trickling filters for nitrification and moving-bed biofilm reactors for denitrification following the high-loaded plant. Of the six investigated compounds, only clofibric acid and ibuprofen were not removed when treated with ClO2 up to 20 mg/L. With increasing PAA dose up to 50 mg/L, significant removal of most of the pharmaceuticals was observed except for the wastewater with the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD). This indicates that chemical oxidation with ClO2 could be used for tertiary treatment at WWTPs for active pharmaceutical ingredients, whereas PAA was not sufficiently efficient. PMID:22720432

Hey, G; Ledin, A; Jansen, J la Cour; Andersen, H R

197

Studies on water hyacinth as a biological filter for treating contaminants from agricultural wastes and industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) showed a remarkable capacity to withstand the effects of pH changes ranging from 5 to 8 in the aquatic environment. Growth continued to be normal except when placed for longer periods in medium containing iron ions at pH 3.3. The ability of this plant to neutralize some very acid solutions of heavy metals such as salts of copper, cadmium and zinc individually and in combinations, is being reported. Plants placed in pure acid and alkali solutions were also able to neutralize the medium. Calcium appears to play an important role in the mechanism involved in the adaptability of these plants to such environments.

Jamil, K.; Madhavendra, S.S.; Jamil, M.Z.; Rao, P.V.

1987-01-01

198

Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.  

PubMed

Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting. PMID:19081715

Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

2008-12-10

199

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF A COMBINED SEWER IMPACTED SECONDARY EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Physical-chemical treatment of conventional biological secondary effluent for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants is used and considered applicable in areas where secondary treatment alone is incapable of producing satisfactory effluent quality. This report describes ...

200

Adsorbent supplemented biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate by fed-batch operation.  

PubMed

Biological treatment of landfill leachate usually results in low COD removals because of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and presence of toxic compounds. Coagulation-flocculation with lime addition and air stripping of ammonia were used as pre-treatment in this study in order to improve biological treatability of the leachate. Pre-treated leachate was subjected to adsorbent supplemented biological treatment in an aeration tank operated in fed-batch mode. COD and NH(4)-N removal performances of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and powdered zeolite (PZ) were compared during biological treatment. Adsorbent concentrations varied between 0 and 5 gl(-1). Percent COD and ammonium-N removals increased with increasing adsorbent concentrations. Percent COD removals with PAC addition were significantly higher than those obtained with the zeolite. However, zeolite performed better than the PAC in ammonium-N removal from the leachate. Nearly 87% and 77% COD removals were achieved with PAC and zeolite concentrations of 2 gl(-1), respectively. Ammonium-N removals were 30% and 40% with PAC and zeolite concentrations of 5 gl(-1), respectively at the end of 30 h of fed-batch operation. PMID:15182835

Kargi, Fikret; Pamukoglu, M Yunus

2004-09-01

201

Reutilization of effluents from laccase-mediator treatments of kraft pulp for biobleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several effluents from laccase-mediator treatments of kraft pulp were recovered and subsequently reused with fresh pulp in order to simulate recirculation of effluents during biobleaching. The effluents were used as a new bleaching stage without any modification except enzyme addition.Pulp treated with effluents were afterwards chemically bleached by using the simple sequence LQPo, where L represents the treatment with effluent

D. Moldes; T. Vidal

2011-01-01

202

Effect of biological wastewater treatment on the molecular weight distribution of soluble organic compounds and on the reduction of BOD, COD and P in pulp and paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterizated, before (influent) and after (effluent) biological wastewater treatment based on an activated sludge process, by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3kDa) of the wastewater samples into different size fractions. Various parameters were measured on each fraction: molecular weight distribution (MWD) using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), total organic carbon (TOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (Tot-P), phosphate phosphorus (PO(4)-P), electrical conductivity, pH, turbidity, charge quantity and zeta potential. The MWD, TOC and COD(Cr) results indicated that the majority of the material present in both the influent and effluent was in the medium molecular weight (MW) range (i.e. MW<10kDa) with three main MW sub-fractions. There were no significant differences in the range of the MWD between the influent and effluent samples. The magnitude of the MWD in the effluent was about one half that in the influent, the greatest reduction being in the 6kDa fraction. The 3kDa fractions of both the influent and effluent showed a considerable increase in BOD(7), probably due to the removal of compounds harmful to bacteria in 3kDa ultrafiltration. Influent turbidity decreased considerably in microfiltration (8-0.22microm). As the turbidity was removed by 0.22microm filtration, the anionic charge quantity started to decrease. Particles in the influent and effluent contained 19-29% and 14-20% of the total phosphorus, respectively. The major phosphorus fraction was in the form of soluble phosphate. PMID:18707750

Leiviskä, Tiina; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Rämö, Jaakko; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Pellinen, Jaakko

2008-06-26

203

In vitro assessment of retinoic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity of treated effluent from 39 wastewater-treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia, in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity of the dissolved phase using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays. More than 90% of the effluents examined in this study elicited RAR activity (<0.5-198 ng/l a-t-RA equivalents [EQ]). All of the effluents had AhR activity (16-279 ng/l ?NF EQ). Notwithstanding the paucity of comparative data, on the whole, the levels of RAR and AhR activity observed in this pilot survey of Victorian WWTP effluents were greater than those recently reported internationally. One assumption commonly made is that WWTP discharges will be diluted significantly in the receiving environment, further decreasing the potential risk of the discharges. Making this assumption may not be appropriate for some of Victoria's more ephemeral waterways or where effluent is discharged to an enclosed water body, such as a lake or terminal wetland. However, even where WWTP discharges represent all of the environmental flow in the warmer months, the observed RAR and AhR activity (as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] EQ, respectively) was still significantly lower than the concentrations of RA, and 2,3,7,8-TCCD known to cause developmental malformations in fish larvae after short-term exposure to these chemicals. Of perhaps greater concern, WWTP effluent can contain significant suspended solids (essentially biosolids), which may be a considerable sink for some hormonally active, hydrophobic compounds, and which may in turn increase the long-term exposure risk for aquatic fauna. Further studies of the nuclear and AhR activity of WWTP effluent suspended soilds are required to address this hypothesis. PMID:21461931

Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

2011-04-03

204

Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

205

40 CFR 468.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (d) Subpart AâSolution Heat Treatment BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant...off-kg of copper or copper alloy heat treated English unitsâpounds... (e) Subpart AâExtrusion Heat Treatment BPT Effluent Limitations....

2011-07-01

206

40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...051 (d) Subpart AâSolution Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant...off-kg of copper or copper alloy heat treated English unitsâpounds...394 (e) Subpart AâExtrusion Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations....

2011-07-01

207

Effects of advanced treatments of wastewater effluents on estrogenic and reproductive health impacts in fish.  

PubMed

Whether the implementation of additional treatments for the removal of estrogens from wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents will eliminate their feminizing effects in exposed wildlife has yet to be established, and this information is crucial for future decisions on investment into WwTWs. Here, granular activated carbon (GAC), ozone (O(3)), and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing steroidal estrogen levels in a WwTW effluent and assessments made on the associated estrogenic and reproductive responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 21 days. All treatments reduced the estrogenicity of the standard-treated (STD) effluent, but with different efficacies; ranging between 70-100% for total estrogenicity and 53-100% for individual steroid estrogens. In fish exposed to the GAC- and ClO(2)- (but not O(3)-) treated effluents, there was no induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) or reduction in the weight of the fatpad, a secondary sex character in males, as occurred for fish exposed to STD effluent. This finding suggests likely benefits of employing these treatment processes for the reproductive health in wild fish populations living in rivers receiving WwTW discharges. Exposure of pair-breeding minnows to the GAC-treated effluent, however, resulted in a similar inhibition of egg production to that occurring for exposure to the STD effluent (34-40%). These data, together with a lack of effect on egg production of the estrogen, ethinylestradiol (10 ng/L), alone, suggest that chemical/physical properties of the effluents rather than their estrogenicity were responsible for the reproductive effect and that these factor(s) were not remediated for through GAC treatment. Collectively, our findings illustrate the importance of assessing integrative biological responses, rather than biomarkers alone, in the assessment and improvement of WwTW technologies for the protection of wild fish populations. PMID:20443592

Filby, Amy L; Shears, Janice A; Drage, Briane E; Churchley, John H; Tyler, Charles R

2010-06-01

208

The presence of acidic and neutral drugs in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in the Cornwallis and Annapolis River watersheds and the Mill CoveSewage Treatment Plant in Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are designed to have physiological effects on target organisms. Their presence and effect in aquatic ecosystems in the Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia is relatively unknown. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs are continually introduced to aquatic ecosystems through treated sewage effluent outflows into rivers and other bodies of water. Fouracidic and two neutral pharmaceuticals were monitored in the effluents from nine sewage treatment plants in the Annapolis Valley and Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) in Nova Scotia. Naproxen and ibuprofen, two highly used OTC drugs, were the most prominent and were detected at high ng/L to low ?g/L levels. Caffeine, salicylic acid (a metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid) and cotinine were detected in the ng/L range. Warfarin was not detected above the detection limits. The urban sewage treatment plant in Mill Cove, HRM showed much higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals than rural facilities in the Annapolis Valley, despite the fact that more advanced facilities are used at the urban plant. Receiving waters both downstream and upstream from STP effluent outfalls were also studied, and trace levels of caffeine at several sites indicate some degree of pollution propagation into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22178020

Crouse, Brian A; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Tong, Anthony Z

2011-12-16

209

Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents  

SciTech Connect

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

1981-01-01

210

Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Biologically Cloned Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates from Patients Treated with Zidovudine and Lamivudine  

PubMed Central

Mutations at reverse transcriptase codons 44, 118, 207, and 208 were significantly correlated with reduced zidovudine susceptibility in biologically cloned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. Sequences from the Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database showed that these mutations were more common in HIV-1 isolates from patients treated with zidovudine and lamivudine than in patients not treated with these drugs.

Stoeckli, Thomas C.; MaWhinney, Samantha; Uy, Jonathan; Duan, Chengying; Lu, Jing; Shugarts, David; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

2002-01-01

211

Powdered activated carbon added biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate in a fed-batch reactor.  

PubMed

Biological treatment of landfill leachate usually results in low treatment efficiencies because of high chemical oxygen demand (COD), high ammonium-N content and also presence of toxic compounds such as heavy metals. A landfill leachate with high COD content was pre-treated by coagulation-flocculation followed by air stripping of ammonia at pH = 12. Pre-treated leachate was biologically treated in an aeration tank operated in fed-batch mode with and without addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC). PAC at 2 g l-1 improved COD and ammonium-N removals resulting in nearly 86% COD and 26% NH4-N removal. PMID:12882168

Kargi, Fikret; Pamukoglu, M Yunus

2003-05-01

212

Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents.  

PubMed

The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multiuse character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas. PMID:15499492

Jones-Lepp, T L; Alvarez, D A; Petty, J D; Huckins, J N

2004-11-01

213

Nutrient removal from farm effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

N. S. Bolan; L. Wong; D. C. Adriano

2004-01-01

214

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

215

Groundwater pollution by Cystine manufacturing industrial effluent around the factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution potential of Cystine industrial effluents on groundwater pollution is assessed. The results indicate that the\\u000a Cystine industrial effluent which is partially treated and stored in lagoons contains a high concentration of inorganic solids\\u000a and soluble organics. The percolation of these effluents caused groundwater pollution impairing the water quality.

S. Srinivasa Gowd; B. Kotaiah

2000-01-01

216

200 Area TEDF effluent sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling analysis sets forth the effluent sampling requirements, analytical methods, statistical analyses, and reporting requirements to satisfy the State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST4502 for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. These requirements are listed below: Determine the variability in the effluent of all constituents for which enforcement limits, early warning values and monitoring requirements; demonstrate compliance with the permit;

W. C. Alaconis; N. A. Ballantyne; R. J. Boom

1995-01-01

217

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

218

Performance of conventional and antimicrobial-treated filtering facepiece respirators challenged with biological aerosols.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the filtration performance of four commercially available models of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) against both biological and inert aerosols at a flow rate of 85 L/min. Conventional N95 and P100 FFRs and two antimicrobial (AM)-treated FFRs (an N95 and a P95, both with iodine-based AM treatments) were tested for both physical penetration (PEN(P)) and viable penetration (PEN(V)) with three different bioaerosols, including MS2 bacteriophage virus, and the spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria, in addition to inert sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol. For each FFR model, the PEN(P) measured with NaCl was predictive of its MS2 PEN(P), and it was observed that spores and bacteria aerosols were also filtered similarly to the inert aerosol. For both conventional FFRs, up to a 1-log reduction in PEN(V) in comparison with PEN(P) was observed and attributed to the experimental variability of the test system. For both models of AM-FFRs, no statistically significant differences between PEN(V) and PEN(P) for any of the three different bioaerosol challenges were observed. Thus, no bioaerosol filtration enhancement over the conventional FFRs was detected for either iodine-based AM-FFR. In the absence of any standardized test methods, we recommend that future studies evaluating the filtration performance of AM-treated FFRs incorporate the experimental best practices described herein. PMID:22206440

Lore, Michael B; Sebastian, John M; Brown, TeAnne L; Viner, Andrew S; McCullough, Nicole V; Hinrichs, Steven H

2012-01-01

219

Biotechnological Remediation of Shipboard Waste Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biotechnological principles were applied to optimize organic matter reduction in bioreactors treating greywater effluents on Navy ships. Greywater treatment requires a rapid and reliable reduction in organic matter. Our studies addressed microbial physiol...

A. Konopka R. F. Turco

1999-01-01

220

Hydroponic Vetiver Treatment of Post Septic Tank Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver growing under hydroponic conditions to treat motel effluent, which has been primary treated in septic tanks. Water quality results and management issues are of interest. The aim is to surface irrigate the motel gardens with the treated effluent in a sustainable way. This can be accomplished if

Barbara Hart; Ron Cody; Paul Truong

221

Ozonation of biologically treated landfill leachate: treatment efficiency and molecular size distribution analysis.  

