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1

Chemical oxidation of biologically treated phenolic effluents  

SciTech Connect

Experimental research into the oxidative purification of biologically treated phenolic effluents of the Estonian oil shale chemical industry was undertaken. The main phenolic compounds identified in this wastewater were phenol, cresols, resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinols. For chemical oxidation of phenols different advanced oxidation methods (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) were tested. For tracking of the changes in the concentration of different phenols during the treatment process, HPLC and colorimetry were applied. It was shown that, in principle, phenols can be reduced almost by any oxidation method studied. Oxidation with molecular ozone has the most potential for practical application. Methods not including ozone (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) had, in general, lower efficiency for total phenols reduction than the methods combining ozone.

Kamenev, S.; Kallas, J.; Munter, R. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia)] [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia); Trapido, M. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Chemistry] [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Chemistry

1995-12-01

2

Biological treatment of mining effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi?stage biological process is described for treating effluents containing high levels of calcium sulphate, soluble organic matter and. heavy metals. Sulphate is reduced anaerobically to sulphide which is used to precipitate heavy metals, while the remaining H2S is stripped off. Residual soluble organic matter from the first stage is removed aerobically in a second stage. Effluent saturated with respect

J. P. Maree; A. Gerber; A. R. McLaren; E. Hill

1987-01-01

3

Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water. PMID:18575108

Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

2008-01-01

4

Applicability of coagulation\\/flocculation and electrochemical processes to the purification of biologically treated vinasse effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of coagulation\\/flocculation (CF) and electrochemical oxidation (EO) processes to purify vinasse that had already been biologically treated (vinasse BT). The CF process was analyzed as a function of the concentration of the coagulant (FeCl3) and the pH of the vinasse BT. After the CF process, EO was performed by potentiostatic electrolysis with a Ti\\/RuPb(40%)Ox anode and

Teresa Zayas; Viviana Rómero; Leonardo Salgado; Mónica Meraz; Ulises Morales

2007-01-01

5

Evaluation of ion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic matter from biologically treated paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken while employing LC-OCND for characterising resin-treated effluents, as the resin degradation is expected to contribute some organic carbon moieties misleading the actual performance of resin. PMID:23116827

Bassandeh, Mojgan; Antony, Alice; Le-Clech, Pierre; Richardson, Desmond; Leslie, Greg

2013-01-01

6

Sodium ferrate (IV) and sodium hypochlorite in disinfection of biologically treated effluents. Ammonium nitrogen protection against THMs and HAAs.  

PubMed

The work described in this paper presents an evaluation of disinfection by-products generation in four different biological treatment plant effluents, making use of sodium hypochlorite and sodium ferrate (IV) at varying concentration and reaction time. Correlations between pH, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, ammonium nitrogen, combined chlorine and trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were carried out. Disinfection by-products generation presented a direct relation with concentration and sodium hypochlorite reaction time. For the highest hypochlorite concentration employed (20 mg L(-1)) and highest reaction time (168 h), the THMs total did not exceed 312.96 microg L(-1), a value that lies below the Brazilian emission standard for treated effluents (1 mg L(-1) of chloroform). The THMs presented an inverse correlation with ammonium nitrogen, when inverse (R(2) = 0.646; P < 0.001) and exponential (R(2) = 0.707; P < 0.001) function were used. As per HAAs this same relation was observed for logarithmic (R(2) = 0.0397 P < 0.001) and exponential (R(2) = 0.508; P < 0.001) functions. The more nitrified the effluent, the bigger the chlorinated disinfection by-product generation. The disinfectant sodium ferrate (IV) does not lead to halogenated by-product formation. PMID:17018416

Schuck, Carla Andréa; de Luca, Sérgio João; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; de Luca, Maria Augusta

2006-01-01

7

RO filtration of biologically treated textile and dyeing effluents using ozonation as a pre-treatment.  

PubMed

Bench-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the application of ozonation pre-treatment for biologically treated textile and dyeing wastewater to improve performance of the RO process. Based on ozonation experiments, four specific ozone consumptions (SOC), 0, 0.3, 0.6, 4.0 mg O?/mg DOC? were chosen for study of the effects of ozonation on the reverse osmosis (RO) process. Membrane flux was recorded. Also, the permeate water quality parameters such as TOC, conductivity were analyzed. In addition, fouled membrane cleaning was studied. The study further examined the nature and mechanisms of membrane fouling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The effect of ozonation on RO filtration was found to depend on SOC. The study revealed that significant improvement can be achieved in the efficiency of RO filtration by employing ozonation with 0.6 mg O?/mg DOC? SOC. Although the product water purity slightly decreased, the ozonation pre-treatment showed advantages at 0.6 mg O?/mg DOC? SOC for the following: (i) mitigation of flux decline due to membrane fouling; (ii) improvement in foulants cleanability. In addition, hypotheses were put forward to explain the reasons from the aspect of organic matter characteristics changed by ozonation, such as changing on functional groups and molecular weight of organic matter. PMID:20729575

Wang, H Y; Guan, Y T; Mizuno, T; Tsuno, H

2010-01-01

8

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

9

Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

2000-03-08

10

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

11

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many toxic effects of treated wastewater effluent on organismal and reproductive health have been documented. However, the physicochemical environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs consider- ably from that of its receiving waters and may affect organismal function independently of toxic effects. Teleost sperm, for example, may be affected by the higher osmo- lality of treated wastewater, as this sperm

H. L. Schoenfuss; Æ J. T. Levitt; R. Rai; M. L. Julius; D. Martinovic

2008-01-01

12

Potential for enhancement of aerobic biological removal of recalcitrant organic matter in bleached pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Increasingly stringent effluent quality limits for bleached kraft pulp mills pose a great challenge to mill wastewater system managers since these limits can require levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency rarely reported for biological treatment of these types of effluents. The present study was therefore undertaken to better understand the nature of recalcitrant COD in bleached kraft pulp effluents that persists through the biological treatment system. Bleaching effluents from a Brazilian eucalypt bleached kraft pulp mill were collected and treated in a bench-scale sequencing batch reactor. Organic matter in raw and treated effluents was characterized before and after separation into low and high molecular mass fractions. Biological treatment removed 71% of the COD, with 83% removal of the low molecular mass COD but only 36% removal of the high molecular mass COD. Microorganisms capable of degrading the recalcitrant COD were isolated from enrichment cultures of the original activated sludge fed on fractions of the bleaching effluent that presented low biodegradabilities. Use of a microbial consortium composed of ten of these isolates to treat the biologically treated effluent removed a further 12% of the effluent COD, all from the high molecular mass fraction. Results of this research indicate that microorganisms with potential for degrading recalcitrant COD are present in activated sludge, but that these are not metabolically active during normal activated sludge treatment of mill effluents. The use of biological selectors in the treatment system to promote growth of such microorganisms may enhance removal of recalcitrant organic matter. PMID:17396409

Mounteer, A H; Souza, L C; Silva, C M

2007-02-01

13

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many toxic effects of treated wastewater effluent on organismal and reproductive health have been documented. However, the\\u000a physicochemical environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs considerably from that of its receiving waters\\u000a and may affect organismal function independently of toxic effects. Teleost sperm, for example, may be affected by the higher\\u000a osmolality of treated wastewater, as this sperm is activated

H. L. Schoenfuss; J. T. Levitt; R. Rai; M. L. Julius; D. Martinovic

2009-01-01

14

Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments.

Ulmer, F.J.

1995-02-06

15

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and

2000-01-01

16

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

Crane, A.F.

1995-03-01

17

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti\\/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between

P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens; S. M. Swanson; T. Marchant; R. Schryer

1994-01-01

18

Treated wastewater effluent reduces sperm motility along an osmolality gradient.  

PubMed

Many toxic effects of treated wastewater effluent on organismal and reproductive health have been documented. However, the physicochemical environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs considerably from that of its receiving waters and may affect organismal function independently of toxic effects. Teleost sperm, for example, may be affected by the higher osmolality of treated wastewater, as this sperm is activated for a brief period of time following ejaculation due to the sudden decrease in osmolality of its surrounding environment. In this study, we examined the effects of treated wastewater effluent on sperm motility to test the hypothesis that the higher osmolality of effluent compared to river water will adversely affect sperm activation in a concentration-dependent relationship. Treated wastewater effluent was collected on 5 days from the outflow of the Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant, St. Paul, Minnesota, and from an upstream site on the Mississippi River. Milt aliquots collected from goldfish were diluted in an isotonic extender solution and subsequently activated in either deionized water, 100%, 50%, or 10% effluent, a synthetic ion mixture, or river water. Sperm motility and velocity were assessed at 15-s intervals for 1 min using a computer assisted sperm analyzer. Significant differences in performance parameters were found only at 15 s, with sperm motility and velocity declining rapidly at later sampling times. Predictably, deionized water resulted in the greatest activation of sperm motility, while motility exhibited a concentration-dependent decline in 10%, 50%, and 100% treated wastewater effluent. Interestingly, Mississippi River water and a synthetic ion mixture with an osmolality comparable to 50% effluent both resulted in the least amount of sperm activation. However, sperm activation in river water varied between collection days during the study. River water and 100% effluent both had low sperm activation characteristics despite a 10-fold difference in osmolality between these two treatments (1 and 10 mOsmol kg(-1), respectively). Results of this study indicate a concentration-dependent decrease in sperm motility in treated wastewater effluent as well as significant fluctuations of sperm activation in Mississippi River water. This study illustrates the complexity of assessing the effects of treated wastewater effluents and the difficulty of determining appropriate reference sites for such studies. PMID:18769849

Schoenfuss, H L; Levitt, J T; Rai, R; Julius, M L; Martinovic, D

2009-04-01

19

Electrochemical Corrosion Investigations on Anaerobic Treated Distillery Effluent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present study is focused on the corrosivity of anaerobic treated distillery effluent and corrosion performance of mild steel and stainless steels. Accordingly, electrochemical polarization tests were performed in both treated distillery and synthetic effluents. Polarization tests were also performed in synthetic solutions and it was observed that Cl- and K+ increase whereas SO4 -, PO4 -, NO3 -, and NO2 - decrease the corrosivity of effluent at alkaline pH. Further, comparison in corrosivity of distillery and synthetic effluents shows the former to be less corrosive and this is assigned due to the presence of amino acids and melanoidins. Mild steel experienced to have the highest corrosion rate followed by stainless steels—304L and 316L and lowest in case of SAF 2205. Relative corrosion resistance of stainless steels is observed to depend upon Cr, Mo, and N content.

Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

2014-06-01

20

300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility permit reopener run plan  

SciTech Connect

The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is authorized to discharge treated effluent to the Columbia River by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit WA-002591-7. The letter accompanying the final permit noted the following: EPA recognizes that the TEDF is a new waste treatment facility for which full scale operation and effluent data has not been generated. The permit being issued by EPA contains discharge limits that are intended to force DOE`s treatment technology to the limit of its capability.`` Because of the excessively tight limits the permit contains a reopener clause which may allow limits to be renegotiated after at least one year of operation. The restrictions for reopening the permit are as follows: (1) The permittee has properly operated and maintained the TEDF for a sufficient period to stabilize treatment plant operations, but has nevertheless been unable to achieve the limitation specified in the permit. (2) Effluent data submitted by the permittee supports the effluent limitation modifications(s). (3) The permittee has submitted a formal request for the effluent limitation modification(s) to the Director. The purpose of this document is to guide plant operations for approximately one year to ensure appropriate data is collected for reopener negotiations.

Olander, A.R.

1995-03-10

21

AGAT Sewage Treatment Plant: Impact of Secondary Treated Effluent on Guam Coastal Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study characterizes the effluent and provides information on the impact of a secondarily treated sewage effluent on Guam coastal waters and reef biota. Nutrient levels of effluent are high, with reactive phosphate varying between 170 and 400 microgra...

R. T. Tsuda D. A. Grosenbaugh

1977-01-01

22

Post Biological Solids Characterization and Removal from Pulp Mill Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study characterized the post biological solids in pulp and paper mill secondary effluent and evaluated various suspended solids removal techniques. Characterization was performed on samples from 9 mills, representing various locations, pulping process...

R. R. Peterson J. L. Graham

1979-01-01

23

Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

CJ Chou; VG Johnson

2000-04-04

24

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test specification  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

Crane, A.F.

1995-02-02

25

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test specification  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

Crane, A.F.

1995-01-12

26

Biological treatability of a corn wet mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn wet mill effluents are studied in terms of their characteristics relevant for biological treatment. They have a high COD of mainly soluble and biodegradable nature, with practically no soluble inert components. They generate a relatively high level of soluble residual metabolic products, which affects the choice of the appropriate biological treatment and favors aerobic activated sludge process. Experimental assessment

G. Eremektar; O. Karahan-Gul; F. Germirli-Babuna; S. Ovez; H. Uner; D. Orhon

2002-01-01

27

13C NMR studies on vinasses effluent treated with iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling the concentration and toxicity of propionic acid in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors is a challenging problem in biological wastewater treatment. Addition of FeSO4·7H2O and FeCl3·6H2O to vinasses effluent yields a precipitate and considerably reduction of propionic acid in solution. This is due to the coordination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to metal ions, according to 13C NMR

T. Pandiyan; C. Durán de Bazúa; K. Ilangovan; A. Noyola

1999-01-01

28

Faecal indicator organism concentrations in sewage and treated effluents.  

PubMed

The importance of faecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes within drainage basins is increasing as the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act place requirements on regulators to manage point and diffuse sources of microbial pollution causing non-compliance (EU) or impairment (US) of receiving waters. Central to this management task is knowledge of the likely FIO concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluents, but few empirical data have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Accordingly, this paper presents results for 1933 samples from 162 different sewage discharge sites in the UK and Jersey, which encompass 12 types of sewage-related discharge, representative of untreated sewage and primary-, secondary- and tertiary-treated effluents. Geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) have been used to characterise base- and high-flow FIO concentrations. The data sets and sub-sets are mostly quite large (n 40) and may therefore be applied with some confidence to comparable discharge sites in similar geographical regions. Very marked, statistically significant reductions in GM FIO concentrations result from secondary and tertiary treatment, and there are statistically significant differences between some secondary and some tertiary treatments. Flow conditions are also shown to be important: untreated sewage and effluent from primary treatment plant have lower concentrations at high flow, due to dilution within combined sewerage systems, whereas some treated effluents (e.g. from activated sludge plant) have higher concentrations at high flow because of the shorter residence time within the plant. Under base-flow conditions, secondary treatments result in estimated GM FIO reductions of 95.22-99.29% (cf. primary-treated effluent). Corresponding figures for tertiary treatment plants (cf. secondary-treated effluent) are 93.24-96.59% for reedbed/grass plots and 99.71-99.92% for UV disinfection. Results suggest that secondary and tertiary treatment plants are less effective under high-flow conditions, but further high-flow sampling is required to confirm this. PMID:17709126

Kay, D; Crowther, J; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Fewtrell, L; Edwards, A; Francis, C A; McDonald, A T; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J

2008-01-01

29

Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The 300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations.

Not Available

1991-06-01

30

Growth of water hyacinths in treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two thousand plants of the water hyacinth,Eichornia crassipes Solms., were introduced on April 11, 1971, into a series of five ponds, each 5000 sq. ft. in area and 2.6 ft. deep. Treated waste\\u000a water effluent from the Ames sewage treatment plant filled the ponds and was added to pond 1 at 127 gallons per minute. By\\u000a growth and vegetative reproduction,

Jean W. Wooten; John D. Dodd

1976-01-01

31

Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

32

Toxicological and ecotoxic impact of secondary and tertiary treated sewage effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary sewage effluents are discharged in significant quantities in aquatic environments delivering pollutants that were not removed during treatment; yet advanced treated effluents are not lacking of contaminants. In this study, biochemical biomarkers were measured in liver and kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) exposed to unchlorinated, chlorinated and tertiary treated secondary sewage effluents. In addition, organic matter, nitrogen and

M. Petala; L. Kokokiris; P. Samaras; A. Papadopoulos; A. Zouboulis

2009-01-01

33

POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

34

Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with

DB Barnett

2000-01-01

35

Giardia cysts in tertiary-treated wastewater effluents: are they infective?  

PubMed

The infectivity of Giardia lamblia cysts recovered in primary- and tertiary-treated wastewater reclamation plant effluents was assessed in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Infections in gerbils inoculated with cysts from primary effluent concentrates demonstrated the presence of infectious G. lamblia cysts. No infectious cysts were detected by this method in concentrates of tertiary-treated effluents. This study found that determination of cyst concentrations without viability or infectivity assessment may significantly overestimate the potential health risks associated with protozoan cysts in tertiary-treated wastewater effluents. PMID:12540094

Garcia, April; Yanko, William; Batzer, Glenda; Widmer, Giovanni

2002-01-01

36

Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

37

Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.  

PubMed

Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology. PMID:20022642

Lundström, Elin; Björlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus

2010-03-01

38

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

39

Case study of an ultrafiltration plant treating bleach plant effluent from a pulp and paper mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleach plant effluent is treated in the ultrafiltration plant at Stora Enso Nymölla pulp and paper mill. The plant is the largest of its kind in the world, with a total membrane area of 4800 m2 (2900 m2 on the softwood line and 1900 m2 on the hardwood line) and a processing capacity of 400 m3 bleach plant effluent per

Anna-Karin Nordin; Ann-Sofi Jönsson

2006-01-01

40

Removal of hardness and COD from retanning treated effluent by membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of membrane separation process integrated with conventional tannery wastewater treatment was studied in order to reuse the treated effluent in the retanning process. Laboratory scale tests were performed to find a suitable membrane for the process and to define pretreatment, fluid dynamic conditions and membrane cleaning procedures. Hardness levels restrict effluent reutilization on the process. The effects of

A. F. Viero; A. C. R. Mazzarollo; K. Wada; I. C. Tessaro

2002-01-01

41

Influence of hydraulic shock loads and TDS on the performance of large-scale CETPs treating textile effluents in India.  

PubMed

The present study relates to the influence of hydraulic shock loads and total dissolved solids (TDS) on the performance of three large-scale common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) treating textile effluents, which is generated from clusters of small-scale industries in the state of Rajasthan in India. Of the three CETPs, two having capacities 7.0 and 9.0 million liters per day (mld) are located in Pali and one of capacity 6.0 mld in Balotra, District Barmer. Wastewater from about one thousand small-scale industries is treated in these CETPs. The effects of hydraulic shock loads and TDS on effluent data from secondary clarifier for parameters biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) for CETPs at Pali, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and SS for the CETP at Balotra were studied. It was observed that the effluent BOD and SS remained within the prescribed limits for CETP Pali at 30% increased flow rate, whereas effluent COD and SS at 30% increased flow rate for CETP Balotra exceeded the prescribed limits and the CETP could sustain 20% increased flow rate. The shock loading analysis revealed that CETP Balotra had reduced capacity to sustain shock loads by 10% as compared to CETP Pali due to the presence of high TDS (15,000-20,000 mg/l). High TDS interfered with the oxygen transfer necessary for biological metabolism, thereby affected the efficiency of activated sludge process. Hence, activated sludge process treating high TDS effluents are more sensitive to hydraulic shock loads and prone to process upsets. PMID:12502064

Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Mathur, S

2003-01-01

42

A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. PMID:22035931

Grantham, Theodore E; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

2012-01-01

43

On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be responsible for the low infiltration rate. Quantification of these mechanisms is an on-going effort. Spatial and temporal distribution of redox was identified and results indicate that nitrate and iron reducing conditions dominate the upper 1 m profile during the flooding (Eh -100 to 200 mV). Once the drying process begins atmospheric oxygen penetrates from the surface and re-oxidation occurs (Eh 500mV). Organic matter content in the soil decreases from ~0.7% in the upper 0.5 m to ~0.2% at the 0.5-2 m depth. Simulations of the infiltration process is in progress; however, the lack of complete saturation and the observed double wetting front have proven difficult to simulate. Our results suggest that the incomplete saturation govern the physico-chemical process along the upper 2-m of the spreading basin. Current efforts are focused on better quantification and simulations of the observed processes as well as more accurately identifying the changes in the hydraulic parameters along the entire soil profile.

Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

2009-12-01

44

Palm oil mill effluent treatment using a two-stage microbial fuel cells system integrated with immobilized biological aerated filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system of two-stage microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and immobilized biological aerated filters (I-BAFs) was used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) at laboratory scale. By replacing the conventional two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with a newly proposed upflow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UML-MFC) in the integrated system, significant improvements on NH3–N removal were observed and direct

Jia Cheng; Xiuping Zhu; Jinren Ni; Alistair Borthwick

2010-01-01

45

Cultured Daphnids as a Biological Wastewater Treatment System for Oxidation Pond Effluent Clarification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical feasibility of culturing Daphnia magna in flowing water and their function as biological filters for removing algae from the effluent of simulated oxidation ponds was demonstrated. Greatest daily increases in daphnid population biomass in 5....

D. G. Heimbuch S. Perretta J. G. Nickum

1978-01-01

46

Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems. PMID:24273037

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

2014-03-01

47

Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to develop measures to reduce the foam index. As no criterion exists for foam in rivers in Austria, as well as in Hungary, the not accepted degree of foam formation was defined as the limit at which population protests from Hungary arose. This approach resulted in a foam index higher than 3.5, which was observed with 40% probability during the investigation period. By developing and performing a simple mathematical regression model the required reduction of foam potential emissions could be calculated in order to minimize the foam index to an accepted standard. By the elimination of 75% of foam potential, a foam index lower than 3.5 would be assured with 95% probability based on long term discharge development.

Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

48

Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).  

PubMed

Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state. PMID:20334971

He, Shengbing; Xue, Gang

2010-06-15

49

The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.  

PubMed

This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (K?rka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, An?l

2013-05-15

50

Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.  

PubMed

Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent. PMID:22319874

Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

2011-09-01

51

Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations

Barnett

1998-01-01

52

DEMINERALIZATION OF CARBON-TREATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY SPIRAL-WOUND REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 56.8 cu m/day (15,000 gallons/day) spiral-wound reverse osmosis pilot plant was operated at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility on the carbon-treated secondary effluent. The specific objectives for this study were (a) to establish the effective membrane l...

53

Control of clogging in drip irrigation with stored treated municipal sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emitter clogging is a major problem incurred in the operation of drip irrigation systems, especially when these systems utilize treated wastewater effluent stored in surface reservoirs. In an attempt to seek solutions to the problems arising from the presence of suspended particles, algae, zooplankton and other organisms in the reservoirs, as well as to prevent clogging in the supply lines

I. Ravina; E. Paz; Z. Sofer; A. Marm; A. Schischa; G. Sagi; Z. Yechialy; Y. Lev

1997-01-01

54

Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004

Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-04-01

55

Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. (Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1991-09-01

56

Case Studies on Biological Treatment of Tannery Effluents in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative assessment of the cost and quality of treatment of tannery wastewater in India by two common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) constructed for two tannery clusters, at Jajmau (Kanpur) and at Unnao in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Jajmau plant is upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process-based, while the Unnao plant is activated sludge

Vinod Tare; Sandeep Gupta; Purnendu Bose

2003-01-01

57

Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

2004-10-01

58

Broad-host-range plasmids in treated wastewater effluent and receiving streams.  

PubMed

The occurrence of broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid amplicons belonging to incompatibility (Inc) groups IncA/C, IncN, IncP, and IncW in two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and effluent-receiving streams in Northwest Arkansas, Mud Creek and Spring Creek, was determined. Community DNA captured on filter membranes and plasmid DNA extracted from antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Mud Creek was used for polymerase chain reaction at amplification of partial gene sequences specific to BHR plasmids. IncP plasmid amplicons were detected in effluent and downstream sites in both streams, while IncN and IncW plasmid amplicons were detected in Spring Creek in effluent and downstream but not upstream. IncA/C plasmid amplicons, in contrast, were detected at all sites, including upstream in most samples in Spring Creek and in one sample from Mud Creek. One IncP and two IncN were the only BHR plasmid amplicons found in 85 screened antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates, and were detected only in isolates from effluent and downstream samples. Broad-host-range plasmids frequently carry antibiotic-resistance genes and can facilitate horizontal transfer of those genes. While BHR plasmids have been detected in WWTPs, WWTPs do not target these genetic elements for destruction. This study indicates that BHR plasmids are in WWTP effluent and are introducing BHR plasmids into streams. Additionally, species other than E. coli may be better targets as indicator bacteria for future studies of the impact of treated effluent on environmental dissemination of BHR plasmids. PMID:21284320

Akiyama, Tatsuya; Asfahl, Kyle L; Savin, Mary C

2010-01-01

59

Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30 +/- 1 degrees C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45-52%), lignin (30-42%), BOD (40-70%), COD (50-60%), total phenol (32-40%) and PCP (85-90%) within 168 h of incubation. However, the highest reduction in colour (62%), lignin (54%), BOD (70%), COD (90%), total phenol (90%) and PCP (100%) was recorded by mixed culture treatment. The bacterial mechanism for the degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent may be explained by an increase in the cells biomass using added co-substrates resulting liberation of significant amount of chloride due to bacterial dechlorination of chlorolignins and chlorophenols this showed reduction in colour, lignin and toxicity in the effluent. Further, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate-extractable compounds from treated pulp paper mill effluent reinforces the bacterium capability for the degradation of lignin and pentachlorophenol, as many aromatic compounds such as 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, 6-chlorohydroxyquinol and tetrachlorohydroquinone detected which were not present in the untreated effluent. PMID:18622710

Chandra, Ram; Raj, Abhay; Yadav, Sangeeta; Patel, Devendra Kumar

2009-08-01

60

Biological markers in the peritoneal dialysate effluent: are they useful.  

PubMed

A review is given on biomarkers in peritoneal effluent. It comprises methods to distinguish between diffusion and local production. This is followed by examples of various biomarkers. Their potential use is discussed in 4 situations: inherent fast transporters, longitudinal follow-up of patients, biocompatibility testing of new dialysis solutions, and their potential use in the detection of patients who are likely to develop encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. PMID:19494595

Krediet, Raymond T; Sampimon, Denise E; Vlijm, Anniek; Coester, Annemieke M; Struijk, Dirk G; Smit, Watske

2009-01-01

61

Biological activity of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents before and after activated sludge and ozone treatments.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp production, an important sector of the Brazilian national economy, is responsible for generating large volume, high pollutant load effluents, containing a considerable fraction of recalcitrant organic matter. The objectives of this study were to quantify the biological activity of the effluent from a eucalyptus bleached kraft pulp mill, characterize the nature of compounds responsible for biological activity and assess the effect of ozone treatment on its removal. Primary and secondary effluents were collected bimonthly over the course of one year at a Brazilian bleached eucalypt kraft pulp mill and their pollutant loads (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), lignin, extractives) and biological activity (acute and chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity) quantified. The effluent studied did not present acute toxicity to Daphnia, but presented the chronic toxicity effects of algal growth inhibition and reduced survival and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia, as well as estrogenic activity. Chronic toxicity and estrogenic activity were reduced but not eliminated during activated sludge biological treatment. The toxicity identification evaluation revealed that lipophilic organic compounds (such as residual lignin, extractives and their byproducts) were responsible for the toxicity and estrogenic activity. Ozone treatment (50 mg/L O(3)) of the secondary effluent eliminated the chronic toxicity and significantly reduced estrogen activity. PMID:23168632

Lopes, Alessandra Cunha; Mounteer, Ann H; Stoppa, Teynha Valverde; Aquino, Davi Santiago

2013-01-01

62

FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

63

Challenges and innovations on biological treatment of livestock effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensification of animal production led to high amounts of manure to be managed. Biological processes can contribute to a sustainable manure management. This paper presents the biological treatments available for the treatment of animal manure, mainly focusing on swine manure, including aerobic processes (nitrification, denitrification, enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and anaerobic digestion. These processes are discussed in terms of pollution

Nicolas Bernet; Fabrice Béline

2009-01-01

64

Toxicological and ecotoxic impact of secondary and tertiary treated sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Secondary sewage effluents are discharged in significant quantities in aquatic environments delivering pollutants that were not removed during treatment; yet advanced treated effluents are not lacking of contaminants. In this study, biochemical biomarkers were measured in liver and kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) exposed to unchlorinated, chlorinated and tertiary treated secondary sewage effluents. In addition, organic matter, nitrogen and suspended solids were assayed, while a common bioassay, Daphnia magna 21d reproduction test was also applied in order to examine potential relation between the performed bioassay and the biomarkers. Processes using oxidative conditions, such as ozonation and chlorination, resulted in significantly increased breeding rate (up to 74%) of the organism. Biomarkers measurements incorporated the determination of total glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and an innovative biomarker in such applications, haem peroxidase. In general, the response of biomarkers was dependent upon the treatment method and it was tissue specific. Secondary effluents inhibited liver GST and haem peroxidase, while GSH levels and LPO were significantly provoked in liver. Ozonation provoked hepatic peroxidation, in terms of haem peroxidase and LPO, and GST; while the protective (to Reactive Oxidant Species - ROS) GSH was depleted, suggesting extended ROS attack to the organism. Similar response of biomarkers (but to a lesser extend) was observed after exposure of trout to effluents submitted to both coagulation and ozonation, emphasizing the significance of removing the residual organic matter by other methods than oxidative ones. Ozonation also enhanced renal LPO and GPX; however the former employment of coagulation limited the peroxidation phenomena. Chlorination mainly affected the levels of total GSH in both tissues. PMID:19767054

Petala, M; Kokokiris, L; Samaras, P; Papadopoulos, A; Zouboulis, A

2009-12-01

65

Water balance of Swamp Mahogany and Rhodes grass irrigated with treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water balance of Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta Sm.) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth var. Callide) plantations was studied in large experimental plots, which were irrigated with secondary treated sewage effluent. The tree plots designated as T10, T20, T30 and T40 received four different nitrogen (N) concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40mg\\/l, respectively. The grass plot designated as G30

M. Edraki; H. B. So; E. A. Gardner

2004-01-01

66

Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.  

