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1

Screening and Application of High Effective Functional Bacteria for Subsequent Treating Leachate Biological Treatment Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve refractory organic pollutants degradability of landfill leachate biological treatment effluent, high effective functional bacteria for subsequent treating the effluent were cultured by bioaugmentation. Three predominant bacteria for subsequent treating organic refractory pollutants were cultured and screened from sludge in aeration pool of biochemical treatment system. Based on 16S rDNA identification, the three bacteria are named Mari-nobacter (coded Y1),

Xie Zhi-gang

2010-01-01

2

Applicability of high rate transpiration system for treatment of biologically treated distillery effluent.  

PubMed

The biologically treated distillery effluent (BTDE) contains intense colour, high total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). These properties even after primary, secondary and tertiary treatments contain high concentrations of TDS, COD and BOD. The paper highlights the safe disposal and treatment of BTDE on land through High Rate Transpiration System (HRTS). HRTS is a zero discharge, low cost, high-tech method for improving the quality of BTDE for potential reuse. The experiments conducted at bench and pilot scale showed that HRTS having coconut husk as a bedding material could successfully treat the BTDE with a hydraulic load of 200 m3 ha(-1) day(-1) having BOD of 100 mg l(-1) and 500 m3 ha(-1) day(-1) having BOD of 500 mg l(-1) with average COD load of 0.686 and 2.88 ton ha(-1) day(-1) during the post and pre monsoon periods respectively. There was no significant increase in the organic carbon of the soil irrigated with BTDE. The concentrations of various pollutants analyzed in the leachate were within the prescribed limit for the drinking water sources. The colour removal was 99 to 100% and BOD and COD were possible to treat with optimum hydraulic loading of BTDE through HRTS planted with Dendrocalamus strictus. PMID:17882528

Singh, S K; Juwarkar, Asha A; Pandey, R A; Chakrabarti, T

2008-06-01

3

Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake

F. Archibald; L. Roy-Arcand; M. Methot; L. Valeanu

1998-01-01

4

Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.  

PubMed

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

2014-01-01

5

Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:19639268

Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

2010-06-01

6

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti\\/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to

S. M. Swanson; R. Schryer; R. Shelast; P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens

1994-01-01

7

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species  

SciTech Connect

Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni exhibited marked induction of P4501A compared to reference whitefish (rw), as measured by both catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein content. Similar P4501A induction was observed 4 d after rw were treated with 20 mg/kg [beta]-naphthoflavone. Whitefish P4501A levels have declined from a peak in spring 1991, following mill process modifications and concurrent with reductions in body burdens of hydrophobic compounds. Whitefish collected near the mill, moved upstream of effluent discharges, and held for 8 d showed no significant loss of hepatic P4501A-related (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) enzyme activity or P4501A protein levels. For spring 1991, correlations were found between EROD activity and measures of chronic exposure to BKME, but not between EROD and measures of acute exposure. These and other lines of evidence indicate that the P4501A-inducing agent(s) at this site may be neither waterborne nor rapidly eliminated. A second species, longnose sucker, collected near the mill exhibited modest P4501A induction. For both species, no significant correlations between P4501A induction and trends in other biological responses were found. Burbot (Lota lota) had hepatic EROD activities generally in the range of reference values, despite substantial exposure to mill-related compounds. In contrast to studies at historically degraded pulpmill sites, P4501A induction is the only major biological response observed to date at this site. As P4501A induction is not related to adverse effects, it is classified as an indicator of exposure to BKME.

Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Benton, E. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Environmental Science Dept.)

1994-09-01

8

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft mill effluent; 3: Fish habitat and population assessment  

SciTech Connect

Populations of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in the Wapiti/Smoky river system in northwestern Alberta were compared to similar populations in a reference river system (the upper North Saskatchewan River) Fish species distribution and relative abundance patterns were linked to natural events such as floods and low flows, and to habitat quality. There was no evidence that fish were avoiding the effluent plume area; relative abundance was often highest near the effluent discharge due to use of this area for overwintering and rearing. Radiotelemetry and recapture studies indicated that fish movements could be both rapid and extensive, occurring during spawning periods and at other times of the year. Thus, exposure could not be assumed to be related to capture location alone; separate exposure measures were necessary. Populations of exposed mountain whitefish and longnose sucker were growing and reproducing successfully. Higher condition factors in exposed longnose suckers and greater mesenteric fat stores in exposed individuals of both species were not accompanied by any apparent disruption in allocation of energy to reproduction or growth. The age structure of the populations showed that there had been no losses of age classes through reproductive or recruitment failures, and growth curves were indistinguishable from reference curves. There were no correlations between indicators of exposure and population-level effects. Important natural phenomena, including a one-hundred-year flood and natural upstream/downstream habitat gradients, affected species distribution and were correlated with some population parameters such as condition factors and relative gonad size.

Swanson, S.M. (Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)); Shelast, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Products, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1994-09-01

9

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)  

SciTech Connect

A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Swanson, S.M. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Marchant, T. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada))

1994-09-01

10

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOEpatents

A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

Barnes, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

11

The influence of physical–chemical and biological factors on the removal of faecal coliform through down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating UASB reactor effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of faecal coliform removal in down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system treating up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent was the subject of this study. The results obtained revealed that the most important removal mechanism of faecal coliform in the DHS system is adsorption, followed by predation. Die-off is a relatively minor removal mechanism in the DHS system. The

A. Tawfik; F. El-Gohary; A. Ohashi; H. Harada

2006-01-01

12

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

13

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

E-print Network

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient H. L. Schoenfuss Ã? 2008 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Many toxic effects of treated wastewater environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs consider- ably from that of its receiving waters

Julius, Matthew L.

14

Nitrification of anaerobically treated coal gasifier effluent  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasifier effluent with high phenol, cresols and ammonia concentrations and lower amounts of cyanide, thiocyanate and other organic compounds was nitrified after treatment in an anaerobic fluidised-bed granular activated carbon filter. The single-stage biological nitrification system was operated at a solids retention time of 31 days and a hydraulic retention time of 18-30 hours. Removal efficiencies were 97% for total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 91% for TOC and 85% for COD; residual phenol and o-cresol were completely removed and removal of residual m-cresol and p-cresol depended on concentration. The nitrification process was inhibited by more than 15 mg/l of m-cresol and p-cresol, but this could be eliminated by addition of powdered activated carbon or periodic replacement of a portion of the granular activated carbon in the anaerobic filter.

Lu, F.

1984-09-01

15

Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments.

Ulmer, F.J.

1995-02-06

16

300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

CAMPBELL, L.R.

1999-01-15

17

Combined chemical and biological oxidation of penicillin formulation effluent.  

PubMed

Antibiotic formulation effluent is well known for its important contribution to environmental pollution due to its fluctuating and recalcitrant nature. In the present study, the chemical treatability of penicillin formulation effluent (average filtered COD(o)=830 mg/l; average soluble COD(o)=615 mg/l; pH(o)=6.9) bearing the active substances penicillin Amoxicillin Trihydrate (C(16)H(19)N(3)O(5)S.3H(2)O) and the beta-lactamase inhibitor Potassium Clavulanate (C(8)H(8)KNO(5)) has been investigated. For this purpose, the penicillin formulation effluent was subjected to ozonation (applied ozone dose=2500 mg/(lxh)) at varying pH (2.5-12.0) and O(3)+H(2)O(2) (perozonation) at different initial H(2)O(2) concentrations (=2-40 mM) and pH 10.5. According to the experimental results, the overall Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency varied between 10 and 56% for ozonation and 30% (no H(2)O(2)) and 83% (20 mM H(2)O(2)) for the O(3)+H(2)O(2) process. The addition of H(2)O(2) improved the COD removal rates considerably even at the lowest studied H(2)O(2) concentration. An optimum H(2)O(2) concentration of 20 mM existed at which the highest COD removal efficiency and abatement kinetics were obtained. The ozone absorption rate ranged between 53% (ozonation) and 68% (perozonation). An ozone input of 800 mg/l in 20 min was sufficient to achieve the highest BOD(5)/COD (biodegradability) ratio (=0.45) and BOD(5) value (109 mg/l) for the pre-treated penicillin formulation effluent. After the establishment of optimum ozonation and perozonation conditions, mixtures of synthetic domestic wastewater+raw, ozonated and perozonated penicillin formulation effluent were subjected to biological activated sludge treatment at a food-to-microorganisms (F/M) ratio of 0.23 mg COD/(mg MLSSxd), using a consortium of acclimated microorganisms. COD removal efficiencies of the activated sludge process were 71, 81 and 72% for pharmaceutical wastewater containing synthetic domestic wastewater mixed with either raw, ozonated or perozonated formulation effluent, respectively. The ultimate COD value obtained after 24-h biotreatment of the synthetic domestic wastewater+pre-ozonated formulation effluent mixture was around 100 mg/l instead of 180 mg/l which was the final COD obtained for the wastewater mixture containing raw formulation effluent, indicating that pre-ozonation at least partially removed the non-biodegradable COD fraction of the formulation effluent. PMID:15380320

Alaton, I Arslan; Dogruel, S; Baykal, E; Gerone, G

2004-11-01

18

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium

P. J. Kloepper-Sams; E. Benton

1994-01-01

19

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti\\/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between

P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens; S. M. Swanson; T. Marchant; R. Schryer

1994-01-01

20

Electrochemical Corrosion Investigations on Anaerobic Treated Distillery Effluent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present study is focused on the corrosivity of anaerobic treated distillery effluent and corrosion performance of mild steel and stainless steels. Accordingly, electrochemical polarization tests were performed in both treated distillery and synthetic effluents. Polarization tests were also performed in synthetic solutions and it was observed that Cl- and K+ increase whereas SO4 -, PO4 -, NO3 -, and NO2 - decrease the corrosivity of effluent at alkaline pH. Further, comparison in corrosivity of distillery and synthetic effluents shows the former to be less corrosive and this is assigned due to the presence of amino acids and melanoidins. Mild steel experienced to have the highest corrosion rate followed by stainless steels—304L and 316L and lowest in case of SAF 2205. Relative corrosion resistance of stainless steels is observed to depend upon Cr, Mo, and N content.

Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

2014-09-01

21

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

BROWN, M.J.

2000-05-18

22

Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 ?g/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

2013-12-15

23

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test specification  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

Crane, A.F.

1995-01-12

24

200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test specification  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met.

Crane, A.F.

1995-02-02

25

Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of bleach plant effluents treated anaerobically.  

PubMed

As part of an experimental project on the treatment of bleach plant effluents the results of biodegradability and toxicity assessment of effluents from a bench-scale horizontal anaerobic immobilized bioreactor (HAIB) are discussed in this paper. The biodegradability of the bleach plant effluents from a Kraft pulp mill treated in the HAIB was evaluated using the modified Zahn-Wellens test. The inoculum came from a pulp mill wastewater treatment plant and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was used as the indicator of organic matter removal. The acute and chronic toxicity removal during the anaerobic treatment was estimated using Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii respectively. Moreover, the evaluation of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus frequencies (MN) and mitotic index (IM) in Allium cepa cells were used as genotoxicity indicators. The results indicate that the effluents from the anaerobic reactor are amenable to aerobic polishing. Acute and chronic toxicity were reduced by 90 and 81%, respectively. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa were observed after exposure to the raw bleach plant effluent. The HAIB was able to reduce the acute and chronic toxicity as well as chromosome aberrations and the occurrence of micronucleus. PMID:20861545

Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

2010-01-01

26

Combined physical-chemical and biological treatment of poorly biodegradable industrial effluents.  

PubMed

Effluents from small and medium sized chemical plants may contain significant amounts of poorly biodegradable aromatic compounds, which could negatively affect water quality and public health. This is a key environmental issue, particularly in areas where effluents are discharged into drinking water sources. Unfortunately, conventional biological treatment may not be able to meet discharge standards, and combined systems should be implemented. In this context, this paper presents experimental results on the application of a combined sequential ozonation-activated carbon-biological system to treat effluents containing chlorinated aromatic contaminants from chlorine based pulp bleaching. The experimental system consisted of an ozone bubble column reactor (0.3 dm3), an activated carbon fixed bed reactor (0.2 dm3), and an aerobic bioreactor (20 dm3). Ozone was produced from pure O2 using a generator rated at 2 mmol O3 h(-1). The bleaching effluent was pretreated and fed into the aerated sequencing batch bioreactor containing preconditioned biological sludge (3-4 g VSS dm(-3)), and cultured for 24 h. Samples of raw and treated effluents were assayed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), using standard techniques. The presence of potential genotoxic activity in untreated and treated samples was assessed using the Ames tests. Results show that biological treatment of raw samples could not remove mutagenic activity on its own. On the other hand, ozonation followed by activated carbon treatment and biological treatment successfully removed genotoxicity in all cases. Reductions in BOD, COD, TOC, AOX, and phenols by biological treatment increased when samples were pretreated with ozone/activated carbon. PMID:14524674

González, Patricia; Zaror, Claudio; Carrasco, Virginia; Mondaca, Maria Angelica; Mansilla, Hector

2003-01-01

27

Behavior of Metals, Pathogen Parasites, and Indicator Bacteria in Sewage Effluents During Biological Treatment by Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents\\u000a during biological treatment by activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant in Ribeirão Preto (WTP-RP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.\\u000a The evaluation was done during a period of 1 year. Results showed that metal concentrations in treated effluents decreased,\\u000a reaching concentrations according to

K. A. A. Tonani; F. C. Julião; T. M. B. Trevilato; A. M. M. Takayanagui; Ana Bocio; Jose L. Domingo; Susana I. Segura-Muñoz