PubMed

A wide range of ozone doses were used to oxidise biologically treated Clover Bar landfill leachate, and results were compared to those of a previous study that involved aged raw leachate. The COD, BOD5 and colour of the leachate were measured prior to and after ozonation. The molecular size distribution of each sample was also analysed. At an ozone dose of 2.6 g l(-1), COD and colour removal efficiencies were 47% and 91%, respectively, while BOD5 increased by 324%. The BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.02 prior to ozonation to approximately 0.2 following an ozone dose of 5.5 g l(-1), indicating improvement in the leachate biodegradability. Ozonation was very effective in reducing the concentration of organic compounds with molecular weights larger than 300 Dalton. After ozonation, no new peaks representing small molecules were observed. Relationships representing ozone dose, COD, BOD5, and the BOD5/COD ratio, as functions of total peak area of molecular size distribution, were determined. PMID:15617442

Wang, F; Gamal el-Din, M; Smith, D W

2004-11-01

222

Reclamation of treated domestic wastewater using biological membrane assisted carbon filtration (BioMAC).  

PubMed

Membrane processes are increasingly used as an advanced treatment technique for the reclamation of treated domestic wastewater. Despite their inherent advantages, fouling remains an operational problem, while the removal of dissolved organic components such as volatile organic compounds is negligible. In the present work, the addition of a partially non-submerged biological granular activated carbon filtration to a microfiltration lab-scale reactor was investigated. It was observed that the reactor could be operated under stable flux conditions although regular hydraulic backwashing was necessary. Preferential attached growth of nitrifiers on the activated carbon particles allowed for a complete and very stable nitrification, with permeate total ammonium nitrogen and nitrite levels below 0.2 mg l(-1) regardless of influent concentrations. Chemical oxygen demand of the permeate averaged 5.26 mg O2 l(-1) which is below the Environmental Protection Agency guideline for wastewater reuse. Using an electronic nose, elimination of volatile compounds was assessed. The combined process resulted in complete odour removal, with the permeate odour levels equaling the reference samples (tap water), even during periods of increased reactor load (shock load experiment). A 4.2 log10 CFU and 3.7 log10 CFU removal were observed for total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. PMID:12361382

Van Hege, K; Dewettinck, T; Claeys, T; De Smedt, G; Verstraete, W

2002-09-01

223

Health status of native fish (Percilia gillissi and Trichomycterus areolatus) downstream of the discharge of effluent from a tertiary-treated elemental chlorine-free pulp mill in Chile.  

PubMed

Few data exist on the possible effects of pulp and paper effluent discharge on native fish populations in the Southern Hemisphere, relative to the research done in the Northern Hemisphere. The present research examined two native fish species (Trichomycterus areolatus and Percilia gillissi) for effects at both the molecular and individual level due to the discharge of effluent from a tertiary treated elemental chlorine-free pulp mill into a fluvial system in Central Chile over three seasons (February 2007, October 2007, January 2008). Different responses were observed between species and between sexes. There was an increase in the production of gonadal 17?-estradiol in the females of both species but a drop in 11-ketotestosterone production in P. gillissi males. Female gonadal size was increased, especially during the summer period, with corresponding increases the frequency of advanced oocyte development, and in the oocyte diameter in both species. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was elevated for both species downstream of the discharge point, although overall it was higher in P. gillissi than T. areolatus. Decreases in the frequency of smaller-sized fish for both species, as well as a drop in the size of the adults downstream of the discharge point, were observed. The present study is the first evidence of endocrine disruption in native freshwater fish associated with modern pulp mills in South America. This study establishes possible links in the reproductive alterations observed at the subindividual and individual levels that could explain the changes observed at the population level. PMID:21544863

Chiang, Gustavo; McMaster, Mark E; Urrutia, Roberto; Saavedra, M Fernanda; Gavilán, J Francisco; Tucca, Felipe; Barra, Ricardo; Munkittrick, Kelly R

2011-06-16

224

Prognostic cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in ?50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1?). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients. PMID:21195874

Noordhuis, Maartje G; Eijsink, Jasper J H; Roossink, Frank; de Graeff, Pauline; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G Bea A; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Zee, Ate G J

2011-02-01

225

Ecotoxicity assessment of lipid regulators in water and biologically treated wastewater using three aquatic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The high consumption of blood lipid regulators is leading to frequent reports of the occurrence of fibrates in natural streams\\u000a and wastewater effluents. This paper describes a study undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity of bezafibrate, clofibric\\u000a acid, gemfibrozil, and fenofibric acid, a metabolite of fenofibrate whose ecotoxicity has not been previously reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The bioassays

Roberto Rosal; Ismael Rodea-Palomares; Karina Boltes; Francisca Fernández-Piñas; Francisco Leganés; Soledad Gonzalo; Alice Petre

2010-01-01

226

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-01-29

227

Health Effects in Fish of Long-Term Exposure to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works  

PubMed Central

Concern has been raised in recent years that exposure to wastewater treatment effluents containing estrogenic chemicals can disrupt the endocrine functioning of riverine fish and cause permanent alterations in the structure and function of the reproductive system. Reproductive disorders may not necessarily arise as a result of estrogenic effects alone, and there is a need for a better understanding of the relative importance of endocrine disruption in relation to other forms of toxicity. Here, the integrated health effects of long-term effluent exposure are reported (reproductive, endocrine, immune, genotoxic, nephrotoxic). Early life-stage roach, Rutilus rutilus, were exposed for 300 days to treated wastewater effluent at concentrations of 0, 15.2, 34.8, and 78.7% (with dechlorinated tap water as diluent). Concentrations of treated effluents that induced feminization of male roach, measured as vitellogenin induction and histological alteration to gonads, also caused statistically significant alterations in kidney development (tubule diameter), modulated immune function (differential cell count, total number of thrombocytes), and caused genotoxic damage (micronucleus induction and single-strand breaks in gill and blood cells). Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects occurred at concentrations of wastewater effluent lower than those required to induce recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive endocrine system. These findings emphasize the need for multiple biological end points in tests that assess the potential health effects of wastewater effluents. They also suggest that for some effluents, genotoxic and immune end points may be more sensitive than estrogenic (endocrine-mediated) end points as indicators of exposure in fish.

Liney, Katherine E.; Hagger, Josephine A.; Tyler, Charles R.; Depledge, Michael H.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jobling, Susan

2006-01-01

228

Integration of photocatalysis and biological treatment for azo dye removal – application to AR183  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of coupling photocatalysis with biological treatment to treat effluents containing azo dyes was examined in this work. With this aim, the degradation of Acid Red 183 was investigated. The very low biodegradability of AR183 was confirmed beforehand by measuring the biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Photocatalysis experiments were carried out in a closed?loop step photoreactor. The reactor walls were

Derradji Chebli; Florence Fourcade; Stephan Brosillon; Saci Nacef; Abdeltif Amrane

2011-01-01

229

Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 ?g L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

2012-01-24

230

Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically–biologically treated waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically–biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (>96%) of the

J.-K. M. Einola; K. M. Sormunen; J. A. Rintala

2008-01-01

231

A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC\\/EC50 values) with that

K. P. Sharma; S. Sharma; P. K. Singh; S. Kumar; R. Grover; P. K. Sharma

2007-01-01

232

Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.  

PubMed

For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of excess P accumulation in waste-amended soils. PMID:19202028

Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

2009-02-06

233

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

234

Utilization of textile industrial effluent for raising Azadirachta indica A. Juss seedlings in Indian desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted during 1993–1995 to study the effect of industrial effluent on the initial growth of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) in arid region. The effluent released from textile industry had high pH, EC, SAR and RSC. Various treatments were: irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water at 1:1 ratio (W2), gypsum?treated effluent (W3),

Genda Singh; Nirmalya Bala; Thana Ram Rathod

2009-01-01

235

Nutrient removal of effluent from quail farm through cultivation of Wolffia arrhiza.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the nutrient removal using the Wolffiaarrhiza during the treatment of laying quails farm effluent. The relationship between W. arrhiza biomass and treatment time, the change in water qualities, and nitrogen-balance (N-balance) were evaluated. The results showed that a biomass of 12.0g of W. arrhiza per liter of effluent and a treatment period of 30 days were found to provide the best conditions for W. arrhiza's growth and the quality of the treated effluent in terms of biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, total phosphorus, nitrate, total ammonia nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. The pH and salinity were similar for each level of biomass. The W. arrhiza biomasses of 4.00-12.0g/l of effluent were suitable for W. arrhiza survival over time. Since W. arrhiza can fix N in the atmosphere, it can grow very well in effluent containing a low level of N. PMID:21669519

Suppadit, T

2011-05-30

236

Human cell death in relation to DNA damage after exposure to the untreated and biologically treated pharmaceutical wastewater.  

PubMed

Among all the pharmaceutical drugs that contaminate the environment, antibiotics occupy an important place due to their high consumption rates in both veterinary and human medicine. The present study examined the ability of Pseudomonas putida to grow on the antibiotic wastewater, currently expanding in Tunisia, containing amoxicillin and cefadroxil. P. putida was very efficient to grow quickly in pharmaceutical wastewater (PW) and in reducing the total dissolved solids to 80.1 %. Cytotoxicity of PW, before and after biodegradation with P. putida mt-2, was evaluated in vitro, using the MTT assay, against four human tumor cell lines such as A549 (lung cell carcinoma), HCT15 (colon cell carcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), and U373 (glioma cell carcinoma). The PW reduced all human cell lines viability in a dose-dependent manner. This activity was very remarkable against U373 cell line. For this reason, we have tested the genotoxicity of PW using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. In fact, PW has statistically significant (p<0.001) influence on DNA. Indeed, the percentage of genotoxicity was 66.87 and 87.5 %, after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. However, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested the PW obtained after incubation with P. putida mt-2. Our results indicate that P. putida is a promising and improved alternative to treating industrial-scale effluent compared to current chemical treatment procedures used by the industrials. PMID:23179225

Krifa, Mounira; Dellai, Afef; Bouhlel, Ines; Robert, Jacque; Cherif, Ameur; Barillier, Daniel; Mosrati, Ridha; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ben Mansour, Hedi

2012-11-23

237

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

238

Census of cultivable bacterial community in common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tannery discharge and computational scrutiny on their leading residents  

PubMed Central

Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) for tannery effluent, is the combination of physical, chemical and biological treatment to facilitate the degradation of industrial waste water. Obviously, the biomass which survives in this extreme environment may have the ability to utilize the effluent as the sole carbon source for its survival. The ultimate aim of the present investigation is to expose the microbial diversity in each stage of the CETP through the culture dependent way. Bacterial diversity in the effluent were analysed through 16S rRNA gene. The community study revealed the dominance of firmicutes and the dominant genus was Bacillus sp, with variable species diversity. Notably, Putative Bacillus sp, B. firmus and B. licheniformis were observed in all stages of treatment. The dominant residents were analysed by BProm and TF site scan to prove their uniqueness. This species richness indicates the capability of liveliness in treatment plant and whose can be exploited for treating the effluent by using modern molecular approach. Abbreviations CETP - Common Effluent Treatment Plant, PTIET - Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company Ltd.

Suganya, Thangaiyan; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Arunprasanna, Vimalanathan; Shanmugam, Ponnusamy; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

2013-01-01

239

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

PubMed Central

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming.

Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

2006-01-01

240

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate.  

PubMed

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming. PMID:17111466

Sial, R A; Chaudhary, M F; Abbas, S T; Latif, M I; Khan, A G

2006-12-01

241

Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must be removed and disposed of properly, in order to make future piling removals as effective and beneficial to ecosystem health as possible.

Stefansson, E. S.

2008-12-01

242

Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in raw and biologically treated sewage and in groundwater below leaking sewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 750 isolates of faecal coliforms (>200 strains), enterococci (>200 strains) and pseudomonads (>340 strains) from three wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and from four groundwater wells in the vicinity of leaking sewers were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics. Most, or at least some, strains of the three bacterial groups, isolated from raw or treated sewage of the three

C. Gallert; K. Fund; J. Winter

2005-01-01

243

Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.  

SciTech Connect

Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

2005-04-01

244

Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials  

PubMed Central

Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500??mol?g?1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents.

Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

2012-01-01

245

Analytical methods in environmental effects-directed investigations of effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent discharges are released into aquatic environments as complex mixtures for which there is commonly either no knowledge of the toxic components or a lack of understanding of how known toxicants interact with other effluent components. Effects-directed investigations consist of chemical extraction and iterative fractionation steps directed by a biological endpoint that is designed to permit the identification or characterization

L. Mark Hewitt; Chris H. Marvin

2005-01-01

246

Effect of Ozone on Secondary Effluents Treatment for Agriculture Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of ozonation of secondary effluents from two treatment plants in Havana, Cuba. These facilities have different treatment capacities and the treatment scheme of domestic sewages includes a primary treatment (screening and sedimentation) and a secondary treatment (biological filter followed by sedimentation), finally the effluents are discharged to a river. The samples were collected before the

M. Bataller; L. A. Fernández; C. Hernández; I. Fernández; C. Alvarez; E. Sánchez

247

Challenges in treating patients with major depressive disorder: the impact of biological and social factors.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is frequently unrecognized and underdiagnosed by clinicians and thus remains untreated or inappropriately treated in routine clinical practice. Although the symptoms of MDD are widely acknowledged and recognized by clinicians, numerous epidemiological studies have reported that this disorder is more prevalent than had previously been thought, and that it is challenging to diagnose and treat, particularly because somatic symptoms and comorbid conditions are common in real clinical situations. MDD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with higher healthcare costs and more severe functional impairment. Therefore, optimal treatment for MDD should include collaboration focussed on comorbid physical diseases, rehabilitation aimed at restoring social functioning, and pharmacotherapy designed to ensure complete remission including psychological and physical symptoms, as well as functional recovery. PMID:23712795

Sato, Soichiro; Yeh, Tzung Lieh

2013-05-01

248

Membrane filtration of wastewater effluents for reuse: effluent organic matter rejection and fouling.  