PubMed

Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman. PMID:24338053

Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

2014-05-01

67

Zinc and copper uptake by silver beet grown in secondary treated effluent.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in a hydroponics set-up to determine the suitability of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) contaminated wastewater as a growth medium for edible crops; to identify accumulation of Zn and Cu in different parts of the plants and to understand their effects on plant growth. Silver beet was found to produce adequate yields in the Zn (1.7 mg/L and 2.0mg/L) and Cu (0.35 mg/L and 1.1mg/L) spiked medium but not in the secondary treated domestic effluent. The plants grown in secondary treated effluent showed stunted growth and accumulated Zn and Cu to a high level in their shoots. In all other mediums Zn and Cu accumulated more in the roots. The stunted growth of silver beet in secondary treated wastewater and uptake of Zn in particular was considered to be due to the deficiency of nitrogen and other plant nutrients rather than the effect of heavy metals. The study also revealed that if there was adequate amount of macronutrients available for growth, silver beet could be grown in domestic effluent without the risk of Zn or Cu contamination to the undesired level through hydroponics. PMID:17570659

Nair, Jaya; Levitan, Jason; Oyama, Noraisha

2008-05-01

68

Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

2014-09-01

69

Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils  

SciTech Connect

The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

2000-01-02

70

Assessing the biological status of fish in a river receiving pulp and paper mill effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the use of sentinel species- and community-based field approaches for assessing the biological status of fish living in a river receiving pulp and paper mill effluents. Three approaches were compared. Two approaches used sentinel species. One of these involved an internal\\/external examination of the fish that leads to the calculation of a fish health assessment index (HAI)

T. G Kovacs; P. H Martel; R. H Voss

2002-01-01

71

Chromophores removal in pulp and paper mill effluent via hydrogenation-biological batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-phase experimental plan was designed in order to investigate a new technique to remove color from pulp mill effluents via chemical and biological reactions in series. In the first phase, the chemical characterization of chromophores using the spectra of infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses was carried out. The results of chemical analyses indicated that

S. M. Ghoreishi; M. R. Haghighi

2007-01-01

72

Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological treatment on the extent of degradation of effluents from chlorination (C) and first alkaline extraction (E(1)) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the effluents was attempted in suspended mode using activated sludge from the functional pulp and paper industry effluent treatment plant acclimatized to effluents in question. The photocatalytic treatment was employed using zinc oxide (ZnO) in slurry mode for decontamination of effluents in a batch manner and the degradation was evaluated in terms of reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The biological treatment (24 h) of C and E(1) effluent resulted in 30 and 57 % of degradation, respectively. Solar-induced AOP of C and E(1) effluents resulted in 53 and 43 % degradation under optimized conditions (2.5 g L(-1) ZnO at pH 8.0) after 6 h of exposure. For C effluent, a short duration of solar/ZnO (1 h) prior to biological treatment reduced the time required at biological step from 24 to 12 h for almost same extent (92 %) of degradation. However, sequential biological treatment (24 h) followed by solar/ZnO (2 h) resulted in 85.5 % degradation. In contrast, in the case of E(1) effluent, sequential biological (24 h)-solar/ZnO (2 h) system effectively degrades effluent to 95.4 % as compared to 84.8 % degradation achieved in solar/ZnO (2 h)-biological treatment (24 h) system. In the present study, the sequencing of photocatalysis with the biological treatment is observably efficient and technically viable process for the complete mineralization of the effluents. PMID:22645007

Dhir, Amit; Prakash, Nagaraja Tejo; Sud, Dhiraj

2012-11-01

73

Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60 min HRT. In conclusion, results confirmed that the application of the proposed sequential treatments removed almost all COD, BOD5, high molecular weight compounds, and silica from RAKTA and El-Ahlia influents and produced high-quality effluents, thus achieving the main objective of this study. PMID:18716811

El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

2008-11-01

74

Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)  

SciTech Connect

The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

Carter, R.L. Jr.

1994-11-07

75

Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological–coagulation–filtration pilot scale reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological–coagulation–filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%)

Muhammad Afzal; Ghulam Shabir; Irshad Hussain; Zafar M. Khalid

2008-01-01

76

Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)  

SciTech Connect

This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability.

Wagner, R.N.

1994-09-26

77

Pilot Plant Studies of Biological Phenol Degradation from Industrial Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A trickling filter pilot plant was operated to biologically degrade spent phenol paint stripper from building 507 at the Hill AFB Air Logistic Center in Ogden, Utah. The parameters studied were temperature, pH, diammonium phosphate concentration, air flow...

D. F. Suciu P. M. Wikoff P. A. Pryfogle P. L. Wichlacz

1986-01-01

78

Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

Specht, W.L.

1992-07-01

79

Fish Cough Response - A Method for Evaluating Quality of Treated Complex Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates i...

R. W. Carlson R. A. Drummond

1977-01-01

80

Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

Pruitt, J. B.; Elder, J. F.; Johnson, I. K.

1988-01-01

81

Coal mine drainage sludge and its application for treating metallic mine effluent.  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) impregnated polyurethane granular composite media (PUCMDS) was prepared and used to remove arsenic and other heavy metals in a metallic mine effluent. PUCMDS was used in rapid small-scale column tests to assess the effectiveness and suitability in the application of metallic mine water treatment. As a result in column tests, good performance of PUCMDS was observed with respect to bed volumes (more than 14,000 BVs) achieved to treat arsenic and other toxic heavy metals below their regulations. Three cycles of media regeneration and four cycles of column tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of PUCMDS. PMID:24695032

Jang, Min

2014-01-01

82

Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year. PMID:19273902

Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

2009-01-01

83

A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH4+–N (average in 86.4mg\\/L), low in COD\\/NH4+–N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD5\\/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably

Ge Lei; Hongqiang Ren; Lili Ding; Feifei Wang; Xingsong Zhang

2010-01-01

84

Accumulation of Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in soil following irrigation with treated urban effluent in Australia.  

PubMed

The effect of irrigation with secondary treated municipal effluent on the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was investigated by monitoring sites that had been irrigated with effluent for 4 and 17 years. At Wodonga, seven tree species were sprinkler irrigated with effluent at an average application rate of 1347 mm per annum from 1980 to 1984. The other site at Canberra was a large grass playing field (9 ha), half of which had been effluent irrigated since 1977. The non-effluent irrigated area served as the control area and provided reference 'background' concentration to assess the extent of contamination due to 17 years of effluent irrigation. Archived soil samples collected before the commencement of effluent irrigation were compared with those taken in 1984 at Wodonga to assess the extent of contamination. The concentration of labile metals was determined by extraction with EDTA because this method provides a quantitative measure of bioavailable metals. Irrigation with effluent did not increase the EDTA-extractable metals concentration at either site. Furthermore, the EDTA-extractable metal values were within the natural 'back-ground' range reported for Australian soils. These data suggest that it may take between 50 and 100 years for heavy metal levels (mainly Cd) in effluent-irrigated soil to reach the currently proposed threshold values for environmental concern. The potentially harmful effects of long-term accumulation of heavy metals on plant growth cannot be ignored and could affect the sustainability of land-based disposal of effluent. PMID:15093492

Smith, C J; Hopmans, P; Cook, F J

1996-01-01

85

Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process.  

PubMed

In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 33 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The oPtimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe(2+) L(-1) and 20 g H2O2 L(-1) and pH3, for 120 min UV irradiation time. Reactor operating parameter (ROP) effects on the removal of chemical oxygen demand, colour, turbidity, total suspended solids and total volatile solids were evaluated, suggesting that a broad range of ROP values are also suitable to give results very near to those of the photo-Fenton experiments under optimal conditions. Based on the low calculated median lethal dose (LD50) values from a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test, we suggest that recalcitrant substances are present in treated TIE samples. A possible cause of the high toxicity level could partly be attributed to the nitrate concentration, which was not completely abated by the photo-Fenton process. Apart from this, the photo-Fenton process can be used as a part of an industrial effluent treatment system in order to abate high organic pollutant loads. PMID:23837315

Borba, Fernando Henrique; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Manenti, Diego Ricieri; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Mora, Nora Diaz

2013-01-01

86

Biochemical responses and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus after exposure to treated municipal effluents.  

PubMed

This study assessed the responses of biochemical biomarkers and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus exposed to the increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluents (TME) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area. Clams were exposed to 0%, 1%, 3% and 10% for 7 and 14 day and the following biochemical responses were measured: (1) catalase activity and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) as oxidative stress biomarkers, (2) gluthathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a phase II conjugation enzyme; (3) cholinesterase activity (ChE) as biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins as a proteins highly induced by heavy metals. A significant uptake of Cu, Cd and Zn in digestive gland and serious biochemical alterations were observed. Thus, exposure of clams to croissant concentration of TME have the potential to increase the oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, CAT activity) and MT levels; and decrease ChE activity in both gills and digestive gland. Current experimental results suggest that CAT, GST, ChE activities and MT and TBARs levels in gills and digestive gland of clam R. decussatus are sensitive and suitable responses for assessing the effects of anthropogenic contaminants on the aquatic ecosystems, particularly effluent complex mixtures. PMID:22664226

Kamel, Naouel; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Ben Khedher, Sana; Chouba, Lassaad; Boussetta, Hamadi

2012-08-01

87

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

88

Evaluation of an integrated sponge--granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor for treating primary treated sewage effluent.  

PubMed

An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to treat synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE). The NSBF contains starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients. The results indicate that the iFBBR with NSBF addition could remove more than 93% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% total phosphorus (T-P) at just a very short hydraulic retention time of 50 min. The optimum frequency of adding NSBF to the iFFBR is four times per day. As a pretreatment to microfiltration, the iFFBR could increase 5L/m(2)h of critical flux thus reducing the membrane fouling. In addition, better microbial activity was also observed with high DO consumption (>66%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (>35 mg O(2)/g VSS h). PMID:21123048

Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; Cullum, P

2011-05-01

89

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

90

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters.

Crane, A.F.

1995-02-09

91

Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems  

DOEpatents

Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT) [Ramsey, MT; Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT) [Butte, MT

2000-01-01

92

Palm oil mill effluent treatment using a two-stage microbial fuel cells system integrated with immobilized biological aerated filters.  

PubMed

An integrated system of two-stage microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and immobilized biological aerated filters (I-BAFs) was used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) at laboratory scale. By replacing the conventional two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with a newly proposed upflow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UML-MFC) in the integrated system, significant improvements on NH(3)-N removal were observed and direct electricity generation implemented in both MFC1 and MFC2. Moreover, the coupled iron-carbon micro-electrolysis in the cathode of MFC2 further enhanced treatment efficiency of organic compounds. The I-BAFs played a major role in further removal of NH(3)-N and COD. For influent COD and NH(3)-N of 10,000 and 125 mg/L, respectively, the final effluents COD and NH(3)-N were below 350 and 8 mg/L, with removal rates higher than 96.5% and 93.6%. The GC-MS analysis indicated that most of the contaminants were satisfactorily biodegraded by the integrated system. PMID:20042327

Cheng, Jia; Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Borthwick, Alistair

2010-04-01

93

UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.  

PubMed

The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation. PMID:17953980

Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

2008-02-01

94

Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca/sup 2 +/, Na/sup +/, or NH/sub 4//sup +/ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required.

Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Shumate, S.E. II

1980-01-01

95

Feasibility study of a compact process for biological treatment of highly soluble VOCs polluted gaseous effluent.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), representing a wide range of products mainly generated by industrial activity, are involved in air pollution. This study deals with a new biological treatment process of gaseous effluent combining a gas/liquid contactor called an "aero-ejector" and a membrane bioreactor. Combining these two innovative technologies enables a high elimination efficiency to be reached. We first focus on transfer phenomena characterization in a pilot installation on a laboratory scale, using a gaseous effluent polluted with a low ethanol concentration (7.1 x 10(-3) kg.m(-3)). These experiments demonstrated the good transfer performances since 90% of the ethanol was absorbed in the liquid phase in one step. After this physical characterization, the biological aspect of the system was studied using the yeast Candida utilis as microorganism. During the experiment, no ethanol was measured in the fermentation broth nor in the outlet gas, confirming the efficiency of ethanol elimination by C. utilis. The experimental procedure emerging from the present study strongly validates the suitability of this process for ethanol removal from air. PMID:11735445

Daubert, I; Lafforgue, C; Maranges, C; Fonade, C

2001-01-01

96

Biological Therapy to Treat Kaposi Sarcoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with this study are investigating whether bevacizumab (Avastin®), a type of biological agent that blocks the formation and growth of new blood vessels, is effective in the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Blood vessel cells are the main component of KS lesions.

97

Comparative toxicity assessment of ozone and activated carbon treated sewage effluents using an in vivo test battery.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants do not eliminate micropollutants completely and are thus important point sources for these substances. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment might be beneficial for ecosystem health as these techniques provide effective barriers to organic contaminants. However, a toxicity evaluation is required to investigate toxicity reduction and to assess the potential formation of toxic oxidation byproducts during ozonation. Therefore a comparative toxicity evaluation of different treated wastewater effluents was performed on site at a half scale treatment plant equipped with an ozonation step and an activated carbon treatment step in parallel subsequent to conventional activated sludge treatment. For this purpose four invertebrate and one higher plant toxicity test were selected to assess potential biological effects on whole organisms. The reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum exhibited a decreased reproductive output after advanced treatment compared to conventional treatment. This indicates an effective estrogenicity removal by ozonation and activated carbon treatment and is confirmed by results of the yeast estrogen screen with a reduction of in vitro estrogenic activity by >75%. The Lumbriculus variegatus test revealed a significantly enhanced toxicity after ozonation compared to conventional treatment whereas this effect was reduced following subsequent sand filtration. When ozonation was applied, a significantly increased genotoxicity was observed, detected with the comet assay using haemolymph of the zebra mussel. Again, this effect was removed by subsequent sand filtration to the level of conventional treatment. Activated carbon treatment even resulted in a significant reduction of genotoxicity. Adverse effects after the ozone reactor are possibly a result of the formation of toxic oxidation byproducts. Biologically active sand filtration obviously is an effective barrier to such compounds. PMID:20189626

Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Oehlmann, Jörg

2010-04-01

98

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

99

Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5?%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3?%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2?%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C16?:?0, C17?:?0 cyclo, C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C14?:?0 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) (?=?DSM 25520(T)?=?NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

2014-06-01

100

Design and performance of experimental constructed wetlands treating coke plant effluents.  

PubMed

Reed beds were chosen to treat effluents from a coke plant in France (Usinor-Sollac, Fos/mer). The pilot is composed by a two-stage gravel bed with subsurface flow and Phragmites australis as plant. This experimental constructed wetland was monitored for one year at steady-state conditions. The composition of influent shows high concentrations of organic compounds. The hydraulic residence time was close to 10-12 days with a plug flow with longitudinal dispersion. Results show that global removal of nitrogen ranged from 54 to 94% of load removal efficiency, but corresponds easily to the regulation recommendations. Because of wintertime, the denitrification process was inhibited by aerobic conditions observed in the gravel bed with oxygen concentrations higher than 2-3 mg/L, and by small amounts of biodegradable carbon. The fate of mineral pollutants are linked to the complex ferric hydroxides balance and a lack of phosphorus was observed for reed plants, as this nutrient is dependent on iron compounds. Some necrosis was observed on plant tissues corresponding with anthocyanic pigments accumulation caused by phosphorus absorption deficiency due to its co-precipitation with iron. PMID:11804139

Jardinier, N; Blake, G; Mauchamp, A; Merlin, G

2001-01-01

101

Performance of plastic- and sponge-based trickling filters treating effluents from an UASB reactor.  

PubMed

The paper compares the performance of two trickling filters (TFs) filled with plastic- or sponge-based packing media treating the effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), and the OLR applied to the TFs was 0.30-0.65 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). The sponge-based packing medium (Rotosponge) gave substantially better performance for ammonia, total-N, and organic matter removal. The superior TF-Rotosponge performance for NH(4)(+)-N removal (80-95%) can be attributed to its longer biomass and hydraulic retention times (SRT and HRT), as well as enhancements in oxygen mass transfer by dispersion and advection inside the sponges. Nitrogen removals were significant (15 mgN L(-1)) in TF-Rotosponge when the OLRs were close to 0.75 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), due to denitrification that was related to solids hydrolysis in the sponge interstices. For biochemical oxygen demand removal, higher HRT and SRT were especially important because the UASB removed most of the readily biodegradable organic matter. The new configuration of the sponge-based packing medium called Rotosponge can enhance the feasibility of scaling-up the UASB/TF treatment, including when retrofitting is necessary. PMID:23416595

Almeida, P G S; Marcus, A K; Rittmann, B E; Chernicharo, C A L

2013-01-01

102

Estimating the water budget for a peat filter treating septic tank effluent in the field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of peat as a filter medium for the treatment of a variety of liquid and gas waste streams has increased over the past decade. Peat has been used as an alternate treatment medium to treat septic tank effluent (STE) from domestic and small communal systems. Very little research has been completed to study the hydraulics and water budget of a peat filter operating in the field. This study evaluated the water budget of a peat filter operating at an elementary school near Ottawa, Canada. The peat filter was instrumented with tensiometers to measure the pore water pressures within the filter and a weather station to collect weather data required to estimate potential evapotranspiration. A one-dimensional unsaturated flow model, SoilCover, was calibrated using the pressure data and weather data collected in the field. The calibrated model was use to estimate the water budget for the filter operating with and without STE loading. The calibrated model predicted that the annual precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration for both scenarios. For the filter treating 50 mm/day of STE, there was a slight dilution due to the infiltration resulting in a net dilution factor of 0.97 (loading divided by the loading plus infiltration). The largest rainfall event of 49.9 mm resulted in a dilution factor of approximately 0.87, which corresponded to an approximate decrease in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of between 12 and 33% depending on the calculation used to determine the HRT. When the filter does not receive STE, the precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration and hence the filter should not dry out when the filter is not in use.

Van Geel, Paul J.; Parker, Wayne J.

2003-02-01

103

Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application. The spray-irrigated effluent affected the ground-water quality of the shallow aquifer differently on the hilltop and hillside topographic settings of the watershed where spray irrigation was being applied (application area). Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) and chloride (Cl) in the effluent were higher than concentrations of these constituents in shallow ground water from wells on the hilltop and hillside prior to start of spray irrigation. In water from wells on the hilltop, concentrations of nitrate N and Cl increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. In water from wells on the hillside, which were on the eastern part of the application area, nitrate N and Cl concentrations increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. However, on the hillside of the western application area, the ground-water quality was not affected by the spray-irrigated effluent because of the greater thickness of unconsolidated material and higher amounts of clay present in those unconsolidated sands. Although nitrate N concentrations increased in water from hilltop and hillside wells in the application area, the nitrate N concentrations were below the effluent concentration. A combination of plant uptake, biological activity, and denitrification may be the processes accounting for the lower nitrate N concentrations in shallow ground water compared to the spray-irrigated effluent. Cl concentrations in water from hilltop western application area well Ch-5173 increased during the study period but were an order of magnitude less than the input effluent concentration. Cl concentrations in shallow ground water in the e

Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

2005-01-01

104

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

105

Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation.  

PubMed

Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463 K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were used to get information about the toxicity impact of the starting effluents and of the treated solutions. Under the operating conditions, complex organic compounds are mostly oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, along with short-chain carboxylic acids. Bioassays were found as a complement to chemical analyses for ensuring the toxicological impact on the ecosystem. In spite of a large decrease of TOC, the solutions of end products were all more toxic to Daphnia magna than the starting effluents by factors ranging from 2 to 33. This observation is attributed to the synergistic effects of acetic acid and salts present in the solutions. On the other hand, toxicity reduction with respect to Vibrio fischeri was achieved: detoxification factors greater than unity were measured for end-product solutions treated in the presence of the Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst, suggesting the absence of cumulative effect for this bacteria, or a lower sensitivity to the organic acids and salts. Bleach plant effluents treated by the CWAO process over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst were completely biodegradable. PMID:14675640

Pintar, Albin; Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Gibert, Janine; Martin, Dominique

2004-01-01

106

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

107

Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3wt%)\\/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were

Albin Pintar; Michèle Besson; Pierre Gallezot; Janine Gibert; Dominique Martin

2004-01-01

108

Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent by new bacterial strain Comamonas sp. EB172  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new isolate designated as strain EB172 was isolated from a digester treating palm oil mill effluent and was investigated by polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-pigmented, non-spore-forming and non-fermentative. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain clustered with the genus Comamonas. Its closest neighbours were the type strains Comamonas terrigena (96.8%),

Mohd Rafein Zakaria; Meisam Tabatabaei; Farinazleen Mohamad Ghazali; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Yoshihito Shirai; Mohd Ali Hassan

2010-01-01

109

Influence of temperature and pH on nitrogen removal in a series of maturation ponds treating anaerobic effluent.  

PubMed

This paper presents an evaluation of the influence of pH and temperature on nitrogen removal in a series of three shallow maturation ponds serving as post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent (approximately 200 population equivalent). Monitoring was from January 2007 to May 2009. Throughout this period, the ponds maintained relatively stable operational conditions in terms of depth and hydraulic retention time, thus enabling the evaluation of the influence of variations in temperature and pH on the performance in terms of nitrogen removal. In general, as expected, the removal of nitrogen was more effective when the temperature and pH of the ponds were higher, implying that these variables are relevant in the removal of nitrogen. Due to the fact that these parameters are included in the prediction equations for effluent ammonia and total nitrogen found in traditional models from the literature, fitting of the models to the experimental data was investigated. The models gave acceptable fittings in the estimation of effluent concentrations of ammonia and total nitrogen from maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent. PMID:23676394

de Assunção, Fernando Augusto Lopes; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

110

Long-term impacts of pasture irrigation with treated sewage effluent on shallow groundwater quality.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of 26 years of effluent irrigation on chemical and bacteriological quality of shallow (<3.0 m) groundwater. Annual loading rates for N and P exceeded pasture requirements, while trace metals were either lower or higher than guideline limits. Effluent irrigation removed TN (44-71%), TP (80%), Cr (96%) and coliform bacteria (87-99.9%) while Zn, Cu and Cd removal was negligible probably due to their enhanced mobility. Analysis of groundwater samples from effluent-irrigated and non-irrigated control sites showed that effluent irrigation increased the levels of all measured parameters compared to the control. Average groundwater quality parameters from effluent-irrigated sites compared to the control were: pH (6.1 vs. 5.7), EC (0.71 vs. 0.53 dS m(-1)), concentrations (mg L(-1)) for TP (2.3 vs. 0.3), DP (1.0 vs. 0.1), TN (15.1 vs. 2.5), NH(4)-N (2.6 vs. 0.5), NO(3)-N (4.1 vs. 1.3), Zn (0.4 vs. 0.05), Cu (0.13 vs. 0.02), Cd (0.05 vs. 0.01) and Cr (0.06 vs. 0.03). Across effluent-irrigated sites, FC and TC were 25 and 288 cfu/100 ml, respectively, versus nil for the control. Overall, effluent irrigation led to groundwater contamination by N, P, trace metals and coliform bacteria, which could threaten the long-term sustainability of the practice. PMID:19092224

Gwenzi, W; Munondo, R

2008-01-01

111

Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.  

PubMed

As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

2002-03-01

112

Forming microbial anodes with acetate addition decreases their capability to treat raw paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Microbial anodes were formed under polarization at -0.3V/SCE on graphite plates in effluents from a pulp and paper mill. The bioanodes formed with the addition of acetate led to the highest current densities (up to 6A/m(2)) but were then unable to oxidize the raw effluent efficiently (0.5A/m(2)). In contrast, the bioanodes formed without acetate addition were fully able to oxidize the organic matter contained in the effluent, giving up to 4.5A/m(2) in continuous mode. Bacterial communities showed less bacterial diversity for the acetate-fed bioanodes compared to those formed in raw effluents. Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, with a high diversity for bioanodes formed without acetate addition but with almost 100% Desulfuromonas for the acetate-fed bioanodes. The addition of acetate to form the microbial anodes induced microbial selection, which was detrimental to the treatment of the raw effluent. PMID:24862005

Ketep, Stéphanie F; Bergel, Alain; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Achouak, Wafa; Fourest, Eric

2014-07-01

113

Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.  

PubMed

A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium. PMID:24804625

Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

2014-08-01

114

Evaluation of the Potential Toxicity of Treated Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent to the Early Life Stages of Striped Bass 'Morone saxatilis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential toxicity of treated bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) to eggs, prolarvae and larvae of striped bass, Morone saxatilis was evaluated. All stages were exposed under continuous flow test conditions to a range of BKME concentrations from 0 to ...

D. T. Burton

1982-01-01

115

Characteristics of contaminants in water and sediment of a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetland (CW) is the preferred means of controlling water quality because of its natural treatment mechanisms and function as a secondary or tertiary treatment unit. CW is increasingly applied in Korea for secondary effluent of livestock wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to recognize the characteristics of contaminants in the accumulated sediment at the bottom soil layer and to

Soyoung Lee; Marla C. Maniquiz; Lee-Hyung Kim

2010-01-01

116

Production of ligninolytic activities when treating paper pulp effluents by Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the ability of Trametes versicolor to decolorize the effluents from the alkaline cooking of cereal straw produced at a paper and paper pulp making plant is studied. Enzymatic activities related to the metabolism of lignin during fungal treatment have also been evaluated. The results that have been attained show the necessity of a carbon source for the

P. Manzanares; S. Fajardo; C. Martin

1995-01-01

117

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

118

Aerobic residential onsite sewage systems: an evaluation of treated-effluent quality.  

PubMed

This retrospective cohort study used existing data to evaluate the quality of effluent from three of the most common types of onsite residential aerobic treatment sewage systems (Multi-Flo, Norweco, and Whitewater) installed in Kitsap County, Washington. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), and fecal-coliform-bacteria parameters were used to determine performance. Although most (77 percent) of the systems were less than one year old at the time of sampling, over a third failed to meet NSF certification standards for BOD5 and TSS in effluent (< 30 milligrams per liter [mg/L]). Over two-thirds of systems failed to meet Washington State Board of Health Treatment Standard 2 criteria for BOD5 and TSS (< 10 mg/L). Furthermore, an average of 59 percent of the systems failed to meet state standards for fecal coliform (< 800 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters). PMID:14556365

Maxfield, Meliss; Daniell, William E; Treser, Charles D; VanDerslice, Jim

2003-10-01

119

Critical assessment of methods for treating airborne effluents from high-level waste solidification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-gas treatment systems are reviewed for high-temperature processes which are being developed for the solidification of high-level liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A brief description of each of the processes is given and detailed analyses are made of the expected magnitudes of airborne effluent release rates from each system. The estimated release rates of the various processes are

J. D. Christian; D. T. Pence

1977-01-01

120

Estrogen removal from treated municipal effluent in small-scale constructed wetland with different depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of vertical-flow wetland as polishing step of conventional wastewater treatment in the removal of estrogens and to examine the effect of sand depth. The highest

Hai-Liang Song; Kazunori Nakano; Takashi Taniguchi; Munehiro Nomura; Osamu Nishimura

2009-01-01

121

Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactor had been operated continuously at 35°C for 514 d, with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD\\/(m3-d). The results showed that the EGSB reactor had good performance in terms of COD removal on the one

Yejian ZHANG; Li YAN; Lina CHI; Xiuhua LONG; Zhijian MEI; Zhenjia ZHANG

2008-01-01

122

Ecological health assessments based on whole effluent toxicity tests and the index of biological integrity in temperate streams influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests and ecosystem health assessments, based on test guidelines of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and index of biological integrity (IBI), were conducted on various streams located in Youngsan River watershed, Korea. The WET tests showed that about 33 and 82% of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exhibited significant toxicity to Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, respectively. Small WWTPs with low discharge volumes contributed less than 1% to the total stream toxicity. Fish community compositions and trophic guild analysis showed that the diversity index was greater in the control than in impacted streams, and the proportion of omnivore species was less in the control. Also, ecosystem health assessments, based on the IBI, showed distinct differences between the control and impacted sites of WWTPs. Model values of the IBI, based on 12 stream data sets, averaged 28, which is judged as a fair to poor condition according to the U.S. EPA criteria. The mean IBI in the control sites was 42, indicating good stream condition, whereas the impacted sites was scored 21, indicating poor condition. Overall, WET tests and ecosystem health assessments suggested the WWTP effluents had evident toxic effects on the biota, and impacted the species compositions and trophic guilds, resulting in degradation of the stream ecosystem health. PMID:17705646

Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don; Chang, Nam Ik; An, Kwang-Guk

2007-09-01

123

DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL TOXICITY ASSAY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A chemical analysis procedure was developed to measure within 1.5 hours compounds responsible for the toxicity of pulp mill effluents to fish. Analytical results for 113 samples of raw and biologically-treated bleached and unbleached kraft, sulphite and groundwood effluents were ...

124

Isolation of enterovirus and reovirus from sewage and treated effluents in selected Puerto Rican communities.  

PubMed Central

Sewage treatment plant effluents were surveyed for viral contributions to gastroenteritis outbreaks in Puerto Rico. Of the 15 sewage treatment plants studied, all discharged their effluents upstream from water treatment plant intakes. No base-line data on the degree of viral challenge to these sewage treatment plants or the subsequent reduction of viruses before discharge existed. Enterovirus counts were generally much higher than those found in the continental United States. At four plants, viruses in the incoming sewage exceeded 100,000 PFU/liter, and one of these, a trickling filter plant, was discharging 24,000 PFU/liter to receiving waters. Virus identification showed that more than 80% of the enterovirus isolates were coxsackievirus B5. These overwhelming viral numbers pointed to defects in the sewage treatment processes. Without reasonable barriers to protect receiving waters, several of the downstream communities were using raw waters that posed extraordinary demands on the ability of their water treatment plants to supply virologically safe drinking water.

Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S; Wright, B A

1989-01-01

125

Diverse biological effects of electromagnetic-treated water.  

PubMed

The effects of water treated with an electromagnetic field (EMF) were investigated on two biological systems, humans and plants. Purified de-ionised water was treated by (1) boiling, (2) exposure to microwave radiation, and (3) low frequency electromagnetic oscillation molecular resonance effect technology (MRET), before being used to prepare media for culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three healthy females. Our results indicated that PBMC culture in MRET-activated medium showed significantly less oxidative metabolism when compared to media prepared from other types of water. As for the effects on soybean, our results indicated that both MRET- and microwave-treated water greatly enhanced the length of the root. These results suggested that electromagnetic-treated water can have diverse biological effects on both animal and plant cells. Since these effects are related to the 'Memory of Water', hypothesis which has been suggested as an explanation of the action of high homeopathic dilutions, our finding warrant a further investigation on the mechanisms of various types of physically conditioned water on specific cellular activities. PMID:24931750

Yamabhai, Montarop; Chumseng, Suchintana; Yoohat, Kirana; Srila, Witsanu

2014-07-01

126

Environmental hazard assessment of cheese manufacturing effluent treated for hydrogen production.  

PubMed

Toxicity of effluents after treatment in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production is evaluated with three biotests: The zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test, the Thamnotoxkit F and the Daphtoxkit F(TM) magna. Samples were classified from "very" to "extremely toxic". Average toxicity values for zebrafish were 1.55% (24 h) and 0.75% (48 h), for Thamnocephalus 0.69% (24 h) and for Daphnia 2.51% (24 h) and 1.82% (48 h). Statistical analysis between physicochemical parameters and LC(50) values revealed that PO(4)(-3), SO(4)(-2), NH(3)N and NO(3)(-) have the major contribution to toxicity. Based on results, this treatment is considered an environmentally ineffective way of managing the specific wastes. PMID:19340389

Karadima, Constantina; Theodoropoulos, Chris; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Joan

2009-09-01

127

Effect of feed strategy on methane production and performance of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different feeding times (2, 4 and 6 h) and applied volumetric organic loads (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating effluent from biodiesel production. Polyurethane foam cubes were used as inert support in the reactor, and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. The effect of feeding time on reactor performance showed to be more pronounced at higher values of applied volumetric organic loads (AVOLs). Highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved at AVOL of 4.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1) were 87 % at 4-h feeding against 84 % at 2-h and 6-h feeding. At AVOL of 6.0 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved with 4-h and 6-h feeding were 84 %, against 71 % at 2-h feeding. At AVOL of 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), organic material removal efficiency achieved with 4-h feeding was 77 %. Hence, longer feeding times favored minimization of total volatile acids concentration during the cycle as well as in the effluent, guaranteeing process stability and safety. PMID:22373928

Lovato, Giovanna; Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo

2012-04-01

128

Estrogen removal from treated municipal effluent in small-scale constructed wetland with different depth.  

PubMed

The presence of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of vertical-flow wetland as polishing step of conventional wastewater treatment in the removal of estrogens and to examine the effect of sand depth. The highest removal efficiency of 67.8+/-28.0%, 84.0+/-15.4% and 75.3+/-17.6% for E1, E2 and EE2, respectively, was achieved by the shallowest wetland among three constructed wetlands with different filter layer depth (i.e. 7.5, 30 and 60 cm). Together with the result that the performance of wetlands when operating in unsaturated condition was superior to that when operating in water-saturated condition, it is suggested that maintaining sufficient aerobic circumstance in constructed wetlands was important for estrogens removal. Core sampling indicated that the highest efficiency achieved in extremely shallow wetland might be due partly to the highest root density, besides the superior condition for penetration of oxygen. The adsorbed estrogens in sand accounted for less than 12% of the removed estrogens irrespective of the depth, indicating biotic processes play a major role in the estrogens removal. PMID:19254839

Song, Hai-Liang; Nakano, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nomura, Munehiro; Nishimura, Osamu

2009-06-01

129

Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactor had been operated continuously at 35 degrees C for 514 d, with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). The results showed that the EGSB reactor had good performance in terms of COD removal on the one hand, high COD removal of 91% was obtained at two days' of hydraulic retention time (HRT), and the highest OLR of 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). On the other hand, only 46% COD in raw POME was transformed into biogas in which the methane content was about 70% (V/V). A 30-d intermittent experiment indicated that the maximum transformation potential of organic matter in raw POME into methane was 56%. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed in the later operation stage, and this was settled by supplementing trace metal elements. On the whole, the system exhibited good stability in terms of acidity and alkalinity. Finally, the operational problems inherent in the laboratory scale experiment and the corresponding countermeasures were also discussed. PMID:18763558

Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Chi, Lina; Long, Xiuhua; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

2008-01-01

130

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash,

S. Ram Mohan Rao; V. V. Basava Rao

2007-01-01

131

Field-Based Approach for Assessing the Impact of Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Endogenous Metabolites of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great La...

132

A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.  

PubMed

Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD? L?¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD? method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p < 0.001; slope = 0.94) between BOD? and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD? assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD? analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

2013-02-01

133

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Electroplating Industrial Effluents by Using Hydrothermally Treated Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium in the wastewater coming out from tanneries and electroplating industries is to be treated because of exposure to it may produce effects on the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal and immune systems. On the other hand, fly ash produced from coal fired power plants is having disposal problem and it has to be properly utilized. In this study, the fly ash, subjected to hydrothermal treatment is used as adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) from synthetic samples. The effect of initial stock solution, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH were studied in a batch experiment. Results are compared with powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon and untreated fly ash. The capacity of adsorption was found to be increased in the case of treated fly ash and it follows the order of powdered activated carbon >granular activated carbon >treated fly ash >untreated fly ash. The adsorption isotherms of Langmuir constants and Freundlich constants for all the adsorbents were determined. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was recommended.

Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Basava Rao, V. V.

134

Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. PMID:20042267

Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

2010-01-01

135

Evaluation of sponge tray-membrane bioreactor (ST-MBR) for primary treated sewage effluent treatment.  

PubMed

The membrane bioreactor system (MBR) with pre-treatment of sponge tray bioreactor (STB) was evaluated at different operating conditions for treating primary treated sewage (PTS). The result indicated the successful removal of DOC with the efficiency of higher than 95%. The highest nutrient removal efficiency of 83.6% (NH(4)-N) and 75.5% (PO(4)-P) was observed at sludge concentration of 330 mg/L. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge in MBR kept increasing up to 6 mg O(2)/g VSS h during stage IV. The sludge volume index (SVI) of less than 100mL/g during the operation indicated the good settling property of the sludge. At highest sludge concentration of 5 g/L, trans-membrane pressure (TMP) was increasing dramatically during first 15 d up to 25 kPa; however it was only 6 kPa at lower sludge concentrations. It is concluded that the system showed the highest performance at stage III with sludge concentration of 330 mg/L. PMID:22197339

Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Listowski, Andrei; Li, Jian Xin

2012-06-01

136

Processing of particulate organic carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluent in intertidal sediments: a 13C pulse-chase experiment.  

PubMed

To determine the benthic transformation pathways and fate of carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill (PPM) effluent, (13)C-labeled activated sludge biomass (ASB) and phytoplankton (PHY) were added, separately, to estuarine intertidal sediments. Over 28 days, (13)C was traced into sediment organic carbon, fauna, seagrass, bacteria, and microphytobenthos and into fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from inundated sediments, and carbon dioxide (CO2(g)) from exposed sediments. There was greater removal of PHY carbon from sediments (~85% over 28 days) compared to ASB (~75%). Although there was similar (13)C loss from PHY and ASB plots via DIC (58% and 56%, respectively) and CO2(g) fluxes (<1%), DOC fluxes were more important for PHY (41%) than ASB (12%). Faster downward transport and loss suggest that fauna prefer PHY, due to its lability and/or toxins associated with ASB; this may account for different carbon pathways. Secondary-treated PPM effluent has lower oxygen demand than primary-treated effluent, but ASB accumulation may contribute to sediment anoxia, and respiration of ASB and PHY-derived DOC may make the water column more heterotrophic. This highlights the need to optimize secondary-treatment processes to control the quality and quantity of organic carbon associated with PPM effluent. PMID:24261917

Oakes, Joanne M; Ross, Donald J; Eyre, Bradley D

2013-12-01

137

Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. The aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in Florianopolis city, Brazil. Sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by Centriprep Concentrator. Adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RV) were examined for all samples for 12 months and Poliovirus (PV) was also tested for in sewage sludge samples. AdV was the most prevalent in both kind of samples, followed by RV, PV (in sludge) and HAV. Viral viability by cell culture (ICC-PCR) was: AdV: 100%, HAV: 16.7%, PV: 91.7%, RV: 25% in sludge and AdV: 66.6%, HAV: 66.6% and RV: 0% in wastewater. IFA for AdV in sludge ranged from 70 to 300 FFU/ml. QPCR for AdV ranged from 4.6 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) and from 50 to 1.3 x 10(4) gc/ml in sludge and wastewater, respectively. HAV quantification in sludge ranged from 3.1 x 10(2) to 5.4 x 10(2) gc/ml. In conclusion, it was possible to correlate presence and viability of enteric viruses in the environmental samples analyzed. PMID:20107281

Schlindwein, A D; Rigotto, C; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

2010-01-01

138

Application of chemical, biological and membrane separation processes in textile industry with recourse to zero effluent discharge--a case study.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns associated with textile processing had placed the textile sector in a Southern State of India under serious threat of survival. The textile industries were closed under the orders of the Statutory Board for reason of inadequate compliance to environmental discharge norms of the State for the protection of the drinking water source of the State capital. In compliance with the direction of the Board for zero effluent discharge, advanced treatment process have been implemented for recovery of boiler feed quality water with recourse to effluent recycling/reuse. The paper describes to a case study on the adequacy assessment of the full scale effluent treatment plant comprising chemical, biological and filtration processes in a small scale textile industry. In addition, implementation of measures for discernable improvement in the performance of the existing units through effective operation & maintenance, and application of membrane separation processes leading to zero effluent discharge is also highlighted. PMID:16196413

Nandy, T; Dhodapkar, R S; Pophali, G R; Kaul, S N; Devotta, S

2005-09-01

139

Performance of a sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur-producing membrane biofilm reactor treating sulfide-containing bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated in mining, petrochemical plants, tanneries, viscose rayon manufacture, and the gasification of coal. Colorless sulfur bacteria can oxidize sulfide to elemental sulfur (S°), which can be recovered, when oxygen is their electron acceptor. This study evaluated sulfide oxidation and S° recovery in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating the effluent from a sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor. Sulfide oxidation efficiency (37-99%) and S° recovery (64-89% of oxidized sulfide) could be controlled by manipulating the sulfide loading, oxygen pressure to the fibers, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). For example, too-low oxygen pressure decreased S° recovery due to decreased sulfide oxidation, but too-high oxygen pressure lowered S° recovery due to its oxidation to sulfate. Most importantly, high sulfide oxidation (>98%) and conversion to S° (>75%) could be achieved together when the sulfide loading was less than 1.7 mol/m²·d and the O? pressure was sufficient to give an O? flux of at least 1.5 mol/m²·d. However, higher sulfide loading could be compensated by a higher O? pressure, and the best performance occurred when the sulfide loading was high (2 molS/m²·d), the O? pressure was high (?1 atm), and the HRT was short (1.9 h). Membrane fouling caused a low O? flux, which led to low sulfide-oxidation efficiency, but fouling could be reversed by mild acid washing. PMID:21452867

Sahinkaya, Erkan; Hasar, Halil; Kaksonen, Anna H; Rittmann, Bruce E

2011-05-01

140

Comparison of nutrient cycling in a surface-flow constructed wetland and in a facultative pond treating secondary effluent.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the possibilities offered by combinations of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) and constructed wetlands (CW). The purpose of our study was to compare treatment performances and nutrient cycling in a surface-flow wetland (SFW) and in a WSP treating secondary effluent. In the period between 2000 and 2003, a pilot SFW and a pilot WSP were constructed at the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant and their performance monitored while both were active under the same conditions. The SFW was planted with Phragmites australis and Eichhornia crassipes, while in the WSP development of algae was spontaneous. Performance efficiency was monitored by means of evaluation of physical and chemical parameters in water, by measurement of plant productivity and by analysis of N and P contents in biomass. The SFW with macrophytes proved more efficient in decreasing the suspended solids (64.6%), settleable solids (91.8%), organic N (59.3%), total N (38%), COD (67.2%) and BOD5 (72.1%) than the WSP. The WSP with algae was more efficient in treatment of ammonia nitrogen (48.9%) and ortho-phosphate (43.9%). The results of this study provide data that are of help in optimising combinations of SFW and WSP. PMID:16114697

Sajn Slak, A; Bulc, T G; Vrhovsek, D

2005-01-01

141

Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.  

PubMed

The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ?70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal. PMID:23508150

Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

2013-01-01

142

Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1?mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup.

Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

2013-01-01

143

Improving neural network prediction of effluent from biological wastewater treatment plant of industrial park using fuzzy learning approach.  

PubMed

Three types of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in which the online monitoring parameters served as the input variable were employed to predict suspended solids (SS(eff)), chemical oxygen demand (COD(eff)), and pH(eff) in the effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant in industrial park. Artificial neural network (ANN) was also used for comparison. The results indicated that ANFIS statistically outperforms ANN in terms of effluent prediction. When predicting, the minimum mean absolute percentage errors of 2.90, 2.54 and 0.36% for SS(eff), COD(eff) and pH(eff) could be achieved using ANFIS. The maximum values of correlation coefficient for SS(eff), COD(eff), and pH(eff) were 0.97, 0.95, and 0.98, respectively. The minimum mean square errors of 0.21, 1.41 and 0.00, and the minimum root mean square errors of 0.46, 1.19 and 0.04 for SS(eff), COD(eff), and pH(eff) could also be achieved. PMID:19253022

Pai, Tzu-Yi; Wang, S C; Chiang, C F; Su, H C; Yu, L F; Sung, P J; Lin, C Y; Hu, H C

2009-10-01

144

Treatment of colored effluent of the textile industry in Bangladesh using zinc chloride treated indigenous activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of colored compounds from the textile dyeing effluents of Bangladesh on granulated activated carbons produced from indigenous vegetable sources by chemical activation with zinc chloride was studied. The most important parameters in chemical activation were found be the chemical ratio of ZnCl2 to feed (3:1), carbonization temperature (450–465°C) and activation time (80min). The adsorbances at 511nm (red effluent)

Mohammad Mainul Karim; Ajoy Kumar Das; Sang Hak Lee

2006-01-01

145

How safe are the biologicals in treating asthma and rhinitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of biological agents are available or being investigated for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis. The safety profiles of these biologic agents, which may modify allergic and immunological diseases, are still being elucidated. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy, the oldest biologic agent in current use, has the highest of frequency of the most serious and life-threatening reaction, anaphylaxis. It is

Linda S Cox

2009-01-01

146

Some environmental problems associated with the use of treated wastewater for irrigation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treated effluent was used for eggplant (aubergine) irrigation through a trickle system at As-Samra experimental site. The soil characteristics were determined prior to irrigation. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the effluent were determined during the growing season. Suitability of the effluent for irrigation was studied. The crop and soil were tested for pathogenic pollution. The accumulation of salts and

G. A. Al-Nakshabandi; M. M. Saqqar; M. R. Shatanawi; M. Fayyad; H. Al-Horani

1997-01-01

147

Evaluation of a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with partial recirculation of effluent used to treat wastewaters from pulp and paper plants.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a UASB reactor treating diluted black liquor from a Kraft pulp mill, which simulates an unbleached Kraft plant wastewater, under different operational conditions, including partial recycling of the effluent. The reactor's performance was evaluated from the standpoint of COD, pH, volatile acid concentration, alkalinity, concentration of methane in the biogas, and microbiological examinations of the sludge. Without recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 36 to 30h did not significantly affect the average COD removal efficiency. The parameter displaying the greatest variation was the average concentration of effluent volatile acids, which increased by 16%. With recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 30 to 24h increased the average COD removal efficiency from 75% to 78%. In this case, the average effluent alkalinity also showed an increase. The use of partial recirculation of the effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal under the operational conditions tested in this work, but it was possible to operate the reactor with lower hydraulic retention time without disintegration of the granules. PMID:17008096

Buzzini, A P; Pires, E C

2007-07-01

148

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

149

Effect of organic loading on performance of rotating biological contactors using Palm Oil Mill effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment using attached growth on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for the wastewater from Palm Oil Mill industries, which contains high strength of organic compounds, COD of about 16,000mg\\/l. An acclimated Saccharomyces cerevisiae with POME was used as the initial biomass for the attached growth on bio-discs. After 5 days, 91% BOD removal was achieved in a

Ghasem Najafpour; Hii Ai Yieng; Habibollah Younesi; Aliakbar Zinatizadeh

2005-01-01

150

Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

2013-12-01

151

CATALYTICALLY AND NONCATALYTICALLY TREATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H2SO4 alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaus...

152

Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent injected in a saline aquifer, St. Petersburg, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent into the uppermost producing zone (zone A) of the Upper Floridan aquifer in St. Petersburg, Florida, is being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. A measure of the success of this practice is the recovery efficiency, or the quantity of water relative to the quantity injected, that can be recovered before the water that is withdrawn fails to meet water-quality standards. The feasibility of this practice will depend upon the ability of the injected zone to receive, store, and discharge the injected fluid. A cylindrical model of ground-water flow and solute transport, incorporating available data on aquifer properties and water quality, was developed to determine the relation of recovery efficiency to various aquifer and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area. The reference case for testing was a base model considered representative of the saline aquifer underlying St. Petersburg. Parameter variations in the tests represent possible variations in aquifer conditions in the area. The model also was used to study the effect of various cyclic injection and withdrawal schemes on the recovery efficiency of the well and aquifer system. A base simulation assuming 15 days of injection of effluent at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day and 15 days of withdrawal at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day was used as reference to compare changes in various hydraulic and chemical parameters on recovery efficiency. A recovery efficiency of 20 percent was estimated for the base simulation. For practical ranges of hydraulic and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area, the model analysis indicates that (1) the greater the density contrast between injected and resident formation water, the lower the recovery efficiency, (2) recovery efficiency decreases significantly as dispersion increases, (3) high formation permeability favors low recovery efficiencies, and (4) porosity and anisotropy have little effect on recovery efficiencies. In several hypothetical tests, the recovery efficiency fluctuated between about 4 and 76 percent. The sensitivity of recovery efficiency to variations in the rate and duration of injection (0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 million gallons per day) and withdrawal cycles (60, 180, and 365 days) was determined. For a given operational scheme, recovery efficiency increased as the injection and withdrawal rate is increased. Model results indicate that recovery efficiencies of between about 23 and 37 percent can be obtained for different subsurface storage and recovery schemes. Five successive injection, storage, and recovery cycles can increase the recovery efficiency to about 46 to 62 percent. There is a larger rate of increase at smaller rates than at larger rates. Over the range of variables studied, recovery efficiency improved with successive cycles, increasing rapidly during initial cycles tyhen more slowly at later cycles. The operation of a single well used for subsurface storage and recovery appears to be technically feasible under moderately favorable conditions; however, the recovery efficiency is higly dependent upon local physical and operational parameters. A combination of hydraulic, chemical, and operational parameters that minimize dispersion and buoyancy flow, maximizes recovery efficiency. Recovery efficiency was optimal where resident formation water density and permeabilities were relatively similar and low.

Yobbi, D. K.

1996-01-01

153

Assessment of in vitro cyto/genotoxicity of sequentially treated electroplating effluent on the human hepatocarcinoma HuH-7 cell line.  

PubMed

The present study compares in vitro toxicity of electroplating effluent after the batch treatment process with that obtained after the sequential treatment process. Activated charcoal prepared from sugarcane bagasse through chemical carbonization, and tolerant indigenous bacteria, Bacillus sp. strain IST105, were used individually and sequentially for the treatment of electroplating effluent. The sequential treatment involving activated charcoal followed by bacterial treatment removed 99% of Cr(VI) compared with the batch processes, which removed 40% (charcoal) and 75% (bacteria), respectively. Post-treatment in vitro cyto/genotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT test and the comet assay in human HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. The sequentially treated sample showed an increase in LC50 value with a 6-fold decrease in comet-assay DNA migration compared with that of untreated samples. A significant decrease in DNA migration and an increase in LC50 value of treated effluent proved the higher effectiveness of the sequential treatment process over the individual batch processes. PMID:24525376

Naik, Umesh Chandra; Das, Mihir Tanay; Sauran, Swati; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2014-03-01

154

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SCIPPO CREEK, CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the first site study on Scippo Creek at Circleville, Ohio, which receives only one discharge from a chemical resins plant using batch operations. Scippo Creek is a small sunfish/bass stream flowing through an agricultural area in central Ohio. Previous biolog...

155

EFFECTS OF LIQUID DETERGENT PLANT EFFLUENT ON THE ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on the treatment of wastewaters from a liquid detergent manufacturing plant by a rotating biological contactor and presents the findings of an analytical effort to determine the presence or absence of metals and organic compounds which were among those...

156

Biological degradation of EDTA in pulping effluents at higher pH - a laboratory study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biological degradation of EDTA at different pH, sludge load and sludge age has been investigated in laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that relatively fast degradation of EDTA in the form found in this waste water (from production of TMP) ...

M. Ek M. Remberger A. S. Allard

1999-01-01

157

Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).  

PubMed

The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality. PMID:23903932

Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Delmas, François; Coste, Michel

2013-10-01

158

The Biological Treatment of Coke-Oven Effluents: Further Studies on the Role of Organic Inhibitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small-scale activated sludge plant (2.65 liters) was set up with intermittent sludge return and the pH maintained at 7.0 by automatic addition of NaOH. An activated sludge from a works treating a sewage containing a small proportion of gas-purification ...

1978-01-01

159

Use of electrochemical technology to increase the quality of the effluents of bio-oxidation processes. A case studied.  

PubMed

In this work, it has been studied the use of conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation (CDEO) as a refining technology to assure the quality of the effluents of door manufacturing processes (DMP). To do this, the raw effluents of these factories have been treated by a combination of physicochemical, biological and CDEO treatments. CDEO was found to be a feasible alternative to the refinement of a wooden DMP waste. It can successfully decrease the organic load of the effluents of the biological oxidation with low energy requirements. In addition, in case of incidents in the biological process, CDEO can treat successfully the effluents of the coagulation process. The effluents of the biological treatment have also been treated by CDEO in order to check the possible use of electrochemical technology to increase the biodegradability of the effluents and their possible recycle to the biological treatment. Unfortunately, electrochemical technology was found to be not adequate to increase the biodegradability of the effluents of a biological treatment. The hard oxidation conditions generated during CDEO do not lead to the accumulation of intermediates but to the almost direct formation of carbon dioxide. Lowering the current density or changing the electrodes can not enhance the biodegradability of the effluents of an electrochemical cell. PMID:18501407

Cañizares, Pablo; Beteta, Alberto; Sáez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Rodrigo, Manuel A

2008-07-01

160

Effect of Mowing Height Upon Consumptive Water Use, Groundwater Recharge and Recharge Quality from Bermudagrass Watered with Secondary Treated Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tifgreen bermudagrass was grown on three soil mixes (washed mortar sand, 95 sand - 5 zeolite, 90 sand, 10 zeolite) under three scheduled mowing heights (12.5, 25.4 and 37.5 mm) and irrigated with secondary sewage effluent at 100% Class A Pan evaporation (...

W. R. Kneebone

1983-01-01

161

Quantification of synthetic organic chemicals in biological treatment process effluent using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a technique that uses a polymer-coated, fused-silica fiber to selectively extract organic analyses from a sample matrix, followed by gas chromatography (GC), was used to quantify selected synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) in biological reactor effluent. By selecting an appropriate combination of SPME fiber, GC column, and GC detector, assays to quantify either a suite of SOCs or single selected SOCs were developed. Phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4,-dinitrophenol, isophorone, m-toluate, m-sylene, and di-n-butylphthalate were quantified simultaneously using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a flame ionization detector. m-Xylene was quantified using a 100-{micro}m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a mass spectrometric detector. Dichloromethane was quantified using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a Carbopack B/1% SP-1000 packed column, and an electron capture detector. All three assays enabled detection of the target analyses to low concentrations ({micro}g/L) with minimal sample volume and processing requirements.

Magbanua, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, D.R.; Fehniger, S.M.; Bowyer, R.L.; Grady, C.P.L. Jr.

2000-02-01

162

Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Plant Growth and Biological Activity in Three Soil Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two types of treated wastewater on soil biological activity were studied in a pot experiment. Four irrigation treatments were tested on both soils sown with barley and unsown soils: distilled water (DW), half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (NS), treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW), and treated wastewater from a lagoon (LWW). Three types of soils were

Maria Adrover; Gabriel Moyà; Jaume Vadell

2012-01-01

163

Biological surfactant production in a biological slurry reactor treating diesel fuel contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A sandy loam with aged diesel fuel contamination was treated for 90 days in an 8-L soil slurry-sequencing batch reactor (SS-SBR). The purpose was to investigate biological surfactant production and its effect on slurry properties and reactor performance. The SS-SBR was operated with a 10-day retention time and a 5-day cycle. Track studies were performed to monitor the fluctuation in slurry properties during a single cycle. Surfactants were produced faster than they were degraded or sorbed during the first 1.5 days of each cycle, resulting in increasing concentrations from less than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) to 60 times the CMC and an increase in aqueous diesel fuel concentration from 0 to 1.2 g/L. Only after the concentration of surfactants and emulsified diesel fuel began to decrease through biodegradation (after 1.5 days) was foaming observed. Foam thickness increased from 0 mm at 1.5 days to 48 mm on day 3, and then decreased to 0 mm again by the end of the cycle. Surfactants were completely degraded by the end of each cycle. Coinciding profiles of foam thickness and emulsification capacity (i.e., ability to emulsify spiked hydrocarbon) indicate that foaming resulted from the temporary accumulation of free surfactant molecules. Biological surfactant production occurred without cell multiplication during the first day, but was later growth associated. The ratio of oxygen to diesel fuel consumed was 1.7, and the microorganism yield on a chemical oxygen demand basis (YCOD) was 0.43. PMID:11558308

Cassidy, D P

2001-01-01

164

The combined use of a biosurfactant and an enzyme preparation to treat an effluent with a high fat content.  

PubMed

The combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an enzyme pool produced by solid-state fermentation with Penicillium simplicissimum using babassu cake as culture medium in the anaerobic treatment of an effluent with a high fat content from a poultry processing plant was evaluated. Central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the enzyme pool and biosurfactant concentrations and the treatment temperature of the effluent containing about 2400 mg oil and grease per liter. The combination that yielded the highest specific methane production was 0.19% (w/v) enzyme pool and 114 mg/L biosurfactant at 33 °C. It could therefore be concluded that the combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant with an enzyme preparation obtained from solid-state fermentation may enhance methane production and enable the use of anaerobic technology in this sector, eliminating the need for physicochemical processes or the addition of costly commercial enzymes. PMID:22465048

Damasceno, Fernanda R C; Cammarota, Magali C; Freire, Denise M G

2012-06-15

165

Evaluation of UV/TiO(2) and UV/ZnO photocatalytic systems coupled to a biological process for the treatment of bleaching pulp mill effluent.  

PubMed

This paper presents an exploratory study of pulp mill bleaching effluent treatment by a biological-photocatalytic coupled system. A fungus, Trametes pubescens, immobilized on polyurethane foam was used to inoculate the biological pre-treatment system. The pretreated effluent was then exposed to a photocatalytic treatment in which two catalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) and two supports (aluminum foil and Luffa cylindrica) were tested. Catalyst characterization was carried out by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Information about crystalline structure, chemical composition, morphology, homogeneity and distribution on the support surface area was obtained. The overall biological-photocatalytic coupled system achieved degradation of 96% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), 97% of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 90% of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-CP) and 99% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). This approach of synergistic coupling of T. pubescens and a semiconductor photocatalyst appears to be a viable alternative for the treatment of these non-biodegradable effluents. PMID:22818977

Botía, Diana C; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Sarria, Víctor M

2012-10-01

166

NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

167

Moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa treated with biological therapies.  

PubMed

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating disorder that can be difficult to manage with current conventional treatment strategies. Given its association with proinflammatory cytokines there has been interest in the use of novel biological monoclonal antibodies. We describe our experience with the use of these agents in six patients in whom conventional treatment had failed, with promising response noted in some patients. A growing number of studies now highlight the efficacy of these agents. PMID:24456051

Chinniah, Niranthari; Cains, Geoffrey David

2014-05-01

168

Biological treatment of steroidal drug industrial effluent and electricity generation in the microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

The single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to treat steroidal drug production wastewater (SPW) and generate electricity simultaneously. The results indicated that the maximum COD removal efficiency reached 82%, total nitrogen and sulfate removal rate approached 62.47% and 26.46%, respectively. The maximum power density and the Coulombic efficiency reached to 22.3Wm(-3) and 30%, respectively. The scanning electron microscope showed that the dominant microbial populations were remarkably different in morphology on the surface of SPW and acetate-fed anodes. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the microbial community structure fed with different concentrations of SPW presented a gradual succession and unique bacterial sequences were detected on the SPW and acetate-fed anodes. This research demonstrates that MFCs fed with SPW achieved a high efficiency of power density and simultaneous nutrient removal, and the dominant microorganisms on the anode were related to the types and the concentrations of substrates. PMID:22940303

Liu, Ru; Gao, Chongyang; Zhao, Yang-Guo; Wang, Aijie; Lu, Shanshan; Wang, Min; Maqbool, Farhana; Huang, Qing

2012-11-01

169

From Effluent to New Water: Performance Evaluation and Quality Assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As water reuse becomes increasingly important to satisfy water demand, ensuring the quality of recycled wastewater becomes ever more vital. Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) metabolites are two groups of chemicals that are commonly present in treated effluent and have received attention for their demonstrated or potential biological effects. In this paper we present data on the effects of

Martin Reinhard; John Montgomery-Brown; Jennifer S. Louie; Birgit Gross

2003-01-01

170

Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent.  