28

Gene expression of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to two types of treated municipal wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in treated municipal effluents have the potential to adversely impact exposed organisms prompting elevated public concern. Using transcriptomic tools, we investigated changes in gene expression and cellular pathways in the liver of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 5% concentrations of full secondary-treated (HTP) or advanced primary-treated (PL) municipal wastewater effluents containing CECs. Gene expression changes were associated with apical end points (plasma vitellogenin and changes in secondary sexual characteristics). Of 32 effluent CECs analyzed, 28 were detected including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and industrial compounds. Exposure to both effluents produced significantly higher levels of plasma VTG and changes in secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., ovipositor development). Transcript patterns differed between effluents, with <10% agreement in the detected response (e.g., altered production of transcripts involved in xenobiotic detoxification, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were observed following exposure to both effluents). Exposure to PL effluent caused changes in transcription of genes involved in metabolic pathways (e.g., lipid transport and steroid metabolism). Exposure to HTP effluent affected transcripts involved in signaling pathways (e.g., focal adhesion assembly and extracellular matrix). The results suggest a potential association between some transcriptomic changes and physiological responses following effluent exposure. This study identified responses in pathways not previously implicated in exposure to complex chemical mixtures containing CECs, which are consistent with effluent exposure (e.g., oxidative stress) in addition to other pathway responses specific to the effluent type. PMID:23919544

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Colli-Dula, R Cristina; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Wiborg, Lan; Petschauer, Dawn; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

29

Treated mine drainage effluent benefits Maryland and West Virginia fisherman  

SciTech Connect

In January of 1994, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Freshwater Fisheries Division and Mettiki Coal Corporation of Oakland, Maryland entered into a cooperative agreement to construct a trout rearing facility within Mettiki`s 10 million gallons per day acid mine drainage treatment system to supplement the DNR stockings in the newly revitalized North Branch of the Potomac River. Due to pyrite oxidation and a lack of alkaline buffering capacity in the Freeport coal strata, seven thousand gallons per minute of acidic water containing oxidized sulfide minerals must be pumped through Mettiki`s AMD treatment systems and elevated to Federal standards prior to discharge into the Upper North Branch of the Potomac River. Utilizing hydrated lime, aeration, flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge recirculation, Mettiki`s treatment imparts superior trout propagation qualities to the discharge (pH of 8.1, dissolved oxygen of 8.0 ppm, temperature ranges of from 52 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and has allowed for weight gain throughout the typically dormant winter months. Presently, 30,000 brown, rainbow, and cutthroat trout are suspended in floating net pens within the systems` discharge collection pond where pH, flow, temperature, feed assimilation, and growth rates were compared with typical stream diversion hatcheries. Growth rates, lack of significant disease, and quality parameters coupled with ideal temperatures suggests treated acidic mine effluent can offer successful fish propagation opportunities.

Ashby, J.C. [Mettiki Coal Corp., Oakland, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

30

Re-use of biologically treated wastewater of a brewery.  

PubMed

Despite excessive rainfalls, Flanders is dealing with a water deficiency. A rational use of water is a necessity. Apart from the prevention principle, the re-use of biologically treated wastewater (bio-effluent) is increasingly considered. From earlier research it is known that reverse osmosis (RO) is necessary for the elimination of salts and low molecular compounds from the bio-effluent. A thorough pretreatment is necessary to remove drastically the suspended solids, which are harmful to the reverse osmosis modules. This case study describes the experiments performed by SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. on the treatment of wastewater effluent from a brewery. A comparative study between sand filtration (SF), in-line coagulation with sand filtration and ultrafiltration (UF) as a pretreatment was made. UF proved to be the best pretreatment for RO for the treatment of brewery bio-effluent. Finally, an economic evaluation of the membrane system (UF followed by RO) was made. The calculated total cost for the system is 0.26 Euros per m3 produced water. Investment costs and operation cost are also discussed. PMID:15954568

Cornelissen, E R; Philips, N; Dewaele, B; Boeren, S; Koning, J

2001-01-01

31

[AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].  

PubMed

The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. PMID:25158498

Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

2014-06-01

32

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

33

Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

2013-11-15

34

A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.  

PubMed

Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. PMID:24374244

Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

2014-01-15

35

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

36

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

37

On the infiltration process in treated effluents spreading basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary treated effluents originating from the Dan Region in Israel are sent to tertiary treatment that uses Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) for purification within the vadose zone. The SAT is based on intermittent flooding (1-2 days) and drying (2-3 days) cycles in spreading basins constructed at the surface of a 40-m deep vadose zone. The site is located in the natural sand dunes north to the city of Ashdod, above the Israeli Coastal Plain Aquifer. The study aim is to investigate the physical and chemical processes that occur within the upper 2 meters of the spreading basins’ sandy soil profiles during the cyclic SAT operation. We explored two 2-m profiles about 50 m apart. In addition to ponding depth, continuous measurements of volumetric water content (VWC), temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and oxidation-reduction potential at 8 different depths within the first profile were recorded. Data were collected in 15-min resolution during infiltration events for 3 months. Measurements in the second profile have been collected for a few weeks now and also include air pressure measurements. Additionally, soil samples were taken from both profiles to determine hydraulic parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the infiltration rate in the first profile is about 72 cm day-1, a low rate compared to what would be expected from a sandy profile. The VWC changes along this profile during the flooding stage imply percolation in the form of a double wetting front. First, the wetting front proceeds from the surface downward until effective saturation of 0.55. Second, the wetting front proceeds from 2-m upwards until effective saturation of 0.7 is reached. We assume the presence of a local lower hydraulic conductivity layer or a local perched water table at a depth of 4-5 m (perched above a deeper low hydraulic conductivity layer). This layer may cause the observed double wetting front. This combined with approximately 30% of entrapped air within the pores may be responsible for the low infiltration rate. Quantification of these mechanisms is an on-going effort. Spatial and temporal distribution of redox was identified and results indicate that nitrate and iron reducing conditions dominate the upper 1 m profile during the flooding (Eh -100 to 200 mV). Once the drying process begins atmospheric oxygen penetrates from the surface and re-oxidation occurs (Eh 500mV). Organic matter content in the soil decreases from ~0.7% in the upper 0.5 m to ~0.2% at the 0.5-2 m depth. Simulations of the infiltration process is in progress; however, the lack of complete saturation and the observed double wetting front have proven difficult to simulate. Our results suggest that the incomplete saturation govern the physico-chemical process along the upper 2-m of the spreading basin. Current efforts are focused on better quantification and simulations of the observed processes as well as more accurately identifying the changes in the hydraulic parameters along the entire soil profile.

Loewy, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Lev, O.; Lazarovitch, N.

2009-12-01

38

Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen in treated effluents.  

PubMed

The research objective was to assess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) bioavailability in wastewater effluents from a pilot-scale nitrification plant and a laboratory-scale total nitrogen (TN) removal plant. The DON bioavailability was assessed using a 14-day bioassay protocol containing bacterial and algal inocula. Nitrogen species, dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll a, and biomass (as total suspended solids and culturable cell counts) concentrations were measured to assess DON bioavailability. The results showed an increase in algal chlorophyll a concentration, with a concurrent increase in algal biomass over time; increased bacterial counts and a decrease in DON concentration over time; and increased carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at the end of the 14-day bioassay, indicating effluent DON bioavailability to algae and bacteria. Approximately 18 to 61% of the initial DON in low-total-nitrogen wastewater effluent (TN = 4 to 5 mg/L) sample was bioavailable. The results show that bacteria and algae uptake and release DON during their growth. PMID:18605379

Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Pagilla, Krishna R

2008-05-01

39

Performance of constructed wetland systems treating anerobic effluents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this present paper is to verify the performance of three wetland systems operated with effluents from a UASB reactor, with respect nutrient removal (nitrogen and phosphorus), pathogenic organisms and remaining carbonaceous material, monitored over a three-year period. The experiment was carried out and monitored at PROSAB (Programa de Saneamento Básico) in Campina Grande, Paraíba. The removal efficiency of the carbonaceous material expressed in DQO ranged from 70 to 86%, but concerning the total suspended solids, the efficiency ranged from 50 to 71%. The removal efficiency in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus of both vegetated systems was about 65.5 to 86%, respectively, during the first year of operation. Under the operational conditions of the experiment, the removal of phosphorus in a wetland system containing washed sand as the substratum decreased, as its operation period increased. The vegetated wetland has been the most efficient in removing faecal coliforms (roughly 4 log units) as compared to the non-vegetated one (about 3 log units), when both were operated with the same hydraulic load (2.3 cm. per day). Thus, the effluent produced over the three-year period ranged from 800 to 1,800 UFC/100 mL in the analyzed samples. PMID:14640231

de Sousa, J T; van Haandel, A; Lima, E P C; Guimarães, A V A

2003-01-01

40

Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

Cross, S.P.

1996-08-01

41

Apparatus for treating flue gas and methanol containing effluents  

SciTech Connect

A gas scrubber is provided which is particularly useful for scrubbing flue gas and condensate effluent from a kraft pulp mill. The scrubber comprises a first chamber having inner and outer looped parallel side walls, and first and second end walls extending therebetween. A gas inlet is positioned so as to direct gas passing through it between the side walls. Fluid nozzles on the inner wall are directed to spray liquid toward the outer wall. A gas outlet is provided which has at least a portion angularly spaced from the gas inlet. The walls of the first chamber are preferably arranged to provide an incremental volume between them which decreases with angular distance from the gas inlet. The gas outlet is dimensioned so that the velocity of the gas flowing between the walls is substantially constant. Preferably, the side walls are concentric, substantially circular and each of constant diameter. In addition, the first end wall is substantially planar and the second end wall is helical in configuration. A plurality of interconnected adjacent, concentric, toroidal chambers are also usefully provided in a sequence extending radially inwardly from the first chamber.

Hauptmann, E. G.

1985-04-16

42

Effect of treated tannery effluent with domestic wastewater and amendments on growth and yield of cotton.  

PubMed

Pot culture and field experiments were carried out at the Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Dindigul during kharif 2011-12 to investigate the influence of irrigation of treated tannery effluent along with domestic wastewater on growth, yield attributes and yield of cotton. The pot culture was in a factorial completely randomized design and field experiment laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that the mixing proportion of 25% Treated Tannery Effluent (TTE)+75% domestic wastewater (DWW) application recorded taller plants, higher dry matter production, number of sympodial branches plant(-1), number of fruiting points plant(-1), number of bolls plant(-1) and seed cotton yield with yield reduction of 15.28 and 16.11% compared to normal water irrigation under pot culture and field experiment, respectively. Regarding amendments, gypsum application registered higher seed cotton yield followed by VAM. PMID:24511705

Jagathjothi, N; Amanullah, M Mohamed; Muthukrishnan, P

2013-11-15

43

Nitrogen forms, pH and total carbon in a soil incubated with treated sewage effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an experiment under controlled condi tions was carried out to determine the effects of s econdary- treated sewage effluent (STSE) application on soil nitrogen concentrations (mineral and total), total carbon and soil pH. The soil and STSE used were collected at Lins, São Paulo State, Brazil. A completely randomized de sign was used, in completed factorial 4x11

Adriel Ferreira da Fonseca; Uwe Herpin; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Adolpho José Melfi

2007-01-01

44

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households  

E-print Network

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used

Richner, Heinz

45

Reducing effluent discharge and recovering bioenergy in an osmotic microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater  

E-print Network

domestic wastewater Zheng Ge, Qingyun Ping, Li Xiao, Zhen He Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics cell is developed to treat domestic wastewater. Wastewater effluent can be greatly reduced due to osmotic water extraction. Bioenergy recovered from wastewater can potentially support pumping system

46

Evaluation of Treated Effluent Applied as Drip Irrigation to Landscape Plants1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, treated effluent from the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD) Virginia Initiative Plant (VIP) was evaluated as a drip irrigation application to landscape plants. Landscape plants common to eastern Virginia were installed in raised beds and irrigated at the rate of 2.5 cm (1 in) per week for four months using a drip system. Aesthetic quality ratings, and soil

Laurie J. Fox; Judith C. Ferguson; Bonnie L. Appleton

47

The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.  

PubMed

This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (K?rka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, An?l

2013-05-15

48

Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.  

PubMed

Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent. PMID:22319874

Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

2011-09-01

49

What is the relationship between whole effluent toxicity and instream biological condition?  

SciTech Connect

The authors compiled a database of 250 dischargers across the US and examined relationships between standardized Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), whole effluent toxicity (WET) test endpoints, and instream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. Sites were included in the analysis if the effluents were not manipulated before testing (e.g., dechlorination), and standardized biological and physical habitat assessment methods were used upstream and directly downstream of the discharge. Several analyses indicated that fish endpoints were more related to instream biological condition than Ceriodaphnia WET endpoints. Dischargers that failed <25% of their tests had {le}15% chance of exhibiting instream impairment. Effluent dilution was the strongest factor affecting relationships between WET and observed biological conditions. Effluents that comprised >80% of the stream under low-flow conditions exhibited better relationships between WET and instream condition than effluents with greater dilution. Effluents that comprised <20% of the stream had a low probability of exhibiting impairment, even if several WET test failures were observed over a 1-year period. Fish acute and chronic WET information could predict instream biological conditions; however, WET compliance, based on 7Q10 stream flow, was consistently conservative. Their results indicate that WET was more predictive of instream biological condition if several tests were conducted, more than one type of test was conducted, and endpoints within a test were relatively consistent over time.

Diamond, J.; Daley, C.