PubMed

The reuse of treated wastewater to augment natural drinking water supplies is receiving serious consideration. Treatment of secondary and tertiary effluent by membrane filtration was investigated by assessing nanofiltration (NF) membrane and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in bench-scale experiments. It was found that secondary and tertiary effluent contained high concentration of effluent organic matter (EfOM), contributing EfOM-related fouling. Flux decline and EfOM rejection tests were evaluated, using a dead-end stirred cell filtration unit. Surface charge and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of membranes were significant factors in membrane performance including permeability and EfOM-rejection. PMID:11436785

Jarusutthirak, C; Amy, G

2001-01-01

249

Evolution of N-converting bacteria during the start-up of anaerobic digestion coupled biological nitrogen removal pilot-scale bioreactors treating high-strength animal waste slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal wastes have been successfully employed in anaerobic biogas production, viewed as a pragmatic approach to rationalize energy costs in animal farms. Effluents resulting from that process however are still high in nitrogen such that attempts were made to couple biological nitrogen removal (BNR) with anaerobic digestion (AD). The demand for organic substrate in such system is partitioned between the

Alfredo J. Anceno; Pierre Rouseau; Fabrice Béline; Oleg V. Shipin; Patrick Dabert

2009-01-01

250

Biological functioning of PAH-polluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators.  

PubMed

A large number of soil bioindicators were used to assess biological diversity and activity in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the same soil after thermal desorption (TD) treatment. Abundance and biodiversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods, as well as functional parameters such as enzymatic activities and soil respiration, were assessed during a two year period of in situ monitoring. We investigated the influence of vegetation (spontaneous vegetation and Medicago sativa) and TD treatment on biological functioning. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the whole data set. A principal response curve (PRC) technique was used to evaluate the different treatments (various vegetation and contaminated vs. TD soil) contrasted with control (bare) soil over time. Our results indicated the value of using a number of complementary bioindicators, describing both diversity and functions, to assess the influence of vegetation on soil and discriminate polluted from thermal desorption (TD)-treated soil. Plants had an influence on the abundance and activity of all organisms examined in our study, favoring the whole trophic chain development. However, although TD-treated soil had a high abundance and diversity of microorganisms and fauna, enzymatic activities were weak because of the strong physical and chemical modifications of this soil. PMID:21392572

Cébron, Aurélie; Cortet, Jérôme; Criquet, Stéven; Biaz, Asmaa; Calvert, Virgile; Caupert, Cécile; Pernin, Céline; Leyval, Corinne

2011-03-21

251

[The biological and electrophysiological parameters in the rat chronically treated with Lobelia inflata L].  

PubMed

In this paper we have studied the rat under chronic treatment with Lobeline sulphate ip. For a three week period we have recorded, once a week, weight, rectal temperature, tail-flick, motor coordination and general activity in a one-arm radial maze and in a Boissier-Simon table. At the end of the third week surface (SEEG) and deep (DEEG) EEG were recorded both from treated and control animals. The findings are: 1) no changes was observed in weight, rectal temperature, tail-flick and motor coordination; 2) the treated rats showed an increased general activity both in a one-arm radial maze and in the Boissier-Simon table; 3) the EEG effects were analyzed and quantified, by means of Fast Fourier transform, as total power and as power in preselected bands of frequency. The lobeline sulphate seems to produce both in SEEG and hippocampus a shift toward low frequencies and in amygdala a drift toward high frequencies. PMID:1831091

Sopranzi, N; De Feo, G; Mazzanti, G; Braghiroli, L

1991-05-31

252

EVAPORATIVE PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE CONTAINING EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A unique evaporation/humidification process for treating wastewater effluent has been developed at Alcoa Laboratories. A major portion of the effluent is recovered as water of high purity suitable for recycle or reuse, and the small volume of concentrated chemicals can be either ...

253

Treatment of paper coating colour effluents by membrane filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute coating colour effluents are created during the coating of paper and board. After treating the colour effluents with ultrafiltration, the retentate can be reused as coating colour and the permeate can replace fresh water. At the same time, the load on the external treatment plant is reduced. In this investigation, pilot-plant experiments were performed at a paper mill. A

A.-S. Jönsson; C. Jönsson; M. Teppler; P. Tomani; S. Wännström

1996-01-01

254

Use of Aquatic Oligochaete, 'Lumbriculus variegatus', for Effluent Biomonitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of ...

C. E. Hornig

1980-01-01

255

USE OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETE, 'LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS', FOR EFFLUENT BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of toxic agents in industria...

256

Deammonification reaction in digested swine effluents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers that would like to implement biological nitrogen (N) removal from the effluent of anaerobic digesters (AD) – for example to comply with regional surplus nitrogen regulations or to take advantage of environmental nutrient credit programs – are often limited by the low amount of endogenous ca...

257

Disinfection of greywater effluent and regrowth potential of selected bacteria.  

PubMed

Chlorination and UV irradiation of RBC (rotating biological contactor)-treated light GW (greywater) was investigated. The ability of chlorine and UV to inactivate indictor bacteria (FC - Faecal Coliforms, HPC - Heterotrophic Plate Count) and specific pathogens (P.a. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp., S.a. - Staphylococcus aureus sp.), was assessed and their regrowth potential was examined. The RBC removed 88.5-99.9% of all four bacteria groups. Nevertheless, the treated GW had to be disinfected. Most of the chlorine was consumed during the first 0.5 h, while later its decay rate decreased significantly, leaving enough residual after 6 h to prevent regrowth and to further inactivate bacteria in the stored GW effluent. Under exposure to low UV doses (?69 mJ/cm(2)) FC was the most resistant bacteria group, followed by HPC, P.a. and S.a. Exposure to higher doses (?439 mJs/cm(2)) completely inactivated FC, P.a. and S.a., while no further HPC inactivation was observed. FC, P.a. and S.a. did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to all the UV doses applied (up to 6 h storage). HPC did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to low UV doses (19-69 mJ/cm2), while it presented statistically significant regrowth in un-disinfected effluent and after exposure to higher UV doses (147-439 mJ/cm(2)). PMID:21411943

Friedler, Eran; Yardeni, Anat; Gilboa, Yael; Alfiya, Yuval

2011-01-01

258

Modelling of biogas extraction at an Italian landfill accepting mechanically and biologically treated municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of the modelling of the biogas extraction in a full-scale Italian landfill by the USEPA LandGEM model and the Andreottola-Cossu approach. The landfill chosen for this research ('Il Fossetto' plant, Monsummano Terme, Italy) had accepted mixed municipal raw waste for about 15?years. In the year 2003 a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) was implemented and starting from the end of the year 2006, the recirculation in the landfill of the concentrated leachate coming from the internal membrane leachate treatment plant was put into practice. The USEPA LandGEM model and the Andreottola-Cossu approach were chosen since they require only input data routinely acquired during landfill management (waste amount and composition) and allow a simplified calibration, therefore they are potentially useful for practical purposes such as landfill gas management. The results given by the models are compared with measured data and analysed in order to verify the impact of MBT on biogas production; moreover, the possible effects of the recirculation of the concentrated leachate are discussed. The results clearly show how both models can adequately fit measured data even after MBT implementation. Model performance was significantly reduced for the period after the beginning of recirculation of concentrated leachate when the probable inhibition of methane production, due to the competition between methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, significantly influenced the biogas production and composition. PMID:21930528

Calabrò, Paolo S; Orsi, Sirio; Gentili, Emiliano; Carlo, Meoni

2011-09-18

259

Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982March 31, 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses

Eidson

1984-01-01

260

Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Native Livers From Patients Treated With Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: Biologic and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

The gross and histopathologic characteristics of 212 non-fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) discovered in native livers removed at the time of liver transplantation were correlated with features of invasive growth and tumor-free survival. The results show that most HCCs begin as small well-differentiated tumors that have an increased proliferation rate and induce neovascularization, compared with the surrounding liver. But at this stage, they maintain a near-normal apoptosis/mitosis ratio and uncommonly show vascular invasion. As tumors enlarge, foci of dedifferentiation appear within the neoplastic nodules, which have a higher proliferation rate and show more pleomorphism than surrounding better-differentiated areas. Vascular invasion, which is the strongest predictor of disease recurrence, correlates significantly with tumor number and size, tumor giant cells and necrosis, the predominant and worst degree of differentiation, and the apoptosis/mitosis ratio. In the absence of macroscopic or large vessel invasion, largest tumor size (P < .006), apoptosis/mitosis ratio (P < .03), and number of tumors (P < .04) were independent predictors of tumor-free survival and none of 24 patients with tumors having an apoptosis/mitosis ratio greater than 7.2 had recurrence. A minority of HCCs (<15%) quickly develop aggressive features (moderate or poor differentiation, low apoptosis/mitosis ratio, and vascular invasion) while still small, similar to flat carcinomas of the bladder and colon. In conclusion, hepatic carcinogenesis in humans is a multistep and multifocal process. As in experimental animal studies, aggressive biologic behavior (vascular invasion and recurrence) correlates significantly with profound alterations in the apoptosis/mitosis ratio and with architectural and cytologic alterations that suggest a progressive accumulation of multiple genetic abnormalities.

Kirimlioglu, Hale; Dvorchick, Igor; Ruppert, Kris; Finkelstein, Sydney; Marsh, J. Wallis; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Bonham, Andrew; Carr, Brian; Nalesnik, Michael; Michalopoulos, George; Starzl, Thomas; Fung, John; Demetris, Anthony

2010-01-01

261

Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review.  

PubMed

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. PMID:19458999

Carey, Richard O; Migliaccio, Kati W

2009-05-21

262

Biological and Chemical Observations in Mumford and Palmer Coves (Groton, Conn.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemical and biological study is described for Mumford and Palmer Coves near Groton, Connecticut. Mumford cove is an estuary receiving 0.25 MGD of primary-treated sewage effluent prior to construction of a secondary treatment plant with projected flow o...

J. D. Buck

1971-01-01

263

Integration of chemical and biological oxidation in a SBBR for tannery wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an investigation aimed at evaluating the laboratory-scale performance of an innovative process for treating tannery wastewater. In this process, biological degradation, carried out in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR), is combined with chemical oxidation by ozone. Tannery wastewater treatment was carried out, at laboratory scale, on a real primary effluent coming from a

C. Di Iaconi; F. Bonemazzi; A. Lopez; R. Ramadori

2004-01-01

264

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

265

Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

Graf, F.A. Jr.

1995-02-27

266

Bioremediation of sago industry effluent and its impact on seed germination (green gram and maize)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we attempted two investigational systems: one is treatment of sago industry effluent by aerobic bacterial consortium\\u000a and the other is impact of treated and untreated effluent on seed germination. For the treatment system, the starch degrading\\u000a bacteria were isolated from sago industry effluent and effluent contaminated soil. The genera, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Corynebacterium were found efficient in

P. M. Ayyasamy; R. Banuregha; G. Vivekanandhan; S. Rajakumar; R. Yasodha; S. Lee; P. Lakshmanaperumalsamy

2008-01-01

267

Phosphorus leaching in soils amended with piggery effluent or lime residues from effluent treatment.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) in wastes from piggeries may contribute to the eutrophication of waterways if not disposed of appropriately. Phosphorus leaching, from three soils with different P sorption characteristics (two with low P retention and one with moderate P retention) when treated with piggery effluent (with or without struvite), was investigated using batch and leaching experiments. The leaching of P retained in soil from the application of struvite effluent was determined. In addition, P leaching from lime residues (resulting from the treatment of piggery effluent with lime to remove P) was determined in comparison to superphosphate when applied to the same three soils. Most P was leached from sandy soils with low P retention when effluent with or without struvite was applied. More than 100% of the filterable P applied in struvite effluent was leached in sandy soils with low P retention. Solid, inorganic forms of P (struvite) became soluble and potentially leachable at pH<7 or were sorbed after dissolution if there were sufficient sorption sites. In sandy soils with low P retention, more than 39% of the total filterable P applied in recycled effluent (without struvite) was leached. Soil P increased mainly in surface layers after treatment with effluent. Sandy soils pre-treated with struvite effluent leached 40% of the P retained in the previous application. Phosphorus decreased in surface layers and increased at depth in the soil with moderate P retention after leaching the struvite effluent pre-treated soil with water. The soils capacity to adsorb P and the soil pH were the major soil properties that affected the rate and amount of P leaching, whereas the important characteristics of the effluent were pH, P concentration and the forms of P in the effluent. Phosphorus losses from soils amended with hydrated lime and lime kiln dust residues were much lower than losses from soils amended with superphosphate. Up to 92% of the P applied as superphosphate was leached from sandy soils with low P retention, whereas only up to 60% of the P applied in lime residues was leached. The P source contributing least to P leaching was the lime kiln dust residue. The amount of P leached depended on the water-soluble P content, neutralising value and application rate of the P source, and the pH and P sorption capacity of the soil. PMID:15091693

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1994-01-01

268

40 CFR 419.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be based on those ballast waters treated at the refinery. ...Effluent limitations for ballast water Maximum for any 1 day ...attributable to once-through cooling water, are excluded from the discharge...limitations for contaminated runoff. The following...

2012-07-01

269

40 CFR 411.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.32 Effluent limitations guidelines...operated to treat the volume of runoff from materials storage piles which is associated with a 10-year, 24-hour rainfall...

2012-07-01

270

Disposal of Tritiated Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ s...

K. Hartmann H. Bruecher

1981-01-01

271

Geothermal Effluent Sampling Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling method...

1981-01-01

272

Potentials of using a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out in order to assess the impact of CODbiod. in an UASB effluent applied to a single stage, a two stage RBC system and an anoxic up-flow submerged bio-filter followed by a segmental two stage aerobic RBC on the removal efficiency of different COD fractions, Escherichia coli, ammonia and partially nitrate removal.The two (single stage)

A. Tawfik; A. Klapwijk; F. El-Gohary; G. Lettinga

2005-01-01

273

Toxicity assessment of textile effluents treated by advanced oxidative process (UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2) in the species Artemia salina L.  