PubMed

Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE. PMID:24675614

Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang

2014-05-15

171

Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. PMID:23411455

García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

2013-03-01

172

Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 ?g/L of THMs and 1140.6 ?g/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively. PMID:23535379

Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

2013-05-15

173

40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... Subpart AâEffluent Limitations (BAT...wastewaters from coke oven gas wet desulfurization...plant biological treatment systems....

2010-07-01

174

40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... Subpart AâEffluent Limitations (BAT...wastewaters from coke oven gas wet desulfurization...plant biological treatment systems....

2009-07-01

175

Posttreatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-treated industrial wastewater by a rotating biological contactor.  

PubMed

The performance of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for posttreatment of the slaughterhouse effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated in this study. The 280-L, six-stage RBC pilot plant was operated at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and biodisk speeds. The overall removal efficiencies for soluble biochemical oxygen demand (SBOD), total biochemical oxygen demand (TBOD), and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) decreased with increasing OLRs. Disk rotational speed did not have a significant effect on performance in the range studied. The results showed that satisfactory posttreatment to meet regulatory requirements for agricultural purposes (effluent biochemical oxygen demand of 100 mg/L) can be achieved at an OLR of 5.3 +/- 2.9 g SBOD x m(-2) x d(-1), with an SBOD removal efficiency of 85 +/- 3%. Most of the organics were removed in the first three stages, with minimal contribution from the remaining stages of the RBC reactor. There was a decrease in SBOD removal efficiency to 74 +/- 3% at an OLR value of 17.8 +/- 2.1 g SBOD x m(-2) x d(-1). The results for elimination capacity indicated a linear relationship with first-stage OLRs without any signs of limitation at the range of loading rates investigated in this study. However, average first-stage elimination capacity rates of 4.8 and 3.8 g x m(-2) x d(-1) at OLR values of 17.8 and 11 g SBOD x m(-2) x d(-1) were relatively lower than previous studies of RBC performance using domestic or industrial wastewater without anaerobic pretreatment. It was suggested that the lower elimination capacity rates were due to the fact that a smaller fraction of UASB effluent was biodegradable as reflected in TBOD/TCOD ratios of 0.47 +/- 0.04. PMID:12837029

Torkian, Ayoob; Alinejad, K; Hashemian, S J

2003-01-01

176

Hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) removal from biologically treated landfill leachate by powder-activated carbon (PAC), granular-activated carbon (GAC) and biomimetic fat cell (BFC).  

PubMed

Biological pretreatment efficiently remove organic matter from landfill leachate, but further removal of refractory hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) is hard even with advanced treatment. In this work, three-stage-aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of fresh leachate produced in Shanghai laogang landfill, from 8603 to 451 mg L(-1) and 1368 to 30 mg L(-1), respectively. In downstream treatment, 3 g L(-1) powder-activated carbon (PAC), granular-activated carbon (GAC) and biomimetic fat cell (BFC) removed 89.2, 73.4 and 81.1% HOCs, but only 24.6, 19.1 and 8.9% COD, respectively. Through the specific HOCs accumulation characteristics of BFC, about 11.2% HOCs with low molecular weight (<1000 Da) in the biologically treated leachate were concluded. Since HOCs are competitively trapped by dissolved organic matters (DOM), the ultimate removal of HOCs from leachate is unreachable by activated carbon or BFC. It was also found that the biologically treated leachate effluent exhibited a wide molecular weight distribution (34-514,646 Da). These constitutes are derived from both autochthonous and allochthonous matters as well as biological activities. PMID:18752890

Liyan, Song; Youcai, Zhao; Weimin, Sun; Ziyang, Lou

2009-04-30

177

IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

178

Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible. PMID:16180426

Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

2005-01-01

179

Solar Fenton and solar TiO2 catalytic treatment of ofloxacin in secondary treated effluents: evaluation of operational and kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

Two different technical approaches based on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), solar Fenton homogeneous photocatalysis (hv/Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) suspensions were studied for the chemical degradation of the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin in secondary treated effluents. A bench-scale solar simulator in combination with an appropriate photochemical batch reactor was used to evaluate and select the optimal oxidation conditions of ofloxacin spiked in secondary treated domestic effluents. The concentration profile of the examined substrate during degradation was determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. Mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The concentrations of Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) were the key factors for the solar Fenton process, while the most important parameter of the heterogeneous photocatalysis was proved to be the catalyst loading. Kinetic analyses indicated that the photodegradation of ofloxacin can be described by a pseudo-first-order reaction. The rate constant (k) for the solar Fenton process was determined at different Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations whereas the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) kinetic expression was used to assess the kinetics of the heterogeneous photocatalytic process. The conversion of ofloxacin depends on several parameters based on the various experimental conditions, which were investigated. A Daphnia magna bioassay was used to evaluate the potential toxicity of the parent compound and its photo-oxidation by-products in different stages of oxidation. In the present study solar Fenton has been demonstrated to be more effective than the solar TiO(2) process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate and DOC reduction of about 50% in 30 min of the photocatalytic treatment. PMID:20667580

Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

2010-10-01

180

Biological Opinion: Georgia-Pacific Effluent Pipeline Replacement (Phase 1), Corps No. 2000-00397, Lincoln County, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a letter dated June 7, 2000, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) requested informal consultation on the Georgia-Pacific Effluent Pipeline Replacement (Phase 1) (the proposed project), the first construction stage of a multi-phased pipeline replaceme...

2000-01-01

181

Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

2012-07-01

182

Reduction of enteric microbes in flushed swine wastewater treated by a biological aerated filter and UV irradiation.  

PubMed

An aerobic biofilter system was studied to assess its effectiveness for reducing enteric microbial indicators in flushed swine wastewater under different seasonal conditions. A laboratory-scale, low-pressure UV collimated beam apparatus was used to investigate the effectiveness of UV irradiation for inactivating enteric bacteria, coliphages, and bacterial spores in treated and untreated swine wastewater having unfiltered absorbances of 5 to 11 cm(-1) and total suspended solids concentrations of 500 to 1200 mg/L. Fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, and male-specific coliphages were reduced by 97 to 99% in the biofilter system when reactor water temperatures were between 23 and 32 degrees C. Salmonella were reduced by 95 to 97% when water temperatures were 17 to 32 degrees C. Of the six microbial indicators studied. Clostridium perfringens spores were typically reduced the least by the biofilter system. At an average absorbed UV irradiation dose of 13 mJ/cm2, maximum reductions of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens spores, and somatic coliphages in biofilter system effluent were 2.2, 2.1, 1.3, 0.2, and 2.3 log10, respectively. The results of this study show that the aerobic biofilter system can be an effective alternative for treatment of flushed swine waste. Ultraviolet irradiation can be effective for further reducing enteric microbe concentrations in biologically-treated swine waste, as well as in lower quality wastewaters, indicating its general potential for pathogen reductions in low-quality wastewaters intended for beneficial reuse. PMID:11995872

Hill, Vincent R; Kantardjieff, Alexandra; Sobsey, Mark D; Westerman, Phil W

2002-01-01

183

Advanced treatment of high strength opium alkaloid industry effluents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate an effective treatment system which can be applicable to treat opium alkaloid industry (OAI) effluents characterised with high COD, TKN, dark color and non-biodegradable organic pollutants. In the first phase of the study, lab-scale anaerobic (UASBR) + aerobic (SBR) treatability studies were carried out on opium processing industry effluents. Effluent CODs from the two staged biological treatment system were relatively high (-700 mg l(-1)) and additional post treatment was required. Physico-chemical treatability studies previously carried out on the effluent of opium alkaloid wastewater treatment plant, were not effective in removing residual COD and color. In the second phase of the study, the refractory organics causing higher inert COD values in the SBR effluent were additionally treated by using Fenton's Oxidation. The batch tests were performed to determine the optimum operating conditions including pH, H2O2 dosage, molar ratio of Fe2+/H2O2 and reaction time. It was found that removal efficiencies of COD and color for 30 minutes reaction time were about 90% and 95%, respectively. The ratio of H2O2/FeSO4 was determined as 200 mg l(-1)/600 mg l(-1) for the optimum oxidation and coagulation process at pH 4. Experimental results of the present study have clearly indicated that the Fenton's oxidation technology is capable to treat almost all parts of the organics which consist of both soluble initial and microbial inert fractions of COD for opium alkaloid industry effluents. Effluents from the Fenton's Oxidation process can satisfy effluent standards for COD and color in general. PMID:12448485

Aydin, A F; Altinbas, M; Sevimli, M F; Ozturk, I; Sarikaya, H Z

2002-01-01

184

Isolation and Growth Characteristics of Chromium(VI) and Pentachlorophenol Tolerant Bacterial Isolate from Treated Tannery Effluent for its Possible Use in Simultaneous Bioremediation.  

PubMed

The bacterial strains resistant to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were isolated from treated tannery effluent of a common effluent treatment plant. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analyzed were above permissible limits. Thirty-eight and four bacterial isolates, respectively were found resistant to >50 ?g/ml concentration of [Cr(VI)] and the same level of PCP. Out of the above 42 isolates, only one was found simultaneously tolerant to higher levels of both PCP (500 ?g/ml) and Cr(VI) (200 ?g/ml), and hence was selected for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which a native bacterial isolate simultaneously tolerant to such a high concentrations of Cr(VI) and PCP has been reported. The culture growth was best at 0.4% (w/v) glucose as an additional carbon source and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source. The growth results with cow urine as a nitrogen source were comparable with the best nitrogen source ammonium chloride. The isolate exhibited resistance to multiple heavy metals (Pb, As, Hg, Zn, Co & Ni) and to antibiotics nalidixic acid and polymixin-B. The efficacy of bacterial isolate for growth, PCP degradation (56.5%) and Cr(VI) bioremediation (74.5%) was best at 48 h incubation. The isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological and biochemical tests. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% homology with Bacillus cereus. However, further molecular analysis is underway to ascertain its likelyhood of a novel species. PMID:22282630

Tripathi, Manikant; Vikram, Surendra; Jain, R K; Garg, Satyendra K

2011-01-01

185

Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cancer Treated with Biological Response Modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeClinical characteristics prognostic of survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with biological response modifiers are poorly understood. Understanding these prognostic features may help with better stratification of patients in clinical trials and define further appropriate treatment for each prognostic subgroup.

Sridhar Mani; Mary B. Todd; Karol Katz; Wen-Jen Poo

1995-01-01

186

Vertical migration of infaunal invertebrates in response to dosing with secondary treated sewage effluent: a microcosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term experiments testing behaviouralresponses to a toxicant are liable to besensitive indicators of the potential effectsof a pollutant and allow predictions abouthabitat preferences of organisms in the field.We have undertaken short-term microcosmexperiments with intact assemblages ofintertidal invertebrate infauna andinvestigated the responses of these assemblagesto dosing with a secondary treated sewageeffluent. Infaunal assemblages were taken fromsites that differed in their proximity

Liz Morris; Michael J. Keough

2001-01-01

187

Nitrogen removal from on-site treated anaerobic effluents using intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactors at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated dairy parlour wastewater (DPWWe; 10°C) and mixture of kitchen waste and black water (BWKWe; 20°C) was studied in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). The focus was on removal of nitrogen and of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD). Moreover, the effect of intermittent aeration and continuous vs. sequencing batch operation was studied. All MBBRs removed 50–60%

Sari Luostarinen; Sami Luste; Lara Valentín; Jukka Rintala

2006-01-01

188

Optimization of the aerobic biological treatment of thermophilically treated refractory wastewater.  

PubMed

A pilot scale conventional activated sludge was operated for over 600 days to study its effectiveness at further remediating the effluent of an existing industrial site's thermophilic biological treatment stage. During the course of the study, the activated sludge was able to further biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming industrial wastewater in terms of both BOD and nitrogen reductions at varying hydraulic and solids retention times, despite elevated concentrations of soluble copper being present. A limiting hydraulic retention time (HRT) for BOD removal of 1.5 days was observed as well as the loss of nitrification occurred at a solids retention time (SRT) of approximately 6 days. Biokinetic coefficients were determined with the maximum rate of substrate utilization per unit mass of microorganisms, k, of 0.14 mgVSS/(mgsBOD-d) and the Monod half velocity constant, K(s), of 9.4 mgsBOD/L. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) of the nitrogenous compounds found in this wastewater was observed throughout the majority of the experimentation while the bulk DO in the system was greater than 1 mg/L. The activated sludge was estimated to contain soluble copper on the order of 1 mg/L throughout the course of operation with no apparent detriment to nitrification. Additionally, the activated sludge was able to biologically remove the main solvents found in the influent wastewater. The removals of trace levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were also observed. PMID:16005148

Quesnel, David; Nakhla, George

2005-10-17

189

Performance evaluation of physicochemical processes for biologically pre-treated livestock wastewater.  

PubMed

The use of a combination of biological and physicochemical methods is a promising technique to reduce highly concentrated pollutants in livestock wastewater: firstly, biodegradable organic matters, nitrogen and a part of phosphorus should be removed in a biological treatment process and then residual non-biodegradable organic matters, color and phosphorus be eliminated by physicochemical methods. In this study, therefore, the integrations of chemical coagulation, activated carbon adsorption, Fenton oxidation and ozonation were evaluated to provide an appropriate post-treatment process for biologically pre-treated livestock wastewater. With applying a single method such as coagulation and Fenton oxidation, a yellowish brown color and COD still remained. According to the experimental result, the quality of treated wastewater including color was enough to be discharged after chemical coagulation followed by ozonation or Fenton oxidation process. Among these, ozonation was the most effective technology for decolorization. Neither simple biological nor physicochemical process provides an adequate treatability for the sufficient depletion of organics and decolorization when treating livestock wastewater. Considering only the removal efficiency, the integration of Fenton oxidation and ozonation would be an efficient alternative as a post-treatment. PMID:16459782

Hong, S W; Choi, Y S; Kwon, G; Park, K Y

2005-01-01

190

Safety of biologics approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of spontaneous reports of adverse events.  

PubMed

Despite the effectiveness of biologics approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, they have been associated with serious adverse events (AEs). Biologics are used under close supervision of health care professionals. In Portugal, they are legally required to report AEs occurring during the treatment. This study aims at investigating post-marketing safety monitoring data of biologics in Portugal by comparing the frequency of spontaneously reported adverse events between 2009 and 2011 with the frequency of such events in the summary of the product characteristics of each biologic. Sales data for biologics were obtained from IMS Health and converted into defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants/day in order to estimate a proportion of the population treated. The frequency of AEs was estimated as the percentage of patients in which an AE may have occurred. The use of each biologic was estimated for adalimumab at 1,439 patients/year, etanercept 1,944 patients/year, and infliximab 3,211 patients/year. A total of 992 AEs were reported: 207 for adalimumab, 199 for etanercept, and 586 for infliximab. Of the 515 different spontaneously reported AEs, 194 were included for comparisons with the SPCs. Of those, 31 (16 %) were similarly frequent, and 163 (84.0 %) occurred less frequently compared with SPCs' data. These results suggest an insufficient post-marketing safety monitoring of biologics in Portugal. PMID:23604594

Mendes, Diogo; Alves, Carlos; Batel Marques, Francisco

2013-08-01

191

In search of a reliable technique for the determination of the biological stability of the organic matter in the mechanical–biological treated waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological stability determines the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed. In this work, a massive estimation of indices suitable for the measurement of biological stability of the organic matter content in solid waste samples has been carried out. Samples from different stages in a mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant treating municipal solid wastes (MSW) were selected as

Raquel Barrena; Giuliana d’Imporzano; Sergio Ponsá; Teresa Gea; Adriana Artola; Felícitas Vázquez; Antoni Sánchez; Fabrizio Adani

2009-01-01

192

Detoxification of kraft pulp ECF bleaching effluents by catalytic hydrotreatment.  

PubMed

Two different effluents from the D(1) and E(1) stages of the ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were treated by catalytic hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor using commercial and homemade Pd/AC catalysts. The reactor was fed with the bleaching effluent and a H(2)/N(2) gas stream. The variables studied were space-time (1.4-5g(cat)min/mL), gas to liquid flow ratio (286-1000vol.), gas feed concentration (H(2):N(2), 1:1-1:7.3vol.), temperature (25-100 degrees C) and pressure (1-11bar). Hydrotreatment performance was evaluated in terms of ecotoxicity, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and colour removal. In all the runs, the ecotoxicity of the effluents decreased as a result of the treatment, achieving reductions that ranged from 70% to 98%. Simultaneously to the reduction of toxicity, the hydrotreatment led to a decrease of the colour of the effluents, being the decrease significantly higher in the case of E(1) effluent. The AOX content was reduced by 85% and 23% for E(1) and D(1) effluents, respectively. In the case of D(1) effluent the removal of ecotoxicity was significantly higher than that of AOX, which indicates that much of the toxicity of the effluent must be associated to non-chlorinated organics. In spite of the important reduction of ecotoxicity, the biodegradability of the effluents only increased slightly. The homemade catalysts, prepared from activated carbons with a high external or non-microporous surface area and mesopore volume and a convenient surface chemistry showed a higher efficiency than the commercial one. PMID:17223158

Calvo, L; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Mohedano, A F; Rodríguez, J J

2007-02-01

193

Effluent standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting

Geisler

1974-01-01

194

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs

Lorenzo Bertin; Maria Chiara Colao; Maurizio Ruzzi; Leonardo Marchetti; Fabio Fava

2006-01-01

195

Impact of design and operation variables on the performance of vertical-flow constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters treating pond effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of improving the quality of the effluent from a waste stabilization pond (WSP) different types of vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) and intermittent sand filters (ISFs) were tested at a pilot plant in Aurignac (France). The effectiveness of each design at upgrading the pond effluent was studied over a period of 2years. Physicochemical parameters were monitored by taking

Antonina Torrens; Pascal Molle; Catherine Boutin; Miquel Salgot

2009-01-01

196

Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

Not Available

1989-04-04

197

[Study on removal effect of different organic fractions from bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process].  

PubMed

The pretreatment of bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process was studied. The influencing factors, such as H2O2 dosage, reaction time and pH values were evaluated for the removal efficiency of UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and DOC of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process. The experimental results showed that,the optimal conditions determined were as follows: initial pH 7.4-8.1, H2O2 dosage 4.5 mmol x L(-1) and UV irradiation time of 50 min. Under the optimal conditions, UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and COD removal rate could reach 77%, 94%, 40% and 69%. Removal effects of four different DOM fractions, hydrophobic acids, non-acid hydrophobics, tasnsphilics and hydrophilics separated by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The experimental results show that: hydrophobic material was the main substance causing color, when it was characterized by ADMI7.6, the proportion could reach 92%, of which 53% was non-acid hydrophobics. It indicated that removal efficiencies of tasnsphilics, hydrophobic acids and non-acid hydrophobics were high through UV/H2O2, process, while hydrophilics' efficiencies were lower. The experimental results showed that organic molecules with molecular weight over 10,000 contributed greatly to UV254, ADMI7.6 and DOC removal rate. PMID:23213897

Li, Xin; Liu, Yong-di; Sun, Xian-bo; Xu, Hong-yong; Qian, Fei-yue; Li, Xin-jue; Li, Mu

2012-08-01

198

Genomic and phenotypic response of hornyhead turbot exposed to municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Laboratory tests with marine flatfish were conducted to investigate associations among gene expression, higher biological responses and wastewater effluent exposure. In the present study, male hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) were exposed to environmentally realistic (0.5%) and higher (5%) concentrations of chemically enhanced advanced-primary (PL) and full-secondary treated (HTP) effluents from two southern California wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Hepatic gene expression was examined using a custom low-density microarray. Alterations in gene expression (vs. controls) were observed in fish exposed to both effluent types. Fish exposed to 0.5% PL effluent showed changes in genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, steroids, and lipids, among other processes. Fish exposed to 5% PL effluent showed expression changes in genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, stress responses, xenobiotic metabolism, and steroid synthesis, among others. Exposure to 5% HTP effluent changed the expression of genes involved in lipid, glutathione and xenobiotic metabolism, as well as immune responses. Although no concentration-dependent patterns of response to effluent exposure were found, significant Spearman correlations were observed between the expression of 22 genes and molecular and/or higher biological responses. These results indicate that microarray gene expression data correspond to higher biological responses and should be incorporated in studies assessing fish health after exposure to complex environmental mixtures. PMID:23796538

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Ribecco, Cataldo; Sprague, L James; Angert, Mila; Ludka, Colleen; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Carnevali, Oliana; Greenstein, Darrin J; Schlenk, Daniel; Kelley, Kevin M; Reyes, Jesus A; Snyder, Shane; Vanderford, Brett; Wiborg, Lan C; Petschauer, Dawn; Sasik, Roman; Baker, Michael; Hardiman, Gary

2013-09-15

199

Organic compounds in re-circulated leachates of aerobic biological treated municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of organic matter is required to reduce the potential of municipal solid waste for producing gaseous emissions and leaching contaminants. Therefore, we studied leachates of an aerobic-treated waste from municipal solids and a sewage sludge mixture that were re-circulated to decrease the concentration of biodegradable organic matter in laboratory-scale reactors. After 12 months, the total organic C and biological and

Matthias Franke; Gerald Jandl; Peter Leinweber

2006-01-01

200

Identifying the Growth Limiting Physiochemical Parameter for Chives Grown in Biologically Treated Graywater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can play an important role in wastewater treatment and water reuse in terrestrial and space systems. Chive growth in\\u000a biologically treated graywater, simulating the anticipated early planetary base graywater, was evaluated in this study for\\u000a NASA. Phytotoxicity due to physiochemical parameters such as ammonium-nitrogen (NH4\\u000a +-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2\\u000a ?-N), pH, and sodium (Na+) was assessed using a series of

Bala Vairavan; W. Andrew Jackson; Cary Green; Audra Morse

2007-01-01

201

The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

202

Performance of combined process of anoxic baffled reactor-biological contact oxidation treating printing and dyeing wastewater.  

PubMed

A study of the treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater was carried out using the combined process of anoxic baffled reactor-biological contact oxidation. The results showed the pH ascended continuously and the oxidation-reduction potential dropped gradually from compartment 1-6 in ABR. When hydraulic retention time was 12h, color removal efficiency was 92% and the color of effluent of ABR could satisfy the professional emission standard (grade-1) of textile and dyeing industry of China. The total COD removal efficiency of the combined process was 86.6% and the COD of effluent could satisfy the professional emission standard (grade-2) of textile and dyeing industry of China. PMID:16860982

Wu, Huifang; Wang, Shihe; Kong, Huoliang; Liu, Tiantian; Xia, Mingfang

2007-05-01

203

Predicting the Unmet Need for Biologically Targeted Coverage of Insecticide-Treated Nets in Kenya  

PubMed Central

In some countries the biological targeting of universal malaria prevention may offer optimal impact on disease and significant cost-savings compared with approaches that presume universal risk. Spatially defined data on coverage of treated nets from recent national household surveys in Kenya were used within a Bayesian geostatistical framework to predict treated net coverage nationally. When combined with the distributions of malaria risk and population an estimated 8.1 million people were not protected with treated nets in 2010 in biologically defined priority areas. After adjusting for the proportion of nets in use that were not long lasting, an estimated 5.5 to 6.3 million long-lasting treated nets would be required to achieve universal coverage in 2010 in Kenya in at-risk areas compared with 16.4 to 18.1 million nets if not restricted to areas of greatest malaria risk. In Kenya, this evidence-based approach could save the national program at least 55 million US dollars.

Noor, Abdisalan M.; Alegana, Victor A.; Patil, Anand P.; Snow, Robert W.

2010-01-01

205

Studies on water hyacinth as a biological filter for treating contaminants from agricultural wastes and industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) showed a remarkable capacity to withstand the effects of pH changes ranging from 5 to 8 in the aquatic environment. Growth continued to be normal except when placed for longer periods in medium containing iron ions at pH 3.3. The ability of this plant to neutralize some very acid solutions of heavy metals such as salts of copper, cadmium and zinc individually and in combinations, is being reported. Plants placed in pure acid and alkali solutions were also able to neutralize the medium. Calcium appears to play an important role in the mechanism involved in the adaptability of these plants to such environments.

Jamil, K.; Madhavendra, S.S.; Jamil, M.Z.; Rao, P.V.

1987-01-01

206

The influence of different substrate pH values on the performance of a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating a petrochemical effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Neutralizing requirements for the anaerobic treatment of an acidic petrochemical effluent in a downflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor were examined. Neutralization (pH 6.0 with NaOH) of the effluent prior to digestion resulted in a Na+ concentration of over 3 g\\/l which was detrimental. Decreasing the Na+ concentration and subsequent replacement of NaOH by a mixture of Ca(OH)2, NaOH and

L. H. Nel; T. J. Britz

1986-01-01

207

Evaluation of secondary refinery effluent treatment using ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of the possibilities of using ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment for reverse osmosis, in a double membrane filtration scheme, in order to recycle biologically treated refinery effluent as cooling water make-up. This study focused on establishing the influence of process conditions for ultrafiltration, i.e. pressure, duration of fouling, frequency and duration of backwashing and chemical cleaning,

Carmen C Teodosiu; Marie D Kennedy; Henry A van Straten; Jan C Schippers

1999-01-01

208

Involvement and interaction of microbial communities in the transformation and stabilization of chromium during the composting of tannery effluent treated biomass of Vallisneria spiralis L.  

PubMed

Tannery effluent treated with aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. for 14 d showed significant improvement in physico-chemical properties and reduction in Cr concentration. Accumulation of Cr was found maximum in roots (358 microg g(-1)dw) as compared to shoot (62 microg g(-1)dw) of the plant. A laboratory scale composter was designed with the objectives to investigate the physico-chemical changes and role of microbes in stabilization and transformation of Cr in the composting material. Results revealed that the composting process was quick within 7-21 d as indicated by peak time for various physico-chemical parameters and drop in C/N ratio up to acceptable limit. The profile of microbial communities indicated that population of anaerobic, aerobic and nitrifying bacteria increased quickly at the initial phase, and reached a peak level of 4.2 x 10(6), 9.78 x 10(8) and 9.32 x 10(9) CFU g(-1), respectively at 21 d; while population of actinomycetes and fungi was found maximum i.e. 3.29 x 10(7) and 9.7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1), respectively, after 35 d of composting. Overall bacterial population dominated over the actinomycetes and fungi during the composting process. Cr((VI)) was transformed to Cr((III)) due to the microbial activity during the process. Sequential extraction of Cr fractionation showed its stabilization via changing into organic matter-bound and residual fractions during the composting. PMID:19081715

Shukla, O P; Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita

2009-04-01

209

Adsorption of phenolic compounds and color from bleached Kraft mill effluent using allophanic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic and natural allophanic compounds were used to evaluate the phenolic compounds and color removal capacity from a biological treated softwood bleached Kraft mill effluent. Kinetics studies and solid\\/solution relationship using synthetic allophanic compounds were studied and compared with powder activated carbon adsorption. On the other hand, the pH effect (4 to 9) on allophanic compounds adsorption was studied. The

M. C. Diez; M. L. Mora; S. Videla

1999-01-01

210

Removal of Hydrocarbons from Wastewater Using Treated Bark  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibility of removing hydrocarbons (HCs) and trace elements from synthetic and industrial effluents using treated bark as biosorbent. Coniferous bark was treated either chemically (Tc) or biologically (Tb) to eliminate soluble organic compounds of bark. The removal efficiency (RE) of the HCs from a synthetic oil-water mixture containing spent diesel motor oil exceeds 95% using 2

Murielle Haussard; Ibrahim Gaballah; Philipe de Donato; Odile Barrès; André Mourey

2001-01-01

211

Pulp and paper mill effluent treatments have differential endocrine-disrupting effects on rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Endocrine disruption (ED) effects due to pulp and paper mill effluents extracts involving different industrial procedures and effluent treatments (nontreated, primary, and secondary treated) were evaluated using immature triploid rainbow trout in a pulse-exposure toxicity experiment. The protocol involved the use of intraperitoneal injection of mill extracts (solid-phase extraction [SPE]) corrected for individual fish weight and included several laboratory standards (steroidal hormones and phytosterols). Biological endpoints at two different levels of biological organization were analyzed (molecular and individual organism). Results indicated that nonsignificant changes were observed in the individual physiological indices represented by condition factor, liver somatic index, and gonad somatic index during the experiment. Significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was observed between different effluent treatments and experimental controls. Significant endocrine-disrupting effects at the reproductive level were observed in all effluent treatments involving significant increments in plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Fish exposed to untreated effluent extracts had significantly higher VTG levels compared to fish exposed to primary and secondary treatment effluent extracts, indicating a decrease of the estrogenic effect due to the effluent treatment. The present study has shown that for the Chilean pulp and paper mill SPE extracts evaluated, an endocrine disruption effect was induced in immature triploid rainbow, reaffirming the significant estrogenic effects demonstrated previously in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:18717619

Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Hernandez, Victor; Krause, Rachelle; Roti, Lucia; Armour, Jeffrey; Ganeshakumar, Mathumai; Holdway, Douglas

2009-01-01

212

Humic acid toxicity in biologically treated soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol.  