2000-01-01

50

Effect of biological treatment on pulp mill effluent chemical characteristics  

SciTech Connect

In the last 20 years, detailed characterizations of pulping and bleaching wastewaters have been performed identifying a large variety of chemical by-products. However, formation in the process does not translate into discharge into the environment. Pulp and paper mills in the US almost uniformly practice biological treatment. Although initially implemented for BOD removal, biological treatment is also responsible for removing or reducing many classes of compounds. This paper will briefly review the literature related to the characterization of process versus biologically treated wastewaters. Data on specific removal efficiencies for these compounds will be summarized and discussed. mechanisms of removal (such as biological degradation or transformation, sorption or volatilization) for selected compounds will be discussed. Examples of mass emission rates for volatiles, resin and fatty ,acids, plant sterols, mono-terpenes (and related compounds), chlorinated and non-chlorinated phenolics and other cellulose degradation products will be presented. Factors influencing the discharge rates such as pulping and bleaching practices, geographical location of the mills and wood species being pulped will be discussed.

LaFleur, L.E.; Bousquet, T.E.; Cook, D.L. [NCASI, Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

51

Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.  

PubMed

Viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (TTSE) used for irrigation, was investigated at the Sultan Qaboos University sewage treatment plant (STP). This water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout Oman and the Gulf region. Samples of TTSE were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. Chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the STP. Viable bacteria, coliforms and nitrate concentrations increased significantly while biological oxygen demand (BOD) declined after STP chlorination. Mean values of turbidity changed slightly. Trace elements values were insignificant. A total of 336 bacteria from 8 genera revealed that the dominant isolates were Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Aeromonas spp. Among the isolates 59.8% were multiply resistant to several antibiotics. Resistance was higher to ampicillin followed by sulphamethoxazole, carbenicillin, streptomycine and minocycline. Frequency of resistance to the 14 antibiotics varied among the isolates. The present system related to the viability of MARB in TTSE used for irrigation may have serious implications for public health and wildlife. Results of this investigation will be of value in modifying current STPs systems and thus avoiding serious health issues. PMID:19934516

Al-Bahry, S N; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Khaifi, A; Elshafie, A E; Al-Harthy, A

2009-01-01

52

Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004

Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-04-01

53

Ozone Application for the Improvement of UASB Reactor Effluent I. Physical-Chemical and Biological Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozonation can improve the effluent characteristics of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors treating domestic sewage, by removing organic matter, solids, surfactants, color and microorganisms. In Brazil, part of the effluent of a 120 msup3; UASB reactor, fed with screened domestic sewage at an hydraulic retention time of 7 hours, was post-treated in a two-column ozonation system of 300 liters

T. M. T. Gasi; L. A. V. Amaral; C. E. M. Pacheco; A. G. Filho; A. D. Garcia Jr; S. M. M. Vieira; R. Francisco Jr; P. D. Orth; M. Scoparo; M. S. R. de S. Dias; M. L. Magri

1991-01-01

54

Management of treated pulp and paper mill effluent to achieve zero discharge.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mills are one of the major effluent generating industries in the world. In most cases, mill effluent (treated or raw) is discharged back into a river, creek, stream or other water body; resulting in negative environmental impacts, as well as social concerns, among the downstream users. Pulp and paper mill effluent management, which could result in zero discharge into downstream water bodies, would present the best management option to address socio-environmental concerns. This paper presents such an effort aimed at closing the water cycle by using treated effluent from the mill to irrigate forage and fodder crops for producing animals feed. The treated effluent is delivered from the mill through gravity into a winter storage dam of 490 ML capacity. For irrigation applications on 110 ha of farmland, which is 42% of the total farmland, the water is pumped from the winter storage dam to five individual paddocks with Centre Pivot (CP) irrigators and one rectangular paddock with a Soft Hose Travelling (SHT) irrigator. From October 2001 to June 2006, a total of 2,651 mm of wastewater was applied at the farm. The impact assessment results, obtained from field monitoring, investigations and analysis, indicated that the closed water cycle effluent management strategy described had resulted in a lessening of the impact on water resources usually associated with paper mills. However, social attitudes to the use of crops that have been irrigated with recycled waters and the resulting impact on market value of the produce may still be a major consideration. PMID:17706860

Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Khan, Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Shahbaz

2008-09-01

55

Using soil biomass as an indicator for the biological removal of effluent-derived organic carbon during soil infiltration.  

PubMed

This study investigates the relationship between soil biomass and organic carbon removal during the infiltration of conventionally treated effluents used for groundwater recharge during soil-aquifer treatment (SAT). Investigations were conducted on samples collected from full-scale SAT sites, revealing a positive correlation between biodegradable organic carbon (BOC) concentrations in the recharged effluents and total viable soil biomass concentrations in the infiltration zone of soil samples collected from respective recharge basins. Findings of this study suggest that BOC limits soil biomass growth and was able to support a steady-state concentration of viable soil biomass that is characteristic to BOC concentrations introduced with the recharged effluents. All investigated sites indicate that BOC is primarily removed within 30 cm soil depth leading to a significant increase in soil biomass levels (measured as substrate induced respiration (SIR), total viable biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA)). Controlled biological column studies revealed that the primary components of BOC in domestic effluents are organic colloids. Findings of this study support that hydrophobic acids, commonly believed to be recalcitrant, may also be attenuated by biological processes during soil infiltration. PMID:16483630

Rauch-Williams, Tanja; Drewes, Jörg E

2006-03-01

56

Microalgae as bioabsorbents for treating mixture of electroplating and sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of copper and nickel uptake by microalgae grown in the mixture of electroplating effluent and sewage was studied. The results showed that a high percentage of copper removal (68.1%-88.2%) was achieved by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain No. 26) reared in the mixture of 90% electroplating effluent and 10% raw sewage during the first 3 days despite the fact that cell growth was inhibited. Similar results were also obtained by using Chlorella HKBC-C3, another species collected from one of the heavy metal polluted sites in Hong Kong, isolated and cultured in the Biology Department. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the removal of copper and nickel from the effluent between these 2 algal species. However, it was noted that removal of nickel from the mixture by the two species were comparatively lower (less than 20%) than the removal of copper (greater than 68%).

Chan, S.S.; Chow, H.; Wong, M.H. (Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1991-09-01

57

Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

2000-03-01

58

FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

59

Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of the WWTP effluent. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barber, L. B.; Lee, K. E.; Swackhamer, D. L.; Schoenfuss, H. L.

2007-01-01

60

Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents.  

PubMed

Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman. PMID:24338053

Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim; Choudri, B S

2014-05-01

61

Toxicological and ecotoxic impact of secondary and tertiary treated sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Secondary sewage effluents are discharged in significant quantities in aquatic environments delivering pollutants that were not removed during treatment; yet advanced treated effluents are not lacking of contaminants. In this study, biochemical biomarkers were measured in liver and kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) exposed to unchlorinated, chlorinated and tertiary treated secondary sewage effluents. In addition, organic matter, nitrogen and suspended solids were assayed, while a common bioassay, Daphnia magna 21d reproduction test was also applied in order to examine potential relation between the performed bioassay and the biomarkers. Processes using oxidative conditions, such as ozonation and chlorination, resulted in significantly increased breeding rate (up to 74%) of the organism. Biomarkers measurements incorporated the determination of total glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and an innovative biomarker in such applications, haem peroxidase. In general, the response of biomarkers was dependent upon the treatment method and it was tissue specific. Secondary effluents inhibited liver GST and haem peroxidase, while GSH levels and LPO were significantly provoked in liver. Ozonation provoked hepatic peroxidation, in terms of haem peroxidase and LPO, and GST; while the protective (to Reactive Oxidant Species - ROS) GSH was depleted, suggesting extended ROS attack to the organism. Similar response of biomarkers (but to a lesser extend) was observed after exposure of trout to effluents submitted to both coagulation and ozonation, emphasizing the significance of removing the residual organic matter by other methods than oxidative ones. Ozonation also enhanced renal LPO and GPX; however the former employment of coagulation limited the peroxidation phenomena. Chlorination mainly affected the levels of total GSH in both tissues. PMID:19767054

Petala, M; Kokokiris, L; Samaras, P; Papadopoulos, A; Zouboulis, A

2009-12-01

62

Membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation to treat recirculating aquaculture system effluents.  

PubMed

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus often require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents. Chemical precipitation tests were conducted by adding magnesium chloride and alum at different chemical concentrations and pH values, respectively. Crossflow, flat-sheet membrane filtration modules were used to examine the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity in terms of solid/liquid separation efficiency and permeate flux decline. The results showed that membrane filtration can effectively separate the phosphorus precipitates after chemical precipitation. The total phosphorus in the treated effluent was reduced to less than 0.05 mg L(-1) with a removal efficiency of more than 90%. However, much lower removal efficiencies were obtained for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and turbidity. It was concluded that membrane filtration coupled with chemical precipitation can become an effective, compact treatment technology to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for RAS effluent discharge. PMID:17071913

Yang, Ling; Zhou, Hongde; Moccia, Richard

2006-01-01

63

Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

64

Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils  

SciTech Connect

The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

2000-01-02

65

Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)  

SciTech Connect

The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

Carter, R.L. Jr.

1994-11-07

66

Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological treatment on the extent of degradation of effluents from chlorination (C) and first alkaline extraction (E(1)) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the effluents was attempted in suspended mode using activated sludge from the functional pulp and paper industry effluent treatment plant acclimatized to effluents in question. The photocatalytic treatment was employed using zinc oxide (ZnO) in slurry mode for decontamination of effluents in a batch manner and the degradation was evaluated in terms of reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The biological treatment (24 h) of C and E(1) effluent resulted in 30 and 57 % of degradation, respectively. Solar-induced AOP of C and E(1) effluents resulted in 53 and 43 % degradation under optimized conditions (2.5 g L(-1) ZnO at pH 8.0) after 6 h of exposure. For C effluent, a short duration of solar/ZnO (1 h) prior to biological treatment reduced the time required at biological step from 24 to 12 h for almost same extent (92 %) of degradation. However, sequential biological treatment (24 h) followed by solar/ZnO (2 h) resulted in 85.5 % degradation. In contrast, in the case of E(1) effluent, sequential biological (24 h)-solar/ZnO (2 h) system effectively degrades effluent to 95.4 % as compared to 84.8 % degradation achieved in solar/ZnO (2 h)-biological treatment (24 h) system. In the present study, the sequencing of photocatalysis with the biological treatment is observably efficient and technically viable process for the complete mineralization of the effluents. PMID:22645007

Dhir, Amit; Prakash, Nagaraja Tejo; Sud, Dhiraj

2012-11-01

67

Performance evaluation of a constructed wetland treating high-ammonium primary domestic wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

An investigation of a top-loading, vertical-flow, submerged-bed constructed wetland system subject to a New York State discharge permit, of mineral nitrogen transformations occurring within the wetland units, and of the effects of local environment on system performance indicated 100% removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and mean 99.0 +/- 1.1% removal of ammonium (NH4(+)). The wetland system, located in Highland, New York, treats primary domestic wastewater effluent and consists of four beds presently operated in series. Influent and effluent samples from each of the four treatment units were analyzed for BOD, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2(-)-N). During the study, mean influent wastewater concentrations were 170.8, 3.1, and 0.015 mg/L for NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and NO2(-)-N, respectively. Mean effluent concentrations of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and NO2(-)-N were 1.9, 4.2, and 0.002 mg/L, respectively. PMID:20669720

Spokas, L A; Veneman, P L M; Simkins, S C; Long, S C

2010-07-01

68

Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

Pruitt, J. B.; Elder, J. F.; Johnson, I. K.

1988-01-01

69

Coal mine drainage sludge and its application for treating metallic mine effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS) impregnated polyurethane granular composite media (PUCMDS) was prepared and used to remove arsenic and other heavy metals in a metallic mine effluent. PUCMDS was used in rapid small-scale column tests to assess the effectiveness and suitability in the application of metallic mine water treatment. As a result in column tests, good performance of PUCMDS was observed with respect to bed volumes (more than 14,000 BVs) achieved to treat arsenic and other toxic heavy metals below their regulations. Three cycles of media regeneration and four cycles of column tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of PUCMDS. PMID:24695032

Jang, Min

2014-01-01

70

Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991  

SciTech Connect

As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation.

Specht, W.L.

1992-07-01

71

200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters.

Crane, A.F.

1995-02-09

72

Field-based approach for assessing the impact of treated pulp and paper mill effluent on endogenous metabolites of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great Lakes area of concern during multiple periods (pre-, during, and post-shutdown) near the outflow for a wastewater treatment plant. Influent to this plant is typically 40% PPM effluent by volume. Additional FHMs were exposed to reference lake water under laboratory conditions. A bioassay using T47D-KBluc cells showed that estrogenic activity of receiving water near the outflow declined by 46% during the shutdown. We then used (1)H NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis to profile abundances of hepatic endogenous metabolites for FHMs. Profiles for males deployed pre-shutdown in receiving water were significantly different from those for laboratory-control males. Profiles were not significantly different for males deployed during the shutdown, but they were significant again for those deployed post-shutdown. Impacts of treated effluent from this PPM were sex-specific, as differences among profiles of females were largely nonsignificant. Thus, we demonstrate the potential utility of field-based metabolomics for performing biologically based exposure monitoring and evaluating remediation efforts occurring throughout the Great Lakes and other ecosystems. PMID:23919260

Davis, J M; Collette, T W; Villeneuve, D L; Cavallin, J E; Teng, Q; Jensen, K M; Kahl, M D; Mayasich, J M; Ankley, G T; Ekman, D R

2013-09-17

73

Biological Therapy to Treat Kaposi Sarcoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with this study are investigating whether bevacizumab (Avastin®), a type of biological agent that blocks the formation and growth of new blood vessels, is effective in the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Blood vessel cells are the main component of KS lesions.