PubMed

Textile industry wastes raise a great concern due to their strong coloration and toxicity. The objective of the present work was to characterize the degradation and mineralization of textile effluents by advanced oxidative processes using either TiO(2) or TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and to monitor the toxicity of the products formed during 6-h irradiation in relation to that of the in natura effluent. The results demonstrated that the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association was more efficient in the mineralization of textile effluents than TiO(2), with high mineralized ion concentrations (NH (4) (+) , NO (3) (-) , and SO (4) (2-) ) and significantly decreased organic matter ratios (represented by the chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon). The toxicity of the degradation products after 4-h irradiation to Artemia salina L. was not significant (below 10 %). However, the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association produced more toxicity under irradiation than the TiO(2) system, which was attributed to the increased presence of oxidants in the first group. Comparatively, the photogenerated products of both TiO(2) and the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association were less toxic than the in natura effluent. PMID:22638725

Garcia, Juliana Carla; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoly; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Ambrósio, Elizangela; Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio

2012-05-26

274

Fungal post-treatment of pulp mill effluents for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-treatment of an anaerobic recalcitrant effluent (anaerobically-treated weak black liquor, AnE) in an aerobic, upflow reactor packed with “biocubes” of Trametes versicolor immobilized onto small cubes of holm oak wood. The treated effluent (named anaerobic effluent; AnE) from an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed to an up-flow aerobic fungal packed

Alfredo Ortega-Clemente; S. Caffarel-Méndez; M. T. Ponce-Noyola; J. Barrera-Córtes; Héctor M. Poggi-Varaldo

2009-01-01

275

Treatment of wastewater from a low-temperature carbonization process industry through biological and chemical oxidation processes for recycle/reuse: a case study.  

PubMed

Low-temperature carbonization (LTC) of coal generates highly complex wastewater warranting stringent treatment. Developing a techno-economically viable treatment facility for such wastewaters is a challenging task. The paper discusses a case study pertaining to an existing non-performing effluent treatment plant (ETP). The existing ETP comprising an ammonia stripper followed by a single stage biological oxidation was unable to treat 1,050 m(3)/d of effluent as per the stipulated discharge norms. The treated effluent from the existing ETP was characterized with high concentrations of ammonia (75-345 mg N/l), COD (313-1,422 mg/l) and cyanide (0.5-4 mg/l). Studies were undertaken to facilitate recycling/reuse of the treated effluent within the plant. A second stage biooxidation process was investigated at pilot scale for the treatment of the effluent from the ETP. This was further subjected to tertiary treatment with 0.5% dose of 4% hypochlorite which resulted in effluent with pH: 6.6-6.8, COD: 73-121 mg/l, and BOD(5):<10 mg/l. Phenol, cyanide and ammonia were below detectable limits and the colourless effluent was suitable for recycle and reuse. Thus, a modified treatment scheme comprising ammonia pre-stripping followed by two-stage biooxidation process and a chemical oxidation step with hypochlorite at tertiary stage was proposed for recycle/reuse of LTC wastewater. PMID:20453329

Biswas, R; Bagchi, S; Urewar, C; Gupta, D; Nandy, T

2010-01-01

276

Emergency effluent monitoring and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the use of effluent monitoring equipment during radiological emergencies that may require initiation of protective actions for the general public. It expands upon the effluent guide coverage, and includes methods on use of portable instruments for effluent monitoring when all other monitors fail to work, the importance of plume monitoring, and how and when it should be

Corbit

1982-01-01

277

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

278

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

SciTech Connect

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06

279

Nitrogen dioxide and ultrafine particles dominate the biological effects of inhaled diesel exhaust treated by a catalyzed diesel particulate filter.  

PubMed

We studied the impact of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) on the toxicity of diesel exhaust. Rats inhaled exhaust from a Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine, with and without DPF after-treatment, or HEPA-filtered air for 4h, on 1 day (single exposure) and 3 days (repeated exposures). Biological effects were assessed after 2h (single exposure) and 20h (single and repeated exposures) recovery in clean air. Concentrations of pollutants were (1) untreated exhaust (-DPF), nitric oxide (NO), 43 ppm; nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 4 ppm; carbon monoxide (CO), 6 ppm; hydrocarbons, 11 ppm; particles, 3.2×10(5)/cm(3), 60-70nm mode, 269 ?g/m(3); (2) treated exhaust (+DPF), NO, 20 ppm; NO2, 16 ppm; CO, 1 ppm; hydrocarbons, 3 ppm; and particles, 4.4×10(5)/cm(3), 7-8nm mode, 2 ?g/m(3). Single exposures to -DPF exhaust resulted in increased neutrophils, total protein and the cytokines, growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lung lavage fluid, as well as increased gene expression of interleukin-6, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, metallothionein 2A, tumor necrosis factor-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, glutathione S-transferase A1, heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in the lung, and ET- 1 in the heart. Ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 peptide increased in plasma in conjunction with a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the lungs after exposure to diesel exhaust, suggesting endothelial dysfunction. Rather than reducing toxicity, +DPF exhaust resulted in heightened injury and inflammation, consistent with the 4-fold increase in NO2 concentration. The ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 was similarly elevated after -DPF and +DPF exhaust exposures. Endothelial dysfunction, thus, appeared related to particle number deposited, rather than particle mass or NO2 concentration. The potential benefits of particulate matter reduction using a catalyzed DPF may be confounded by increase in NO2 emission and release of reactive ultrafine particles. PMID:23897985

Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Thomson, Errol M; Kumarathasan, Prem; Guénette, Josée; Rosenblatt, Debbie; Chan, Tak; Rideout, Greg; Vincent, Renaud

2013-07-28

280

Co-epuration of winery and pesticides effluents, activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration, two new technologies for pesticides effluents treatment.  

PubMed

Wine-related activities produce significant volumes of wastewater characterized by high concentrations in organic matter. The term of pesticides effluents defines the water coming from the emptying and the rinsing of the equipment used to pulverize the phytosanitary products on the vines. Pesticide pollution of surface waters from vineyards applications represents a considerable hazard for the aquatic environment. The nature of these wastes is very variable, indeed more than 150 active molecules can be employed. So, the main characteristic of these effluents is their toxicity towards the environment. In this study, an approach was developed to estimate the possibility of developing two biological wastewater treatment process for pesticides effluents treatment. The first one is particulary designed for small vineyard and is a co-epuration process combining winery wastewater treatment with pesticides effluents treatment. The second one is an activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration and is particularly suited for large vineyards or regroupings of wine growers. PMID:21123924

Massot, A; Esteve, K; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

2010-01-01

281

NITRIFICATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTE EFFLUENTS BY ROTATING BIO-DISCS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of nitrifying secondary effluent with rotating biological surfaces (RBS). Two municipal effluents were evaluated; one was from a high rate trickling filter and the other was from two-stage, flow through lagoon. RBS pilot pla...

282

Evaluating ammonia toxicity in sewage effluent to stream macroinvertebrates: I. A multi-level approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-level approach incorporating instream biological response, water quality, and toxicity testing was used to evaluate the toxicity of ammonia in sewage effluent to macroinvertebrates in two Ozark border streams. Macroinvertebrate community compositions at sites upstream from effluent discharge were most similar, while communities at upstream vs downstream sites were least similar. Upstream sites had abundant mayflies, blackflies, and caddisflies,

D. P. Monda; D. L. Galat; S. E. Finger

1995-01-01

283

In vitro effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent on sea bass red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red blood cells of marine fish have been used in suitable biological assays to study the (eco)toxicity of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The aim of the present work was to draw upon their more relevant effects on cell hemolysis, ATP content, osmotic resistance and cell volume regulation. Following physico-chemical treatment, treatment plant effluents showed a residual toxicity resulting from multiple

G. Bogé; H. Roche

2004-01-01

284

Improvement in anaerobic degradation of olive mill effluent (OME) by chemical pretreatment using batch systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, feasibility of using chemical pretreatment to improve the anaerobic biological degradation of industrial effluents containing high concentrations of phenolic compounds was investigated. For this purpose, chemical pretreatment of the wastewater generated from olive oil production process, namely olive mill effluent (OME), was conducted by means of acid cracking followed by coagulation–flocculation process using one of the coagulating

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Ebru Cokay Catalkaya

2008-01-01

285

Influence of Effluent Irrigation on Community Composition and Function of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of effluent irrigation on community composition and function of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in soil was evaluated, using techniques of molecular biology and analytical soil chemistry. Analyses were conducted on soil sampled from lysimeters and from a grapefruit orchard which had been irrigated with wastewater effluent or fertilizer-amended water (FAW). Specifically, comparisons of AOB community compo- sition were conducted

TAMAR OVED; AVI SHAVIV; TAL GOLDRATH; RAPHI T. MANDELBAUM; DROR MINZ

2001-01-01

286

Post treatment of groundwater denitrification fluidized bed reactor effluents to achieve drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Post treatment of effluents from heterotrophic groundwater denitrification fluidized bed reactors (FBR) designed to achieve\\u000a drinking water quality has been investigated. The denitrification process adds to the dissolved organic compounds, biomass\\u000a and bacteria in the effluent. They are also lacking dissolved oxygen. Effluents from the process were treated in combined\\u000a post treatment processes based on either a trickling filter and

H Bach; S Tarre; M Green

1998-01-01

287

Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.

2005-05-01

288

Waste effluent treatment and solvent recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A system for treating waste effluent and recovering solids and solvent material including a reservoir mounted on a stand connected by means to a solvent migrator including an adjustable trough for receiving new solution, a secondary reservoir with a cloth or absorbent material designed to contact the fluid in the secondary reservoir, while parallel to the sun's rays, an automatic leveling means and apparatus for recirculation of waste effluent including a leveling ball, and suction tubing for the recirculation of fluid, a solar unit comprised of glass panels to form a collecting dome with collecting troughs and a bonnet to shade the top of the pyramid formed by the dome panels and mirrors for the reflection of sunlight, all of which is connected to a chemical trap and subsequently a collecting means for the pure product.

Lucas, F.

1985-01-22

289

Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural industry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries. PMID:22522427

Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

2012-03-11

290

BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and effective tool in the treatment of water contaminated with BTEX mixture. Therefore, the raw petroleum refinery effluent might be a source of hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:20655572

Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

2010-07-23

291

Effluent recycle and waste minimization in prawn farm effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prawn farms withdraw huge quantities of sea water and discharge 5–30% of it back to the estuary during water exchange process. The effluent from the prawn ponds contains large quantities of solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and algae and it cannot be discharged into the estuary or ocean without proper effluent treatment. Sedimentation could form a partial treatment system. In this study,

S Vigneswaran; H. H Ngo; K. L Wee

1999-01-01

292

FCC reactor effluent sampling  

SciTech Connect

Optimizing the FCC unit requires fast and accurate measurements of the effects of operating variables on yields. Unfortunately, the FCC unit material balance is often uncertain due to the complexity of product recovery systems and the injection of extraneous streams into the gas plant. Reactor effluent sampling, or Reaction Mix Sampling (RMS) as it is sometimes called, provides a faster, more accurate method of obtaining FCC unit performance data compared to standard test run techniques. This paper describes the RMS procedure and illustrates how it was used at the Ultramar refinery in Wilmington, California, to quantify the effect of two major operating variables.

Campagna, R.J.; Bricklemyer (Refining Process Services, Cheswick, PA (US)); Bodnar, W.M.; Laux, M.A.; Chung, H. (Ultramar Refining, Long Beach, CA (US))

1989-01-01

293

Effect of natural coagulant application on microfiltration performance in treatment of secondary oxidation pond effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary oxidation pond effluent was treated using hollow-fibre crossflow microfiltration and coagulation process. Preliminary tests were carried out to find the optimum dosage of Moringa oleifera (a natural coagulant) for the coagulation process. Optimum dosage of Moringa oleifera was recorded as 100 mg\\/L for turbidity of secondary oxidation pond effluents ranging between 30 and 100 NTU. Turbidity removal achieved

S. Katayon; M. J. Megat Mohd Noor; W. Kien Tat; G. Abdul Halim; A. M. Thamer; Y. Badronisa

2007-01-01

294

Supply of organic matter and bacteria to aquatic ecosystems through waste water effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the impact on the river Seine of the waste water effluents from the city of Paris and its suburbs, a detailed characterisation was made of both raw and treated effluents from the three main treatment plants in this area which differ both in size and type of treatment. The waste water samples were subjected to analyses

Pierre Servais; Josette Garnier; Nadia Demarteau; Natacha Brion; Gilles Billen

1999-01-01

295

Exposure to municipal wastewater effluent impacts stress performance in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to examine the impact of municipal wastewater effluents on the functioning of the cortisol stress axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were caged upstream (reference) and downstream (100% and 10% effluent) of a tertiary-treated municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sampled at 14d later (0 time samples). A second set of

Jennifer S. Ings; Mark R. Servos; Mathilakath M. Vijayan

2011-01-01

296

Process for purifying a hydrogen gas and recovering liquifiable hydrocarbons from hydrocarbonaceous effluent streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for producing a hydrogen-rich gas stream by treating a hydrogen and hydrocarbon effluent from a catalytic hydrocarbon conversion reaction zone comprising the steps of: (a) passing at least a portion of said effluent to a first vapor liquid separation zone and recovering therefrom a hydrogen-containing vapor phase and a first liquid phase comprising hydrocarbon; (b) passing

S. W. Pappas; D. E. Felch

1993-01-01

297

On-Line Liquid-Effluent Monitoring of Sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LLNL's sanitary sewer system is a possible route for the escape of toxic materials. Liquid effluents are released to Livermore's sanitary sewer system and the effluent is treated at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP). The plant is a secondary-tr...