PubMed

Contaminated soil from a land treatment unit at the Libby Groundwater Superfund Site in Libby, MT, was amended with 14C pyrene and incubated for 396 days to promote biodegradation and the formation of soil-associated bound residues. Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from the treated soil microcosms and analyzed for the presence of pyrene residues. Biologic activity promoted 14C association with the fulvic acid fraction, but humic acid-associated 14C did not increase with biologic activity. The Aboatox flash toxicity assay was used to assess the toxicity of humic and fulvic acid fractions. The fulvic acid gave no toxic response, but the humic acid showed significant toxicity. The observed toxicity was likely associated with pentachlorophenol, a known contaminant of the soil that was removed by solvent extraction of the humic acid and that correlated well with toxicity reduction. PMID:16170453

Nieman, J K C; Sims, R C; Sorensen, D L; McLean, J E

2005-10-01

213

Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.  

PubMed

Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the polishing of secondary effluents. Elimination of bacteria (total and coliforms, faecal streptococci) and their relationship with the hydraulic load and the temperature were investigated. PMID:11464749

Makni, H

2001-01-01

214

Biological and oxidative treatment of cotton textile dye-bath effluents by fixed and fluidized bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A treatability study for highly polluted and recalcitrant azo reactive dye-baths from cotton textile dyeing processes was conducted by using fixed and up-flow fluidized bed type reactors packed with brown coal. Ozone oxidation was carried out to assess the combination of biological and chemical oxidation. COD removal efficiencies ranged from 70% to 93%, and up to 99% color removal was

A. Baban; A. Yediler; G. Avaz; S. S. Hostede

2010-01-01

215

Application of various statistical methods to evaluate thermo-analytical data of mechanically–biologically treated municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource recovery and stabilization of waste organic matter before landfilling are crucial issues in waste management. These requirements are closely related to efficient separation of recyclables and well operated biological processes. Adequate analytical methods are a prerequisite to verify the realization of these purposes. A large data pool of mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) municipal solid waste originating from different Austrian treatment

Ena Smidt; Katharina Böhm; Johannes Tintner

2010-01-01

216

Colour and AOX removal from pulping effluents by algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed culture of algae was used to treat pulping mill effluent in terms of removing both colour and adsorbably organic\\u000a halides (AOX). The removal of AOX from pulping effluent increased with increasing initial colour value of the effluent. However,\\u000a for the total mill effluent (composed of both pulping and bleaching effluents), AOX removal was found to be independent of

F. B. Dilek; H. M. Taplamacioglu; E. Tarlan

1999-01-01

217

Aerobic inhibition assessment for anaerobic treatment effluent of antibiotic production wastewater.  

PubMed

Biological treatment of antibiotic production effluents is an economical approach; however, there are still difficulties to overcome because of the recalcitrant characteristics of these compounds to biodegradation. This study aims to reveal that anaerobic treatment technology can be an option as pretreatment before the activated sludge system treatment to treat antibiotic production effluents. The ISO 8192 method was chosen to test the inhibitory effect of raw and treated antibiotic production effluents in this work. Inhibition tests, which were applied according to ISO 8192, highlighted that the anaerobic treatment effluent is less inhibitory than antibiotic production effluent for activated sludge system. Early EC50 concentrations (30-min values) of raw and treated wastewaters were lower than 180-min values. Also, triple effects (sulfamethoxazole-erythromycin-tetracycline) of antibiotics are more toxic than dual effects (sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline). In light of the experimental results obtained and their evaluation, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion can be applied as a biological pretreatment method for pharmaceutical industry wastewater including antibiotic mixtures prior to aerobic treatment. PMID:24146324

Cetecioglu, Zeynep

2014-02-01

218

Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

219

Effect of biological wastewater treatment on the molecular weight distribution of soluble organic compounds and on the reduction of BOD, COD and P in pulp and paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterizated, before (influent) and after (effluent) biological wastewater treatment based on an activated sludge process, by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3kDa) of the wastewater samples into different size fractions. Various parameters were measured on each fraction: molecular weight distribution (MWD) using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), total organic carbon (TOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (Tot-P), phosphate phosphorus (PO(4)-P), electrical conductivity, pH, turbidity, charge quantity and zeta potential. The MWD, TOC and COD(Cr) results indicated that the majority of the material present in both the influent and effluent was in the medium molecular weight (MW) range (i.e. MW<10kDa) with three main MW sub-fractions. There were no significant differences in the range of the MWD between the influent and effluent samples. The magnitude of the MWD in the effluent was about one half that in the influent, the greatest reduction being in the 6kDa fraction. The 3kDa fractions of both the influent and effluent showed a considerable increase in BOD(7), probably due to the removal of compounds harmful to bacteria in 3kDa ultrafiltration. Influent turbidity decreased considerably in microfiltration (8-0.22microm). As the turbidity was removed by 0.22microm filtration, the anionic charge quantity started to decrease. Particles in the influent and effluent contained 19-29% and 14-20% of the total phosphorus, respectively. The major phosphorus fraction was in the form of soluble phosphate. PMID:18707750

Leiviskä, Tiina; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Rämö, Jaakko; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Pellinen, Jaakko

2008-08-01

220

Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

Engelsman, Martijn, E-mail: mengelsman@partners.or [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S. [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2011-02-01

221

200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

Fernandez, L.

1995-03-13

222

Monitoring Drug and Antidrug Levels: A Rational Approach in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Biologic Agents Who Experience Inadequate Response While Being on a Stable Biologic Treatment  

PubMed Central

Clinical response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with biologic agents can be influenced by their pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity. The present study evaluated the concordance between serum drug and antidrug levels as well as the clinical response in RA patients treated with biological agents who experience their first disease exacerbation while being on a stable biologic treatment. 154 RA patients treated with rituximab (RTX), infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADL), or etanercept (ETN) were included. DAS28, SDAI, and EULAR response were assessed at baseline and reevaluated at precise time intervals. At the time of their first sign of inadequate response, patients were tested for both serum drug level and antidrug antibodies level. At the next reevaluation, patients retreated with RTX that had detectable drug level had a better EULAR response (P = 0.038) with lower DAS28 and SDAI scores (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03). The same tendency was observed in patients treated with IFX and ETN regarding EULAR response (P = 0.002 and P = 0.023), DAS28 score (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003), and SDAI score (P = 0.001 and P = 0.026). Detectable biologic drug levels correlated with a better clinical response in patients experiencing their first RA inadequate response while being on a stable biologic treatment with RTX, IFX, and ETN.

Mazilu, Diana; Opris, Daniela; Gainaru, Cecilia; Iliuta, Mihaela; Apetrei, Natalia; Luca, Giorgiana; Borangiu, Andreea; Gudu, Tania; Peltea, Alexandra; Groseanu, Laura; Constantinescu, Cosmin; Saulescu, Ioana; Bojinca, Violeta; Balanescu, Andra; Predeteanu, Denisa; Ionescu, Ruxandra

2014-01-01

223

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

2010-01-01

224

POME is treated for removal of color from biologically treated POME in fixed bed column: applying wavelet neural network (WNN).  

PubMed

As Malaysia is one of the world's largest producer of palm oil, large amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated. It was found that negatively charged components are accountable for POME color. An attempt was made to remove residual contaminants after conventional treatment using anion base resin. Adsorption experiments were carried out in fixed bed column. Various models such as the Thomas, the Yoon-Nelson, the Wolborska and BDST model were used to fit the experimental data. It was found that only the BDST model was fitted well at the initial breakthrough time. A wavelet neural network model (WNN) was developed to model the breakthrough curves in fixed bed column for multicomponent system. The results showed that the WNN model described breakthrough curves better than the commonly used models. The effects of pH, flow rate and bed depth on column performance were investigated. It was found that the highest uptake capacity was obtained at pH 3. The exhaustion time appeared to increase with increase in bed length and decrease in flow rate. PMID:24021163

Bello, M M; Nourouzi, M M; Abdullah, L Chuah; Choong, Thomas S Y; Koay, Y S; Keshani, S

2013-11-15

225

In Vitro Assessment of Retinoic Acid and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity of Treated Effluent From 39 Wastewater-Treatment Plants in Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia,\\u000a in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based\\u000a processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor\\u000a (AhR) activity of the dissolved

M. Allinson; F. Shiraishi; S. A. Salzman; G. Allinson

226

Degradation of diethyl phthalate in treated effluents from an MBR via advanced oxidation processes: Effects of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot?scale AOP operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study was to delineate the oxidation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water, using bench?scale UV\\/H2O2 and O3\\/H2O2 processes, and to determine the effects of nitrate (NO3 ?N, 5 mg L) on this oxidation. The oxidation of DEP was also investigated through a pilot?scale advanced oxidation process (AOP), into which a portion of the effluent from

J. H. Park; C. G. Park; J. W. Lee; K. B. Ko

2010-01-01

227

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

228

Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents  

SciTech Connect

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

1981-01-01

229

Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence.

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

2013-01-01

230

Performance of conventional and antimicrobial-treated filtering facepiece respirators challenged with biological aerosols.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the filtration performance of four commercially available models of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) against both biological and inert aerosols at a flow rate of 85 L/min. Conventional N95 and P100 FFRs and two antimicrobial (AM)-treated FFRs (an N95 and a P95, both with iodine-based AM treatments) were tested for both physical penetration (PEN(P)) and viable penetration (PEN(V)) with three different bioaerosols, including MS2 bacteriophage virus, and the spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria, in addition to inert sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol. For each FFR model, the PEN(P) measured with NaCl was predictive of its MS2 PEN(P), and it was observed that spores and bacteria aerosols were also filtered similarly to the inert aerosol. For both conventional FFRs, up to a 1-log reduction in PEN(V) in comparison with PEN(P) was observed and attributed to the experimental variability of the test system. For both models of AM-FFRs, no statistically significant differences between PEN(V) and PEN(P) for any of the three different bioaerosol challenges were observed. Thus, no bioaerosol filtration enhancement over the conventional FFRs was detected for either iodine-based AM-FFR. In the absence of any standardized test methods, we recommend that future studies evaluating the filtration performance of AM-treated FFRs incorporate the experimental best practices described herein. PMID:22206440

Lore, Michael B; Sebastian, John M; Brown, TeAnne L; Viner, Andrew S; McCullough, Nicole V; Hinrichs, Steven H

2012-01-01

231

CERTAIN METHODS OF DECONTAMINATION OF HIGHLY ACTIVE EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristic composition of the highly active effluents from nuclear ; reactors are examined. Allowable concentration of the radioactive isotopes in ; water, biological cycles of P³², and of other isotopes are listed. ; Descriptions of various disposal methods as applied to effluents including ; dumping of solutions into the ocean, marine disposal of closed containers ; containing these effluents, and

1958-01-01

232

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents.  

PubMed

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

233

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

234

Influence of effluent-recirculation condition on the process performance of expanded granular sludge bed reactor for treating low strength wastewater.  

PubMed

A 2.0 L volume of EGSB reactor was operated at 20 degrees C for more than 500 days with 0.3-0.4 g COD/L of sucrose base wastewater to investigate the influence of effluent-recirculation on the process performance. At the start up period, the reactor was operated in EGSB mode with 5 m/h upflow velocity by continuous effluent recirculation. The COD loading was set to 7.2-9.6 kg COD/m(3) day with HRT of 1 hour. However, in this mode, EGSB reactor exhibited insufficient COD removal efficiency, i.e., 50-60%. Therefore, UASB mode (without recirculation, 0.7 m/h upflow velocity) was used for 30 minutes in every 40 minutes cycle to increase the COD concentration in the sludge bed. As a result, an excellent process performance was shown. The COD removal efficiency increased from 65% to 91% and the reactor could maintain a good physical property of retained sludge (sludge concentration: 33.4 g VSS/L and SVI: 25 mL/g VSS). Furthermore, retained sludge possessed sufficient level of methanogenic activity at 20 degrees C. PMID:18413947

Yoochatchaval, W; Nishiyama, K; Okawara, M; Ohashi, A; Harada, H; Syutsubo, K

2008-01-01

235

In search of a reliable technique for the determination of the biological stability of the organic matter in the mechanical-biological treated waste.  

PubMed

The biological stability determines the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed. In this work, a massive estimation of indices suitable for the measurement of biological stability of the organic matter content in solid waste samples has been carried out. Samples from different stages in a mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant treating municipal solid wastes (MSW) were selected as examples of different stages of organic matter stability in waste biological treatment. Aerobic indices based on respiration techniques properly reflected the process of organic matter biodegradation. Static and dynamic respirometry showed similar values in terms of aerobic biological activity (expressed as oxygen uptake rate, OUR), whereas cumulative oxygen consumption was a reliable method to express the biological stability of organic matter in solid samples. Methods based on OUR and cumulative oxygen consumption were positively correlated. Anaerobic methods based on biogas production (BP) tests also reflected well the degree of biological stability, although significant differences were found in solid and liquid BP assays. A significant correlation was found between cumulative oxygen consumption and ultimate biogas production. The results obtained in this study can be a basis for the quantitative measurement of the efficiency in the stabilization of organic matter in waste treatment plants, including MBT plants, anaerobic digestion of MSW and composting plants. PMID:18606494

Barrena, Raquel; d'Imporzano, Giuliana; Ponsá, Sergio; Gea, Teresa; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni; Adani, Fabrizio

2009-03-15

236

Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schuuring, Ed [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wisman, G. Bea A. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der, E-mail: a.g.j.van.der.zee@og.umcg.n [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-02-01

237

Wastewater reclamation by advanced treatment of secondary effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were the investigation of the performance of an advanced treatment system, for the reclamation of secondary municipal effluents, and the study of the environmental quality of treated effluents. The secondary effluents from a conventional activated sludge process were fed to an advanced wastewater treatment system, consisting of a moving-bed sand filter, a granular activated carbon

M. Petala; V. Tsiridis; P. Samaras; A. Zouboulis; G. P. Sakellaropoulos

2006-01-01

238

200 Area TEDF effluent sampling and analysis plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling analysis sets forth the effluent sampling requirements, analytical methods, statistical analyses, and reporting requirements to satisfy the State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST4502 for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. These requirements are listed below: Determine the variability in the effluent of all constituents for which enforcement limits, early warning values and monitoring requirements; demonstrate compliance with the permit;

W. C. Alaconis; N. A. Ballantyne; R. J. Boom

1995-01-01

239

Large scale phycoremediation of acidic effluent from an alginate industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the successful commissioning of a phycoremediation plant to treat the acidic effluent from an alginate industry. The liquid effluent is highly acidic. Conventionally, sodium hydroxide has been used for the neutralization of the acidic effluent which results in an increase in total dissolved solids and the generation of solid waste. The study was conducted in

V. Sivasubramanian; V. V. Subramanian; B. G. Raghavan; R. Ranjithkumar

2009-01-01

240

Hydroponic Vetiver Treatment of Post Septic Tank Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of trials have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver growing under hydroponic conditions to treat motel effluent, which has been primary treated in septic tanks. Water quality results and management issues are of interest. The aim is to surface irrigate the motel gardens with the treated effluent in a sustainable way. This can be accomplished if

Barbara Hart; Ron Cody; Paul Truong

241

Increase of microbial growth potential in municipal secondary effluent by coagulation.  

PubMed

Microbial growth is a big issue of concern in the use of reclaimed water. In this study, the variation of microbial growth potentials of municipal secondary effluents after coagulation was evaluated by measuring assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Surprisingly, the AOC levels increased significantly (55-667%) after coagulation with poly-aluminum dosages of 60 mgL(-1) for the samples investigated in this research. By ultrafiltration membrane fractionation, the microbial growth potentials of the fractions with different molecular weight (MW) were measured. The results revealed that the maximum cell densities of microbial growth in secondary effluents were lower than those in their fractions with MW<10kDa. Meanwhile, the organic component with MW>10kDa in biological treated effluents was proved to have an inhibitory effect on microbial growth. Therefore, the removal of those high MW organic matters was the main reason for the increase of microbial growth potential in secondary effluents during coagulation. Furthermore, polysaccharides and/or proteins in secondary effluents were easily removed by coagulation and were thought to be the possible key organic substances affecting the microbial growth potential during coagulation. It is suggested that post treatments would be needed after coagulation to maintain the biological stability of reclaimed water. PMID:24873701

Zhao, Xin; Huang, Huang; Hu, Hong-Ying; Su, Chang; Zhao, Ji; Liu, Shu-Ming

2014-08-01

242

Microbial process for the decolorization of textile effluent containing azo, diazo and reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and practical biological process for the decolorization of coloured effluent from a textile company is described. A number of aerobic and anaerobic cultures able to decolorize dyes in textile effluent samples were isolated after prolonged enrichment culture from textile dyes-effluent samples. The decolorization of some component dyes of the effluent and of a mixture of dyes was achieved

Poonam Nigam; Ibrahim M. Banat; Dalel Singh; Roger Marchant

1996-01-01

243

Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.  

PubMed

Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100 mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75 mg L(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100 mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200 Lux), whereas 0.67 mg L(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg L(-1)). The prevention of dark repair is ensured with 25-50% lower concentration of total oxidants. An increase of the TSS concentration from 11 mg L(-1) to 75 mg L(-1) leads to a triplication of the need of total oxidants from 0.6 mg L(-1) to 1.8 mg L(-1) (3*10(5)E. coli per 100 mL). The energy consumption of the hybrid reactor varies from 0.17 kWh m(-3) to 0.94 kWh m(-3) depending on the TSS concentration (11-75 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, biofilm formation on quartz glass surfaces, of which the sleeves of UV lamps consist, can be suppressed by electrochemically produced total oxidants at a concentration of at least 1 mg L(-1) which ensures high operational safety of the hybrid reactor combined with large maintenance intervals. PMID:24447954

Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

2014-04-01

244

Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.  

PubMed

Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress. PMID:18228156

Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

2008-12-01

245

Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity. PMID:14753531

Spycha?a, M; B?azejewski, R

2003-01-01

246

Removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a radial-flow aerobic-anoxic immobilized biomass reactor used in the posttreatment of anaerobically treated effluent.  

PubMed

This work reports on the removal of organic matter and nitrogen in a radial-flow aerobic-anoxic immobilized biomass (RAIB) reactor fed with domestic sewage pretreated in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor. Polyurethane foam was used as support material for biomass attachment in both reactors. In batch experiments, a first-order kinetic model with residual concentration represented the organic matter removal rate, whereas nitrogen conversion followed a pseudo-first-order reaction in series model, with kinetic constants k1 (ammonium to nitrite) and k2 (nitrite to nitrate) of 0.25 and 6.62 h(-1), respectively. The RAIB reactor was operated in continuous-flow mode and changes in the airflow rate and hydraulic retention time were found to interfere in the apparent kinetic constants to the nitritation (k1) and nitratation (k2). Nitrification and denitrification were achieved in the partially aerated RAIB reactor operating with hydraulic retention times of 3.3 h and 2.7 h in the aerobic and anoxic zones, respectively. Ethanol was added in the anoxic zone of the reactor to promote denitrification. The effluent flow of the RAIB reactor presented a COD of 52 mg l(-1), and concentrations of 2 mg N - NH4(+)1(-1), 1.24 mg N - N02(-)1(-1) and 3.46 mg N - N03(-)1(-1). PMID:18025567

Fazolo, Ajadir; Foresti, Eugenio; Zaiat, Marcelo

2007-07-01

247

Long-term performance of liter-scale microbial fuel cells treating primary effluent installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility.  

PubMed

Two 4 L tubular microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were installed in a municipal wastewater treatment facility and operated for more than 400 days on primary effluents. Both MFCs removed 65-70% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and reduced about 50% suspended solids. The COD removal rates were about 0.4 (total) or 0.2 (soluble) kg m(-3) day(-1). They could handle fluctuation, such as emptying the anode for 1-3 days or different HRTs. The preliminary analysis of energy production and consumption indicated that the two MFCs could theoretically achieve a positive energy balance and energy consumption could be reduced using larger tubing connectors. Through linkage to a denitrifying MFC, the MFC system improved the removal of total nitrogen from 27.1 to 76.2%; however, the energy production substantially decreased because of organic consumption in the denitrifying MFC. Establishing a carbon (electron) balance revealed that sulfate reduction was a major electron scavenger (37-64%) and methane production played a very minor role (1.3-3.3%) in electron distribution. These results demonstrate the technical viability of MFC technology outside the laboratory and its potential advantages in low energy consumption, low sludge production, and energy recovery from wastes. PMID:23517192

Zhang, Fei; Ge, Zheng; Grimaud, Julien; Hurst, Jim; He, Zhen

2013-05-01

248

Health Effects in Fish of Long-Term Exposure to Effluents from Wastewater Treatment Works  

PubMed Central

Concern has been raised in recent years that exposure to wastewater treatment effluents containing estrogenic chemicals can disrupt the endocrine functioning of riverine fish and cause permanent alterations in the structure and function of the reproductive system. Reproductive disorders may not necessarily arise as a result of estrogenic effects alone, and there is a need for a better understanding of the relative importance of endocrine disruption in relation to other forms of toxicity. Here, the integrated health effects of long-term effluent exposure are reported (reproductive, endocrine, immune, genotoxic, nephrotoxic). Early life-stage roach, Rutilus rutilus, were exposed for 300 days to treated wastewater effluent at concentrations of 0, 15.2, 34.8, and 78.7% (with dechlorinated tap water as diluent). Concentrations of treated effluents that induced feminization of male roach, measured as vitellogenin induction and histological alteration to gonads, also caused statistically significant alterations in kidney development (tubule diameter), modulated immune function (differential cell count, total number of thrombocytes), and caused genotoxic damage (micronucleus induction and single-strand breaks in gill and blood cells). Genotoxic and immunotoxic effects occurred at concentrations of wastewater effluent lower than those required to induce recognizable changes in the structure and function of the reproductive endocrine system. These findings emphasize the need for multiple biological end points in tests that assess the potential health effects of wastewater effluents. They also suggest that for some effluents, genotoxic and immune end points may be more sensitive than estrogenic (endocrine-mediated) end points as indicators of exposure in fish.

Liney, Katherine E.; Hagger, Josephine A.; Tyler, Charles R.; Depledge, Michael H.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jobling, Susan

2006-01-01

249

Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically–biologically treated waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically–biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (>96%) of the

J.-K. M. Einola; K. M. Sormunen; J. A. Rintala

2008-01-01

250

Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 ?g L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

2012-04-15

251

[Spectra analysis of lignin small molecular guaiacyl coniferyl alcohol biological modification treated by laccase].  

PubMed

The enzymatic modification mechanism of lignin small molecular lignin guaiacyl coniferyl alcohol existing in softwood and hardwood treated by laccase was studied. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), FTIR spectrum and PCD(particle charge detector) etc were used for the measurement. GC-MS could not detect the coniferyl alcohol monomer after treated by laccase, so it was speculated that coniferyl alcohol participated in the reaction totally, and the structure of coniferyl alcohol was changed. GPC demonstrated that the molecular weight of coniferyl alcohol increased when it was treated by laccase, and coniferyl alcohol was polymerized. FTIR spectrum determined the reaction point of coniferyl alcohol when treated by laccase, and it is mainly phenolic hydroxyl, aromatic ring side chain substituent such as methoxy, double bound in side chain, beta-carbonyl groups, and gamma-carbonyl groups. PCD gave a result that the cationic demandv(CD) decreased by 88.38%. PMID:20707131

Liu, Hai-Tang; Pei, Ji-Cheng; Hu, Hui-Ren; Pei, Ya

2010-06-01

252

Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer.  

PubMed

Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N=1318 mg/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O+NaHPO(4).7H(2)O, and MgO+85% H(3)PO(4) were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg(2+):NH(4)(+)-N:PO(4)(3-)-P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from 4.45 to 11. Preliminary test results indicated that maximum NH(4)(+)-N removal, as well as maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions, were obtained as 85.4%, 53.3% and 49.8% at pH 9.0 with the addition of MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), respectively. The paired experimental data obtained from batch studies were statistically evaluated by a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and a two-sample t-test. Based on the previous results, another batch experiments were then performed at pH 9.0 using MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4) for different molar ratios applied as overdose (1.2:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 1:1:1.2, 1:1:1.5) and underdose (0.5:1:1, 0.8:1:1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:0.8). In the final step, the fertility of the MAP precipitate as struvite was also tested on the growth of three test plants including purslane (Portulaca oleracea), garden cress (Lepidum sativum) and grass (Lolium perenne). Findings of this experimental study clearly confirmed the recovering of NH(4)(+)-N from UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation, and also the application of recovered MAP sludge as a valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:19097699

Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra

2009-07-15

253

Simulated cotton dye effluents treatment and reuse by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry uses enormous quantities of water which in many cases are disposed to the environment with inadequate treatment. The effluent contains high salts and organics concentrations and they are therefore difficult to be treated. In this work the effluents from the cotton textile industry was treated by nanofiltration membrane in order to reduce the quantity of the disposed

S. A. Avlonitis; I. Poulios; D. Sotiriou; M. Pappas; K. Moutesidis

2008-01-01

254

Changes in biologic characteristics of breast cancer treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proliferation, invasion, immortalization and metastasis are the main malignant characteristics of cancer. Previous studies have shown that high-intensity focused ultrasound (US), or HIFU, can induce irreversible damage both to breast cancer cells and to tumor blood vessels. However, light microscopy alone may not always show this clearly. In this study, molecular biologic techniques were used to examine any changes in

Feng Wu; Zhi-Biao Wang; You-De Cao; Wen-Zhi Chen; Jian-Zhong Zou; Jin Bai; Hui Zhu; Ke-Quan Li; Cheng-Bing Jin; Fang-Lin Xie; Hai-Bing Su; Gen-Wu Gao

2003-01-01

255

Nutrient removal of effluent from quail farm through cultivation of Wolffia arrhiza.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the nutrient removal using the Wolffiaarrhiza during the treatment of laying quails farm effluent. The relationship between W. arrhiza biomass and treatment time, the change in water qualities, and nitrogen-balance (N-balance) were evaluated. The results showed that a biomass of 12.0g of W. arrhiza per liter of effluent and a treatment period of 30 days were found to provide the best conditions for W. arrhiza's growth and the quality of the treated effluent in terms of biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, total phosphorus, nitrate, total ammonia nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. The pH and salinity were similar for each level of biomass. The W. arrhiza biomasses of 4.00-12.0g/l of effluent were suitable for W. arrhiza survival over time. Since W. arrhiza can fix N in the atmosphere, it can grow very well in effluent containing a low level of N. PMID:21669519

Suppadit, T

2011-08-01

256

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

257

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

258

Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor.  

PubMed

The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell'Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

2013-01-01

259

Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor  

PubMed Central

The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%).

Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flavio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell'Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

2013-01-01

260

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

261

Filtration of Activated Sludge Secondary Effluents Through Sand and Anthracite-Sand Beds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory filtration studies were conducted on treated sewage effluent from a pilot activated sludge plant operated to provide effluent and mixed liquid solids for use in the experiments. The filtration media used were sand and a combination of anthracit...

Y. Misaka, L. B. Polkowski

1969-01-01

262

Diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in a sponge-based trickling filter treating effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

Changes in ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) population dynamics were examined in a new sponge-based trickling filter (TF) post-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and these changes were linked to relevant components influencing nitrification (chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N)). The sponge-based packing media caused strong concentration gradients along the TF, providing an ecological selection of AOB within the system. The organic loading rate (OLR) affected the population dynamics, and under higher OLR or low ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentrations some AOB bands disappeared, but maintaining the overall community function for NH4(+)-N removal. The dominant bands present in the upper portions of the TF were closely related to Nitrosomonas europaea and distantly affiliated to Nitrosomonas eutropha, and thus were adapted to higher NH4(+)-N and organic matter concentrations. In the lower portions of the TF, the dominant bands were related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha, commonly found in environments with low levels of NH4(+)-N. From a technology point of view, changes in AOB structure at OLR around 0.40-0.60 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) did not affect TF performance for NH4(+)-N removal, but AOB diversity may have been correlated with the noticeable stability of the sponge-based TF for NH4(+)-N removal at low OLR. This study is relevant because molecular biology was used to observe important features of a bioreactor, considering realistic operational conditions applied to UASB/sponge-based TF systems. PMID:23925194

Mac Conell, E F A; Almeida, P G S; Zerbini, A M; Brandt, E M F; Araújo, J C; Chernicharo, C A L

2013-01-01

263

An Overview of Optimal Endovascular Strategy in Treating the Femoropopliteal Artery: Mechanical, Biological, and Procedural Factors  

PubMed Central

Treatment of the femoropopliteal (FP) artery remains a challenge to the endovascular specialist. Long-term patency is low with a high rate of target lesion revascularization. The true patency rate varies considerably between studies partly because there is a lack of uniform performance criteria and reporting standards in peripheral arterial interventions. Literature review supports three principles that emerge as important components of an optimal strategy in treating the FP artery: (1) improving vessel compliance and subsequently less dissections and bailout stenting, (2) reducing smooth muscle cell proliferation, and (3) protecting outflow vessels from distal embolization. In this overview, we examine current data that support the validity of this strategy.

Shammas, Nicolas W.