74

UV disinfection of RBC-treated light greywater effluent: kinetics, survival and regrowth of selected microorganisms.  

PubMed

The microbial quality of raw greywater was found to be much better than that of municipal wastewater, with 1.6 x 10(7)cfu ml(-1) heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and 3.8 x 10(4), 9.9 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(3) and 4.6 x 10(0)cfu 100 ml(-1) faecal coliforms (FC), Staphylococcus aureus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. and Clostridium perfringes sp., respectively. Further, three viral indicators monitored (somatic phage, host: Escherichia coli CN(13) and F-RNA phages, hosts: E. coli F+(amp), E. coli K12) were not present in raw greywater. The greywater was treated by an RBC followed by sedimentation. The treatment removed two orders of magnitude of all bacteria. UV disinfection kinetics, survival and regrowth of HPC, FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. were examined. At doses up to 69 mW s cm(-2) FC were found to be the most resistant bacteria, followed by HPC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. (inactivation rate coefficients: 0.0687, 0.113, 0.129 and 0.201 cm2 mW(-1)s(-1), respectively). At higher doses (69-439 mW s cm(-2)) all but HPC (which exhibited a tailing curve) were completely eliminated. Microscopic examination showed that FC self-aggregate in the greywater effluent. This provides FC an advantage at low doses, since the concentration of suspended matter (that can provide shelter from UV radiation) in the effluent was very low. FC, P. aeruginosa sp. and S. aureus sp. did not exhibit regrowth up to 6h after exposure to increasing UV doses (19-439 mW s cm(-2)). HPC regrowth was proven to be statistically significant in un-disinfected effluent and after irradiation with high UV doses (147 and 439 mW s cm(-2)). At these doses regrowth resulted from growth of UV-resistant bacteria due to decreased competition with other bacteria eliminated by the irradiation. PMID:17953980

Gilboa, Yael; Friedler, Eran

2008-02-01

75

Comparative toxicity assessment of ozone and activated carbon treated sewage effluents using an in vivo test battery.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants do not eliminate micropollutants completely and are thus important point sources for these substances. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment might be beneficial for ecosystem health as these techniques provide effective barriers to organic contaminants. However, a toxicity evaluation is required to investigate toxicity reduction and to assess the potential formation of toxic oxidation byproducts during ozonation. Therefore a comparative toxicity evaluation of different treated wastewater effluents was performed on site at a half scale treatment plant equipped with an ozonation step and an activated carbon treatment step in parallel subsequent to conventional activated sludge treatment. For this purpose four invertebrate and one higher plant toxicity test were selected to assess potential biological effects on whole organisms. The reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum exhibited a decreased reproductive output after advanced treatment compared to conventional treatment. This indicates an effective estrogenicity removal by ozonation and activated carbon treatment and is confirmed by results of the yeast estrogen screen with a reduction of in vitro estrogenic activity by >75%. The Lumbriculus variegatus test revealed a significantly enhanced toxicity after ozonation compared to conventional treatment whereas this effect was reduced following subsequent sand filtration. When ozonation was applied, a significantly increased genotoxicity was observed, detected with the comet assay using haemolymph of the zebra mussel. Again, this effect was removed by subsequent sand filtration to the level of conventional treatment. Activated carbon treatment even resulted in a significant reduction of genotoxicity. Adverse effects after the ozone reactor are possibly a result of the formation of toxic oxidation byproducts. Biologically active sand filtration obviously is an effective barrier to such compounds. PMID:20189626

Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Oehlmann, Jörg

2010-04-01

76

[Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by ozone-biological aerated filter].  

PubMed

The advanced treatment of petrochemical secondary wastewater by ozone- aerated biological filter was carried out in this study. The effect of pH on ozonation and the removal of COD and UV254 by the ozone-aerated biological filter combined process were investigated. In addition, the variation of relative molecular mass distribution of organics and the characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the wastewater were also investigated. The results showed that the suitable operating conditions of the ozonation unit were: ozone dosage 10 mg x L(-1), contact time 4 min and slightly alkaline pH. Ozonation can transfer macromolecular organics into small molecular organics, resulting in a 15% increase in the percentage of the organics with small relative molecular mass (less than 1 000). The biodegradability of the petrochemical secondary effluent was significantly improved by ozonation, making it more suitable for the treatment by aerated biological filter. The removal efficiency of COD and UV254 were 40.8% and 45.8% when the hydraulic retention time was 3 hours and the gas to water ratio was 3:1 for BAF. The average COD of the petrochemical wastewater was 86.5 mg x L(-1) while the average COD of the effluent of the combined process was 49.4 mg x L(-1) when it was operated under optimal conditions. PMID:24812960

Liu, Ming-Guo; Wu, Chang-Yong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Pei-Chao; Yang, Qi; Dong, De

2014-02-01

77

Use of chemical and biological parameters to characterize complex industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

Hitherto, the concern for possible environmental effects due to aqueous industrial discharges has been directed toward clearly observable effects such as eutrophication and fish kills. However, the development of environmental toxicology and chemistry has made it clear that more subtle and potential long-term effects also have to be taken into account in the regulatory work. The Swedish Environment Protection Board has recently completed a research project: Characterization of Industrial Effluents. Initially, analytical methods and laboratory tests, originally developed for single substances, were identified. Laboratories were then invited to participate, with their own methods, in ring tests with a variety of industrial effluent waters. The studies indicated that a number of chemical and biological methods can be used to characterize complex industrial wastewaters with regard to their content of toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative substances. A frame program was established for the construction of test batteries adapted to various administrative regulatory purposes. To date, this strategy has been applied to several industries by the authorities, resulting in valuable experience of cost-effectiveness and the usefulness in the administrative decision-making process. Besides the studies on single industries, two other approaches have been applied, namely for the assessment of the impact of several industries on a common receiving water body, and for the evaluation of a whole industrial branch, that is, kraft pulp mill bleachery effluents. In the latter case, the studies have resulted in a ranking of processes and treatment methods to protect the environment.

Bengtsson, B.E.; Renberg, L.

1986-09-01

78

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

79

Seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) located in Nonsan City, South Korea, and constructed as the final stage of a piggery wastewater treatment plant that aims to treat high nutrient content effluent during dry days and stormwater runoff during wet days was monitored from October 2008 to November 2011. This research investigated the seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in the CW and nutrient concentration changes in each treatment region under monsoon and temperate climate conditions. Results showed that the mean total nitrogen removal during summer (June to August) was higher by 13% than in spring (March to May), while total phosphorus removal was higher by 22% in fall (September to November) than in winter (December to February). All plants in the CW reached their maximum biomass coverage and weight in summer and minimum growth in winter. The highest N and P content in plants occurred in September with 583.2 g/m(2) and August with 62.0 g/m(2), respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that the harvesting of plants should be conducted during the time of the peak nutrient uptake and before the plants release the nutrient content back to the CW. The dependence of nutrient removal efficiency on plants is not so significant. In order to increase the nutrient removal rate by plant uptake, it is suggested that the treatment regions in the CW be covered by plants. PMID:23508157

Lee, S Y; Maniquiz, M C; Choi, J Y; Jeong, S M; Kim, L H

2013-01-01

80

Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16?:?0), C(17?:?0) cyclo, C(19?:?0) cyclo ?8c and C(14?:?0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) (?=?DSM 25520(T)?=?NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

2014-06-01

81

Membrane Filtration Coupled with Chemical Precipitation to Treat Recirculating Aquaculture System Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contain high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous wastes and thus of- ten require proper treatment to prevent potential detrimental impacts on receiving water bodies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of membrane filtration coupled with chemical precip- itation as a pretreatment step with emphasis on phosphorus removal from RAS effluents.

Ling Yang; Hongde Zhou; Richard Moccia

2006-01-01

82

Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application. The spray-irrigated effluent affected the ground-water quality of the shallow aquifer differently on the hilltop and hillside topographic settings of the watershed where spray irrigation was being applied (application area). Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) and chloride (Cl) in the effluent were higher than concentrations of these constituents in shallow ground water from wells on the hilltop and hillside prior to start of spray irrigation. In water from wells on the hilltop, concentrations of nitrate N and Cl increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. In water from wells on the hillside, which were on the eastern part of the application area, nitrate N and Cl concentrations increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. However, on the hillside of the western application area, the ground-water quality was not affected by the spray-irrigated effluent because of the greater thickness of unconsolidated material and higher amounts of clay present in those unconsolidated sands. Although nitrate N concentrations increased in water from hilltop and hillside wells in the application area, the nitrate N concentrations were below the effluent concentration. A combination of plant uptake, biological activity, and denitrification may be the processes accounting for the lower nitrate N concentrations in shallow ground water compared to the spray-irrigated effluent. Cl concentrations in water from hilltop western application area well Ch-5173 increased during the study period but were an order of magnitude less than the input effluent concentration. Cl concentrations in shallow ground water in the e

Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

2005-01-01

83

Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

2012-07-01

84

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

85

Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation.  

PubMed

Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463 K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were used to get information about the toxicity impact of the starting effluents and of the treated solutions. Under the operating conditions, complex organic compounds are mostly oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, along with short-chain carboxylic acids. Bioassays were found as a complement to chemical analyses for ensuring the toxicological impact on the ecosystem. In spite of a large decrease of TOC, the solutions of end products were all more toxic to Daphnia magna than the starting effluents by factors ranging from 2 to 33. This observation is attributed to the synergistic effects of acetic acid and salts present in the solutions. On the other hand, toxicity reduction with respect to Vibrio fischeri was achieved: detoxification factors greater than unity were measured for end-product solutions treated in the presence of the Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst, suggesting the absence of cumulative effect for this bacteria, or a lower sensitivity to the organic acids and salts. Bleach plant effluents treated by the CWAO process over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst were completely biodegradable. PMID:14675640

Pintar, Albin; Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Gibert, Janine; Martin, Dominique

2004-01-01

86

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

87

Impact of ozonation on ecotoxicity and endocrine activity of tertiary treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Tertiary wastewater treatment plant effluent before and after ozonation (0.6-1.1g O?/g DOC) was tested for aquatic ecotoxicity in a battery of standardised microbioassays with green algae, daphnids, and zebrafish eggs. In addition, unconjugated estrogen and 17?-hydroxyandrogen immunoreactive substances were quantified by means of enzyme immunoassays, and endocrine effects were analysed in a 21-day fish screening assay with adult male and female medaka (Oryzias latipes). Ozonation decreased estrogen-immunoreactivity by 97.7±1.2% and, to a lesser extent, androgen-immunoreactivity by 56.3±16.5%. None of the short-term exposure ecotoxicity tests revealed any adverse effects of the tertiary effluent, neither before nor after the ozonation step. Similarly in the fish screening assay, reproductive fitness parameters showed no effects attributed to micropollutants, and no detrimental effects of the effluents were observed. Based on the presented screening, ozonation effectively reduced steroid hormone levels in the wastewater treatment plant effluent without increasing the effluent's ecotoxicity. PMID:22551818

Altmann, Dominik; Schaar, Heidemarie; Bartel, Cordula; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Miller, Ingrid; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Grillitsch, Britta

2012-07-01

88

Forming microbial anodes with acetate addition decreases their capability to treat raw paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Microbial anodes were formed under polarization at -0.3 V/SCE on graphite plates in effluents from a pulp and paper mill. The bioanodes formed with the addition of acetate led to the highest current densities (up to 6A/m(2)) but were then unable to oxidize the raw effluent efficiently (0.5A/m(2)). In contrast, the bioanodes formed without acetate addition were fully able to oxidize the organic matter contained in the effluent, giving up to 4.5A/m(2) in continuous mode. Bacterial communities showed less bacterial diversity for the acetate-fed bioanodes compared to those formed in raw effluents. Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, with a high diversity for bioanodes formed without acetate addition but with almost 100% Desulfuromonas for the acetate-fed bioanodes. The addition of acetate to form the microbial anodes induced microbial selection, which was detrimental to the treatment of the raw effluent. PMID:24862005

Ketep, Stéphanie F; Bergel, Alain; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Achouak, Wafa; Fourest, Eric

2014-07-01

89

Mutagenicity and toxicity of treated aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification and hydrocarbonization wastewaters were treated in a series of bench-scale unit operations representative of a conceptual treatment process. Ammonia stripping, biological oxidation, ozonation and carbon adsorption were performed with sampling before and after each major unit operation. In addition to monitoring more traditional parameters of treatment effectiveness, such as total carbon and phenol removal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity studies were done on these samples, both before and after fractionation. The major mutagenic activity of these wastes was in the basic and neutral fractions. Toxicity of untreated wastes was primarily due to organics, but toxicity after removal of the organics was also significant. Significant reduction in mutagenicity during primary processing steps was accompanied by high concentrations of known mutagens in the sludges produced during these steps, thus indicating that future research focusing on these sludges is desirable.

Brand, J.I.; Klein, J.A.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Rao, T.K.

1980-01-01

90

Biological aerated filter treated textile washing wastewater for reuse after ozonation pre-treatment.  