M. Dreicer J. L. Cate D. W. Rueppel C. J. Huntzinger M. A. Gonzalez

1983-01-01

298

Populations of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria change rapidly in a wastewater effluent dominated stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete elimination of bacteria and pharmaceutical drugs during wastewater treatment results in the entry of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into receiving streams with effluent inputs. In Mud Creek in Fayetteville, AR, ofloxacin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in water and sediment, and tetracycline has been detected in sediment downstream of treated effluent input. These antibiotics have been measured repeatedly,

Tatsuya Akiyama; Mary C. Savin

2010-01-01

299

Removal of phosphorus from secondary effluents by coagulation and ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary effluents of municipal wastewater in Israel contain on average 10 mg\\/L phosphorus, a concentration that is twice as high as a limit recently legislated by the Israeli Ministry of Environment. Reduction of phosphorus concentration to the required level is often performed by biological methods, or by flocculation followed by sand filtration. The current study explores a different path of

Tomer Nir; Elizabeth Arkhangelsky; Inna Levitsky; Vitaly Gitis

2009-01-01

300

Ultrafiltration/nanofiltration for the tertiary treatment of leather industry effluents.  

PubMed

Biologically treated effluents from the leather industry pose severe problems for the environment due in part to both the inorganic charge and the high nitrogen content associated with the organic charge. Pressure-driven membrane processes, namely ultrafiltration/nanofiltration (UF/NF) technology, were investigated for their selective retention of the organics and permeation of the inorganic fraction. Permeation experiments were carried out with two model solutions representative of a treated tannery effluent. UF and NF of these model solutions were assessed in terms of both their inorganic/organic fractionation capability and their permeation productivity. The UF membranes with MWCOs ranging from 10,000 to 1000 Da yield retentate streams enriched in organic compounds and permeate streams enriched in salts. Despite their high capacity for pure water permeation, they displayed low permeation fluxes, as the result of concentration polarization and fouling phenomena. NF 200 and NF 270 membranes associated fractionation capability with high permeation rates. Furthermore, these membranes demonstrated the highest permeate fluxes -30 kg/h/m(2) and 16 kg/h/m(2) for different model solutions, at the transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. Although these membranes had lower hydraulic permeabilities relative to the other membranes tested, they exhibited the best characteristics in terms of minimization of colloidal fouling. PMID:20000502

Streit, Katia F; Ferreira, Jane Zoppas; Bernardes, Andréa M; Norberta De Pinho, Maria

2009-12-15

301

Field experiment on biological contact oxidation process to treat polluted river water in the Dianchi Lake watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study two types of biological contact oxidation processes (BCOP), a step-feed (SBCOP) unit and an inter-recycle (IBCOP)\\u000a unit, were designed to investigate the treatment of heavily polluted river water. The Daqing River, which is the largest pollutant\\u000a contributor to the Dianchi Lake, one of the most eutrophic freshwater lakes in China, was taken for the case study. It

Lu Li; Shuguang Xie; Hui Zhang; Donghui Wen

2009-01-01

302

Neural networks as a tool for control and management of a biological reactor for treating hydrogen sulphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an experimental database consisting of 194 daily cases, artificial neural networks were used to model the removal efficiency of a biofilter for treating hydrogen sulphide (H2S). In this work, the removal efficiency of the reactor was considered as a function of the changes in the air flow and concentration of H2S entering the biofilter. In order to obtain

A. Elías; G. Ibarra-Berastegi; R. Arias; A. Barona

2006-01-01

303

Phenotypic and molecular biological characterization of cyanobacteria from marble surfaces of treated and untreated sites of Propylaea (Acropolis, Athens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria cause aesthetic damage to marble surfaces and in particular their endolithic mode of life contributes to the breakdown of rock crystalline structures. The aim of this work was to estimate, with both phenotypical and molecular approach, the composition of cyanobacterial communities on the Propylaea marbles of the Acropolis Monuments. The two selected sampling sites were treated and untreated with

Vasiliki Lamprinou; Maria Mammali; Efstathios A. Katsifas; Adriani I. Pantazidou; Amalia D. Karagouni

2012-01-01

304

Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite to N2 (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial reaction with interesting potential for nitrogen removal from wastewater. We enriched an anammox culture from a rotating disk contactor (near Kölliken, Switzerland) that was used to treat ammonium-rich leachate with low organic carbon content. This enrichment led to a relative population size of 88% anammox bacteria. The

Konrad Egli; Urs Fanger; Pedro J. J. Alvarez; Hansruedi Siegrist; Jan R. van der Meer; Alexander J. B. Zehnder

2001-01-01

305

Biological treatment and ozone oxidation: Integration or coupling?  

PubMed

Wastewaters generated by many economically relevant industrial activities contain recalcitrant organic compounds which pass unaltered through biological stage of the treatment plant making it difficult to meet the discharge limits currently in force. Therefore, an additional treatment is usually required to remove these compounds. In this study, the application of ozonation together with biological treatment was investigated. In particular, the effectiveness of biological degradation followed by or integrated with ozonation for treating the effluents produced by three environmentally relevant activities (i.e., leather and textile processing and municipal waste landfilling) are compared in the present paper. The results show that biological treatment followed by ozonation does not guarantee depurative levels sufficient for discharge for landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. On the contrary, thanks to the synergy between biological degradation and ozonation, integrated treatment significantly improves the process performance for all the investigated wastewaters, thus allowing the discharge limits to be met. PMID:22206914

Di Iaconi, Claudio

2011-12-11

306

Phosphorus removal from piggery effluents of varying quality using lime and physico-chemical treatment methods.  

PubMed

The choice of management practices for the treatment of piggery effluent prior to its disposal to waterways or land is governed by the desire to simultaneously minimise the cost of treatment whilst minimising pollution of the environment. Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the removal of total and total filterable phosphorus (P) (<0.45 microm) from ortho-phosphate solutions or piggery effluent by hydrated lime or lime kiln dust alone, or from recycled piggery effluent by lime and physico-chemical treatment methods. In addition, the ability of lime to remove P from recycled piggery effluent at an intensive piggery was assessed. Most P in lime treated effluent was present in the >0.45 microm fraction because of the presence of unsettled flocs of P impregnated lime. The efficiency of total P removal by hydrated lime and lime kiln dust decreased as effluent quality declined. The efficiency of removal of total filterable P by hydrated lime or lime kiln dust was not affected by effluent quality. Hydrated lime was more efficient in removing P from effluent or ortho-phosphate solutions, but lime kiln dust was more cost effective. More than 95% of total P was removed from recycled piggery effluent when physico-chemical treatment followed settling with or without lime. The physico-chemical treatment decreased total P mainly by decreasing the number of suspended particles in the effluent and by precipitating some total filterable P as iron, aluminium or calcium compounds. PMID:15091694

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1994-01-01

307

Feasibility study of the bio-barrier with biologically-active tire rubbers for treating chlorinated hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leachate from landfill released into the subsurface environment can result in serious environmental problems such as soil\\u000a and groundwater contaminations because there is no landfill liner system in the unsanitary landfill. The authors developed\\u000a the multi-permeable reactive barriers (M-PRBs) to treat mixed contaminants in leachate and to get over the limitation of a\\u000a single reactive barrier. The M-PRBs consist

Jai-Young Lee; Chul-Hwan Moon; Jung-Hoon Kim; Byung-Taek Oh

2007-01-01

308

Kinetics of reactive azo-dye decolorization by Pseudomonas luteola in a biological activated carbon process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale biological activated carbon (BAC) process was conducted to treat a reactive azo-dye (reactive red 22) by Pseudomonas luteola and the kinetics of azo-dye decolorization was investigated. The BAC-reactor removed 89% of reactive red 22 while P. luteola biofilm and suspended P. luteola reached a maximum growth rate at a steady-state condition. The azo-dye effluent from BAC-reactor met a

Yen-Hui Lin; Jyh-Yih Leu

2008-01-01

309

Computational Intelligence Techniques for Supervision and Diagnosis of Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) are based on complex, dynamic, and highly nonlinear processes. Depending on the design\\u000a and the specific application, these systems can achieve biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, besides removal of organic\\u000a carbon substances. Also, depending on the type\\/quantity of effluent to be treated, different configurations can be proposed\\u000a being the most common the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic

Ana M. A. Dias; Eugénio C. Ferreira

310

Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ? 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time.

Gulyas, Holger; Argaez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

2013-01-01

311

An integrated MBR-TiO2 photocatalysis process for the removal of Carbamazepine from simulated pharmaceutical industrial effluent.  

PubMed

This paper aims to demonstrate that integrating biological process and photocatalytic oxidation in a system operated in recycling mode can be a promising technology to treat pharmaceutical wastewater characterized by simultaneous presence of biodegradable and refractory/inhibitory compounds. A lab-scale system integrating a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a TiO(2) slurry photoreactor was fed on simulated wastewater containing 10mg/L of the refractory drug Carbamazepine (CBZ). Majority of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed by the MBR, while the photocatalytic oxidation was capable to degrade CBZ. CBZ degradation kinetics and its impacts on the biological process were studied. The adoption of a recycling ratio of 4:1 resulted in removal of up to 95% of CBZ. Effluent COD reduction, sludge yield increase and respirometric tests suggested that the oxidation products were mostly biodegradable and not inhibiting the microbial activity. These results evidenced the advantages of the proposed approach for treating pharmaceutical wastewater and similar industrial effluents. PMID:21558053

Laera, G; Chong, M N; Jin, Bo; Lopez, A

2011-04-23

312

Mycoplasma hyorhinis markedly degrades ?-amyloid peptides in vitro and ex vivo: a novel biological approach for treating Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) peptides (predominantly A?40, 42) and their aggregation into plaques in the brain are thought to be the one of the major causes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Originally discovered in our Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) (CHO/APPwt) cultures devoid of A? production, we found that Mycoplasma selectively degrades soluble A? in a time and dose (colony forming unit) dependent manner. Moreover, we fully characterized the Mycoplasma species as Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) by genetic and colony morphological analyses by light microscopy. Most interestingly, we attenuated the pathogenicity of M. hyorhinis by ? irradiation (3.5 Gy), and found that its ability to degrade A? was retained. On the other hand, heated and sonicated M. hyorhinis failed to retain this ability to degrade A?, suggesting that this degradation requires viable cells and likely a biologically active signaling pathway. In addition, we found that M. hyorhinis can degrade A? produced in AD model mice (PSAPP mice) ex vivo. Finally, we found that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis also can degrade A? produced in PSAPP mice in vivo. These studies suggest that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis can be a novel and alternative biological strategy for AD treatment.

Habib, Ahsan; Deng, Juan; Hou, Huayan; Zou, Qiang; Giunta, Brian; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Obregon, Demian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Li, Song; Mori, Takashi; Tan, Jun

2013-01-01

313

Mycoplasma hyorhinis markedly degrades ?-amyloid peptides in vitro and ex vivo: a novel biological approach for treating Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed

Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) peptides (predominantly A?40, 42) and their aggregation into plaques in the brain are thought to be the one of the major causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Originally discovered in our Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) (CHO/APPwt) cultures devoid of A? production, we found that Mycoplasma selectively degrades soluble A? in a time and dose (colony forming unit) dependent manner. Moreover, we fully characterized the Mycoplasma species as Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) by genetic and colony morphological analyses by light microscopy. Most interestingly, we attenuated the pathogenicity of M. hyorhinis by ? irradiation (3.5 Gy), and found that its ability to degrade A? was retained. On the other hand, heated and sonicated M. hyorhinis failed to retain this ability to degrade A?, suggesting that this degradation requires viable cells and likely a biologically active signaling pathway. In addition, we found that M. hyorhinis can degrade A? produced in AD model mice (PSAPP mice) ex vivo. Finally, we found that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis also can degrade A? produced in PSAPP mice in vivo. These studies suggest that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis can be a novel and alternative biological strategy for AD treatment. PMID:24093060

Habib, Ahsan; Deng, Juan; Hou, Huayan; Zou, Qiang; Giunta, Brian; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Obregon, Demian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Li, Song; Mori, Takashi; Tan, Jun

2013-09-25

314

Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.  

PubMed

Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

2007-09-06

315

Impact of distillery effluent application to land on soil microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different treatments of distillery wastewater, i.e. raw, treated, diluted and raw distillery wastewater mixed with domestic waste stabilization pond effluent (1:1) on populations of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and nitrogen fixing bacteria. The results indicated that raw wastewater decreased the population of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The growth rates of

Asha Juwarkar; S. A. Dutta

1990-01-01

316

Conversion of effluent hydrocarbons streams using aluminophosphate catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

By-product effluent streams from pyrolytic hydrocarbon cracking processes, containing monoolefins and diolefins, are treated to hydrogenate the olefins and to aromatize the aliphatics, with a catalyst comprising the aluminophosphates of U.S. Pat. No. 4,310,440.

D. C. Garska; C. B. Tellis

1985-01-01

317

Use of Granular Regenerable Carbon for Treatment of Secondary Effluent. Engineering Design and Economic Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indicative capital and operating cost estimates have been prepared for plants to treat effluent from activated sludge plants with granular regenerable activated carbon. The treatment objective has been the removal of organic materials but because alkyl be...

J. B. Allen T. M. Clapham R. S. Joyce V. A. Sukenik

1964-01-01

318

Evaluation of nitrogen retention and microbial populations in poultry litter treated with chemical, biological or adsorbent amendments.  

PubMed

Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. Successful management to reduce ammonia and its harmful side-effects on poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of litter amendments. In this study, three acidifiers, two biological treatments, one chemical urease inhibitor and two adsorber amendments were added to poultry litter. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the litters were assessed at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Application of litter amendments consistently reduced organic N loss (0-15%) as compared to unamended litter (20%). Acidifiers reduced nitrogen loss through both chemical and microbiological processes. Adsorbent amendments (water treatment residuals and chitosan) reduced nitrogen loss and concentrations of ammonia-producing bacteria and fungi. The use of efficient, cost-effective litter amendments to maximum agronomic, environmental and financial benefits is essential for the future of sustainable poultry production. PMID:21371808

Cook, Kimberly L; Rothrock, Michael J; Eiteman, Mark A; Lovanh, Nanh; Sistani, Karamat

2011-03-02

319

Antioxidants in treating pathologies involving oxidative damage: an update on medicinal chemistry and biological activity of stobadine and related pyridoindoles.  