2013-01-01

264

Census of cultivable bacterial community in common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tannery discharge and computational scrutiny on their leading residents  

PubMed Central

Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) for tannery effluent, is the combination of physical, chemical and biological treatment to facilitate the degradation of industrial waste water. Obviously, the biomass which survives in this extreme environment may have the ability to utilize the effluent as the sole carbon source for its survival. The ultimate aim of the present investigation is to expose the microbial diversity in each stage of the CETP through the culture dependent way. Bacterial diversity in the effluent were analysed through 16S rRNA gene. The community study revealed the dominance of firmicutes and the dominant genus was Bacillus sp, with variable species diversity. Notably, Putative Bacillus sp, B. firmus and B. licheniformis were observed in all stages of treatment. The dominant residents were analysed by BProm and TF site scan to prove their uniqueness. This species richness indicates the capability of liveliness in treatment plant and whose can be exploited for treating the effluent by using modern molecular approach. Abbreviations CETP - Common Effluent Treatment Plant, PTIET - Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company Ltd.

Suganya, Thangaiyan; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Arunprasanna, Vimalanathan; Shanmugam, Ponnusamy; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

2013-01-01

265

Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate  

PubMed Central

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming.

Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

2006-01-01

266

Biodegradation of phytosanitary products in biological wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Agricultural activity generates two types of waste: firstly, biodegradable organic effluents generally treated by biological processes and, secondly, phytosanitary effluents which contain residues of plant protection products. The latter are collected and treated. Current technological solutions are essentially based on concentration or physical-chemical processes. However, recent improvements in the biodegradability of pesticides open the way to the consideration of alternative, biological, treatment using mixed liquor from wastewater plant activated sludge. The feasibility of the biological treatment of viticultural effluents has been evaluated by the application of pesticides to activated sludge. The necessity for selection of a pesticide-resistant biomass has been highlighted. The elimination of the phytosanitary products shows the potential of a resistant biomass in the treatment of pesticides. The aerated biological storage ponds at three wineries, followed by a sand or reed-bed filter, were used for the treatment of the total annual volume of the viticulture effluents and validate the laboratory experiments. The results show that the biological purification of pesticides by activated sludge is possible by allowing approximately 8 days for biomass adaptation. Stability of purification occurs between 20 and 30 days. PMID:22284913

Massot, A; Estève, K; Noilet, P; Méoule, C; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

2012-04-15

267

Treatment of APMP pulping effluent based on aerobic fermentation with Aspergillus niger and post-coagulation/flocculation.  

PubMed

A novel two-stage biological/flocculation process was developed for treating the pulping effluent from the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) process. In the first biological stage, the aerobic fermentation by using Aspergillus niger can decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by about 60% while producing about 7 g/l of solid biomass. In the second stage (post-coagulation/flocculation), the residual COD, turbidity and color, can be further decreased by using alum and polyacrylamide (PAM). The overall removal efficiencies of COD, color and turbidity from the APMP pulping effluent by the above two-stage biological-coagulation/flocculation process were 93%, 92% and 99%, respectively, under the conditions studied. PMID:21315583

Liu, Tingzhi; He, Zhibin; Hu, Huiren; Ni, Yonghao

2011-04-01

268

Modelling of biogas extraction at an Italian landfill accepting mechanically and biologically treated municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of the modelling of the biogas extraction in a full-scale Italian landfill by the USEPA LandGEM model and the Andreottola-Cossu approach. The landfill chosen for this research ('Il Fossetto' plant, Monsummano Terme, Italy) had accepted mixed municipal raw waste for about 15?years. In the year 2003 a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) was implemented and starting from the end of the year 2006, the recirculation in the landfill of the concentrated leachate coming from the internal membrane leachate treatment plant was put into practice. The USEPA LandGEM model and the Andreottola-Cossu approach were chosen since they require only input data routinely acquired during landfill management (waste amount and composition) and allow a simplified calibration, therefore they are potentially useful for practical purposes such as landfill gas management. The results given by the models are compared with measured data and analysed in order to verify the impact of MBT on biogas production; moreover, the possible effects of the recirculation of the concentrated leachate are discussed. The results clearly show how both models can adequately fit measured data even after MBT implementation. Model performance was significantly reduced for the period after the beginning of recirculation of concentrated leachate when the probable inhibition of methane production, due to the competition between methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, significantly influenced the biogas production and composition. PMID:21930528

Calabrò, Paolo S; Orsi, Sirio; Gentili, Emiliano; Carlo, Meoni

2011-12-01

269

Novel Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Enigmols as Therapeutic Agents for Treating Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Enigmol is a synthetic, orally active 1-deoxysphingoid base analogue that has demonstrated promising activity against prostate cancer. In these studies, the pharmacologic roles of stereochemistry and N-methylation in the structure of enigmols were examined. A novel enantioselective synthesis of all four possible 2S-diastereoisomers of enigmol (2-aminooctadecane-3,5-diols) from l-alanine is reported, which features a Liebeskind?Srogl cross-coupling reaction between l-alanine thiol ester and (E)-pentadec-1-enylboronic acid as the key step. In vitro biological evaluation of the four enigmol diastereoisomers and 2S,3S,5S-N-methylenigmol against two prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP) indicates that all but one diastereomer demonstrate potent oncolytic activity. In nude mouse xenograft models of human prostate cancer, enigmol was equally effective as standard prostate cancer therapies (androgen deprivation or docetaxel), and two of the enigmol diastereomers, 2S,3S,5R-enigmol and 2S,3R,5S-enigmol, also caused statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth. A pharmacokinetic profile of enigmol and N-methylenigmol is also presented.

2011-01-01

270

Structural Biology Contributions to the Discovery of Drugs to Treat Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This case study illustrates how the determination of multiple co-crystal structures of the protein tyrosine kinase c-Abl was used to support drug discovery efforts leading to the design of nilotinib, a newly approved therapy for imatinib-intolerant and - resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from the BCR-Abl onco-protein, which possesses a constitutively activated Abl tyrosine kinase domain. Although many chronic-phase CML patients treated with imatinib as first-line therapy maintain excellent, durable responses, patients who have progressed to advanced-stage CML frequently fail, or lose their response to therapy, often due to the emergence of drug-resistant mutants of the protein. More than 60 such point mutations have been detected in imatinib-resistant patients. We determined the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Abl kinase in complex with imatinib and other small molecule Abl inhibitors, with the aim of understanding the molecular basis for resistance and to aid in the design and optimization of inhibitors active against the resistance mutants. These results are presented in a way which illustrates the approaches used to generate multiple structures, the type of information that can be gained and the way this information is used to support drug discovery.

Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W.; Fendrich, Gabriele; Floersheimer, Andreas; Furet, Pascal; Liebetanz, Janis; Rummel, Gabriele; Rheinberger, Paul; Centeleghe, Mario; Fabbro, Doriano; Manley, Paul W.

271

EVAPORATIVE PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE CONTAINING EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A unique evaporation/humidification process for treating wastewater effluent has been developed at Alcoa Laboratories. A major portion of the effluent is recovered as water of high purity suitable for recycle or reuse, and the small volume of concentrated chemicals can be either ...

272

Combined treatment of textile effluent using the sequence Phanerochaete chrysosporium–ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile effluents cause a high environmental impact when released into the environment without correct treatment. In this work, we have evaluated the capacity of treatment of a textile effluent using a biological and a chemical method using the sequence Phanerochaete chrysosporium–ozone. The fungal treatment was performed by direct incubation of a fungus spore suspension in textile effluent for nine days.

Airton Kunz; Valéria Reginatto; Nelson Durán

2001-01-01

273

MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF  

SciTech Connect

European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)

1994-01-01

274

Physical, chemical, and biological data from the northeast Pacific Ocean: Columbia River effluent area, JanuaryOctober 1962. Volume V. Brown Bear Cruise 312: September 14October 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, chemical, and biological data collected during Cruise 312 of the Research Vessel Brown Bear during the months of September and October 1962 in an area within 300 miles of the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and northern California are tabulated. These data were collected as part of a year-round study which has as its objective the determination of the gross

Love

1965-01-01

275

Reproducible (1)H NMR-based metabolomic responses in fish exposed to different sewage effluents in two separate studies.  

PubMed

Treated sewage effluents contain complex mixtures of micropollutants, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. The addition of advanced treatment steps has therefore been suggested. However, some of these could potentially produce effluents affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. Here, (1)H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) metabolomics of fish blood plasma was used to explore potential responses not identified by more targeted (chemical or biological) assays. Rainbow trout was exposed in parallel to six differently treated effluents (e.g., conventional activated sludge, addition of sand filter, further addition of ozonation and/or a moving bed biofilm reactor or a separate membrane bioreactor line). Multivariate data analysis showed changes in the metabolome (HDL, LDL, VLDL and glycerol-containing lipids, cholesterol, glucose, phosphatidylcholine, glutamine, and alanine) between treatment groups. This formed the basis for postulating a hypothesis on how exposure to effluent treated by certain processes, including ozonation, would affect the metabolic profiles of exposed fish. The hypothesis withstood testing in an independent study the following year. To conclude, (1)H NMR metabolomics proved suitable for identifying physiological responses not identified by more targeted assays used in parallel studies. Whether these changes are linked to adverse effects remains to be tested. PMID:21261249

Samuelsson, Linda M; Björlenius, Berndt; Förlin, Lars; Larsson, D G Joakim

2011-02-15

276

Use of Aquatic Oligochaete, 'Lumbriculus variegatus', for Effluent Biomonitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of ...

C. E. Hornig

1980-01-01

277

Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome  

EPA Science Inventory

Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

278

Ozone Application for the Improvement of UASB Reactor Effluent. II. Toxicity Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the effluent from domestic sewage treatment through an anaerobic process in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB), CETESB - The Environmental Protection Agency for Sao Paulo State, and FILSAN - Equipamentos e Sistemas S\\/A, developed a joint program to study the effectiveness of ozonation of the effluent as a post-treatment process. As the effluents treated

R. P. A. Araújo; T. M. T. Gasi; E. Gherardi-Goldstein; L. A. V. Amaral; R. Francisco

1991-01-01

279

Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

2009-08-01

280

Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

2011-10-01

281

Potential treatment alternative for laboratory effluents.  

PubMed

The Chemical Analysis Laboratory under study weekly generates 46.5 L effluent with low pH (0.7), high COD concentration (6535 mg O2/L), sulphate (10390 mg/L) and heavy metals (213 mg Hg/L, 55 mg Cr/L, 28 mg Al/L, 22 mg Fe/L, 10mg Cu/L, 4 mg Ag/L). A treatment sequence has been proposed using a physical chemical step (coagulation/flocculation or chemical precipitation) followed by a biological step (anaerobic treatment). Removals of COD (18%), turbidity (76%) and heavy metals (64-99%) were attained only after adjusting pH to 6.5, without requiring the addition of Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3. Due to the low COD:sulphate ratio (0.9-1.3), it was possible to efficiently operate the UASB reactor (at the biological step) only upon mixing the effluent with household wastewater. COD, sulphate and heavy metals removals of 60%, 23% and 78% to 100%, respectively, were attained for 30% effluent in the reactor feed. The results pointed to the need of a pretreatment step and mixing the effluent in household wastewater prior to the biological step. This alternative is feasible as this can be achieved using sanitary wastewater generated in the university campus. PMID:16023567

Alves, Larissa C; Henrique, Humberto M; Xavier, Alcina M F; Cammarota, Magali C

2005-10-01

282

Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

Graf, F.A. Jr.

1995-02-27

283

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests on wastewater treatment plants with Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum.  

PubMed

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests, with Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, were introduced to evaluate the biological toxicities of effluents from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. In WET tests of WWTPs effluents, 33.3% (33/99) for D. magna and 92.6% (75/81) for S. capricornutum revealed greater than 1 toxic unit (TU), even though all the treatment plants investigated were operating in compliance with the regulations, as assessed using conventional monitoring methods (i.e., BOD and total concentration of N or P, etc). There were only minor differences in toxicities according to the types of influents (municipal and agro-industrial) in all treatment plants. However, the effluents treated by an activated sludge treatment process were found to exhibit significantly lower toxicity than those treated by rotating biological contactor (RBC) and extended aeration processes. The seasonal variations in the toxicity were lower in the summer compared to winter, which may have been due to the rainfall received to the sewage intake system during the former period. The impact of WET on river water was also investigated based on the discharge volume. At sites A and B, the total impact of toxicity to stream and river waters was observed to be 70.9% and 90.4% for D. magna and S. capricornutum, respectively. The other four small treatment plants (sites F, G, H and I), with relative discharging volumes between 0.001 and 0.002, contribute less than 1% to the total toxicity. PMID:17106776

Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Hyun Koo; Chang, Nam Ik; Kim, Sang Don

2007-06-01

284

40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treated with descaling or combination acid pickling wastewaters. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Using oil solutions. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of...

2010-07-01

285

40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...treated with descaling or combination acid pickling wastewaters. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Using oil solutions. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of...

2009-07-01

286

GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

287

Application of Rotary Screens, Biological Contactors, and Gravity Plate Settlers to Treat Wastewaters in Hoboken and North Bergen, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hoboken pilot plant was operated on a full-scale facility by using rotoscreens for primary treatment. Rotating biological contactors or trickling filter for carbonaceous removal, and LAMELLA gravity settler for biological solid and liquid separation. ...

J. M. Lynch J. M. Huang C. H. J. Yang

1982-01-01

288

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

289

Treatment of wastewater from a low-temperature carbonization process industry through biological and chemical oxidation processes for recycle/reuse: a case study.  

PubMed

Low-temperature carbonization (LTC) of coal generates highly complex wastewater warranting stringent treatment. Developing a techno-economically viable treatment facility for such wastewaters is a challenging task. The paper discusses a case study pertaining to an existing non-performing effluent treatment plant (ETP). The existing ETP comprising an ammonia stripper followed by a single stage biological oxidation was unable to treat 1,050 m(3)/d of effluent as per the stipulated discharge norms. The treated effluent from the existing ETP was characterized with high concentrations of ammonia (75-345 mg N/l), COD (313-1,422 mg/l) and cyanide (0.5-4 mg/l). Studies were undertaken to facilitate recycling/reuse of the treated effluent within the plant. A second stage biooxidation process was investigated at pilot scale for the treatment of the effluent from the ETP. This was further subjected to tertiary treatment with 0.5% dose of 4% hypochlorite which resulted in effluent with pH: 6.6-6.8, COD: 73-121 mg/l, and BOD(5):<10 mg/l. Phenol, cyanide and ammonia were below detectable limits and the colourless effluent was suitable for recycle and reuse. Thus, a modified treatment scheme comprising ammonia pre-stripping followed by two-stage biooxidation process and a chemical oxidation step with hypochlorite at tertiary stage was proposed for recycle/reuse of LTC wastewater. PMID:20453329

Biswas, R; Bagchi, S; Urewar, C; Gupta, D; Nandy, T

2010-01-01

290

Microbial composition and structure of a rotating biological contactor biofilm treating ammonium-rich wastewater without organic carbon.  

PubMed

High nitrogen losses were observed in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) treating ammonium-rich (up to 500 mg NH4(+)-N/L) but organic-carbon-poor leachate from a hazardous waste landfill in Kölliken, Switzerland. The composition and spatial structure of the microbial community in the biofilm on the RBC was analyzed with specific attention for the presence of aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) involves the oxidation of ammonium with nitrite to N2. First the diversity of the biofilm community was determined from sequencing cloned PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments. This revealed the presence of a number of very unusual 16S rDNA sequences, but very few sequences related to known ammonium or nitrite oxidizing bacteria. From analysis of biofilm samples by fluorescence in situ hybridization with known phylogenetic probes and by dot-blot hybridization of the same probes to total RNA purified from biofilm samples, the main groups of microorganisms constituting the biofilm were found to be ammonium-oxidizing bacteria from the Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha group, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria of the "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" type, filamentous bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes, and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from the genus Nitrospira. Aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were present in similar amounts of around 20 to 30% of the biomass, whereas members of the CFB phylum were present at around 7%. Nitrite oxidizing bacteria were only present in relatively low amounts (less than 5% determined with fluorescence in situ hybridization). Data from 16S rRNA dot-blot and in situ hybridization were not in all cases congruent. FISH analysis of thin-sliced and fixed biofilm samples clearly showed that the aerobic nitrifiers were located at the top of the biofilm in an extremely high density and in alternating clusters. Anammox bacteria were exclusively present in the lower half of the biofilm, whereas CFB-type filamentous bacteria were present throughout the biofilm. The structure and composition of these biofilms correlated very nicely with the proposed physiological functional separations in ammonium conversion. PMID:12704553

Egli, K; Bosshard, F; Werlen, C; Lais, P; Siegrist, H; Zehnder, A J B; Van der Meer, J R

2003-05-01

291

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

292

Comparative whole effluent toxicity assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents using Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

An approach to compare the toxicities employing the whole effluent toxicity (WET) test, using Daphnia magna and chemical analysis with GC/MS and ICP/MS, was conducted to the nine South Korean wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). From the chemical analysis and bioassay experiments, heavy metals (i.e., Cu and Zn) were found to be the major compounds causing toxic effects toward D. magna. In the whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using D. magna, toxicities were observed in 34% of the effluent samples. However, the biological toxic unit (TU) value showed a non-toxic response (i.e., 0 TU) in many samples despite the response indicated by the chemical TU values. This may be due to the species sensitivity, environmental parameters, mixture effects, and limitation of the chemical analyses. PMID:18193142

Ra, Jin Sung; Lee, Byoung Cheun; Chang, Nam Ik; Kim, Sang Don

2008-03-01

293

Effluent Monitoring Procedures: Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual is provided for students in a chemistry course designed for the treatment plant operator or technician who is required to monitor effluent discharges under a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit, and who has had little or no pre...

A. D. Kroner

1976-01-01

294

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

DOEpatents

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06

295

Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.  

PubMed

The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B

2014-02-01

296

Toxicity of leather tanning wastewater effluents in sea urchin early development and in marine microalgae.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the composition and the toxicity of leather tanning wastewater and conditioned sludge collected at the leather tanning wastewater treatment plant (CODISO) located in Solofra, Avellino (Southern Italy). Samples were analyzed for their conventional parameters (COD, TSS, chromium and ammonia) and for metal content. Effluent samples included raw wastewater, and samples collected following coagulation/flocculation process and biological treatment. A set of toxicity endpoints were tested using sea urchin and marine microalgal bioassays by evaluating acute embryotoxicity, developmental defects, changes in sperm fertilization success and transmissible damage from sperm to the offspring, and changes in algal growth rate. Dose-related toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis and sperm fertilization success was exerted by effluent or sludge samples according to the following rank: conditioned sludge > coagulated effluent > or = raw influent > effluent from biological treatment. Offspring quality was not affected by sperm exposure to any wastewater or to sludge samples. Algal growth was inhibited by raw or coagulated effluent to a similar extent and, again, the effluent from the biological treatment resulted in a decreased toxicity. The results suggest that coagulated effluent and conditioned sludge result in higher toxicity than raw influent in sea urchin embryos and sperm, whereas the biological wastewater treatment of coagulated effluent, in both sea urchins and algae, cause a substantial improvement of wastewater quality. Hence a final biological wastewater treatment should be operated to minimize any environmental damage from tannery wastewater. PMID:16168744

Meriç, Süreyya; De Nicola, Elena; Iaccarino, Mario; Gallo, Marialuisa; Di Gennaro, Annamaria; Morrone, Gaetano; Warnau, Michel; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Pagano, Giovanni

2005-10-01

297

Biological Purification of Waste Water from a Coking Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological treatment of effluent, such as those from coking plants, is difficult. Phenols present in those effluents are less likely to influence the treatment than are associated inhibiting constituents such as cyanides, thiocyanates, sulphides and perha...

B. Boman J. Norrman

1981-01-01

298

Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth.  

PubMed

Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects. PMID:16161973

Nath, Kamlesh; Saini, Sonia; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

2005-04-01

299

Evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated Parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, ?-?rabinofuranosidase and ? xylosidase, respectively. The saccharification of alkali and biologically treated carrot grass by culture extract of M. cinnamomea was further enhanced by supplementation of ?-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus sp. mutant "O". The resultant hydrolysates containing glucose/xylose were fermented efficiently to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to presence of xylose isomerase (0.8units/gds) activity in culture extract of M. cinnamomea resulting in production of 16.5 and 15.0g/l of ethanol from alkali treated rice straw and carrot grass, respectively. PMID:24835742

Mahajan, Chhavi; Chadha, B S; Nain, Lata; Kaur, Amarjeet

2014-07-01

300

Co-epuration of winery and pesticides effluents, activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration, two new technologies for pesticides effluents treatment.  

PubMed

Wine-related activities produce significant volumes of wastewater characterized by high concentrations in organic matter. The term of pesticides effluents defines the water coming from the emptying and the rinsing of the equipment used to pulverize the phytosanitary products on the vines. Pesticide pollution of surface waters from vineyards applications represents a considerable hazard for the aquatic environment. The nature of these wastes is very variable, indeed more than 150 active molecules can be employed. So, the main characteristic of these effluents is their toxicity towards the environment. In this study, an approach was developed to estimate the possibility of developing two biological wastewater treatment process for pesticides effluents treatment. The first one is particulary designed for small vineyard and is a co-epuration process combining winery wastewater treatment with pesticides effluents treatment. The second one is an activated sludge with tertiary nanofiltration and is particularly suited for large vineyards or regroupings of wine growers. PMID:21123924

Massot, A; Esteve, K; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

2010-01-01

301

Using Multivariate Analysis to Predict the Behaviour of Soils Under Effluent Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onsite wastewater treatment systems aim to assimilate domestic effluent into the environment. Unfortunately failure of such\\u000a systems is common and inadequate effluent treatment can have serious environmental implications. The capacity of a particular\\u000a soil to treat wastewater will change over time. The physical properties influence the rate of effluent movement through the\\u000a soil and its chemical properties dictate the ability

Les Dawes; Ashantha Goonetilleke

2006-01-01

302

Basic Biological SciencesThe Effect of Acid-etching on Caries-like Lesions Treated with Stannous Fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acid-etching on SnF2-treated caries-like lesions was investigated. The results suggested that remineralization occurred, limited to the superficial portions of the lesions. In addition, we observed etching patterns which are comparable to those described for etched sound enamel.

M. J. Hicks; L. M. Silverstone

1983-01-01

303

Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds. PMID:23361176

Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

2013-08-01

304

NITRIFICATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTE EFFLUENTS BY ROTATING BIO-DISCS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of nitrifying secondary effluent with rotating biological surfaces (RBS). Two municipal effluents were evaluated; one was from a high rate trickling filter and the other was from two-stage, flow through lagoon. RBS pilot pla...

305

Improvement in anaerobic degradation of olive mill effluent (OME) by chemical pretreatment using batch systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, feasibility of using chemical pretreatment to improve the anaerobic biological degradation of industrial effluents containing high concentrations of phenolic compounds was investigated. For this purpose, chemical pretreatment of the wastewater generated from olive oil production process, namely olive mill effluent (OME), was conducted by means of acid cracking followed by coagulation–flocculation process using one of the coagulating

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Ebru Cokay Catalkaya

2008-01-01

306

AOX reduction of kraft bleach plant effluent by chemical pretreatment—Pilot-scale trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests indicate that the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent can be reduced by about 30% by an alkaline sulphide chemical treatment. Pilot-scale trials, consisting of chemical pretreatment of effluent with green liquor followed by air activated sludge biological treatment, were conducted to evaluate this chemical treatment process. The chemical pretreatment reduced the AOX in

D. W. Francis; P. A. Turner; J. T. Wearing

1997-01-01

307

Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural industry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries. PMID:22522427

Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

2012-09-01

308

Nutritional Evaluation of Biologically Treated White Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Pigs: Ileal and Amino Acid Digestibility1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans—germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)—on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method

H. Schulze; F. H. M. G. Savelkoul; M. W. A. Verstegen; S. Tamminga; S. Groot Nibbelink

309

Computerized physician order entry-based system to prevent HBV reactivation in patients treated with biologic agents: The PRESCRIB project.  

PubMed

Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) applications are widely used to prevent medical errors. In our center, a CPOE system has been in use since 2009 on both the inpatient and outpatient levels. A new and simple alert was introduced in the CPOE system to notify healthcare providers of the potential risk of viral reactivation when prescribing biological therapies, thereby facilitating the request for a serological profile (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg], anti-HBc, and anti-HBs) in patients who have not had these tests. Between May 2012 and May 2013, a total of 1,076 patients undergoing biological treatment were included in the implementation of the CPOE in our hospital, resulting in the identification of 4 HBsAg-positive and 69 anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative patients, two of them with positive viral loads. Since the implementation of this alert system, over 90% of patients who were prescribed a biological drug (BD) have undergone serological screening to detect hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The use of the alert system has increased the screening rate from less than 50% to 94% for HBsAg and from less than 30% to 85% for anti-HBc in patients for whom a BD is prescribed. Six patients received prophylactic antiviral therapy. No patient had HBV reactivation. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a CPOE system that has allowed our hospital to increase the rate of HBV screening. Its use has facilitated the identification of patients at high risk for HBV reactivation and permitted physicians to prescribe prophylactic measures according to current guidelines. (Hepatology 2014;106-113). PMID:24585503

Sampedro, Blanca; Hernández-López, Cándido; Ferrandiz, José Ramón; Illaro, Aitziber; Fábrega, Emilio; Cuadrado, Antonio; Iruzubieta, Paula; Menéndez, Susana; Cabezas, Joaquín; Crespo, Javier

2014-07-01

310

Nutrient reduction evaluation of sewage effluent treatment options for small communities.  

PubMed

Small communities that are sewered by either package sewage treatment plants or on-site sewerage facilities are finding that the ground and surface waters are being contaminated. Nitrogen, which typically is not removed in these conventional systems, is a major concern. This project evaluated the capability of four sewage treatment technologies to reduce the amount of nitrogen being discharged in the effluent to the receiving environment. The four sewage treatment processes evaluated include a recirculating sand filter, biofilter, slow sand filter and constructed subsurface flow wetland. These processes were evaluated for their capability to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD5 and TSS. The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the capability of these treatment processes to reduce nitrogen using biological processes nitrification and denitrification. This paper reports on the performance of these processes to reduce nitrogen. The study demonstrated that the biofilter was capable of removing from a primary treated influent 40% of the total nitrogen. For the same quality influent the recirculating sand filter was capable of removing 35% of the total nitrogen. Secondary treated effluent was fed to the slow sand filter and the subsurface flow wetland. There was a 52% reduction in total nitrogen through the wetland however there was virtually no reduction in total nitrogen through the slow sand filter. PMID:16104425

Beavers, P D; Tully, I K

2005-01-01

311

Color Removal from Kraft Pulp Mill Effluents by Massive Lime Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A demonstration plant was installed and operated to determine effectiveness and feasibility of using massive lime treatment (that is, 20,000 ppm lime) to decolor kraft pulp mill effluents. The two most highly colored effluents and mixtures of these treate...

J. L. Oswalt J. G. Land

1973-01-01

312

Anaerobic treatment of agricultural residue based pulp and paper mill effluents for AOX and COD reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black liquor and bleach effluent from an agroresidue based pulp and paper mill were treated anaerobically to reduce their high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halide (AOX) contents. Addition of 1% w\\/v glucose yielded 80% methane from black liquor with concomitant reduction of COD by 71%, while bleach effluent generated 76% methane and produced 73 and 66% reductions

Muna Ali; T. R Sreekrishnan

2000-01-01

313

Exposure to municipal wastewater effluent impacts stress performance in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to examine the impact of municipal wastewater effluents on the functioning of the cortisol stress axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were caged upstream (reference) and downstream (100% and 10% effluent) of a tertiary-treated municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sampled at 14d later (0 time samples). A second set of

Jennifer S. Ings; Mark R. Servos; Mathilakath M. Vijayan

2011-01-01

314

Resource recovery from septic tank effluent using duckweed-based tilapia aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel duckweed ponds were deployed to utilize nutrients from the effluent of a septic tank treating domestic wastewater. The effluent and fresh biomass of duckweed pond were fed to two subsequent fish ponds stocked with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish ponds receiving freshwater and commercial feed were used as control. The results of specific growth rate and feed conversion

Saber A. El-Shafai; Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad; Farag Samhan; Fayza A. Nasr

2012-01-01

315

Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

316

Biooxidation of thiocyanates typical of coal conversion effluents. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiocyanates have been found in most coal conversion and coke plant effluents. The objectives of this study were to develop data for the biological degradation fate kinetics of thiocyanate removal, and to develop material balance information for the fate of sulfur and nitrogen resulting from such bio-decomposition of aqueous thiocyanates. A literature review of thiocyanate bio-degradation indicates that while much

R. D. Neufeld; L. Mattson; P. Lubon

1981-01-01

317

Analysis of microbial characterization in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed/biological aerated filter system for treating microcrystalline cellulose wastewater.  

PubMed

A two-stage UASB and 2-stage BAF series bioreactor was used for treating the microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) wastewater. The treating efficiency, dominant microbes, eubacterial and archaebacterial composition and cel5A, cel6B and bglC gene expression levels were examined using combined PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR technology. The results showed that under three MCC loads (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg L(-1)), the total MCC degradation efficiency of the UASB-BAF system was 82.0%, 83.5% and 70.5%, respectively. In different MCC load cases, the first stage UASB and BAF formed an approximate full-value cellulase system where cellulolytic microorganisms were the dominant flora, while the second stage UASB and BAF formed a low-value cellulase system where non-cellulolytic microorganisms were the dominant flora. Eubacteria were dominant in every UASB-BAF unit. The rate-limiting enzyme gene for MCC degradation in every unit was cel6B. These results will support the development of high efficiency bio-reactors for the degradation of MCC. PMID:22784954

Ji, Guodong; Wu, Yingchao; Wang, Chen

2012-09-01

318

Novel synthesis of dihydropyrimidines for ?-glucosidase inhibition to treat type 2 diabetes: In vitro biological evaluation and in silico docking.  