PubMed

The combination of chemical and biological treatment processes is a promising technique to reduce refractory organics from wastewater. Ozonation can achieve high color removal, enhance biodegradability, and reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The biological technique can further decrease COD of wastewater after ozonation as a pre-treatment. In this study the ozonizing-biological aerated filter processes were used to treat textile washing wastewater for reuse after conventional treatment. The result showed that when the influent qualities were COD about 80 mg/L, color 16 degree and turbidity about 8 NTU, using the combination processes with the dosages of ozone at 30-45 mg/L with the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological aerated filter (BAF) at 3-4 hours respectively, gave effluent qualities of COD less than 30 mg/L, color 2 degree and turbidity less than 1NTU. The cost of treatment was less than one yuan/t wastewater, and these processes could enable high quality washing water reuse in textile industry. PMID:18776630

Wang, X J; Chen, S L; Gu, X Y; Wang, K Y; Qian, Y Z

2008-01-01

91

Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment. PMID:24777321

Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

2014-09-01

92

Naphthalenes associated with treated wastewater effluents in an urban national wildlife refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project demonstrates the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon character of Jamaica Bay sediments and the wastewater effluents entering the Bay from four major water pollution control facilities. Jamaica Bay, is a part of the Hudson-Raritan estuarine ecosystem and is incorporated into the Gateway National Recreation Area. Jamaica Bay, because of its hydrological characteristics, affords a long residence time for introduced pollutants.

Jhon T. Tanacredi

1990-01-01

93

Coupled photochemical-biological system to treat biorecalcitrant wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to study a coupled system to treat biorecalcitrant wastewaters. The combination consists of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) named photo-Fenton (Ph-F), which is a photochemical treatment and a sequencing batch biofilter reactor (SBBR). The synthetic wastewater used to optimise this process is a solution of 200 ppm of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The first part of the work is the study of the biodegradability enhancement achieved by the photochemical process, measured as the ratio between the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The second step is the start-up and optimisation of the biological process. The results showed that it is necessary to severely treat the toxic solution (with 500 ppm of [H2O2]0) in order to achieve more than 90% of TOC removal in the whole process. The photochemical and biological treatments lasted 50 minutes and 24 hours, respectively. PMID:17674833

Bacardit, J; García-Molina, V; Bayarri, B; Giménez, J; Chamarro, E; Sans, C; Esplugas, S

2007-01-01

94

Aerobic residential onsite sewage systems: an evaluation of treated-effluent quality.  

PubMed

This retrospective cohort study used existing data to evaluate the quality of effluent from three of the most common types of onsite residential aerobic treatment sewage systems (Multi-Flo, Norweco, and Whitewater) installed in Kitsap County, Washington. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), and fecal-coliform-bacteria parameters were used to determine performance. Although most (77 percent) of the systems were less than one year old at the time of sampling, over a third failed to meet NSF certification standards for BOD5 and TSS in effluent (< 30 milligrams per liter [mg/L]). Over two-thirds of systems failed to meet Washington State Board of Health Treatment Standard 2 criteria for BOD5 and TSS (< 10 mg/L). Furthermore, an average of 59 percent of the systems failed to meet state standards for fecal coliform (< 800 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters). PMID:14556365

Maxfield, Meliss; Daniell, William E; Treser, Charles D; VanDerslice, Jim

2003-10-01

95

Toxicity assessment of tannery effluent treated by an optimized photo-Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an optimized photo-Fenton process was applied to remove pollutants from tannery industrial effluent (TIE) with its final toxicity level being assessed by a lettuce-seed-based bioassay test. A full 3 factorial design was applied for the optimization of long-term photo-Fenton experiments. The optimum conditions of the photo-Fenton process were attained at concentration values of 0.3 g Fe L and

Fernando Henrique Borba; Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes; Fernando Rodolfo Espinoza-Quiñones; Diego Ricieri Manenti; Rosangela Bergamasco; Nora Diaz Mora

2012-01-01

96

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.  

PubMed

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

2002-01-01

97

A comparison of the potential of primary- and secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluents to induce mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary- and secondary-treated effluents from 13 mills representative of the kraft, chemi-thermomechanical and thermomechanical pulping sectors were tested for their potential to induce mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzyme activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed in the laboratory to 1, 5 and 10% (v\\/v) concentrations of effluents collected at the inlet and the outfall of secondary treatment plants.

Pierre Martel; Tibor Kovacs

1997-01-01

98

DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL TOXICITY ASSAY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A chemical analysis procedure was developed to measure within 1.5 hours compounds responsible for the toxicity of pulp mill effluents to fish. Analytical results for 113 samples of raw and biologically-treated bleached and unbleached kraft, sulphite and groundwood effluents were ...

99

Naphthalenes associated with treated wastewater effluents in an urban national wildlife refuge  

SciTech Connect

This project demonstrates the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon character of Jamaica Bay sediments and the wastewater effluents entering the Bay from four major water pollution control facilities. Jamaica Bay, is a part of the Hudson-Raritan estuarine ecosystem and is incorporated into the Gateway National Recreation Area. Jamaica Bay, because of its hydrological characteristics, affords a long residence time for introduced pollutants. This study was conducted to further characterize the PAH character of the wastewater effluents. These fused ring structures are of interest in that they represent the carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic components of petroleum compounds to marine organisms. Because of their high molecular weight, the solubility of PAH in water, is of a very low order. Consequently, in estuarine environments, PAH compounds will be found associated with suspended solids and sediments. Although PAH degrading microorganisms are known to occur in estuarine environments, the degradation rates of these compounds are very slow. Coupled with the low degradation rates and known carcinogenicity of many of these compounds, investigations have shown that fish and other organisms taken from areas with a history of oil contamination have been found to exhibit elevated levels of compounds which bioactivate complex PAH compounds into mutagens.

Tanacredi, J.T. (National Park Service, Brooklyn, NY (USA))

1990-02-01

100

Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants.  

PubMed

Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. However, effluents after biological treatment still contain heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants. The persistent organic contaminants accumulated in soil may transfer through the food chains and cause adverse health effects on human or biological effects on soil fauna and flora after long-term application. In present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo[a]pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo[g,h,i]perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09+/-0.03 ng/g) [Dickhut RM, Canuel EA, Gustafson KE, Liu K, Arzayus KM, Walkers E, et al. Automotive sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the chesapeake bay region. Environ Sci Technol 2000;34:4635-40]. Therefore, both of the PAHs residues in effluents and emission from a nearby coal/coke plant were responsible. Also in this case study, low levels of the OCPs were observed and were not of significant concern in this wastewater irrigation area. Among the different OCPs analyzed, DDTs (mean 8.41 ng/g) and HCHs (mean 2.91 ng/g) were the major components. From the ratios of DDT/DDTs and beta-HCH/HCHs, it indicated that OCPs residues should be from historical usage. PMID:16005065

Chen, Ying; Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Zijian

2005-08-01

101

Risk-based site-specific water quality criteria for treated mine-tailings effluent  

SciTech Connect

A mine development project proposes to discharge a combined effluent into marine waters in southeast Alaska. The discharge will consist of sewage, storm water, and tailings pond effluent. With the exception of arsenic, the discharge and its subsequent dispersion will comply with state and federal water quality criteria. The proposed discharge will comply with acute and chronic arsenic standards for the protection of marine life, but will not comply with the arsenic standard for the protection of human health via consumption of seafood. The arsenic standard for the protection of human health is based on a risk management objective that the likelihood of skin cancer be no more than 1 excess case per 100,000 people (10{sup {minus}5}) who ingest arsenic in seafood. Based on USEPA methodology for developing ambient water quality criteria, the seawater concentration that corresponds to this risk management objective is 1.4,{micro}g/L, which is less than the naturally-occurring arsenic concentration in seawater. Consequently, a site-specific risk-based evaluation was conducted to identify more realistic and achievable goals for arsenic in seawater that are consistent with the risk management objective of 10{sup {minus}5}. Parameters evaluated were discharge transport, chemical speciation and fate of arsenic, fish exposure, bioaccumulation and metabolism, patterns of fish catch and consumption, and toxic potency of arsenic. Results of the evaluation showed numerous, substantial differences between the assumptions inherent in the risk assessment model used by USEPA to estimate water quality criteria, and site-specific values that could be applied to the proposed discharge. Overall, the collective weight of evidence indicates that the concentration of arsenic in seawater that corresponds to the 10{sup {minus}5} risk management objective may be substantially (i.e., 10 to 1,000 times) higher than the 1.4 {micro}g/L criterion.

Williams, L.G.; Fendick, E.; LaKind, J.; Stern, B.; Strand, J.A.; Tardiff, R.G. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Redmond, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

102

Using transcriptomic tools to evaluate biological effects across effluent gradients at a diverse set of study sites in Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the utility of "omics" approaches in monitoring aquatic environments where complex, often unknown stressors make chemical-specific risk assessment untenable. We examined changes in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovarian transcriptome following 4-day exposures conducted at three sites in Minnesota (MN, USA). Within each site, fish were exposed to water from three locations along a spatial gradient relative to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. After exposure, site-specific impacts on gene expression in ovaries were assessed. Using an intragradient point of comparison, biological responses specifically associated with the WWTP effluent were identified using functional enrichment analyses. Fish exposed to water from locations downstream of the effluent discharges exhibited many transcriptomic responses in common with those exposed to the effluent, indicating that effects of the discharge do not fully dissipate downstream. Functional analyses showed a range of biological pathways impacted through effluent exposure at all three sites. Several of those impacted pathways at each site could be linked to potential adverse reproductive outcomes associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows, specifically signaling pathways associated with oocyte meiosis, TGF-beta signaling, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB), and gene sets associated with cyclin B-1 and metalloproteinase. The utility of this approach comes from the ability to identify biological responses to pollutant exposure, particularly those that can be tied to adverse outcomes at the population level and those that identify molecular targets for future studies. PMID:24433150

Berninger, Jason P; Martinovi?-Weigelt, Dalma; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Escalon, Lynn; Perkins, Edward J; Ankley, Gerald T; Villeneuve, Daniel L

2014-02-18

103

Technical, environmental, and health aspects of the use of reclaimed secondary treated wastewater effluent for cooling makeup  

SciTech Connect

Water resources are increasingly limited in coastal areas and some inland areas where demand for fresh water exceeds supply. Some larger users of water have been encouraged for cost reasons, or driven by regulations to conserve fresh water by any means possible, including reuse of treated industrial and municipal effluent. There are health and technical aspects to be considered in such cases. Health issues include assurance of adequate protection from pathogens and adequate removal of chemical contaminants. Technical issues include protection of the users system, as characteristics of the reuse water can adversely affect the system by causing corrosion, deposition, and microbiological fouling. This paper will discuss some of the significant problems typically encountered. While many papers and articles have been published examining the issues of water reuse, the authors are seeking to connect the technical aspects with the important environmental and health aspects.

Manley, R.; Cerr, H.R.; Dunn, D.E.

1999-11-01

104

Nutrient removal from farm effluents.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. PMID:15182831

Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

2004-09-01

105

Nitrogen mass balance in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The nitrogen changes and the nitrogen mass balance in a free water surface flow constructed wetland (CW) using the four-year monitoring data from 2008 to 2012 were estimated. The CW was composed of six cells in series that include the first settling basin (Cell 1), aeration pond (Cell 2), deep marsh (Cell 3), shallow marsh (Cell 4), deep marsh (Cell 5) and final settling basin (Cell 6). Analysis revealed that the NH(+)4-N concentration decreased because of ammonification which was then followed by nitrification. The NO(-)2-N and NO(-)2-N were also further reduced by means of microbial activities and plant uptake during photosynthesis. The average nitrogen concentration at the influent was 37,819 kg/year and approximately 45% of that amount exited the CW in the effluent. The denitrification amounted to 34% of the net nitrogen input, whereas the accretion of sediment was only 7%. The biomass uptake of plants was able to retain only 1% of total nitrogen load. In order to improve the nutrient removal by plant uptake, plant coverage in four cells (i.e., Cells 1, 3, 4 and 5) could be increased. PMID:25079834

Lee, Soyoung; Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Lee-Hyung

2014-06-01

106

Removal processes of disinfection byproducts in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.  

PubMed

The removal efficiencies and the kinetics of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were studied in six greenhouse laboratory-scale SSF CWs. Cattail (Typha latifolia) and its litter (collected from the aboveground samples of cattail in autumn) were used as a potential phytoremediation technology and as a primary substrate, respectively, for DBP removal. Results showed that most of the 11 DBPs (except chloroform and 1, 1-dichloropropanone) were efficiently removed (>90%) in six SSF CWs with hydraulic retention time of 5 d and there were no significant differences among the systems. Under the batch mode, the removal of DBPs in SSF CWs followed first-order kinetics with half-lives of 1.0-770.2 h. As a primary DBP in wastewater effluent, removal efficiencies for chloroform were higher in planted systems than in unplanted ones and plant uptake accounted for more than 23.8% of the removal. Plant litter greatly enhanced the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) by supplying primary substrates and reducing conditions, and the formation of dichloromethane supported the anaerobic biodegradation of THMs via reductive dechlorination in SSF CWs. Trichloroacetonitrile was completely removed within 10 h in each system and hydrolysis was considered to be the dominant process as there was a rapid formation of the hydrolysis byproduct, trichloroacetamide. PMID:24440896

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Cai, Yanlong; Zhou, Qi

2014-03-15

107

Composition and method for treating flue gas and methanol containing effluents  

SciTech Connect

A composition is provided which comprises an aqueous alkaline solution of a metal salt and black liquor, the metal salt being selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, cobalt and nickel salts. This composition is useful in a process described for absorption of hydrogen sulfide from flue gas, followed by subsequent oxidation of dissolved sulfide to thiosulfate, if desired. The presence of the metal ions and black liquor synergistically catalyzes the overall reaction of absorption of hydrogen sulfide, followed by oxidation of the sulfide. Preferably, prior to scrubbing to remove hydrogen sulfide with the solution, the flue gas is first cooled to near its dew point, and then scrubbed with water to remove particulates. Additionally, the effluent flue gas from the absorption step is usefully scrubbed with water to recover heat, following which it is used to scrub condensates from a kraft pulp mill. The metal salt in the solution is preferably an iron salt at a concentration of about 0.002 M., the black liquor concentration being preferably about 1% to 5% by volume of the solution, and the pH being usefully about 9.0 to 9.5.