PubMed

Pathologies involving oxidative stress are indicative of malfunction of endogenous antioxidant capacity. Numerous efforts were made to design and synthesize biologically active antioxidants and free oxygen radical scavenging substances that could improve the endogenous antioxidant status. The antioxidant and reactive-oxygen-species-scavenging activity of STB was well demonstrated in many in vitro and in vivo studies. These properties of STB seem to be closely related to its beneficial effects in models of oxidative-stress-involving pathologies, including myocardial infarction, stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, hypoxic-ischemic tissue injury, diabetic complications, chronic inflammation, etc. STB has a good affinity to lipids and exerts its protective activity against free-radical-mediated damage by preventing lipid peroxidation. Rather than interacting with the radicals initiating lipid peroxidation, STB was shown to act in its propagation stage via scavenging peroxyl and/or alkoxyl radicals. STB was also found to protect proteins, predominantly by a mechanism involving protection of thiol groups and by preventing oxidation of amino acids. The first findings on antioxidant and pharmacodynamic effects of STB, tested in a variety of biological models, were summarized in 1998. Recently, chemical modification of STB, which we considered as the leading structure, led to the synthesis of pyridoindole derivatives with significantly increased intrinsic antiradical activity and overall antioxidant efficacy compared to the parental molecule. The present paper provides a complete overview of the literature published since 1998 on both STB and STB congeners. Moreover, appropriate structural modifications of STB provided the opportunity to modulate lipophilicity and acidobasic behavior, thus optimizing bioavailability of the novel derivatives and attenuating their unwanted sideeffects, with the result of decreased toxicity. Hence, STB congeners might be prospectively used as medicinal antioxidants, i.e. remedies effective in conditions involving oxidative stress-mediated injury. PMID:20015031

Juranek, I; Horakova, L; Rackova, L; Stefek, M

2010-01-01

320

Does improved waste treatment have demonstrable biological benefits?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1972, 10 benthic surveys and 9 static fish bioassays have been conducted to assess the impact of AVTEX Fibers, Inc. effluent on the lower South Fork of the Shenandoah River. AVTEX (formerly FMC Corp.) is a rayon and polyester fibers plant located in Front Royal, Virginia. Benthic samples were taken at four stations, one above and three below the plant discharges. Single surveys in 1972 and 1973 indicated a severe impact on the benthic community along the right side of the river, below the plant, as a result of the channelized effluent. Diversity values (¯ d) were low (0 2.42) and numbers of taxa and organisms were reduced. A fish bioassay in 1973 indicated the effluent to be acutely toxic at the 34.5% level (mixture of effluent and river water). In early 1974, FMC Corp. constructed an activated sludge treatment system to reduce BOD and supplement the neutralization and chemical precipitation (zinc hydroxide and liquid-solid separation) facilities that had been used to treat waste waters since 1948. After the new equipment was placed in operation, the previously stressed area became more stable. In 1975 and 1976 the stressed area exhibited greater ¯ d values (1.19 3.39) and an increased number of taxa and organisms. Bioassays showed the effluent to be acutely toxic to fish only once since 1973. The major improvements in the effluent were a 70% reduction in BOD5 and a 60% reduction in the amount of zinc entering the river. Community conditions in 1977 indicated a partial remission of improvement, probably due to drought conditions. The rehabilitation of damaged ecosystems is a process important to all biologists. An important factor in encouraging industry to participate in this activity is evidence that improved waste treatment will often have demonstrable biological benefits rather soon. As data accumulate on the recovery process it may be possible to predict the degree of rehabilitation and time required more precisely.

Seagle, Henry H.; Hendricks, Albert C.; Cairns, John

1980-01-01

321

Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF  

SciTech Connect

The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

SIMMONS, F.M.

1999-09-01

322

Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Simiele, G.A.

1994-09-29

323

Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

NONE

1994-11-01

324

Textile Effluents Affected Seed Germination and Early Growth of Some Winter Vegetable Crops: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess as to whether treated textile effluent could be safely used to irrigate some winter vegetables, growth\\u000a room experiments were conducted. Varying levels of treated and untreated textile effluents were applied to germinating seeds\\u000a of some winter vegetables and their effect was evaluated on germination and early growth stage using seed germination, growth,\\u000a and biochemical attributes. From

Abida Rehman; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Habib-ur-Rehman Athar

2009-01-01

325

Advanced electro-Fenton degradation of biologically-treated coking wastewater using anthraquinone cathode and Fe-Y catalyst.  

PubMed

The electrocatalytic activity of bare and 2-ethyl anthraquinone-modified graphite felt (2-EAQ/GF) toward oxygen reduction was investigated using a cyclic voltammetry technique in a neutral solution. The prepared cathodes were tested for electrogeneration of H2O2 and electro-Fenton oxidation (EFO) treatment of neutral coking wastewater (CW) after biological process, using a graphite anode and Fezeolite Y catalyst. The results showed that (i) H2O2 yield and current efficiency greatly depended on cathodic potential and materials; (ii) hydroxyl radicals, generated from Fe-zeolite Y-catalyzed H2O2 decomposition, played a great role in EFO treatment, while anodic direct and indirect oxidation was insignificant; (iii) chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon (TOC) and acute toxicity of wastewater decreased by 40-50, 30-40 and 50-60%, respectively, and biodegradability increased after 1 h of EFO treatment. Due to the free-pH adjustment, EFO presents a potential engineering application for advanced treatment of CW. PMID:22053459

Li, Haitao; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Yi

2011-01-01

326

Anaerobic treatment of gasifier effluents. Quarterly report No. 7  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed during the period from January 1, 1983 through March 31, 1983 on the DOE research program on Anaerobic Treatment of Gasifier Effluents (Contract No. DE-AC18-81FC10297). The major efforts have been directed toward: (1) the operation of two anaerobic systems treating approx. = 10% strength raw wastewater with activated carbon replacement occuring in one system, (2) the operation of two nitrifying systems treating the anaerobic effluent, (3) the operation of both packed bed and suspended growth denitrifying systems for treating the effluent from the nitrifying systems, (4) completion of the GC/MS analysis of the spent activated carbon removed from previously operated anaerobic system, and (5) a brief, ultrafiltration - reverse osmosis, study on denitrifized effluent to ascertain the feasibility of dissolved solids and trace organics removal. The progress of these efforts are depicted on the Gannt Chart along with project expenditures for the above contract and are presented in detail in this report.

Cross, W.H.; Chian, E.S.K.; Pohland, F.G.; Giabbai, M.; Harper, S.R.; Wang, E.; Whalen, K.; Lu, F.; Grubbs, T.; Havesh, J.

1983-04-01

327

Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species  

PubMed Central

Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species.

Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

328

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...That Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

2012-07-01

329

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge...Not Use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct...

2012-07-01

330

Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks). Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. PMID:22884373

Filloux, Emmanuelle; Gallard, Hervé; Croue, Jean-Philippe

2012-07-31

331

Managing wastewater effluent to enhance aquatic receiving ecosystem productivity: a coastal lagoon in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Large amounts of waste are generated in urban centers that if properly managed could promote ecological services. In order to promote nutrient cycling and productivity without endangering aquatic ecosystems, management of wastewater treatment and effluent discharges to receiving waters must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. We applied this premise to examine a municipal wastewater treated effluent discharge in a shallow oligotrophic coastal lagoon in Western Australia. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological modeling (ELCOM-CAEDYM) was used to assess the reaction of ecosystem for effluent quality. Two scenarios were evaluated for the summer 2000-2001 period, the actual or "current" (conventional secondary treatment) and an "alternative" (involving substitution of biological nutrient removal by advanced treatment). The residence time of the simulated numerical domain averaged 8.4 ± 1.3 days. For the current scenario the model successfully estimated phytoplankton biomass, as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), that is within field-measured ranges and previously recorded levels. The model was able to reproduce nitrogen as the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the coastal ecosystem. Simulated surface Chl-a means were 0.26 (range 0.19-0.38) ?g Chl-a/L for the current scenario and 0.37 (range 0.19-0.67) ?g Chl-a/L for the alternative one. Comparison of the alternative scenario with field-measured Chl-a levels suggests moderate primary production increase (16-42%), within local historical variability. These results, suggest that such a scenario could be used, as part of a comprehensive wastewater management optimization strategy, to foster receiving ecosystem's productivity and related ecological services maintaining its oligotrophic state. PMID:22322127

Machado, Daniel A; Imberger, Jörg

2012-02-08

332

[Development of antibiotic resistance in purified sewage effluents subjected to chlorination].  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistance is widely spread phenomenon in the environment because of uncontrolled discharge of urban and animal wastewaters. Sewage treatment can significantly reduce the number of both sensitive and resistant bacteria. A reduction of about 1.5 logarithmic units in faecal coliforms was observed during biological treatment (3, 7), but a simultaneous increase in the percentage of resistant strains occurred because of not well understood selection phenomena. The above reported bacterial reduction is not always sufficient to meet the quality standards of Italian legislation required to discharge the treated effluents into surface waters, and so, chlorination become a compulsory additional treatment whose impact on both sensitive and resistant microflora must be evaluated. The results obtained in the present research have demonstrated that chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.5-2 ppm are able to reduce significantly the faecal coliforms concentrations and, in particular, treatment with 1 ppm of chlorine for 1 hour reduces the concentration of the above reported bacteria to the extent of 2 logarithmic units, so that their final concentration are of the about 10(2)/100 ml. The surviving chlorine tolerant bacteria seem to be antibiotic resistant in higher percentage than the chlorine sensitive ones and so, as a consequence, a significant increase in the antibiotic resistance and multiresistance was observed in the chlorinated effluents. In this context it is interesting to underline the larger variety of resistance patterns observed in the chlorine-resistant bacteria in comparison with the uniformity in the resistance patterns observed in isolated from unchlorinated effluents. The selected chlorine-tolerant strains seem to be less able to transfer their resistances under laboratory conditions, not because of curing effect of chlorine on the plasmids but, probably, because of the damage to cellular cell envelopes. PMID:2483077

Morozzi, G; Cenci, G; Caldini, G; Sportolari, R; Bahojbi, A G

333

Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.  

PubMed

Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites. PMID:11902769

Ghose, M K

2002-03-01

334

40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

335

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

336

40 CFR 415.352 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chromic Acid Production Subcategory § 415.352 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

337

40 CFR 415.352 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chromic Acid Production Subcategory § 415.352 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

338

40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.412 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

339

40 CFR 415.427 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

340

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

341

40 CFR 415.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

342

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

343

Biogenic nanoscale colloids in wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

The size, surface area, metal complexation capacity, organic pollutant sorption potential, reactivity with disinfectants, and elevated nitrogen content of biogenic organic nanoscale material (BONM) can potentially affect aquatic environments. BONM in effluents from 11 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which use a range of biological processes, were characterized in two ways. First, BONM was measured by hydrodynamic size-exclusion chromatography coupled with an online organic carbon and UV detector. Second, BONM was isolated from the wastewater using rotary evaporation and dialysis and then characterized by elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wastewaters contained 6-10 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). BONM accounted for 5%-50% of the DOC in wastewater effluent organic matter, and the largest size fraction (>10 kDa) of organic carbon correlated with the organic carbon content determined after rotary evaporation and dialysis. Membrane bioreactor WWTPs had the lowest fraction of BONM (<10% of the DOC), followed by conventional activated sludge (10% to 30% of the DOC), with other processes (e.g., trickling filters, aerated lagoons) containing larger BONM percentages. BONM had a lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (6.2 ± 1.7) compared with the literature values for humic or fulvic acids, exhibited chemical bonds that were indicative of amides and polysaccharides, and contained fibril entangled networks. This work has important implications for operations efficiency of WWTPs, including controlling membrane fouling and release of organic nitrogen into sensitive environments. PMID:20886826

Song, Guixue; Wang, Jun; Chiu, Chao-An; Westerhoff, Paul

2010-11-01

344

Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.  

PubMed

The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

2011-01-01

345

Determination of the progression in soil microbial response, and changes in soil permeability, following application of meat processing effluent to soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation of primary-treated meat processing plant effluent onto soils may cause a decrease in soil permeability. The microbial response, and the decrease and subsequent recovery in soil permeability, following application of primary-treated meat processing effluent to soils was investigated. soil permeability was measured on repacked soil-columns following a surface application of effluent or water and storage at either 13 or

M. R. Balks; C. D. A. McLay; C. G. Harfoot

1997-01-01

346

Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review.  

PubMed

The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a "substance" approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a "matrix" approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals (replacement of toxic products by less pollutant ones, etc.). PMID:23545489

Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

2013-03-29

347

Nitrification-Denitrification of Wastewaters with a High Organic and Ammonia Nitrogen Content (Waste Effluents from Sugar Refineries).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological removal of nitrogen in the case of sewage is discussed in numerous scientific journals, and a certain number of installations are now in operation. However, considerably fewer articles are published concerning certain industrial waste effluents...

G. M. Faup M. A. Picard C. Delzappo

1977-01-01

348

Radioactive effluents in Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

Winn, W.G.