PubMed

A convenient and efficient new method has been established for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidines by inexpensive and non-toxic N-acetyl glycine (NAG) catalysed reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ethyl acetoacetate and urea/thiourea. This method is applicable for various substituted aldehydes as well as urea and thiourea. It has also been used to synthesize bicyclic oxygen-bridged pyrimidine derivatives (4d, 4j). The biological assay revealed that the majority of compounds synthesized displayed modest inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase at low micro-molar concentrations. Molecular docking studies were also performed on the most active compound, 4f (with IC50 value 112.21±0.97?M), to show the enzyme - inhibitor interactions. PMID:24880489

Yar, Muhammad; Bajda, Marek; Shahzadi, Lubna; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Ahmed, Maqsood; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alam, Umber; Khan, Islam Ullah; Khan, Ather Farooq

2014-06-01

319

Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF(R)), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition.

Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

2012-01-01

320

Evaluation of nitrogen retention and microbial populations in poultry litter treated with chemical, biological or adsorbent amendments.  

PubMed

Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. Successful management to reduce ammonia and its harmful side-effects on poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of litter amendments. In this study, three acidifiers, two biological treatments, one chemical urease inhibitor and two adsorber amendments were added to poultry litter. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the litters were assessed at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Application of litter amendments consistently reduced organic N loss (0-15%) as compared to unamended litter (20%). Acidifiers reduced nitrogen loss through both chemical and microbiological processes. Adsorbent amendments (water treatment residuals and chitosan) reduced nitrogen loss and concentrations of ammonia-producing bacteria and fungi. The use of efficient, cost-effective litter amendments to maximum agronomic, environmental and financial benefits is essential for the future of sustainable poultry production. PMID:21371808

Cook, Kimberly L; Rothrock, Michael J; Eiteman, Mark A; Lovanh, Nanh; Sistani, Karamat

2011-07-01

321

Effects of surgical intervention on disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis: Cases of surgery for rheumatoid arthritis of the lower limbs treated with biologics.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. In order to verify combination therapy with drugs and surgery for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we evaluated changes in clinical outcome affected by surgical intervention in the patient treated with biologics and investigated the effects of surgery on disease activity. Methods. Fifty-five lower limb joint surgeries were performed in 48 patients under biological therapy. DAS28-ESR, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) score, PtGA and serum CRP were examined just before surgery, at 6 months and at 12 months after surgery. A kind of suitable medication and its dose were investigated. Results. Preoperative DAS28-ESR significantly decreased from 3.71 ± 1.19 (mean ± SD) to 3.37 ± 1.22 at 6 months and to 3.24 ± 1.05 at 12 months postoperatively. mHAQ score did not change, but, PtGA and serum CRP improved. In 43 (78.2%) patients in whom no change or decrease in medication during the follow-up period, excluding the effect of drugs, DAS28-ESR also decreased significantly from 3.53 ± 1.17 to 3.16 ± 1.16 at 6 months, and to 3.16 ± 0.98 at 12 months. Conclusions. Lower limb surgery performed under biological therapy enhances the effects of not only improving joint function but also of ameliorating systemic disease activity. PMID:24611763

Oh, Koei; Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Otani, Hiroshi; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Murasawa, Akira

2014-07-01

322

Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Treated by Peritoneal Dialysis Is Intact and Biologically Active  

PubMed Central

Context: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism. Circulating FGF23 levels are elevated in inherited and acquired hypophosphatemic disorders that can cause rickets or osteomalacia. Particularly increased concentrations of FGF23 are observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), in which increased FGF23 is associated with more rapid disease progression, improved bone mineralization, the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, and increased mortality. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether the markedly elevated levels of immunoreactive FGF23 in CKD represent accumulation of intact, biologically active hormone, C-terminal cleavage fragments, or both. Design: Biologically active FGF23 in plasma from CKD patients treated by peritoneal dialysis was quantified using a cell-based Egr-1 reporter assay; bioactive FGF23 levels were compared with those measured with immunometric FGF23 assays detecting either intact hormone alone or intact hormone and C-terminal fragments. Setting and Patients: Adult and pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis participated in the study at a tertiary referral center. Results: Serially diluted patient samples revealed levels of bioactive FGF23 that ran in parallel to CHO cell-derived recombinant human FGF23. FGF23 bioactivity was inhibited by an anti-FGF23 antibody. Levels of bioactive and immunoreactive FGF23 were tightly correlated, and Western blot analysis of FGF23 immunoprecipitated with anti-FGF23 antibodies from plasma of dialysis patients revealed only a single prominent protein band, which was indistinguishable from recombinant intact FGF23, without clear evidence for FGF23 fragments. Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence for the conclusion that virtually all circulating FGF23 in dialysis patients is intact and biologically active.

Shimada, Takashi; Urakawa, Itaru; Isakova, Tamara; Yamazaki, Yuji; Epstein, Michael; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Wolf, Myles; Salusky, Isidro B.; Juppner, Harald

2010-01-01

323

Reactivation of human polyomavirus JC in patients affected by psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis and treated with biological drugs: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) are inter-related heritable inflammatory skin diseases. Psoriatic lesions develop as a result of abnormal immune responses, hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes, and a notable subset of psoriatic patients develops PsA, characterized by joints inflammation. Recently, biological drugs were introduced to treat these diseases. However, this therapy has already been associated with the development of serious life-threatening infections, such as the reactivation of human polyomavirus JC (JCV), responsible for the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a lethal demyelinating disease caused by oligodendrocytes lytic infection. Therefore, the aims of our study were the investigation of the possible JCV reactivation in PsV and PsA patients treated with adalimumab, etanercept, and methotrexate, performing quantitative real-time PCR in sera and skin biopsies at the time of recruitment (T0) and after 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months of treatment, and the sequencing analysis of the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR). We found JCV DNA in 5/15 PsV patients and in 2/15 PsA patients and JCV NCCR sequence analysis always showed a structure similar to non-pathogenic CY archetype, with random occurrence of a few irrelevant point mutations. Nevertheless the poor number of patients analyzed, our preliminary data can pave the way for taking into account that the follow-up of JCV DNA detection and the JCV NCCR sequence analysis in psoriatic patients may be important to evaluate the risk of PML onset, considering that patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologics continue to rise. PMID:22422468

Nardis, Chiara; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Rodio, Donatella M; De Pità, Ornella; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

2012-12-01

324

In vitro androgenicity in pulp and paper mill effluents.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mill effluents were examined for in vitro androgenicity using a recombinant yeast-based androgen receptor assay. Low levels of androgenic effects were detected in extracts of some effluents after activated sludge treatment. Yeast cell growth cell was inhibited in some samples, and this interfered with the androgenic response. Solid-phase fractionation revealed androgenicity after partial separation of components in the effluents. Comparison of levels in untreated effluent and in effluent treated in an aerated lagoon showed that this treatment had only a marginal effect on androgenicity. An assay of the fractions eluted with increasing concentrations of methanol showed that androgenic compounds were low to moderately lipophilic. In an attempt to identify these compounds, a number of wood-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, beta-sitosterol, betulin, pinosylvin-O-methyl ether, and a wood extract enriched in lignans) were examined but were found not to be androgenic. Raw process water was not androgenic, but water from a highly humified lake and process water from the production of pulp from partly decayed wood had low androgenicity. It therefore can be plausibly suggested that the androgens originated in decaying wood. An assay of androgenicity in the bile of juvenile rainbow trout exposed to effluents for 3 weeks showed increased dose-dependent levels of androgens after enzymatic hydrolysis of hormone conjugates. PMID:15352268

Svenson, Anders; Allard, Ann-Sofie

2004-10-01

325

Biodegradability enhancement of a pesticide-containing bio-treated wastewater using a solar photo-Fenton treatment step followed by a biological oxidation process.  

PubMed

This work proposes an efficient combined treatment for the decontamination of a pesticide-containing wastewater resulting from phytopharmaceutical plastic containers washing, presenting a moderate organic load (COD=1662-1960 mg O? L?¹; DOC=513-696 mg C L?¹), with a high biodegradable organic carbon fraction (81%; BOD?=1350-1600 mg O? L?¹) and a remaining recalcitrant organic carbon mainly due to pesticides. Nineteen pesticides were quantified by LC-MS/MS at concentrations between 0.02 and 45 mg L?¹ (14-19% of DOC). The decontamination strategy involved a sequential three-step treatment: (a) biological oxidation process, leading to almost complete removal of the biodegradable organic carbon fraction; (b) solar photo-Fenton process using CPCs, enhancing the bio-treated wastewater biodegradability, mainly due to pesticides degradation into low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions; (c) and a final polishing step to remove the residual biodegradable organic carbon, using a biological oxidation process. Treatment performance was evaluated in terms of mineralization degree (DOC), pesticides content (LC-MS/MS), inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions (IC) concentrations. The estimated phototreatment energy necessary to reach a biodegradable wastewater, considering pesticides and low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions concentrations, Zahn-Wellens test and BOD?/COD ratio, was only 2.3 kJ(UV) L?¹ (45 min of photo-Fenton at a constant solar UV power of 30 W m?²), consuming 16 mM of H?O?, which pointed to 52% mineralization and an abatement higher than 86% for 18 pesticides. The biological oxidation/solar photo-Fenton/biological oxidation treatment system achieved pesticide removals below the respective detection limits and 79% mineralization, leading to a COD value lower than 150 mg O? L?¹, which is in agreement with Portuguese discharge limits regarding water bodies. PMID:22796005

Vilar, Vítor J P; Moreira, Francisca C; Ferreira, Ana C C; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R

2012-10-01

326

Biological and electrochemical treatment of used metalworking fluids: a toxicity-reduction evaluation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of spent metalworking fluids (MWFs) and two different effluents obtained by biologic and electrochemical treatment of spent MWFs toward aquatic organisms of different trophic levels. The obtained toxicity data was used to calculate safe concentrations of both effluents. The spent MWFs without treatment showed the highest toxicity among the tested samples and should be classified as "extremely toxic" (toward invertebrates) or "very toxic" (toward other test organisms). Both methods applied for MWFs treatment resulted in a significant decrease in toxicity of the treated MWFs, but the obtained effluents had still to be regarded as "toxic". The ranges of the values of acute toxic units for both effluents were significantly narrower than for the untreated spent MWFs. The values of the safe concentrations of the spent MWFs, the biologic effluent, and the water phase resulting from electrochemical emulsion breaking were equal to 0.013%, l.8%, and 1.3%, respectively, corresponding to chemical oxygen demand concentrations of 1.8%, 32, and 34 mg O(2)*L(-1). These values are far lower than the discharging limit of 125 mg O(2)*L(-1) for industrial effluents, according to the relevant Polish regulations. It is therefore recommended to include toxicity bioassay parameters into guidelines for wastewater discharges to surface waters because the existing chemical and physical parameters are not sufficient to describe the environmental impact of industrial wastewater. Toxicity bioassays can be a promising tool for evaluating the efficacy of unit operations in industrial wastewater treatment (toxicity reduction evaluation) as well as identification of toxic substances in effluents (toxicity identification evaluation). PMID:17387424

Muszy?ski, A; Za?eska-Radziwi??, M; Lebkowska, M; Nowak, D

2007-05-01

327

The influence of the high and low molecular weight fractions of a bleach kraft mill effluent on the microbial activity of activated sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high molecular weight (HMW) fraction (> 1000 Da) of bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) is the principal source of adsorbable organic halide (AOX), colour and chemical oxygen demand in treated effluent. The influence of HMW material on the microbial activity of activated sludge microorganisms was studied in a series of batch growth experiments using fractionated effluent. The HMW material

C. M. Bullock; P. A. Bicho; J. N. Saddler

1996-01-01

328

Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.  

PubMed

UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. PMID:22748974

Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

2012-11-15

329

Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation  

PubMed Central

Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine.

Al-Sa'ed, R.

2007-01-01

330

The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (< 10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ?X174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

2012-11-01

331

Evaluation of biological removal efficiency in a UCT process treating municipal wastewater during start-up stage.  

PubMed

This study reports the performance of University of Cape Town (UCT) municipal wastewater treatment plant, during the startup stage with the focus on the relationship between hydraulic retention time (HRT) and biological nutrient removal (BNR) efficiency. The entire experimental period was 144 days, divided into four periods. Results showed that the removal efficiency of TN, NH4+-N, and Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) was closely related to the HRT. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics analysis was used to calculate the specific degradation rates of pollutants. The GPS-X modeling was also used to examine the effect of the UCT pilot plant on BNR. The UCT pilot plant used in this study achieved high BNR efficiency even during the startup stage. With HRT of 24 hr (Period 1, day 1-40, data set 1-10), the highest levels of TN, NH(4+)-N and KN removal efficiency were approximately 72, 76 and 78%, respectively. The COD showed consistent high removal efficiency, with the highest level of approximately 96% at HRT of 15 hr (Period 3, day 81-120, data set 21-30). The TP removal efficiency rose at first and subsequently decreased abruptly. The maximum removal efficiency was 85% with HRT of 19 hr (Period 2, day 41-80, data set 11-20). With the optimal HRT 19 hr, the average removal efficiency values of COD, TP, TN, NH(4+)-N and KN were 89, 80, 65, 67 and 68%, respectively. The GPS-X modeling results indicated that the UCT process was effective in COD, TP and TN removal. PMID:24620618

Wang, Zhu; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yong-De; Wan, Fujun

2013-04-01

332

Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species  

PubMed Central

Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species.

Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

333

Behavior and Removal of Organic Species in the Savannah River Plant Effluent Treatment Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is a new facility designed to treat and decontaminate low-level radioactive wastewater prior to release to the environment. The waste water is primarily composed of evaporator overhea...

S. B. Oblath G. K. Georgeton

1988-01-01

334

Removal of hydrocarbons from wastewater using treated bark.  

PubMed

This paper explores the possibility of removing hydrocarbons (HCs) and trace elements from synthetic and industrial effluents using treated bark as biosorbent. Coniferous bark was treated either chemically (Tc) or biologically (Tb) to eliminate soluble organic compounds of bark. The removal efficiency (RE) of the HCs from a synthetic oil-water mixture containing spent diesel motor oil exceeds 95% using 2 g/L of treated bark mixed with a synthetic oil-water mixture containing 2 g/L of spent oil. Under these conditions, the retention capacity (RC) was approximately 1 g HC/g dry substrate. The sorption reaction seems to be quasi-instantaneous, and the retention capacity of spent oil on treated bark increases as the temperature augments. This implies that the retention mechanism is related to the capillary action. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that spent oil is mainly composed of alkanes. They also suggest that no chemical bonds between Tc and spent oil were established. Measurement of the surface tension of spent oil and the wetting index of the bark suggests that only spent oil will be retained by the substrate. Treatment of an industrial effluent containing 14.4 g/L of total HCs was performed using Tc. It was possible to remove 97% of HCs and retain some trace elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, S, and so on. PMID:11575889

Haussard, M; Gaballah, I; de Donato, P; Barrès, O; Mourey, A

2001-09-01

335

Does improved waste treatment have demonstrable biological benefits?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1972, 10 benthic surveys and 9 static fish bioassays have been conducted to assess the impact of AVTEX Fibers, Inc. effluent on the lower South Fork of the Shenandoah River. AVTEX (formerly FMC Corp.) is a rayon and polyester fibers plant located in Front Royal, Virginia. Benthic samples were taken at four stations, one above and three below the plant discharges. Single surveys in 1972 and 1973 indicated a severe impact on the benthic community along the right side of the river, below the plant, as a result of the channelized effluent. Diversity values (¯ d) were low (0 2.42) and numbers of taxa and organisms were reduced. A fish bioassay in 1973 indicated the effluent to be acutely toxic at the 34.5% level (mixture of effluent and river water). In early 1974, FMC Corp. constructed an activated sludge treatment system to reduce BOD and supplement the neutralization and chemical precipitation (zinc hydroxide and liquid-solid separation) facilities that had been used to treat waste waters since 1948. After the new equipment was placed in operation, the previously stressed area became more stable. In 1975 and 1976 the stressed area exhibited greater ¯ d values (1.19 3.39) and an increased number of taxa and organisms. Bioassays showed the effluent to be acutely toxic to fish only once since 1973. The major improvements in the effluent were a 70% reduction in BOD5 and a 60% reduction in the amount of zinc entering the river. Community conditions in 1977 indicated a partial remission of improvement, probably due to drought conditions. The rehabilitation of damaged ecosystems is a process important to all biologists. An important factor in encouraging industry to participate in this activity is evidence that improved waste treatment will often have demonstrable biological benefits rather soon. As data accumulate on the recovery process it may be possible to predict the degree of rehabilitation and time required more precisely.

Seagle, Henry H.; Hendricks, Albert C.; Cairns, John

1980-01-01

336

Stress-related gene expression changes in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to various municipal wastewater treatment influents and effluents.  

PubMed

The present study sought to examine the performance of six different wastewater treatment processes from 12 wastewater treatment plants using a toxicogenomic approach in rainbow trout hepatocytes. Freshly prepared rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of influent (untreated wastewaters) and effluent (C(18)) extracts for 48 h at 15 °C. A test battery of eight genes was selected to track changes in xenobiotic biotransformation, estrogenicity, heavy metal detoxification, and oxidative stress. The wastewaters were processed by six different treatment systems: facultative and aerated lagoons, activated sludge, biological aerated filter, biological nutrient removal, chemically assisted primary treated, and trickling filter/solids contact. Based on the chemical characteristics of the effluents, the treatment plants were generally effective in removing total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand, but less so for ammonia and alkalinity. The 12 influents differed markedly with each other, which makes the comparison among treatment processes difficult. For the influents, both population size and flow rate influenced the increase in the following mRNA levels in exposed hepatocytes: metallothionein (MT), cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), and vitellogenin (VTG). Gene expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the estrogen receptor (ER), were influenced only by population size in exposed cells to the influent extracts. The remaining genes-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and multidrug resistance transporter (MDR)-were not influenced by either population size or flow rate in exposed cells. It is noteworthy that the changes in MT, ER, and VTG in cells exposed to the effluents were significantly affected by the influents across the 12 cities examined. However, SOD, CYP1A1, CYP3A4, GST, and MDR gene expression were the least influenced by the incoming influents. The data also suggest that wastewater treatments involving biological or aeration processes had the best performance. We found that the effects of municipal effluents on gene expression depended on the population size, the initial properties of the incoming influent, and the wastewater treatment method applied. Considering that the long-term goals of wastewater treatment is to produce clean effluents for the aquatic biota and independent of the incoming influent, more research is needed in developing treatment processes to better protect aquatic life from anthropogenic contamination. PMID:23010963

Gagné, F; Smyth, S A; André, C; Douville, M; Gélinas, M; Barclay, K

2013-03-01

337

Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

Simiele, G.A.

1994-09-29

338

Decolorization of textile dye effluent by genetically improved bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Synthetic dyes are released into the environment from textile industrial effluents. The discharge of this colored wastewater into rivers and lakes leads to a reduction in sunlight penetration in natural water bodies, which, in turn, decreases both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration and is toxic to living beings. Bacterial isolates are optimized for growth and biomass production before using them for decolorizing dye effluent. The bacterial isolates Bacillus sp. 1 and Bacillus sp. 2 were employed at different percentages by volume with standard nutrient concentration. Of these bacterial isolates Bacillus sp. 2 recorded maximum color reduction. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were reduced in the decolorized effluent, and a reduction in biologic oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also observed. PMID:17416977

Sukumar, M; Sivasamy, A; Swaminathan, G

2007-01-01

339

Pulp mill effluent color removal process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for removing color from an effluent having a low pH and containing organic chromophores. It comprises: increasing the pressure of the effluent to between 200 and 600 psi to prevent the liquid within the effluent from changing phase; heating the effluent to a temperature between 200{degrees} and 250{degrees} C. for a retention time up to 20 minutes in accordance with the temperature to alter the chemical structure of lignin chromophores in the effluent; cooling the effluent to a temperature between 35{degrees} and 60{degrees} C.; adjusting the pressure of the effluent to between 0 to 10 psi; adjusting the pH of the effluent to between 10 and 12 to initiate flocculation of the altered chromophores in the effluent; and separating the chromophores from effluent.

Newman, H.L.; Adams, W.S. Jr.; Boyden, B.

1991-07-16

340

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

341

Alterations in DNA metabolism in Elliptio complanata mussels after exposure to municipal effluents.  

PubMed

This study sought to examine the genotoxic potential in Elliptio complanata freshwater mussels exposed to a physically and chemically treated municipal effluent before and after ozone treatment. Mussels were continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of the effluents for 14 days. Genotoxicity was determined by tracking changes in key enzymes for purine and pyrimidine synthesis (dehydrofolate reductase and aspartate transcarbamoylase), catabolism of purines (xanthine oxido-reductase) and DNA strand-break levels as determined by the alkaline precipitation assay. Other biomarkers related to xenobiotic biotransformation (cytochrome P4503A and glutathione S-transferase activities), metal metabolism (labile zinc and redox state of metathioneins) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase activity) were also determined in the mussels. The data revealed that dehydrofolate reductase activity was reduced by the initial effluent and increased by the ozonated effluent. Aspartate transcarbamoylase activity was significantly induced only with the ozonated effluent. The levels of DNA strand breaks responded in a biphasic manner in mussels exposed to the physically and chemically treated effluent where an initial decrease was observed at a low effluent concentration (3% v/v) followed by an increase in DNA strand breaks at a higher effluent concentration (20%). This response pattern was lost in the ozonated effluent, where only a decrease in DNA breaks was found. Xanthine oxidoreductase activity was not significantly affected but did correlate significantly with dehydrofolate reductase activity. Multivariate factorial and canonical analyses revealed that oxidative stress and metal/xenobiotic metabolism markers were strongly correlated with DNA strand breaks in mussels, suggesting that the presence of metals (zinc) and planar hydroxylated hydrocarbons present in these effluents were strong contributors to the observed response. We conclude that municipal effluents contain a complex mixture of pollutants that could modulate DNA synthesis and repair mechanisms in mussels. PMID:21466858

Gagné, F; André, C; Cejka, P; Hausler, R; Fournier, M

2011-08-01

342

Purification of aqueous effluents  

SciTech Connect

Raw synthesis gases produced by the gasification of coal are treated to remove tars and oils by direct and indirect cooling to produce condensate streams which are treated under high pressure viz 5 to 150 bar to rapidly separate out aqueous and organic phases. Elevated temperatures may then be used to further minimize residence time. The invention is further characterized in that the size of the separation vessels is of several orders of magnitude smaller than used in conventional ambient pressure separation procedures.

Wild, K.R.

1985-04-23

343

Combined chemical treatment of pharmaceutical effluents from medical ointment production.  

PubMed

Three wastewater samples from a pharmaceutical plant formulating medical ointments were subjected to lab-scale treatment by a Fenton-like system in combination with lime coagulation. All samples were plant pre-treated by adsorption/flocculation/filtration processes with utilization of bentonite, but the quality of effluents did not comply with the regulations for wastewater discharged to local sewerage. The optimization of Fenton-like oxidation demonstrated the highest process efficacy at H(2)O(2)/COD weight ratio of 2:1, H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 10:1 and 2h of treatment time. The fast pH decrease to acidic values approximately 3 during first min of oxidation for all effluents suggested that pH adjustment was unnecessary. Combination of Fe(III) precipitation and lime coagulation proved feasible to improve considerably COD and residual iron concentration reduction in pharmaceutical effluents. Additionally, considerable BOD(7) reduction and BOD(7)/COD ratio improvement of pharmaceutical wastewater samples was achieved by combined treatment. The application of Fenton-like oxidation with subsequent iron (III)/lime coagulation did not only enhance the quality of pharmaceutical effluents with different chemical characteristics and help to meet the requirements for wastewater discharged to sewage, but also improve the biodegradability of pharmaceutical effluents. PMID:17897701

Kulik, Niina; Trapido, Marina; Goi, Anna; Veressinina, Yelena; Munter, Rein

2008-02-01

344

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2010-07-01

345

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2011-07-01

346

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2011-07-01

347

40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.91 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2010-07-01

349

40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Direct Discharge...End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment § 414.101 Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and...

2012-07-01

350

Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

351

Biogenic nanoscale colloids in wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

The size, surface area, metal complexation capacity, organic pollutant sorption potential, reactivity with disinfectants, and elevated nitrogen content of biogenic organic nanoscale material (BONM) can potentially affect aquatic environments. BONM in effluents from 11 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which use a range of biological processes, were characterized in two ways. First, BONM was measured by hydrodynamic size-exclusion chromatography coupled with an online organic carbon and UV detector. Second, BONM was isolated from the wastewater using rotary evaporation and dialysis and then characterized by elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wastewaters contained 6-10 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). BONM accounted for 5%-50% of the DOC in wastewater effluent organic matter, and the largest size fraction (>10 kDa) of organic carbon correlated with the organic carbon content determined after rotary evaporation and dialysis. Membrane bioreactor WWTPs had the lowest fraction of BONM (<10% of the DOC), followed by conventional activated sludge (10% to 30% of the DOC), with other processes (e.g., trickling filters, aerated lagoons) containing larger BONM percentages. BONM had a lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (6.2 ± 1.7) compared with the literature values for humic or fulvic acids, exhibited chemical bonds that were indicative of amides and polysaccharides, and contained fibril entangled networks. This work has important implications for operations efficiency of WWTPs, including controlling membrane fouling and release of organic nitrogen into sensitive environments. PMID:20886826

Song, Guixue; Wang, Jun; Chiu, Chao-An; Westerhoff, Paul

2010-11-01

352

Petroleum refinery secondary effluent polishing using freezing processes--toxicity and organic contaminant removal.  

PubMed

A petroleum refinery secondary effluent was treated using two freezing techniques--spray freezing and unidirectional downward freezing (UDF). The freezing processes were effective to remove toxicity and total organic carbon (TOC)- and chemical oxygen demand (COD)-causing materials in the effluent. Agitation of the liquid during UDF significantly improved the impurity separation efficiency; 85 to 96% removal of TOC and COD was achieved without any pretreatment and freezing only 70% of the feed water. The treatment efficiency of the spray freezing was at the same level as that of UDF without mixing. The spray ice with longer storage time released more contaminants with early meltwater. The initial contaminant concentration of the feed water and the freezing temperatures (-10 degrees C and -25 degrees C) had no significant influence on the treatment efficiency. A small fluctuation in effluent TOC concentration caused a dramatic change in effluent toxicity (Microtox). The effective concentration (EC20) (Microtox) was effective in detecting effluent toxicity. PMID:18686927

Gao, W; Smith, D W; Habib, M

2008-06-01

353

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

354

40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

355

40 CFR 415.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01

356

40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

357

40 CFR 415.632 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.632 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2009-07-01

358

The use of high rate algal ponds for the treatment of marine effluent from a recirculating fish rearing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high rate algal pond (HRAP) system was used to treat effluent from a recirculating sea water aquaculture system in southern France. Dicentrarchus labrax L. were farmed at a high density, with effluents containing an average of 10 mg L1 dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 1.3 mg L1 reactive phosphorus (RP). On a yearly basis, the algal pond removed 59%

P Pagand; J-P Blancheton; J Lemoalle; C Casellas

2000-01-01

359

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

1985-05-01

360

The removal of lignin and phenol from paper mill effluents by electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the treatment of paper mill effluents using electrocoagulation. Removal of lignin, phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) from paper mill effluents was investigated at various current intensities by using different electrodes (Al and Fe) and at various electrolysis times (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5min). It was observed that the experiments carried

M. U?urlu; A. Gürses; Ç. Do?ar; M. Yalç?n

2008-01-01

361

[Toxicity reduction of synthetic municipal wastewater treated by anaerobic, anoxic or aerobic reactors].  

PubMed

Bioassay with Photobacterium phosphoreum was used to evaluate the toxicity of municipal wastewater. The toxicity reduction capabilities of three biological treatment processes (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic reactor) treating the synthetic municipal wastewater were studied. Seven compounds including toluene, p-xylene, o-xylene, indole, pyridine, cyclohexanone and benzenepropanoic acid were selected to represent the main organic toxicants in the municipal wastewater. The GC-MS analysis was conducted to study the transformation of organic compounds in the effluents. The results show that in anaerobic reactor, the toxicity of effluent was higher than influent at short HRTs (no more than 10 h). The toxicity reduction capability of the anoxic reactor was in the medium level among the three reactors. The aerobic reactor had the strongest toxicity reduction capability. PMID:17326447

Zhao, Jun-Ming; Li, Yong-Mei; Zhou, Qi

2006-11-01

362

Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.  

PubMed

Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L?¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

2012-07-01

363

Symposium on Industrial Effluent: Control and Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a collection of papers on 'Industrial effluents: Control and Treatment,' symposium held at Pretoria, South Africa, November 23, 1981. The principal industrial effluents and control techniques described are from the steel, textile, meta...