Murray, F. E.

1985-03-19

108

Coagulation removal of melanoidins from biologically treated molasses wastewater using ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pigments (melanoidins) in molasses wastewater are refractory to conventional biological treatment. Ferric chloride was used as coagulant to remove color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from molasses effluent. Using jar test procedure, main operating conditions such as pH and coagulant dosage were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, up to 86% and 96% of COD and color removal efficiencies were

Zhen Liang; Yanxin Wang; Yu Zhou; Hui Liu

2009-01-01

109

The Impact of Different Proportions of a Treated Effluent on the Biotransformation of Selected Micro-Contaminants in River Water Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ?0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible. PMID:25310538

Nodler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

2014-01-01

110

The impact of different proportions of a treated effluent on the biotransformation of selected micro-contaminants in river water microcosms.  

PubMed

Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ?0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible. PMID:25310538

Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

2014-01-01

111

A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.  

PubMed

Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD? L?¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD? method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p < 0.001; slope = 0.94) between BOD? and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD? assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD? analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

2013-02-01

112

The relevance of physicochemical and biological parameters for setting emission limit values for plants treating complex industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

The influents of plants treating complex industrial wastewaters from third parties may contain a large variety of often unknown or unidentified potentially harmful substances. The conventional approach of assessing and regulating the effluents of these plants is to set emission limit values for a limited set of physicochemical parameters, such as heavy metals, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogen compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of physicochemical parameters for setting emission limit values for such plants based on a comparison of effluent analyses by physicochemical and biological assessment tools. The results show that physicochemical parameters alone are not sufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of the water treatment plants for removing hazardous compounds and to protect the environment. The introduction of toxicity limits and limits for the total bioaccumulation potential should be considered to supplement generic parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogens. A recommendation is made to include toxicity screening as a technique to consider in the determination of best available techniques (BAT) during the upcoming revision of the BAT reference document for the waste treatment industries to provide a more rational basis in decisions on additional treatment steps. PMID:24142491

Huybrechts, Diane; Weltens, Reinhilde; Jacobs, Griet; Borburgh, Ab; Smets, Toon; Hoebeke, Lut; Polders, Caroline

2014-02-01

113

Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

Vigerstad, T J

1980-01-01

114

Electrocoagulation of blue reactive, red disperse and mixed dyes, and application in treating textile effluent.  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficiency of electrocoagulation in removing color from synthetic and real textile wastewater. Two representative dye molecules were selected for the synthetic dye wastewater: a blue reactive dye (Reactive Blue 140) and a disperse dye (Disperse Red 1). The electrochemical technique showed satisfactory color removal efficiency and reliable performance in treating both individual and mixed dye types. The removal efficiency and energy consumption data showed that, for a given current density, iron was superior to aluminum in treating both the reactive dye and the disperse dye. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the energy cost in achieving >95% color removal was on the order of 1 kWh m(-3) for both dyes. The effect of changing the initial pH of the samples on the removal efficiency and energy consumption was also studied. It was found that the design parameters used for the synthetic wastewater were less effective for treatment of real textile wastewater, with 1 in 5 tests on real wastewater failing. PMID:20042267

Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Polgumhang, Suprangpak; Tongdaung, Warangkana; Karakat, Benjawan; Nuyut, Thanawin

2010-01-01

115

Comparison of nutrient cycling in a surface-flow constructed wetland and in a facultative pond treating secondary effluent.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the possibilities offered by combinations of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) and constructed wetlands (CW). The purpose of our study was to compare treatment performances and nutrient cycling in a surface-flow wetland (SFW) and in a WSP treating secondary effluent. In the period between 2000 and 2003, a pilot SFW and a pilot WSP were constructed at the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant and their performance monitored while both were active under the same conditions. The SFW was planted with Phragmites australis and Eichhornia crassipes, while in the WSP development of algae was spontaneous. Performance efficiency was monitored by means of evaluation of physical and chemical parameters in water, by measurement of plant productivity and by analysis of N and P contents in biomass. The SFW with macrophytes proved more efficient in decreasing the suspended solids (64.6%), settleable solids (91.8%), organic N (59.3%), total N (38%), COD (67.2%) and BOD5 (72.1%) than the WSP. The WSP with algae was more efficient in treatment of ammonia nitrogen (48.9%) and ortho-phosphate (43.9%). The results of this study provide data that are of help in optimising combinations of SFW and WSP. PMID:16114697

Sajn Slak, A; Bulc, T G; Vrhovsek, D

2005-01-01

116

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was achieved at the Middle Basin WWTF. At the Tomahawk Creek WWTF, after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment in 2009, effluent discharges also had total phosphorus concentrations below 1.5 mg/L. After the addition of biological nutrient removal, annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Middle Basin WWTF decreased by 42 and 54 percent, respectively, even though effluent volume increased by 11 percent. Annual total phosphorus loads from the Tomahawk Creek WWTF after the addition of chemically enhanced primary treatment decreased by 54 percent despite a 33-percent increase in effluent volume. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the WWTFs contributed between 30 and nearly 100 percent to annual nutrient loads in Indian Creek depending on streamflow conditions. In-stream total nitrogen primarily came from wastewater effluent except during years with the highest streamflows. Most of the in-stream total phosphorus typically came from effluent during dry years and from other urban sources during wet years. During 2010 through 2013, annual mean discharge from the Middle Basin WWTF was about 75 percent of permitted design capacity. Annual nutrient loads likely will increase when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity; however, estimated maximum annual nutrient loads from the Middle Basin WWTF were 27 to 38 percent lower than before capacity upgrades and the addition of biological nutrient removal to treatment processes. Thus, the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin wastewater treatment process should reduce overall nutrient loads from the facility even when the facility is operated at permitted design capacity. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water quality of Indian Creek were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time) when wastewater effluent represented about 24 percent or more of total streamflow. Wastewater effluent had the most substantial effect on nutrient concentrations in Indian Creek. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

2014-01-01

117

Ecotoxicological and chemical evaluation of phenolic compounds in industrial effluents.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the ecotoxicological response of industrial effluents containing phenolic compounds. All complex effluents collected from a chemical plant and then after both a chemical-physical and biological treatment were characterised with chemical analysis, biodegradability tests and four ecotoxicological tests (Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, Brachionus plicatilis and Vibriofisheri with Microtox). The evaluation of the chemical and ecotoxicological data was useful for predicting the effect of the raw effluent on the treatment plant and the impact of the final treated effluent on the receiving water. Besides the toxicity of the effluent from the chemical plants, the acute toxicity of its main components was also determined. The results of the tests and toxicity data from literature were transformed in Toxic Units (TUs). Effluent toxicity was under- or over-estimated by calculating the sum of the TUs of the individual components, depending on which toxicity data and test organisms were used. PMID:11534905

Guerra, R

2001-09-01

118

CATALYTICALLY AND NONCATALYTICALLY TREATED AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST: BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H2SO4 alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaus...

119

Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1?mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

2013-01-01

120

300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

NONE

1995-05-01

121

Evaluation of a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with partial recirculation of effluent used to treat wastewaters from pulp and paper plants.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a UASB reactor treating diluted black liquor from a Kraft pulp mill, which simulates an unbleached Kraft plant wastewater, under different operational conditions, including partial recycling of the effluent. The reactor's performance was evaluated from the standpoint of COD, pH, volatile acid concentration, alkalinity, concentration of methane in the biogas, and microbiological examinations of the sludge. Without recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 36 to 30h did not significantly affect the average COD removal efficiency. The parameter displaying the greatest variation was the average concentration of effluent volatile acids, which increased by 16%. With recirculation the reduction of the HRT from 30 to 24h increased the average COD removal efficiency from 75% to 78%. In this case, the average effluent alkalinity also showed an increase. The use of partial recirculation of the effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal under the operational conditions tested in this work, but it was possible to operate the reactor with lower hydraulic retention time without disintegration of the granules. PMID:17008096

Buzzini, A P; Pires, E C

2007-07-01

122

Observations on Root Disease of Container Whitebark Pine Seedlings treated with Biological Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a non-treated control. Seedlings treated with the biological controls and non-symptomatic seedlings in the control treatment had

R Kasten Dumroese

2008-01-01

123

Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

2013-12-01

124

Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Plant Growth and Biological Activity in Three Soil Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two types of treated wastewater on soil biological activity were studied in a pot experiment. Four irrigation treatments were tested on both soils sown with barley and unsown soils: distilled water (DW), half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (NS), treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW), and treated wastewater from a lagoon (LWW). Three types of soils were

Maria Adrover; Gabriel Moyà; Jaume Vadell

2012-01-01

125

Destruction of cyanide in gold mill effluents: biological versus chemical treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In gold mining, cyanide has been the preferred lixiviant worldwide since 1887. Although cyanide can be destroyed and recovered by several processes, it is still widely discussed and examined due to its potential toxicity and environmental impact. Biological treatment of cyanide is a well-established process and has been commercially used at gold mining operations in North America. Biological treatment processes

Ata Akcil

2003-01-01

126

Use of diatom assemblages as biomonitor of the impact of treated uranium mining effluent discharge on a stream: case study of the Ritord watershed (Center-West France).  

PubMed

The rehabilitation of French former uranium mining sites has not prevented the contamination of the surrounding aquatic ecosystems with metal elements. This study assesses the impact of the discharge of treated uranium mining effluents on periphytic diatom communities to evaluate their potential of bioindication. A 7-month survey was conducted on the Ritord watercourse to measure the environmental conditions of microalgae, the non-taxonomic attributes of periphyton (photosynthesis and biomass) and to determine the specific composition of diatom assemblages grown on artificial substrates. The environmental conditions were altered by the mine waters, that contaminate the watercourse with uranium and with chemicals used in the pit-water treatment plants (BaCl2 and Al2(SO4)3). The biomass and photosynthetic activity of periphyton seemed not to respond to the stress induced by the treated mining effluents whereas the altered environmental conditions clearly impacted the composition of diatom communities. Downstream the discharges, the communities tended to be characterized by indicator species belonging to the genera Fragilaria, Eunotia and Brachysira and were highly similar to assemblages at acid mine drainage sites. The species Eunotia pectinalis var. undulata, Psammothidium rechtensis, Gomphonema lagenula and Pinnularia major were found to be sensitive to uranium effluents whereas Neidium alpinum and several species of Gomphonema tolerated this contamination. The relevance of diatoms as ecological indicator was illustrated through the changes in structure of communities induced by the discharge of uranium mining effluents and creates prospects for development of a bioindicator tool for this kind of impairment of water quality. PMID:23903932

Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Frelon, Sandrine; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Delmas, François; Coste, Michel

2013-10-01

127

REUSE OF TREATED FRUIT PROCESSING WASTEWATER IN A CANNERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reclamation of the biologically treated effluent by filtration through mixed media pressure filters and disinfection with chlorine was investigated for two processing seasons. The reclaimed water was put to several trial uses: (a) initial product conveying, (b) equipment, floor a...

128

Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active culture, and excellent settling velocity. This integrated two-stage design for immobilized hydrogen fermentation and methane production offers a promising approach for modifying current anaerobic wastewater treatment processes to harvest hydrogen from the existing systems.

Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

129

Use of electrochemical technology to increase the quality of the effluents of bio-oxidation processes. A case studied.  

PubMed

In this work, it has been studied the use of conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation (CDEO) as a refining technology to assure the quality of the effluents of door manufacturing processes (DMP). To do this, the raw effluents of these factories have been treated by a combination of physicochemical, biological and CDEO treatments. CDEO was found to be a feasible alternative to the refinement of a wooden DMP waste. It can successfully decrease the organic load of the effluents of the biological oxidation with low energy requirements. In addition, in case of incidents in the biological process, CDEO can treat successfully the effluents of the coagulation process. The effluents of the biological treatment have also been treated by CDEO in order to check the possible use of electrochemical technology to increase the biodegradability of the effluents and their possible recycle to the biological treatment. Unfortunately, electrochemical technology was found to be not adequate to increase the biodegradability of the effluents of a biological treatment. The hard oxidation conditions generated during CDEO do not lead to the accumulation of intermediates but to the almost direct formation of carbon dioxide. Lowering the current density or changing the electrodes can not enhance the biodegradability of the effluents of an electrochemical cell. PMID:18501407

Cañizares, Pablo; Beteta, Alberto; Sáez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Rodrigo, Manuel A

2008-07-01

130

Moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa treated with biological therapies.  

PubMed

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating disorder that can be difficult to manage with current conventional treatment strategies. Given its association with proinflammatory cytokines there has been interest in the use of novel biological monoclonal antibodies. We describe our experience with the use of these agents in six patients in whom conventional treatment had failed, with promising response noted in some patients. A growing number of studies now highlight the efficacy of these agents. PMID:24456051

Chinniah, Niranthari; Cains, Geoffrey David

2014-05-01

131

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTS FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT, SCIPPO CREEK, CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the first site study on Scippo Creek at Circleville, Ohio, which receives only one discharge from a chemical resins plant using batch operations. Scippo Creek is a small sunfish/bass stream flowing through an agricultural area in central Ohio. Previous biolog...