1991-11-27

349

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

350

Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI): the correlation between disease severity and psychological burden in patients treated with biological therapies.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Multiple metrics evaluate the efficacy of psoriasis treatment, but interestingly, the correlation between the mostly widely used clinical trial efficacy end point, the physician-rendered Psoriasis Area Severity Index PASI score and, the most widely used quality of life metric, the Dermatology Life Quality Index DLQI, is not always high. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to determine PASI to DLQI correlation. METHODS: RCTs of biological agents for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis were reviewed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The mean percentage PASI improvement and change in mean DLQI values were recorded and compared for treatment groups from baseline to 10-16 weeks of therapy. RESULTS: A search of the literature yielded 155 sources, of which 13 RCTs met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Percentage of PASI improvement from baseline correlates with DLQI changes with an r(2) value of 0.80 from baseline through weeks 10-16. When grouped by mean percentage reduction in PASI, agents demonstrating >75% mean reduction in PASI demonstrated a mean DLQI improvement over agents that achieved <75%-50% mean reduction in PASI or <50% mean reduction in PASI [minimal clinically important difference (MCID) 3.2]. In addition, a reduction in mean PASI of at least 75%, predicted a mean movement from DLQI band 3 to DLQI band 1, in all nine treatment arms demonstrating such efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Mean PASI and DLQI correlate predictably in patients with chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis undergoing treatment with biological agents. A reduction in PASI of at least 75% can translate to significant quality-of-life improvement in patients treated with these therapies. PMID:23425140

Mattei, P L; Corey, K C; Kimball, A B

2013-02-21

351

Changes in biologic markers of oxidative stress and plasma endotoxin levels in gynecologic cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effects of pelvic radiotherapy on biologic markers of oxidative stress and plasma endotoxin levels, and to assess the relationship between the changes of such factors and radiotherapy-related complications. Methods Twelve gynecologic cancer patients who were treated via pelvic radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Biologic markers of oxidative stress, such as glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), as well as endotoxin levels, were measured weekly during treatment. Subjective symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 at the baseline and on the 5th week of radiotherapy. Results No changes were noted in the level of GSH in whole blood, but the GSH/GSSG ratio was reduced dramatically after the initiation of radiotherapy. The mean plasma endotoxin for all patients tended to increase and persisted during radiotherapy, and the number of patients who evidenced clinically significant endotoxin levels (defined as >0.005 EU/mL) also increased. Nausea/vomiting and diarrhea were significantly changed (p=0.019 and p<0.001, respectively). A significant relationship was noted to exist between the changes in the endotoxin level and nausea/vomiting (p=0.001). However, such symptoms did not correlate with the changes of oxidative stress markers. Conclusion Pelvic radiotherapy oxidized the GSH redox system and increased plasma endotoxin. Further investigations containing interventional and longitudinal studies will be required to assess the effects of the changes in oxidative stress markers and endotoxin on radiotherapy-related adverse events.

Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jin Ho; Ha, Sung Whan; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Choi, Jin Hwa; Lee, Kyung-Mi

2012-01-01

352

REVERSE OSMOSIS RENOVATION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the performance and economics of reverse osmosis treatment of municipal secondary effluent on a sufficient scale to project large plant costs was attempted. The desalted effluent was blended with additional secondary effluent and used for irrigation through an ...

353

Effect of cassava effluent on Okada denizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was designed to investigate the effect of cassava effluent on Okada environment. Two sets of same five plant species were germinated and watered with cassava effluent for 10 days at alternate days. One part of the effluent had read palm oil in it from processing while a part of it had non. Significant results were obtained from the

J. E. Ehiagbonare; S. A. Enabulele; B. B. Babatunde; R. Adjarhore

2009-01-01

354

Constructed wetlands as a treatment method for effluents from intensive trout farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of different hydraulic loading rates on the treatment efficiency of subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands treating effluents from trout farming over a period of 6 months. Six identical wetland cells with a pre-sedimentation zone of 9.6 m2 and a root zone of 23.6 m2 were loaded with effluents from intensive trout farming (>2.1 kg feeding stuff per L\\/s and

Paul-Daniel Sindilariu; Christian Wolter; Reinhard Reiter

2008-01-01

355

Turf irrigation in hawaii using r?1 effluent: Microbial and chemical effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary?treated, filtered, and chlorinated effluent (R?l quality) blended with potable water was used for turf grass irrigation at the Hawaii Kai Golf Course on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Blending was required because of the salinity level in the R?l effluent. For control, only potable water was used for irrigation. Irrigation amounts varied with time based upon rainfall. Suction lysimeters

Gregory A. Murakami; Chittaranjan Ray

2000-01-01

356

Characterizing Groundwater Dynamics Based on Impact of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Irrigation and Climate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in groundwater dynamics (in terms of changes in depth to watertable and its salinity) is a key environmental concern\\u000a for agricultural production using pulp and paper mill effluent for irrigation purposes. At the study site, the treated effluent\\u000a is delivered from the mill into a winter storage dam. This storage dam is also meant to provide an opportunity for

Shahbaz Khan; Muhammad Nadeem Asghar; Tariq Rana

2007-01-01

357

Anaerobic Treatment of CTMP Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments with anaerobic treatment of a CTMP effluent in a contact reactor and in a submerged filter (one-stage processes) were carried out on a pilot-plant scale at the pulp and paper mill of Rockhammar. The treatment process was also tried with the tw...

B. Boman M. Almemark R. Bergstroem

1986-01-01

358

Modeling the fate and effect of benzalkonium chlorides in a continuous-flow biological nitrogen removal system treating poultry processing wastewater.  

PubMed

The fate and effect of the antimicrobial compounds benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) on the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes for a continuous-flow, three-stage laboratory-scale BNR system were modeled. Three kinetic sub-models, corresponding to each reactor, were developed and then combined in a comprehensive ASM1-based model. Kinetic parameters for the three sub-models were evaluated using experimental data obtained from independent batch assays. The biodegradation of BACs was modeled with a mixed-substrate Monod equation. The inhibitory effect of BACs on the utilization of degradable COD and denitrification was modeled as competitive inhibition, whereas non-competitive inhibition was used to model the effect of BACs on nitrification and inhibition coefficients were evaluated. The model simulated well the long-term performance of the BNR system treating a poultry processing wastewater with and without BACs. Enhanced BAC degradation by heterotrophs and increased resistance of nitrifiers to BACs, reflecting acclimation/enrichment over time, is a salient feature of the model. PMID:23313672

Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

2012-12-12

359

Characterization of phytotoxicity of metal engraving effluent samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two effluent samples were collected from an acid bath of a metal engraving industry. Sample A was lime-treated to pH 6 and sample B, pH 9. Zn concentrations in samples A and B were 1207 and 4.24 mg L-1, respectively. Both samples A and B caused 100% inhibition on millet seed germination. Sample A was more toxic than B. The

Wuncheng Wang

1990-01-01

360

An Evaluation of an Effluent Filtration Stormwater Pond System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stormwater pond is located at the Florida Aquarium in Tampa and is designed to treat 4.2 hectares (10.4 acres) of street and urban runoff. It is an effluent filtration system that incorporates artificial side bank filters packed in aggregate to slowly release storm runoff after rain events. The pond was monitored throughout a two-year period. Year 1 includes data

Betty Rushton; Kara Teague

361

Ecotoxicological Evaluation in an Effluent and Petrochemical Waste Disposal Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and sediment were studied to assess the impact of wastes from an area used for a disposal area of treated petrochemical\\u000a effluents in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study was performed using the Daphnia magna (Straus 1820) for chronical evaluations, mutagenesis in Salmonella\\/microsome assays, and micronuclei induction in cultures of V79 cell to assess genotoxicity. Six sites were

N. R. Terra; I. R. Feiden; C. T. Lemos; N. C. D. Oliveira; T. F. Pastoriza; J. M. G. Fachel; V. M. F. Vargas

2009-01-01

362

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04

363

Unraveling a municipal effluent's toxicity to Tripneustes gratilla sperm fertilization.  

PubMed

A tiered investigative approach was employed to characterize and identify substances responsible for the persistent toxicity of a primary-treated municipal effluent to gametes of the Hawaiian sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency were modified to account for the tolerance of T. gratilla gametes to various sample manipulations. Microtox rapid toxicity screening was applied in some aspects of the study after verifying a correlation between the pattern of toxic responses of T. gratilla gametes and that of the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Toxicity identification evaluation phase I manipulations revealed a toxicity profile implicating surfactants as possible toxicants, and TIE phase II toxicity assessment of isolated fractions coupled with colorimetric surfactant analyses confirmed the possible role of surfactants in effluent toxicity. The toxic effects of standard reference surfactants on T. gratilla fertilization indicated a concordance with the effects of the more nonpolar effluent fractions. Treatability studies showed that biodegradation by activated sludge eliminated effluent toxicity to urchin gametes. PMID:23440743

Vazquez, Lourdes C

2013-04-11

364

Wastewater treatment effluent reduces the abundance and diversity of benthic bacterial communities in urban and suburban rivers.  

PubMed

In highly urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can represent a significant component of freshwater ecosystems. As it is impossible for the composition of WWTP effluent to match the composition of the receiving system, the potential exists for effluent to significantly impact the chemical and biological characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. We assessed the impacts of WWTP effluent on the size, activity, and composition of benthic microbial communities by comparing two distinct field sites in the Chicago metropolitan region: a highly urbanized river receiving effluent from a large WWTP and a suburban river receiving effluent from a much smaller WWTP. At sites upstream of effluent input, the urban and suburban rivers differed significantly in chemical characteristics and in the composition of their sediment bacterial communities. Although effluent resulted in significant increases in inorganic nutrients in both rivers, surprisingly, it also resulted in significant decreases in the population size and diversity of sediment bacterial communities. Tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed significant effects of effluent on sediment bacterial community composition in both rivers, including decreases in abundances of Deltaproteobacteria, Desulfococcus, Dechloromonas, and Chloroflexi sequences and increases in abundances of Nitrospirae and Sphingobacteriales sequences. The overall effect of the WWTP inputs was that the two rivers, which were distinct in chemical and biological properties upstream of the WWTPs, were almost indistinguishable downstream. These results suggest that WWTP effluent has the potential to reduce the natural variability that exists among river ecosystems and indicate that WWTP effluent may contribute to biotic homogenization. PMID:23315724

Drury, Bradley; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Kelly, John J

2013-01-11

365

Electron beam accelerator for detoxification of effluents. When radiation processing can enhance the acute toxicity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies concerning electron beam accelerator and gamma radiation have been developed for treating hazardous contaminants from different matrices. For wastewater improvement, hundreds of papers showed the organics degradation schemes as a function of radiation doses. Nevertheless, few studies included the whole toxicity evaluation. This paper will show the total acute toxicity reduction for several hard toxic effluents treated by

Sueli Ivone Borrely; A. A Gonçalves; H Oikawa; C. Lopes Duarte; F. R Rocha

2004-01-01

366

Determination of organic compounds in landfill leachates treated by Fenton-Adsorption.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify the organic compounds removed from the leachate when treated with Fenton-Adsorption by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify toxic compounds that could be harmful for the environment or human health. The physicochemical characterization of the raw leachate was carried out before and after the Fenton-Adsorption process. The effluent from each stage of this process was characterized: pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD(5)), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Carbon (TC), Inorganic Carbon (IC), Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Color. The organic compounds were determined by GC-MS. The removal of COD and color reached over 99% in compliance with the Mexican Standard NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996, which establishes the maximum permissible limits for contaminants present in wastewater discharges to water and national goods. The chromatographic analysis from the Fenton-Adsorption effluent proved that this treatment removed more than 98% of the organic compounds present in the initial sample. The mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid persisted, although it is not considered as toxic compound by the NOM-052-SEMARNAT-2005. Therefore, the treated effluent can be safely disposed of into the environment. PMID:23146815

Ramírez-Sosa, Dorian R; Castillo-Borges, Elba R; Méndez-Novelo, Roger I; Sauri-Riancho, María R; Barceló-Quintal, Manuel; Marrufo-Gómez, José M

2012-11-10

367

Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.  

PubMed

Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

2012-01-01

368

Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents  

EPA Science Inventory

Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility?s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

369

Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM) was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA), hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW) distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF), humic-like fluorescence (HLF), the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation) and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation.

Park, Min-Hye; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin; Park, Dae-Hee

2010-01-01

370

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

371

NEW MEMBRANES FOR TREATING METAL FINISHING EFFLUENTS BY REVERSE OSMOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term reverse osmosis tests were conducted with electroplating wastes on a new membrane referred to as NS-100. This membrane consists of a polyurea layer, formed by the reaction of tolylene diisocyanate with polyethylenimine, deposited on a porous polysulfone support film. Th...

372

Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.  

PubMed

Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim

2012-05-09

373

Waste monitoring system for effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the

J. M. Macdonald; B. Gomez; L. Trujillo; J. E. Malcom; H. Nekimken; N. Pope; R. Bibeau

1995-01-01

374

Determination of the androgenic potency of whole effluents using mosquitofish and trout bioassays.  

PubMed

This study combined bioassay-derived and direct chemical analysis of steroidal compounds in pulp and paper and municipal sewage effluent in order to determine the cause of masculinization of female mosquitofish. The bioassays used in this study consisted of androgen and estrogen receptor binding, and aromatase inhibition using tissues from rainbow trout. This study observed no masculinization of female mosquitofish from a pulp and paper mill effluent that was previously observed to cause this effect. Mosquitofish sampled from the receiving environment of the same mill verified that masculinization was not occurring in the wild. The municipal sewage effluent also had no masculinizing effect. In vitro bioassays indicated significant sources of both androgens and estrogens in the effluents tested with sewage effluent having both the highest estradiol (41 ng/L) and testosterone (182 ng/L) equivalent concentration. These results could not be attributed to any particular compounds measured in the effluents. Two compounds implicated in the masculinization of mosquitofish by pulp and paper effluent, androstenedione and androstadienedione required relatively large (10-100 microg/L) waterborne concentrations to elicit a masculinizing effect and neither of these compounds are likely to occur at levels this high in the natural environment. The potent aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione also did not cause masculinization at 100 microg/L indicating that masculinization did not occur through this mechanism. The mammalian anti-androgen, cyproterone acetate was only partially effective in mosquitofish and reduced the severity of masculinization in the presence of methyl testosterone. While neither effluent masculinized mosquitofish, there was a significant reduction of in vitro ovarian steroid production with the most severe effects observed with the sewage effluent. Overall, this study found the disappearance of a masculinizing effect that had been previously observed; concluded that based on 21 days aqueous exposures androstenedione and androstadienedione are not likely candidates for mosquitofish masculinization, and showed that masculinization and in vitro steroid production are unrelated biological endpoints. PMID:16996625

Bandelj, E; van den Heuvel, M R; Leusch, F D L; Shannon, N; Taylor, S; McCarthy, L H

2006-09-25

375

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

376

Removal of chromium from tannery effluents by adsorption.  