S. N. van Biljon F. V. K. von Reiche J. J. Schoeman G. R. Botha R. J. L. C. Drews

1981-01-01

364

Physical, chemical, and biological data from the northeast Pacific Ocean: Columbia River effluent area, January-October 1962. Volume I. Brown Bear Cruise 299: January 23February 7. Technical report no. 119  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, chemical, and biological data collected during Cruise 299 of the Research Vessel Brown Bear during the months of January and February 1962 in an area within 120 miles of the coasts of Washington and Oregon are tabulated. These data were collected as part of a year-round study which has as its objective the determination of the gross features of

Love

1965-01-01

365

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12ngL(-1) in the influent and 6ngL(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450nm) the mean values were 3.3?gL(-1) for influent and 0.08?gL(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14mgkg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11?gkg(-1)yr(-1) to the top 20cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1ngL(-1) range but levels up to 4ngL(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50ngL(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135ngL(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

366

IMPACT OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF A WATER BODY IN THE NIGER DELTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical qualities of a refinery effluent and water and sediment of an effluent receiving water body were investigated. The treated refinery effluent contained very high concentrations of phenol (11.06 mg\\/l), oil and grease (7.52 mg\\/l), ammonia (8.52 mg\\/l), COD (91.76 mg\\/l), TDS (390.6 mg\\/l) and phosphate (6.2 mg\\/l), but low in sulphide, nickel, lead, copper and chromium, which were

T. V. OTOKUNEFOR

367

Treatment of Deliming-bating Effluent from Tannery using Membrane Separation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid membrane separation process involving ultrafiltration and nanofiltration is investigated to treat deliming-bating effluent of a tannery. The pretreatment of the effluent is carried out by coagulation using alum. The optimum concentration of the alum is obtained as 2% (wt\\/vol). The effects of operating conditions e.g., transmembrane pressure drop and cross flow velocity on the permeate flux and quality

Chandan Das; Sunando DasGupta; Sirshendu De

368

Effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils was investigated under natural environment\\u000a in pot experiment at Ambrose Alli University Teaching and Research farm, Ekpoma, Nigeria. A composite soil sample was used\\u000a in the experiment. The soil was treated to seven rates of abattoir effluent (viz. 0, 25, 50, 100, 125 and 150 ml\\/kg soil).\\u000a The

Osadebamwen Ikpotokin Osemwota

2010-01-01

369

Isolation of Salmonella Bacteriophages from Swine Effluent Lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages (phages) associated with Salmonella were collect- ed from nine swine manure lagoons in Mississippi. Phages were isolated by an enrichment protocol or directly from effluent. For enrichment, chloroform-treated samples were filtered (0.22 mm) and selectively enriched by adding a cocktail of Salmonella strains in trypticase soy broth. After overnight incubation at 35C, chloroform was added and samples stored at

M. R. McLaughlin; M. F. Balaa; J. Sims; R. King

2006-01-01

370

Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

2010-10-01

371

Biological and chemical assessment of M-Area process discharge to TIM's Branch, June 1985--December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The production facilities of M-Area process uranium, lithium, and aluminum into fuel and target components for nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These processes produce wastewaters that contain dissolved metals, solvents, and nitric acid. Beginning in July 1985, wastewater was diverted to the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF), which treats the waste via precipitation, filtration, and neutralization. Major constituents of the LETF discharge include nitrate (as NaNO{sub 3}), phosphorus, total suspended solids, and trace amounts of aluminum, lead, nickel, iron, and uranium. In addition to the intermittent LETF discharge, the A-014 outfall also has received a continuous discharge of noncontact cooling water (700 to 2500 gpm) since 1982 and effluent from the M-Area Ground Water Recovery Action (MAGWRA) air stripper (375 gpm) since September 1985. These effluents consist of trace amounts of (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane) in the MAGWRA effluent. In June 1985, a chemical and biological monitoring program was initiated to determine if M-Area discharges are a significant environmental hazard to Tim's Branch. The main concerns are whether the discharge is toxic to aquatic life and whether high levels of nitrate in the discharge from the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) will cause eutrophication of the aquatic system.

Carlton, W.H. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Starkel, W.M.; Giffin, M.; Trapp, K.E. (Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

1987-03-01

372

Biological and chemical assessment of M-Area process discharge to TIM`s Branch, June 1985--December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The production facilities of M-Area process uranium, lithium, and aluminum into fuel and target components for nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). These processes produce wastewaters that contain dissolved metals, solvents, and nitric acid. Beginning in July 1985, wastewater was diverted to the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF), which treats the waste via precipitation, filtration, and neutralization. Major constituents of the LETF discharge include nitrate (as NaNO{sub 3}), phosphorus, total suspended solids, and trace amounts of aluminum, lead, nickel, iron, and uranium. In addition to the intermittent LETF discharge, the A-014 outfall also has received a continuous discharge of noncontact cooling water (700 to 2500 gpm) since 1982 and effluent from the M-Area Ground Water Recovery Action (MAGWRA) air stripper (375 gpm) since September 1985. These effluents consist of trace amounts of (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane) in the MAGWRA effluent. In June 1985, a chemical and biological monitoring program was initiated to determine if M-Area discharges are a significant environmental hazard to Tim`s Branch. The main concerns are whether the discharge is toxic to aquatic life and whether high levels of nitrate in the discharge from the M-Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) will cause eutrophication of the aquatic system.

Carlton, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Starkel, W.M.; Giffin, M.; Trapp, K.E. [Environmental and Chemical Sciences, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1987-03-01

373

Enumeration and Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteria in Effluent from Municipal, Hospital, and Secondary Treatment Facility Sources?  

PubMed Central

We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbhaile; Cormican, Martin

2010-01-01

374

Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.  

PubMed

Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

2005-04-15

375

Exposure to municipal wastewater effluent impacts stress performance in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to examine the impact of municipal wastewater effluents on the functioning of the cortisol stress axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were caged upstream (reference) and downstream (100% and 10% effluent) of a tertiary-treated municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sampled at 14d later (0 time samples). A second set of fish were then subjected to a 5 min handling disturbance and sampled at 1 and 24h post-stressor exposure. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations, liver and brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels, head kidney mRNA abundances of corticosteroidogenesis genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 11?-hydroxylase and melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), and key liver metabolic enzyme activities, were measured. Exposure to effluent for 14d significantly elevated plasma cortisol and lactate levels in 100% effluent group compared to the reference and 10% effluent sites. There was a significantly higher StAR mRNA abundance in the effluent groups compared to the upstream control. GR protein levels in the liver, but not the brain, were significantly higher in the 100% effluent group compared to the upstream control group. Chronic exposure to 100% effluent for 14d significantly lowered liver hexokinase and glucokinase activities, but did not affect glycogen content or the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the other two groups. Subjecting these fish to a secondary acute stressor elicited a physiological stress response, including significant transient elevation in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels at 1h which dropped to pre-stress levels at 24h after stressor exposure, in the control and 10% effluent groups, but this conserved stress response was impaired in the 100% effluent group. The 100% effluent group fish also had significantly higher StAR and P450scc mRNA abundances at 1h post-stress, while transcript abundances of all the major corticosteroidogenesis genes were suppressed at 24h post-stressor compared to the control and 10% effluent groups. Considered together, exposure to full-strength MWWE for 14d elicits a chronic stress response in rainbow trout, and perturbs the conserved adaptive response to an acute stressor. Our results reveal that the impact of tertiary-treated MWWE on stress performance in rainbow trout is abolished by 90% effluent dilution. PMID:21392498

Ings, Jennifer S; Servos, Mark R; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

2011-05-01

376

Impacts of treated municipal wastewaters on early life stages of fishes  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson-Raritan Estuary is a typical urban estuary that receives a tremendous burden of pollutants from many point- and non-point sources. Treated municipal wastewater (TMW) accounts for about 13% of the freshwater input, 90% of point-source volume and >98% of point-source pollutants. Most sources of TMW have a substantial industrial input, so the effluents include organics and heavy metals. While secondary treatment substantially reduces TMW toxicity, chlorination of the effluent restores the toxicity by producing oxidized and chlorinated compounds not previously present. The authors are attempting to assess the biological impacts of such effluents. They report here results to date of laboratory analyses of realistic dilutions of such secondarily-treated and chlorinated TMW. They have targeted three species of fish common to the Hudson-Raritan Estuary, the winter flounder (Pseudopleuonectes americanus), the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and the striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The estuary is a spawning area for the first two species and a significant overwintering area for the third, a protected species. Because the early life stages of fish are especially sensitive, they are focusing on development and growth.

Weis, P. (New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA)); Weis, J.S. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Newark (USA)); Greenberg, A. (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark (USA))

1988-09-01

377

NEW MEMBRANES FOR TREATING METAL FINISHING EFFLUENTS BY REVERSE OSMOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term reverse osmosis tests were conducted with electroplating wastes on a new membrane referred to as NS-100. This membrane consists of a polyurea layer, formed by the reaction of tolylene diisocyanate with polyethylenimine, deposited on a porous polysulfone support film. Th...

378

Characterizing shipboard bilgewater effluent before and after treatment.  

PubMed

Operational discharges from oceangoing vessels, including discharges of bilgewater, release oil into marine ecosystems that can potentially damage marine life, terrestrial life, human health, and the environment. Bilgewater is a mix of oily fluids and other pollutants from a variety of sources onboard a vessel. If bilgewater cannot be retained onboard, it must be treated by an oily water separator before discharge for larger ocean-going vessels. We evaluated the effectiveness of bilgewater treatment systems by analyzing land-based type approval data, collecting and analyzing shipboard bilgewater effluent data, assessing bilgewater effluent concentrations compared to regulatory standards, evaluating the accuracy of shipboard oil content monitors relative to analytical results, and assessing additional pollution reduction benefits of treatment systems. Land-based type approval data were gathered for 20 treatment systems. Additionally, multiple samples of influent and effluent from operational bilgewater treatment systems onboard three vessels were collected and analyzed, and compared to the land-based type approval data. Based on type approval data, 15 treatment systems were performing below 5 ppm oil. Shipboard performance measurements verified land-based type approval data for the three systems that were sampled. However, oil content monitor readings were more variable than actual oil concentration measurements from effluent samples, resulting in false negatives and positives. The treatment systems sampled onboard for this study generally reduced the majority of other potentially harmful pollutants, which are not currently regulated, with the exception of some heavy metal analytes. PMID:24420560

McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra; Danesi, Robin; Albert, Ryan

2014-04-01

379

Decolorization of textile plant effluent by Citrobacter sp. strain KCTC 18061P.  

PubMed

Citrobacter sp. strain KCTC 18061P was found to be able to decolorize textile plant effluent containing different types of reactive dyes. Effects of physico-chemical parameters, such as aeration, nitrogen source, glucose and effluent concentrations on the color removal of real dye effluent by this strain were investigated. The observed changes in the visible spectra indicated color removal by the absorption of dye to cells during incubation with the strain. This strain showed higher decolorization ability under aerobic than static culture conditions. With 1% glucose, this strain removed 70% of effluent color within 5 days. Decolorization was not significantly dependent on the nitrogen sources tested. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were decreased in proportion to incubation times, and their removal rates were about 35% and 50%, respectively, at 7 days of culture. PMID:18187889

Jang, Moon-Sun; Jung, Byung-Gil; Sung, Nak-Chang; Lee, Young-Choon

2007-12-01

380

Waste monitoring system for effluents  

SciTech Connect

The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

1995-07-01

381

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

382

Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent.

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

383

Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.  

PubMed

The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants. PMID:19039187

Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

2008-01-01

384

Bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent by biosorbents derived from freshwater macroalgae.  

PubMed

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

Kidgell, Joel T; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

2014-01-01

385

An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

Osteen, D.V.

1999-12-17

386

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

387

Determination of the androgenic potency of whole effluents using mosquitofish and trout bioassays.  

PubMed

This study combined bioassay-derived and direct chemical analysis of steroidal compounds in pulp and paper and municipal sewage effluent in order to determine the cause of masculinization of female mosquitofish. The bioassays used in this study consisted of androgen and estrogen receptor binding, and aromatase inhibition using tissues from rainbow trout. This study observed no masculinization of female mosquitofish from a pulp and paper mill effluent that was previously observed to cause this effect. Mosquitofish sampled from the receiving environment of the same mill verified that masculinization was not occurring in the wild. The municipal sewage effluent also had no masculinizing effect. In vitro bioassays indicated significant sources of both androgens and estrogens in the effluents tested with sewage effluent having both the highest estradiol (41 ng/L) and testosterone (182 ng/L) equivalent concentration. These results could not be attributed to any particular compounds measured in the effluents. Two compounds implicated in the masculinization of mosquitofish by pulp and paper effluent, androstenedione and androstadienedione required relatively large (10-100 microg/L) waterborne concentrations to elicit a masculinizing effect and neither of these compounds are likely to occur at levels this high in the natural environment. The potent aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione also did not cause masculinization at 100 microg/L indicating that masculinization did not occur through this mechanism. The mammalian anti-androgen, cyproterone acetate was only partially effective in mosquitofish and reduced the severity of masculinization in the presence of methyl testosterone. While neither effluent masculinized mosquitofish, there was a significant reduction of in vitro ovarian steroid production with the most severe effects observed with the sewage effluent. Overall, this study found the disappearance of a masculinizing effect that had been previously observed; concluded that based on 21 days aqueous exposures androstenedione and androstadienedione are not likely candidates for mosquitofish masculinization, and showed that masculinization and in vitro steroid production are unrelated biological endpoints. PMID:16996625

Bandelj, E; van den Heuvel, M R; Leusch, F D L; Shannon, N; Taylor, S; McCarthy, L H

2006-12-01

388

Positively charged filters for virus recovery from wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed

Positively charged Zeta Plus filters were used to concentrate enteroviruses from 19 liters of effluent from activated sludge units. Neither the addition of salts nor the acidification of the effluent was required for adsorption of viruses to the filters. Viruses adsorbed to the filters were eluted by treating the filters with a solution of 4 M urea buffered at pH 9 with 0.05 M lysine. Eluted viruses were concentrated into final volumes of 1 to 2 ml by using a two-step concentration procedure that employed inorganic and organic flocculation. Approximately 50% of the viruses added to effluents could be recovered in the final sample. The procedure was used to monitor effluents from activated sludge units at two wastewater treatment plants for the presence of enteroviruses. PMID:6274257

Chang, L T; Farrah, S R; Bitton, G

1981-11-01

389

Liquid effluent recycle to reactor in dewaxing processes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for catalytically treating a hydrocarbonaceous petroleum feedstock. The feedstock is contacted under lube dewaxing conditions in a two-phase trickle-bed reactor with a dewaxing catalyst comprising an aluminosilicate zeolite having a constraint index having the approximate range of from about 1 to about 12 and a silica to alumina ratio of at least 12 to 1 to produce a dewaxed liquid effluent product. The improvement is that about 405 to about 90 wt. % of the liquid effluent product, containing dewaxed oil without being separated into fractions and without further treatment, is continuously recycled independent of fresh feed rate directly back to the dewaxing reactor thereby improving catalyst bed liquid distribution improving catalyst performance and aging rate and reducing feedstock maldistribution.

Bortz, R.W.

1989-04-04

390

Effluent volume and dialysis dose in CRRT: time for reappraisal.  

PubMed

The results of several studies assessing dialysis dose have dampened the enthusiasm of clinicians for considering dialysis dose as a modifiable factor influencing outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury. Powerful evidence from two large, multicenter trials indicates that increasing the dialysis dose, measured as hourly effluent volume, has no benefit in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, some important operational characteristics that affect delivered dose were not evaluated. Effluent volume does not correspond to the actual delivered dose, as a decline in filter efficacy reduces solute removal during therapy. We believe that providing accurate parameters of delivered dose could improve the delivery of a prescribed dose and refine the assessment of the effect of dose on outcomes in critically ill patients treated with CRRT. PMID:22045240

Macedo, Etienne; Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Mehta, Ravindra L

2012-01-01

391

Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

2014-01-01

392

Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to determine whether the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility meets the criteria for requiring a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. This document contains a brief facility description, the source term (i.e., inventory) of rad...

G. M. Crummel

1991-01-01

393

Controlled decomposition and oxidation: A treatment method for gaseous process effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safe disposal of effluent gases produced by the electronics industry deserves special attention. Due to the hazardous nature of many of the materials used, it is essential to control and treat the reactants and reactant by-products as they are exhausted from the process tool and prior to their release into the manufacturing facility's exhaust system and the atmosphere. Controlled decomposition and oxidation (CDO) is one method of treating effluent gases from thin film deposition processes. CDO equipment applications, field experience, and results of the use of CDO equipment and technological advances gained from the field experiences are discussed.

Mckinley, Roger J. B., Sr.

1990-01-01

394

Cyanobacterial Flora from Polluted Industrial Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high\\u000a turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature,\\u000a these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels\\u000a of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India

Amit Parikh; Vishal Shah; Datta Madamwar

2006-01-01

395

Effect of upflow velocity on the effluent membrane fouling potential in membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of upflow velocity (Vup) on biological removal efficiency and effluent filterability in a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Upflow velocities of 1.2, 0.6 and 1.2m/h were applied in three successive stages over a total operation period of 116 days. Filterability tests were carried out during each stage in order to assess the effect of Vup on subsequent membrane performance. Results indicated a significant impact of Vup on both biological performance and physicochemical effluent characteristics. The observed differences in protein/carbohydrate ratio and particle size distribution (PSD), which play important roles in membrane fouling, lead to the hypothesis that Vup is a critical parameter for effluent filterability in membrane coupled UASB reactors. Results showed that filterability of the effluent during the operation at 0.6m/h was better than that during the operation at 1.2m/h. PMID:23999261

Ozgun, Hale; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Tao, Yu; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

2013-11-01

396

The treatment performance of different subsoils in Ireland receiving on-site wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Current Irish guidelines require a comprehensive site assessment of a percolation area for wastewater disposal before planning permission is granted for dwellings in rural areas. For a site to be deemed suitable, the subsoil must have a percolation value equivalent to a field saturated hydraulic conductivity in the range 0.08 to 4.2 m d(-1) using a falling head percolation test. A minimum of 1.2 m of unsaturated subsoil must also exist below the invert of the percolation area receiving effluent from a septic tank (or 0.6 m for secondary treated effluent). During a 2-yr period, the three-dimensional performance of four percolation areas treating domestic wastewater was monitored. At each site samples were taken at 0, 10, and 20 m along each of the four percolation trenches at depths of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 m below each trench to ascertain the attenuation effects of the unsaturated subsoil. The two sites with septic tanks installed performed at least as well as the other two sites with secondary treatment systems installed and appeared to discharge a better quality effluent in terms of nutrient load. An average of 2.1 and 6.8 g total N d(-1) remained after passing through 1-m depth of subsoil beneath the trenches receiving septic tank effluent compared with 12.7 and 16.7 g total N d(-1) on the sites receiving secondary effluent. The research also indicates that the septic tank effluent was of an equivalent quality to the secondary treated effluent in terms of indicator bacteria (E. coli) after percolating through 0.6-m depth of unsaturated subsoil. PMID:17965387

Gill, L W; O'Súlleabháin, C; Misstear, B D R; Johnston, P J

2007-01-01

397

Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.  

PubMed

The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent. PMID:24355852

Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

2013-01-01

398

Assessment of peracetic acid disinfected effluents by microbiotests.  

PubMed

Bioassays were performed by commercially available kits on peracetic acid (PAA) solutions, at different concentrations, and on secondary effluents (from two different wastewater treatment plants) after disinfection at bench-scale, considering both samples containing residual active PAA and the same samples where residual PAA was quenched. Four indicator organisms were used: Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornutum. The experiments lead to conclude that Thamnocephalus platyurus is a very sensitive organism, probably not adequate to perform a reliable toxicity assessment of effluents for monitoring purposes. The presence of specific organic compounds deriving from human metabolism and urban pollution, even at very low concentrations, can affect the results of bioassays, especially those performed on Vibrio fischeri. PAA is toxic for bacteria and crustaceans even at concentrations lower than the ones commonly used in wastewater disinfection (2-5 mg/L), while its effect on algae is smaller. The toxic effect on bacteria was expected, as PAA is used for disinfection, but its possible influence on biological processes in the receiving aquatic environment should be considered. Toxicity on crustaceans would confirm the fact that discharging disinfected effluents could raise some environmental problems. PMID:19764220

Antonelli, M; Mezzanotte, V; Panouillères, M

2009-09-01

399

Quantitative and qualitative impact of hospital effluent on dissemination of the integron pool.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that human activity, and especially the resulting effluent, has a major role in the dissemination of bacterial antibiotic-resistance determinants in the environment. Hospitals are the major antibiotic consumers and thus facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. Questions are increasingly being raised about the management of hospital effluents, but their involvement in antibiotic-resistance dissemination has never been assessed. Integrons are a paradigm of genetic transfer between the environmental resistome and both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. In order to assess the impact of hospital activities on antibiotic-resistance dissemination in the environment, we monitored integrons and their gene cassettes in hospital effluents, and their release in the environment. We found that bacterial communities present in a hospital effluent contained a high proportion of integrons. In terms of both their gene cassette diversity and gene cassette arrays, the urban effluent and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent were most similar, whereas the hospital effluent and recirculation sludge exhibited very specific patterns. We found that anthropogenic activities led to the release of abundant integrons and antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, but we observed no specific impact of hospital activities on the receiving environment. Furthermore, although the WWTP did not reduce the normalized integron copy number, it reduced the diversity of gene cassette arrays contained in the raw wastewater, underlining the effect of the biological treatment on the anthropogenic integron pool arriving at the WWTP. PMID:24152716

Stalder, Thibault; Barraud, Olivier; Jové, Thomas; Casellas, Magali; Gaschet, Margaux; Dagot, Christophe; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

2014-04-01

400

Recovery of Enthalpy as Work from Thermal Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enthalpy is recovered as work from hot industrial effluents by the controlled expansion of liquids through convergent-divergent nozzles in true reaction turbines. For hot liquid effluents, the effluent itself serves as the working fluid. For gaseous efflu...

A. E. Molini

1982-01-01

401

Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa.  

PubMed

Tannery effluent contributes significantly to pollution of the environment. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluent and chromium (Cr) were investigated in Allium cepa. Forthis purpose, tannery effluent was collected from "Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket" (U.A.S.B) Jajmau, Kanpur. A. cepa were exposed to various concentrations of tannery effluent (0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.50, 25.0%) and Cr (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mgl(-1)) for 48 and 168 hr. The perusal of data revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent viz. pH (8.5), EC (11.94 dSm(-1)), BOD (499 mgl(-1)), COD (1382 mgl(-1)) and Cr content (2.32 mgI(-1)) were much higher than the prescribed permissible limit for industrial effluent discharged into inland waters. These substances provoked phytotoxic and genotoxic effects in A. cepa. Total chlorophyll and protein content in leaves of tannery effluent and Cr treated plants decreased significantly in dose-duration dependent manner. A maximum decrease of 86.29 and 84.26% in total chlorophyll and 81.27 and 76.16% in protein content was observed after 168 hr of exposure while carotenoid content increased up to 6.25% effluent and 2.0 mgl(-1) Cr treatment and decreased further. In all treated plants, a significant (p > or = 0.05) reduction in root length, mitotic index (MI) and induction in chromosomal (CA)/mitotic (MA) aberration and micronuclei (MNC) were observed as compared to unstressed plants. A maximum reduction of 81.15 and 79.71% in MI, and induction of 6.8 and 4.8% in CA, 29.24 and 26.66% in MA and 0.52 and 0.43% in MNC were found at 12.50% effluent and 4 mgl(-1) Cr treated plants as compared to unstressed plants, however at highest effluent and Cr concentration both the plants showed pyknosis condition after 168 hr. PMID:23029903

Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

2012-05-01

402

Identification of organic compounds and ecotoxicological assessment of sewage treatment plants (STP) effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach combining chemistry and biological methods was conducted to assess the toxicity of seven sewage treatment plant effluents. Solid phase concentration procedures were applied to facilitate the study of organic micro pollutants. A chemical analysis was performed by GC\\/MS. Organic fraction toxicity was determined by using bioassays such as Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris tests and sub-lethal effects

Sonia Aguayo; M. Jesús Muñoz; Ana de la Torre; Jaime Roset; Eduardo de la Peña; Matilde Carballo

2004-01-01

403

Integrated treatment of olive oil mill effluents (OME): Study of ozonation coupled with anaerobic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of coupling a chemical treatment (ozonation) with a biological treatment (anaerobic digestion), is investigated for olive oil mill effluents (OME). Preliminary tests showed that both total phenols and unsaturated lipids are reduced to about 50% in 3h of ozonation and that the total COD remains about unvaried. Nevertheless ozonated OME exhibit in general a longer lag phase and

R. Andreozzi; G. Longo; M. Majone; G. Modesti

1998-01-01

404

Students as Scientists: A Study of the Effects of Sewage Plant Effluent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1977, six different classes of Ashland High School (Ohio) biology students have been monitoring a local river for the presence of sewage treatment plant effluent. Several project results, physicochemical parameters, and data on biota collected at two stations are presented. (JN)

Wilkes, James W.

1983-01-01

405

EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING AND INSTREAM COMMUNITY RESPONSE ON THE OTTAWA RIVER, LIMA, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

The research described in this report had three objectives: (1) determination of effluent and ambient stream toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, fathead minnows, and indigenous species; (2) definition of the response of the biological community to point-source discharges; and (3) evaluatio...

406

Liquid effluent study characterization data  

SciTech Connect

During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

407

Biology Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

408

Assessing Nutrient Recovery from Piggery Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few decades has seen an increase in livestock intensification within the Australian pig industry, which has lead to a waste management problem due to increased volumes of nutrient rich effluent leaving these facilities. Land application of these nutrient-rich effluents is economically and environmentally unsustainable in some circumstances. One promising alternative is to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds

M. I. Ali; P. A. Schneider; N. Hudson

409

SWINE LAGOON EFFLUENT APPLIED TO COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS  

EPA Science Inventory

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage yield and quality, soil nu...

410

ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT OF KRAFT BLEACHING EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The removal of color and organic contaminants by adsorption on activated carbon from the effluent of a kraft pulp bleaching plant was investigated in a pilot plant. The caustic bleach effluent, which contains 80% of the color from pulp bleaching, was decolorized successfully when...

411

Swine Lagoon Effluent Applied to Coastal Bermudagrass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization potential and the environmental effects of applying swine lagoon effluent to Coastal bermudagrass were evaluated for six years. Lagoon effluent was applied to 9m x 9m plots by weekly sprinkler irrigation during the growing season. Forage y...

P. W. Westerman J. C. Burns L. D. King M. R. Overcash R. O. Evans

1983-01-01

412

Do Effluent Charges (Always) Reduce Environmental Damages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effluent charges are discussed as a means for environmental quality. In a comparative static model, the long run adjustment of a perfectly competitive polluting firm to a change in the effluent charge rate is analyzed. The firm is assumed to have a flexib...

A. Endres

1982-01-01

413

Identification of organic compounds and ecotoxicological assessment of sewage treatment plants (STP) effluents.  

PubMed

An integrated approach combining chemistry and biological methods was conducted to assess the toxicity of seven sewage treatment plant effluents. Solid phase concentration procedures were applied to facilitate the study of organic micro pollutants. A chemical analysis was performed by GC/MS. Organic fraction toxicity was determined by using bioassays such as Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris tests and sub-lethal effects were also evaluated by using Salmonella typhimurium Test (mutagenicity), recombinant yeast screen (estrogenicity), and Oryzias latipes embryo-larval test. More than 49 compounds were detected in the organic fraction due to the various inputs of each effluents. The most frequently detected compounds in the effluents were bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHP) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(methylpropyl) ester (DBP). Biological assays showed toxicity effects on D. magna tests in all samples, whereas toxicity on C. vulgaris or S. typhimurium tests were not observed. Estrogenicity and teratogenicity were observed in several samples. The cause-effect relationship could not be established given the high chemical complexity of the effluents and the lack of information available on 70% of the detected compounds subsequent to reviewing various data bases. Nevertheless, due to the high chemical variability revealed by STP effluents, bioassay sets may provide a very useful amount of information for detecting potential toxicity risks. PMID:15207574

Aguayo, Sonia; Muñoz, M Jesús; de la Torre, Ana; Roset, Jaime; de la Peña, Eduardo; Carballo, Matilde

2004-07-26

414

Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents, and waters  

PubMed Central

All sewage and water treatment processes remove or destroy viruses. Some treatment methods are better than others, but none is likely to remove all of the viruses present in sewage or in raw water. Primary settling of solids probably removes a great many of the viruses in sewage because viruses are largely associated with the solids. Long storage of effluents or water is destructive to viruses. Activated sludge is the best biological method for removing viruses from sewage. Trickling filters and oxidation ponds are erratic, the latter probably because of short-circuiting. Coagulation with metal ions is the most effective single treatment method for removing viruses from sewage and from raw waters, according to laboratory studies at least. Lime is the best coagulant for these purposes in the rapidly virucidal high pH range. Polyelectrolytes also can sediment viruses. Rapid filtration through clean sand does not remove viruses, but filtration of coagulated effluents does, probably because the layering floc itself adsorbs viruses. Clays and carbon adsorb viruses to some extent, but the process is not efficient. Ultimately, disinfection should help to produce virus-free waters for drinking and virus-free effluents for discharge into waters with which man may come into contact. Because disinfection is not a simple matter, disinfectants must be selected according to need. Effluents and waters containing solids can probably be disinfected only by heat or by penetrating radiation, waters discharged into streams should not be disinfected with anything that will injure or kill aquatic life (unless the toxic products can be neutralized), and drinking-waters should carry a disinfecting residue.

Berg, Gerald

1973-01-01

415

Treatment of effluents from petroleum production by electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the offshore oil production large volumes of aqueous waste with high salinity are produced. The produced water originates mainly from the oil-bearing formation but may also include seawater, which has been injected to maintain reservoir pressure. This water is normally separated from oil on the platform generating aqueous effluent with metals, sulfite, ammonium and organic compounds. The conventional treatment used includes filtration, flotation, ionic change and adsorption in activated charcoal, but the high salinity of this water decreases the treatment efficiency. The high efficiency of electron beam irradiation on removing organic compound in industrial effluent has been shown, and the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of this new technology to treat the oil water production. Experiments were conducted using samples from two platforms processed in the radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 kW power. The results showed that the electron beam technology has high efficiency in destroying organic compounds even in the presence of high salinity and complex effluent.

Duarte, Celina Lopes; Geraldo, Lucia Limoeiro; Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino P.; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira

2004-09-01

416

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t(½) = 8.04 d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 227 ± 2 Bq L(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3 d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

417

40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

2013-07-01