132

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

PubMed Central

Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in the biofilter throughout the treatment. Conclusion The silica-bead packed bed biofilm reactor developed and characterized in this study was able to significantly decontaminate anaerobically digested OMWs. Therefore, the application of an integrated anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in an improved system for valorization and decontamination of OMWs. PMID:16595023

Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

2006-01-01

133

A case study on algal response to raw and treated effluents from an aluminum plating plant and a pharmaceutical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algal growth responses to the effluents of an aluminum plating plant and to the wastewater from an analgesic\\/antiinflammatory-drug-producing pharmaceutical plant were investigated. Growth response of the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta was monitored by measuring the two response parameters optical density (OD640) and in vitro chlorophyll fluorescence for a period of 14 days. Generally, the two response measurements gave similar

Melek Türker Saçan; I??l Akmehmet Balc?o?lu

2006-01-01

134

Long Term Fertility Monitoring of Soil Treated by the Chemical-Biological Stabilization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the long term fertility of soil treated by Chemical-Biological Stabilization, a patented method developed to treat tropical and semitropical sites with high concentrations of very weathered hydrocarbons, by transforming them into soil humus. The fertility in soil was studied over a three year period with respect to TPH (EPA 418.1), TCLP leachates, toxicity (Microtox), field capacity, and water

Randy H. Adams; Francisco J. Guzman-Osorio; J. Abisenas Alvarez-Rivera

135

Occurrence of earthy and musty odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole) in biologically treated wastewater.  

PubMed

The concentrations of earthy and musty odor compounds (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA)) in treated wastewater were measured. Concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA (4.3-37.7 ng/L) and geosmin (3.7-42.2 ng/L) higher than their odor thresholds were detected for effluents from large-scale treatment plants. The effluent from a small-scale wastewater plant treating toilet and kitchen wastewater contained the target earthy and musty odor compounds below the odor thresholds. The ozonation applied as an advanced wastewater treatment process was considerably more effective for the removal of 2,4,6-TCA than for the removal of 2-MIB and geosmin. The measured concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in river environments without the influence of large-scale wastewater effluents were less than the odor threshold. PMID:24225096

Urase, T; Sasaki, Y

2013-01-01

136

Estimating effluent COD  

SciTech Connect

In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

1995-06-01

137

A Novel Biological Approach to Treat Chondromalacia Patellae  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells from several sources (bone marrow, synovial tissue, cord blood, and adipose tissue) can differentiate into variable parts (bones, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue), representing a promising new therapy in regenerative medicine. In animal models, mesenchymal stem cells have been used successfully to regenerate cartilage and bones. However, there have been no follow-up studies on humans treated with adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the chondromalacia patellae. To obtain ADSCs, lipoaspirates were obtained from lower abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The stromal vascular fraction was separated from the lipoaspirates by centrifugation after treatment with collagenase. The stem-cell-containing stromal vascular fraction was mixed with calcium chloride-activated platelet rich plasma and hyaluronic acid, and this ADSCs mixture was then injected under ultrasonic guidance into the retro-patellar joints of all three patients. Patients were subjected to pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Pre- and post-treatment subjective pain scores and physical therapy assessments measured clinical changes. One month after the injection of autologous ADSCs, each patient's pain improved 50–70%. Three months after the treatment, the patients' pain improved 80–90%. The pain improvement persisted over 1 year, confirmed by telephone follow ups. Also, all three patients did not report any serious side effects. The repeated magnetic resonance imaging scans at three months showed improvement of the damaged tissues (softened cartilages) on the patellae-femoral joints. In patients with chondromalacia patellae who have continuous anterior knee pain, percutaneous injection of autologous ADSCs may play an important role in the restoration of the damaged tissues (softened cartilages). Thus, ADSCs treatment presents a glimpse of a new promising, effective, safe, and non-surgical method of treatment for chondromalacia patellae. PMID:23700485

Lee, Sang Hee

2013-01-01

138

From Effluent to New Water: Performance Evaluation and Quality Assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As water reuse becomes increasingly important to satisfy water demand, ensuring the quality of recycled wastewater becomes ever more vital. Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) metabolites are two groups of chemicals that are commonly present in treated effluent and have received attention for their demonstrated or potential biological effects. In this paper we present data on the effects of

Martin Reinhard; John Montgomery-Brown; Jennifer S. Louie; Birgit Gross

2003-01-01

139

Phragmites sp. physiological changes in a constructed wetland treating an effluent contaminated with a diazo dye (DR81).  

PubMed

The role of Phragmites sp. in phytoremediation of wastewaters containing azo dyes is still, in many ways, at its initial stage of investigation. This plant response to the long-term exposure to a highly conjugated di-azo dye (Direct Red 81, DR81) was assessed using a vertical flow constructed wetland, at pilot scale. A reed bed fed with water was used as control. Changes in photosynthetic pigment content in response to the plant contact with synthetic DR81 effluent highlight Phragmites plasticity. Phragmites leaf enzymatic system responded rapidly to the stress imposed; in general, within 1 day, the up-regulation of foliar reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (especially superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxidase) was noticed as plants entered in contact with synthetic DR81 effluent. This prompt activation decreased the endogenous levels of H?O? and the malonyldialdehyde content beyond reference values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity intensification was not enough to cope with stress imposed by DR81. GPX activity was pivotal for the detoxification pathways after a 24-h exposure. Carotenoid pool was depleted during this shock. After the imposed DR81 stress, plants were harvested. In the next vegetative cycle, Phragmites had already recovered from the chemical stress. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlights the role of GPX, GST, APX, and carotenoids along catalase (CAT) in the detoxification process. PMID:24809499

Ferreira, Renata Alexandra; Duarte, Joana Gouveia; Vergine, Pompilio; Antunes, Carlos D; Freire, Filipe; Martins-Dias, Susete

2014-08-01

140

Toxicity evaluation and biological treatment of lead and zinc mine-mill effluents in southeast Missouri  

SciTech Connect

A new type of biological treatment system was developed consisting of a large tailings lagoon followed by a series of artificially constructed meanders and polishing lagoon. This system provided additional time and distance for removal of heavy metals by algae and sedimentation. Application of a Waste Load Allocation model was evaluated to determine the system treatment efficiency for handling and removing an increased discharge of metal concentration from the primary tailings pond. Alternative analytical extraction techniques have been tested to determine the best recovery of the heavy metals. Static acute toxicity tests using Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) found that lead, cadmium and zinc are much less toxic in hard, alkaline waters typical of New Lead Belt rivers and streams. However, determining the toxic fraction of the metal in this environment in regard to an acid soluble metal would not be representative of the toxic form of the metal that would cause lethality in test organisms because, no correlation was found between the toxicity results and chemical extraction results in regard to the available, easily dissolved, total and nominal concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc.

Erten, Z.M.

1988-01-01

141

Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

1980-01-01

142

Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 ?g/L of THMs and 1140.6 ?g/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively. PMID:23535379

Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

2013-05-15

143

Long-Term Performance of Liter-Scale Microbial Fuel Cells Treating Primary Effluent Installed in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

-70% chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11 h and reduced about 50% suspended of 28 mL for 1 year.5 Chemical and biological cathodes were evaluated and compared during a 400 day that the chemical cathodes had deteriorated performance while the biological cathode remained relatively stable.6

144

Assessment of electrochemical and chemical coagulation as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from exploratory experiments to test the technical feasibility of electrolytic treatment and coagulation followed by flocculation and sedimentation as post-treatment for the effluent of an UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached Kraft pulp mill. The electrolytic treatment provided up to 67% removal of the remaining COD and 98% of color removal. To achieve these efficiencies the energy consumption ranged from 14 Wh x l(-1) to 20 Wh x l(-1). The coagulation-flocculation treatment followed by settling required 350-400 mg x l(-1) of aluminium sulfate. The addition of a high molecular weight cationic polymer enhanced both COD and color removal. Both post-treatment processes are technically feasible. PMID:16180426

Buzzini, A P; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

2005-01-01

145

Preliminary screening of a boron based wood preservative for biological efficacy (fungicidal) in treated timber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance of Pinus radiata D.Don sapwood blocks, treated with a boron based preservative, to attack by five wood destroying fungi (Fomitopsis lilacino-gilva, Coniophora olivacea, Gloeophyllum abietinum (boron resistant), Serpula lacrymans and Perenniporia tephropora) was investigated. A phenyl pyrazole termiticide (fipronil) was also incorporated into the formulation to examine if its presence affects biological efficacy. The raw linseed oil, liquid

Simon R. Przewloka; Jeffrey A. Hann; Peter Vinden

146

DESENVOLVIMENTO E OPERAÇÃO DE REATOR ANAERÓBIO DE MANTA DE LODO (UASB) NO TRATAMENTO DOS EFLUENTES DA SUINOCULTURA EM ESCALA LABORATORIAL Development and operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) treating liquid effluent from swine manure in laboratory scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swine production, since 70 th , is one of the most pollutant agro-industrial activities in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this research was to develop an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB), aiming at treating the effluent generated within a maximum efficiency and minimum time and cost. Therefore, a lab-scale reactor was built up and monitored

Cláudio Milton; Montenegro Campos; Fernanda Ribeiro do Carmo; Cláudio Gouvêa Botelho; Claudionor Camilo da Costa

147

Genotoxic and hepatic biotransformation responses induced by the overflow of pulp mill and secondary-treated effluents on Anguilla anguilla L.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper mill effluent compounds pollute the aquatic environment and are responsible for increased biochemical alterations and genotoxicity in aquatic organisms such as fish. Adult eels (Anguilla anguilla L) were exposed during 8, 16, 24, and 72 h to the following conditions: (1) aerated, filtered, and dechlorinated tap water (C); (2) 2.5% (v/v) sewage water previously treated with activated sludge (T); (3) bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluent collected at the river Vouga, close to an ancient sewage outlet (Portucel), diluted in tap water [25% (E25) and 50% (E50)]; and (4) bleached kraft pulp and paper mill effluent sediment [water-soluble fraction (S)]. Liver biotransformation induced by the above conditions was measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), cytochrome P450 (P450) (Phase I), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (Phase II). Genotoxicity was also determined as blood/liver DNA strand breaks and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) induced on European eel (A. anguilla L). Liver EROD activity was significantly increased in eels at 8 and 16 h exposure to E25, as well as at 16, 24, and 72 h exposure to E50. S exposure induced liver EROD activity only at 24h. A significant decrease in liver P450 was observed at 72 h exposure to T, whereas a significant P450 increase at 16 h was followed by a significant decrease at 24h exposure to E25. Another P450 significant increase was noticed at 72 h exposure to S. Liver GST activity (Phase II) demonstrated a significant increase at 72 h exposure to E50 and to S. A significant decrease in blood DNA integrity was observed at 72 h exposure to T and at 24 and 72 h to S. Blood DNA integrity significantly decreased at 16 and 24 h exposure to E25, as well as at 8, 16, and 24 h exposure to E50. Liver DNA integrity significantly decreased at 72 h exposure to T and at 16 h exposure to S. Moreover, liver DNA integrity was significantly decreased at 24h exposure to E25 and E50, and 72 h to E50. A. anguilla L. increased ENA frequency was detected in T at 16, 24, and 72 h, whereas in E25 and S it was observed at 8, 16, and 24 h. Furthermore, E50 ENA frequency increased at 24 h exposure. PMID:12706401

Maria, V L; Correia, A C; Santos, M A

2003-05-01

148

Use of electrochemical oxidation process as post-treatment for the effluents of a UASB reactor treating cellulose pulp mill wastewater.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the electrochemical oxidation process as a post-treatment for the effluents of a bench-scale UASB reactor treating simulated wastewater from an unbleached pulp plant. The oxidation process was performed using a single compartment cell with two plates as electrodes. The anode was made of Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 and the cathode of stainless steel. The following variables were evaluated: current density (75, 150 and 225 mA cm(-2)) and recirculation flow rate in the electrochemical cell (0.22, 0.45 and 0.90 L h(-1)). The increase in current density from 75 to 225 mA cm(-2) did not increased the color removal efficiency for the tested flow rates, 0.22, 0.45 and 0.90 L h(-1), however the energy consumption increased significantly. The results indicated the technical feasibility of the electrochemical treatment as post-treatment for UASB reactors treating wastewaters from pulp and paper plants. PMID:16939104

Buzzini, A P; Miwa, D W; Motheo, A J; Pires, E C

2006-01-01

149

Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

2012-07-01

150

A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens).  

PubMed

The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4km and 10km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p<0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p<0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found at the gene and cellular levels. Present results suggest that relating transcriptomic analyses to phenotypic responses is important to better understand impacts of environmental contamination on wild fish populations. PMID:25137380

Houde, Magali; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Bougas, Bérénice; Couture, Patrice; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Lair, Stéphane; Verreault, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

2014-11-01

151

Biological assessment of aquaculture effects on effluent-receiving streams in Ghana using structural and functional composition of fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages.  