PubMed

Tannery effluent is characterized not only by heavy loads but also with toxic heavy metals especially chromium ions. Chromium is considered an important source of contamination due to large volume of exhaust liquid discharged and solid sludge produced. Details on adsorption studies were carried out using synthetic chromium salts (chromium chloride) as adsorbate, and cement kiln dust (a waste from white cement industry) as adsorbent. Equilibrium isotherms have been determined for the adsorption of chromium ions on cement kiln dust. Kinetic study provided that the adsorption process is diffusion controlled. The experimental results have been fitted using Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich Peterson isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of cement kiln dust was found to be 33 mg/g. Industrial tannery effluent (22-mg/L chromium and COD 952 mg/L) was also treated by cement dust. The treated effluent (using 20 g cement dust per 1 L) contains only 0.6 mg/L chromium and COD 200 mg/L. PMID:15027829

Fadali, O A; Magdy, Y H; Daifullah, A A M; Ebrahiem, E E; Nassar, M M

2004-01-01

377

Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.

1988-08-01

378

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2012-11-22

379

Effluent Treatment Facility: Challenged to meet environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) located in the center of the Hanford Site is designed to receive liquid effluents from several of onsite sources, process them to eliminate hazardous and radioactive materials, and then discharge in compliance with applicable laws in a suitable location. The design incorporates several technologies selected as the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for their particular purpose in the context of the wastes to be treated. These technologies include the following: Filtration; Ultraviolet (UV) oxidation of organic materials; Staged pH adjustment; CO[sub 2] removal (degasification); Reverse osmosis; Ion exchange; Forced circulation evaporation; Thin-film drying. In addition to these process technologies, the facility design includes semi-automated waste packaging systems, and an advanced integrated monitoring and process control system.

Goetsch, S. (JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Day, J.E. (ADTECHS Corp. (United States)); Rickenbach, K.D. (Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Kelly, J.W. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-11-01

380

Effluent Information System EIS (Effluent Information System) Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1987 Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Effluent Information System (EIS) and Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS) are Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems that aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Dat...

T. Watanabe

1988-01-01

381

Post-treatment of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) saline effluent using powdered activated carbon (PAC).  

PubMed

Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was added to an effluent from a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating saline wastewater as a post-treatment method. The adsorption of contaminants was carried out and key Freundlich isotherm parameters were evaluated. The results showed a reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the effluent of over 80% after treatment with 1.7gPAC/L. The composition of the effluent was determined by the use of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and by GC-MS analysis. Most of the components of the effluent had a MW less than 1 kDa, and these were the hardest to eliminate by PAC adsorption. m-Aminophenylacetylene, cyclohexane 1,2,4 trimethyl and cholestan 3-one were found in the effluent, but could be removed by PAC adsorption. Finally, different methods for using PAC, with or without biomass, revealed that aerobic biomass enhanced the adsorption process resulting in higher DOC removals. PMID:20083345

Vyrides, I; Conteras, P A; Stuckey, D C

2010-01-07

382

Electrochemical-assisted photodegradation of mixed dye and textile effluents using TiO2 thin films.  

PubMed

Mixed dye consists of six commercial dyes and textile effluents from cotton dyeing process were treated by electrochemical-assisted photodegradation under halogen lamp illumination. Two types of effluents were collected which are samples before and after undergone pre-treatment at the factory wastewater treatment plant. The photodegradation process was studied by evaluating the changes in concentration employing UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The photoelectrochemical degradation of mixed dye was found to follow the Langmuir Hinshelwood pseudo-first order kinetic while pseudo-second order kinetic model for effluents by using TOC analyses. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of mixed dye and raw effluents were reported. Photoelectrochemical characteristic of pollutants was studied using the cyclic voltammetry technique. Raw effluent was found to exhibit stronger reduction behaviour at cathodic bias potential but slightly less photoresponse at anodic bias than mixed dye. PMID:17196740

Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lee, Chong Yong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Kassim, Anuar; Yusof, Nor Azah

2006-12-02

383

Effect of upflow velocity on the effluent membrane fouling potential in membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of upflow velocity (Vup) on biological removal efficiency and effluent filterability in a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Upflow velocities of 1.2, 0.6 and 1.2m/h were applied in three successive stages over a total operation period of 116days. Filterability tests were carried out during each stage in order to assess the effect of Vup on subsequent membrane performance. Results indicated a significant impact of Vup on both biological performance and physicochemical effluent characteristics. The observed differences in protein/carbohydrate ratio and particle size distribution (PSD), which play important roles in membrane fouling, lead to the hypothesis that Vup is a critical parameter for effluent filterability in membrane coupled UASB reactors. Results showed that filterability of the effluent during the operation at 0.6m/h was better than that during the operation at 1.2m/h. PMID:23999261

Ozgun, Hale; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Tao, Yu; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2013-08-13

384

Removal of coloured compounds from textile industry effluents by UV\\/H2O2 advanced oxidation and toxicity evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has investigated the reduction in coloured substances and toxic compounds present in textile industry effluent by the use of an advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant, activated by ultraviolet radiation. The investigation was carried out on industrial effluents, both raw and after biological treatment, using different concentrations of H2O2 in a photochemical reactor equipped with

Maria Eliza Nagel-Hassemer; Catia Regina S. Carvalho-Pinto; William Gerson Matias; Flávio Rubens Lapolli

2011-01-01

385

Identification of inhibitory effects of industrial effluents on nitrification.  

PubMed

The aim of our work was to determine the extent of inhibition of oxygen consumption by activated sludge for carbonaceous and ammonium oxidation (ISO 8192 2007) for various wastewaters. We have selected several types of wastewaters different in their origin and composition: pharmaceutical wastewater, tannery wastewater and municipal landfill leachate. To confirm results of toxicity testing, additional ready biodegradability assessment test with measurement of oxygen consumption was accomplished to indicate the impact of effluents to nitrification process. Pharmaceutical wastewater was toxic to activated sludge, but it inhibited heterotrophic microorganisms much more than nitrifying ones. Biodegradability testing confirmed low impact to nitrification by high, non-suppressed oxygen consumption for nitrification process. Tannery effluent inhibited nitrification significantly (180 min EC(50) was 57 vol.%), but it did not affect heterotrophic microorganisms. Landfill leachate was very toxic to heterotrophic microorganisms (180 min EC(50) was 3 vol.%), while it inhibited nitrification less (180 min EC(50) was 24 vol.%). Presented research confirmed that the investigated experimental method is a reliable one for detection of occurrence of substances inhibiting nitrification in different industrial effluents. With regular monitoring of inhibitory impact biological treatment process upsets could be avoided and treatment optimised. PMID:19237775

Zgajnar Gotvajn, A; Zagorc-Koncan, J

2009-01-01

386

Effects of oxygen concentration on microbial growth in aerated palm oil mill effluent using oxygen enriched air membrane system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeration is one of the most important factors in biological wastewater treatment process. Through aeration, oxygen is supplied to the bacteria to allow their respiration to proceed rapidly and satisfy the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). This study was carried out to determine the biological growth in aerated palm oil mill effluent (POME) when subjected to aeration using air of different

Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mohd Razman Salim

387

Release of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes in the effluent and biosolids of five wastewater utilities in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify the occurrence and release of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) into the environment through the effluent and biosolids of different wastewater treatment utilities including an MBR (Membrane Biological Reactor) utility, conventional utilities (Activated Sludge, Oxidative Ditch and Rotatory Biological Contactors-RBCs) and multiple sludge treatment processes (Dewatering, Gravity Thickening,

Mariya Munir; Kelvin Wong; Irene Xagoraraki

2011-01-01

388

Uses of winery and distillery effluents in agriculture: characterisation of nutrient and hazardous components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one samples of winery and distillery effluents were collected from different Spanish winery and distillery industries. Electrical conductivity, pH, redox potential, density, organic charge (chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total, volatile and suspended solids, oxidisable organic C and polyphenols) and contents of plant nutrients and heavy metals were analysed. The aim of this work was to study the composition

M. A. Bustamante; C. Paredes; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; A. Perez-Espinosa

389

Integrated treatment of olive oil mill effluents (OME): Study of ozonation coupled with anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of coupling a chemical treatment (ozonation) with a biological treatment (anaerobic digestion), is investigated for olive oil mill effluents (OME). Preliminary tests showed that both total phenols and unsaturated lipids are reduced to about 50% in 3h of ozonation and that the total COD remains about unvaried. Nevertheless ozonated OME exhibit in general a longer lag phase and

R. Andreozzi; G. Longo; M. Majone; G. Modesti

1998-01-01

390

Emissions of Chemical Compounds and Bioaerosols During the Secondary Treatment of Paper Mill Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified and quantified the main chemical compounds—the substances responsible for the disagreeable odors—and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. It also identified the characteristics of the process that effects the generation or diffusion of these substances. All treatment stages were evaluated. Measuring sites were located as closely as possible to the potential emission

Nicole Goyer; Jacques Lavoie

2001-01-01

391

Les virus des eaux usées et leur élimination au cours des traitements des effluents pollués  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are a biological pollution in wastewaters. Their elimination results from treatment processes of polluted effluents in the sewage treatment plant or in the lagooning pilot plant. Bacteriophages are regarded as viruses models and as indicators of faecal contamination. In an expiremental study, two pilot plants laboratories have been used (natural lagooning and activated sludge pilot) to follow and evaluate

Mohammed Benyahya; Jacques Bohatier; Henri Laveran; Jean Senaud; Mohammed Ettayebi

1998-01-01

392

An enzymatic approach to the cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes fouled in abattoir effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling severely curtails the economical and practical implementation for the purification of biologically related process streams such as abattoir effluent (Jacobs, WRC Report no. K5\\/362, 1991, Pretoria, South Africa [1]). Mechanical and chemical removal of foulants usually lead to membrane damage and additional pollution. Enzymes, specific for the degradation of proteins and lipids, were tested as key components of

A. Maartens; P. Swart; E. P. Jacobs

1996-01-01

393

Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing  

SciTech Connect

Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

2000-01-01

394

Decolorization of textile effluent by bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads.  

PubMed

Bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Effluent was recalcitrant to the action of bitter gourd peroxidase; however, in the presence of some redox mediators, it was successfully decolorized. Effluent decolorization was maximum (70%) in the presence of 1.0mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole within 1h of incubation. However, immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase showed maximum decolorization at pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C. Immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase decolorized more than 90% effluent after 3h of incubation in a batch process. The two-reactor system, one reactor containing immobilized peroxidase and the other had activated silica, was quite effective in the decolorization of textile effluent. The system was capable of decolorizing 40% effluent even after 2 months of continuous operation. The absorption spectra of the untreated and treated effluent exhibited a marked difference in absorbance at various wavelengths. Immobilized peroxidase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system could be employed for the treatment of a large volume of effluent in a continuous reactor. PMID:18977074

Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

2008-09-26

395

Identification of organic compounds and ecotoxicological assessment of sewage treatment plants (STP) effluents.  

PubMed

An integrated approach combining chemistry and biological methods was conducted to assess the toxicity of seven sewage treatment plant effluents. Solid phase concentration procedures were applied to facilitate the study of organic micro pollutants. A chemical analysis was performed by GC/MS. Organic fraction toxicity was determined by using bioassays such as Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris tests and sub-lethal effects were also evaluated by using Salmonella typhimurium Test (mutagenicity), recombinant yeast screen (estrogenicity), and Oryzias latipes embryo-larval test. More than 49 compounds were detected in the organic fraction due to the various inputs of each effluents. The most frequently detected compounds in the effluents were bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHP) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(methylpropyl) ester (DBP). Biological assays showed toxicity effects on D. magna tests in all samples, whereas toxicity on C. vulgaris or S. typhimurium tests were not observed. Estrogenicity and teratogenicity were observed in several samples. The cause-effect relationship could not be established given the high chemical complexity of the effluents and the lack of information available on 70% of the detected compounds subsequent to reviewing various data bases. Nevertheless, due to the high chemical variability revealed by STP effluents, bioassay sets may provide a very useful amount of information for detecting potential toxicity risks. PMID:15207574

Aguayo, Sonia; Muñoz, M Jesús; de la Torre, Ana; Roset, Jaime; de la Peña, Eduardo; Carballo, Matilde

2004-07-26

396

40 CFR 471.76 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium Forming Subcategory § 471.76 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

397

40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.15 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

398

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

400

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

401

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

402

40 CFR 440.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.12 Effluent...drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent...

2009-01-01

403

40 CFR 440.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.13 Effluent...drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent...

2009-01-01

404

40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.15 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

405

40 CFR 440.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.13 Effluent...drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent...

2010-07-01

406

40 CFR 410.57 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.57 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

407

40 CFR 406.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406.87 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

408

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2009-07-01

410

40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 415.207 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.207 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

412

40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

413

40 CFR 415.547 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bisulfite Production Subcategory § 415.547 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

414

40 CFR 422.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 422.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

416

40 CFR 415.667 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chlorate Production Subcategory § 415.667 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

417

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

418

40 CFR 430.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

419

40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

420

40 CFR 429.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Water Borne or Nonpressure Subcategory § 429.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

421

40 CFR 429.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 429.91 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.91 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

423

40 CFR 429.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

424

40 CFR 429.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

425

40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

426

40 CFR 467.67 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.67 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

2011-07-01

427

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2009-07-01

428

40 CFR 424.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Slag Processing Subcategory § 424.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

429

40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.12 Effluent...barometric condensing operations and any other beet sugar processing operation. Effluent...

2012-07-01

430

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

431

40 CFR 467.67 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.67 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

2013-07-01

432

40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

433

40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.182 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

434

40 CFR 415.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

435

40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

436

40 CFR 415.502 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.502 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

437

40 CFR 436.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bentonite Subcategory § 436.222 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

438

40 CFR 427.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor Absorption Subcategory § 427.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

439

40 CFR 427.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vapor Absorption Subcategory § 427.103 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

440

40 CFR 471.16 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.16 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

441

40 CFR 471.16 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.16 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

442

40 CFR 408.257 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.257 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

443

40 CFR 408.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.252 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

444

40 CFR 408.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 414.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Other Fibers § 414.31 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

446

40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2012-07-01

447

40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Rice Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

448

40 CFR 406.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Parboiled Rice Processing Subcategory § 406.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

449

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

450

40 CFR 436.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gypsum Subcategory § 436.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2009-01-01

451

40 CFR 436.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gypsum Subcategory § 436.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01