PubMed

Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream (P = 0.0214) and upstream (P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream (P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations (P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area. PMID:22555961

Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Amisah, Stephen

2012-07-01

152

Organic compounds in re-circulated leachates of aerobic biological treated municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of organic matter is required to reduce the potential of municipal solid waste for producing gaseous emissions and leaching contaminants. Therefore, we studied leachates of an aerobic-treated waste from municipal solids and a sewage sludge mixture that were re-circulated to decrease the concentration of biodegradable organic matter in laboratory-scale reactors. After 12 months, the total organic C and biological and

Matthias Franke; Gerald Jandl; Peter Leinweber

2006-01-01

153

Management of patients with psoriasis treated with biological drugs needing a surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Postmarketing Phase IV Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a cytokine that plays a critical role in inflammatory and immune processes and in the control of infections and sepsis. Data on the perioperative management of patients treated with biologic drugs are limited and mainly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This retrospective study assesses variations in the incidence of side effects between psoriatic patients who temporarily discontinue or continue biological therapy before surgical treatment. Despite the immunosuppressive risk, our results suggest that postoperative complications are not influenced by the suspension of biologic therapies. As TNF-? plays a role in promoting collagen synthesis and wound healing, we suggest that anti-TNFs should be discontinued before major surgery, whereas for minor surgery, the lower rates of infections favor anti-TNF-? continuation, particularly since suspending anti-TNF therapy is known to induce psoriasis relapse. PMID:25381969

Fabiano, Antonella; De Simone, Clara; Gisondi, Paolo; Piaserico, Stefano; Lasagni, Claudia; Pellacani, Giovanni; Conti, Andrea

2014-11-01

154

Adherence to guidelines in the use of biological agents to treat psoriasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective In São Paolo, Brazil, patients can appeal to the courts, registering law suits against the government claiming the need for biological agents for treatment of psoriasis. If the lawsuits are successful, which is usually the case, the government then pays for the biologic agent. The extent to which the management of such patients, after gaining access to government payment for their biologic agents, adheres to authoritative guidelines, is uncertain. Methods We identified patients through records of the State Health Secretariat of São Paulo from 2004 to 2011. We consulted guidelines from five countries and chose as standards only those recommendations that the guidelines uniformly endorsed. Pharmacy records provided data regarding biological use. Guidelines not only recommended biological agents only in patients with severe psoriasis who had failed to respond to topical and systemic therapies (eg, ciclosporin and methotrexate) but also yearly monitoring of blood counts and liver function. Results Of 218 patients identified in the database, 3 did not meet eligibility criteria and 12 declined participation. Of the 203 patients interviewed, 91 were still using biological medicine; we established adherence to laboratory monitoring in these patients. In the total sample, management failed to meet standards of prior use of topical and systemic medication in 169 (83.2%) patients. Of the 91 patients using biological medicine at the time of the survey, 23 (25.2%) did not undergo appropriate laboratory tests. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between clinical practice and the recommendations of guidelines in the management of plaintiffs using biological drugs to treat psoriasis. PMID:24598304

Silveira, Miriam Sanches do Nascimento; de Camargo, Iara Alves; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sa; Guyatt, Gordon; de Camargo, Mayara Costa; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

2014-01-01

155

Methane recovery efficiency in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating sulphate-rich urban wastewater: evaluation of methane losses with the effluent.  

PubMed

The present paper presents a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) as a sustainable approach for urban wastewater treatment at 33 and 20 °C, since greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and energy recovery is enhanced. Compared to other anaerobic systems, such as UASB reactors, the membrane technology allows the use of biogas-assisted mixing which enhances the methane stripping from the liquid phase bulk. The methane saturation index obtained for the whole period (1.00±0.04) evidenced that the equilibrium condition was reached and the methane loss with the effluent was reduced. The methane recovery efficiency obtained at 20 °C (53.6%) was slightly lower than at 33 °C (57.4%) due to a reduction of the treatment efficiency, as evidenced by the lower methane production and the higher waste sludge per litre of treated wastewater. For both operational temperatures, the methane recovery efficiency was strongly affected by the high sulphate concentration in the influent wastewater. PMID:22705508

Giménez, J B; Martí, N; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

2012-08-01

156

Effect of solids retention time on membrane fouling intensity in two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs) treating palm oil mill effluent were analysed in terms of membrane fouling dynamics when working at three different sludge retention times (SRTs of 15, 30 and 60 d). The average permeate flux was fixed at 2.4 L x m(-2) x h(-1). During operation, the membrane was regenerated by using two steps: membrane wiping during each experiment as soon as trans-membrane pressure reached 125-130 mbars, and complete membrane cleaning including backwash and chemical cleaning at the end of each experiment when analysing the membrane surface and foulant material. Whatever the SRT, the cake formation was the dominant effect on membrane fouling dynamics. The concentration of suspended solids in the SAnMBRs, depending on the SRT, was then a determining criterion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that fouled membrane surfaces were covered with a cake layer containing organic and inorganic elements whose concentrations were higher when working at a higher SRT; the higher concentrations of such elements gave to the cake layer a denser and more compact structure. In these experiments, the soluble fractions played a secondary role because of the dominant effect of cake layer structuring. PMID:25145221

Annop, S; Sridang, P; Puetpaiboon, U; Grasmick, A

2014-01-01

157

Effects of pH adjustment by parawood ash and effluent recycle ratio on the performance of anaerobic baffled reactors treating high sulfate wastewater.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the performance of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating concentrated rubber latex wastewater under different pH adjustment substances and recycling ratios (R). Two ABRs, one received wastewater pretreated with NaOH and the other with ash, were operated at 35 degrees C under identical HRTs from 10 to 1.25d. Results show that both ABRs had highest COD and sulfate removal efficiencies at HRT 10d (averaged 82.71% and 96.16% of ABR-NaOH, and 80.77% and 96.60% of ABR-Ash, respectively), where majority of the influent COD and sulfate were removed by the first compartment of the ABR at all conditions tested. Increasing R (0, 0.3 and 0.5) raised the hydraulic loading on the system and resulted in a drop of organic removal efficiency and methane yield. Translocation of sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens in the ABRs caused by increased organic loading and effluent recycle is discussed. The results show great potential of parawood ash as a pH adjustment substance for acidic wastewaters. PMID:18617396

Saritpongteeraka, Kanyarat; Chaiprapat, Sumate

2008-12-01

158

Start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process using low activity anammox inoculum to treat low strength UASB effluent.  

PubMed

The start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using low activity anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) inoculum. The SBR received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) that treated low strength wastewater. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was first 0.24 ± 0.11 kg Nm(-3)d(-1) and then reduced to 0.10 ± 0.02 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). The average specific anammox activity was 2.27 ± 1.31 mg N (gVSS h)(-1), at 30°C representing an increase of 161% compared to the inoculum. The decrease in vNLR did not significantly affect anammox activity, but resulted in a decrease of denitrifying heterotrophic activity to very low levels after the first 30 days owing to the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the stable presence of anammox bacteria in biomass. Numerous filamentous microorganisms were present, several of which were in a state of endogenous respiration. PMID:24077156

Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Di Fabio, S; Noutsopoulos, C; Fatone, F

2013-11-01

159

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs

Lorenzo Bertin; Maria Chiara Colao; Maurizio Ruzzi; Leonardo Marchetti; Fabio Fava

2006-01-01

160

Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

Not Available

1989-04-04

161

Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

2014-01-01

162

Silage effluent management: a review.  

PubMed

Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ? 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of repeated land application of effluent on soil quality and crop yields, as spreading is a common disposal practice. PMID:24905641

Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

2014-10-01

163

Start-up of a biological sequencing batch reactor to treat supernatant from anaerobic sludge digester.  

PubMed

Treating the supernatant (reject water) from an anaerobic sludge digestion (800-1200 mg NH4(+)-N l(-1)) may be a good solution for meeting local requirements. As reject water represents 0.6% of the total wastewater influent flow and contains 10-30% of the total N it is recirculated to the head plant. In this study, a lab-scale start-up of biological nitrification/denitrification process to treat reject water was developed in a sequencing batch reactor. Sludge acclimation to the denitrification process was quite fast (6-7 days) for both NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N, whereas in nitrification it was slower (20 days). The use of a sequencing batch reactor to treat reject water produced a complete biological reduction of the NH4(+)-N via nitrite, working with sludge age of 15 days, hydraulic retention time of 1.3 days, temperature of 28 degrees C, pH between 7-8.5 and biomass concentration around 3500 mg VSS l(-1). Specific efficiencies were 14 mg NH4(+)-N (g VSS h(-1)) and 30 mg NO2(-)-N (g VSS h)(-1). PMID:16972385

Galí, A; Dosta, J; Macé, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

2006-08-01

164

Gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates and their relationships to enzyme activities and the soil microbial biomass in soils treated with dairy shed effluent and ammonium fertilizer at different water potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and their relationships to microbial biomass C and N and enzyme (protease,\\u000a deaminase and urease) activities were determined in soils treated with dairy shed effluent (DSE) or NH4\\u000a + fertilizer (NH4Cl) at a rate equivalent to 200 kg N ha–1 at three water potentials (0, –10 and –80 kPa) at 20??°C using a closed

M. Zaman; H. J. Di; K. C. Cameron; C. M. Frampton

1999-01-01

165

Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools.  

PubMed

Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. PMID:22717564

Filloux, E; Labanowski, J; Croue, J P

2012-08-01

166

Use of a coupled biological system to treat a chemically complex air stream.  

PubMed

The use of biological systems to remove contaminants from waste streams has been well documented. However, when dealing with complex waste streams, the use of one biological treatment system may not be the best alternative. When treating a complex waste stream, the use of "treatment trains" or "coupled systems" may be advantageous compared with any single biological technology. This article demonstrated that a coupled system was effective in biodegrading a chemically complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A bench-scale system consisting of a liquid bioreactor and a biofilter was used for the biodegradation of acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, naphthalene, alpha-pinene, and toluene. The bioreactor contained an inert solid support that immobilized a microbial population. The biofiltration portion of the system utilized the same microbial inoculum but employed Douglas fir bark as its solid support. Successful biodegradation of the complex VOC mixture was accomplished with this coupled system with an average VOC removal efficiency of 96% and VOC loading rates as high as 79 g/m3/h for inlet concentrations of > 8,000 ppmv. At elevated flow rates the liquid reactor demonstrated limited removal of some compounds, such as alpha-pinene and toluene, while maintaining excellent removal of other compounds, such as methanol and acetone. The biofilter portion of the system proved very successful in degrading the remaining toluene and alpha-pinene, thus complementing the removal from the bioreactor. This study demonstrates that coupled biological systems may be utilized for a chemically complex VOC-laden air stream that previously may not have been considered for biological treatment. PMID:12948168

Manninen, M R; Niemi, B A; Kleinheinz, G T

2003-07-01

167

Evaluation of secondary refinery effluent treatment using ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of the possibilities of using ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment for reverse osmosis, in a double membrane filtration scheme, in order to recycle biologically treated refinery effluent as cooling water make-up. This study focused on establishing the influence of process conditions for ultrafiltration, i.e. pressure, duration of fouling, frequency and duration of backwashing and chemical cleaning,

Carmen C Teodosiu; Marie D Kennedy; Henry A van Straten; Jan C Schippers

1999-01-01

168

Reaction of Endotoxin and Surfactants I. Physical and Biological Properties of Endotoxin Treated with Sodium Deoxycholate  

PubMed Central

Ribi, E. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), R. L. Anacker, R. Brown, W. T. Haskins, B. Malmgren, K. C. Milner, and J. A. Rudbach. Reaction of endotoxin and surfactants. I. Physical and biological properties of endotoxin treated with sodium desoxycholate. J. Bacteriol. 92:1493–1509. 1966.—Endotoxins from three species of gram-negative bacteria were shown to be dissociated by the bile salt sodium deoxycholate (NaD) into nontoxic subunits with molecular weights of about 20,000. When the bile salt was removed by dialysis, the subunits reaggregated in an orderly manner to form a relatively uniform population of biologically active endotoxin particles with average molecular weights of 500,000 to 1,000,000. If a small amount of human plasma was added to the dissociated endotoxin before removal of the NaD, reassociation apparently did not occur and the preparation remained nonpyrogenic. However, the plasma protein could subsequently be removed from the endotoxin subunits, and reaggregation to the toxic form would then occur. The studies on the physical nature of endotoxin performed with biophysical solution techniques were supplemented and confirmed by direct examination of the endotoxin polymers by electron microscopy. The results of these studies were consonant with the theory that the biologically active endotoxic elements are composed of micellar aggregates of linear lipopolysaccharide subunits. Images PMID:4288609

Ribi, E.; Anacker, R. L.; Brown, R.; Haskins, W. T.; Malmgren, B.; Milner, K. C.; Rudbach, J. A.

1966-01-01

169

The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

170

Nitrogen transformation and nitrous oxide emissions from various types of farm effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

With land disposal of the farm effluents as an accepted practice, concerns are viewed for its effect on the nitrous oxide\\u000a (N2O) emissions. This study was undertaken to determine the effect land application of different farm effluents (treated farm\\u000a dairy effluent (TFDE), untreated farm dairy effluent (UFDE), treated piggery farm effluent (TPFE) and treated meat effluent\\u000a (TME)) have on N2O

Rita Bhandral; Nanthi S. Bolan; Surinder Saggar; Mike J. Hedley

2007-01-01

171

Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.  

PubMed

Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. PMID:23892280

Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

2013-10-15

172

Proton radiotherapy: the biological effect of treating alternating subsets of fields for different treatment fractions  

PubMed Central

Purpose Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FSclin), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FSall) or only a single field each day (FSsingle). Cumulative 3D NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4 Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is less than 0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FSclin increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared to FSall. Use of FSsingle resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FSall resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FSclin and 10% lower than FSsingle. Conclusion The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment. PMID:20675067

Engelsman, Martijn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

173

Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

Engelsman, Martijn, E-mail: mengelsman@partners.or [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S. [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2011-02-01

174

Cytotoxicity of PVPAC-treated bovine pericardium: a potential replacement for glutaraldehyde in biological heart valves.  

PubMed

Acellular biological tissues, including bovine pericardium (BP), have been proposed as biomaterial for tissue engineering. BP is usually modified chemically to improve mechanical and biological properties using glutaraldehyde, the standard reagent for preservation of fresh bioprosthetic materials. Glutaraldehyde-fixed BP (Glut-BP), the most widely used material in heart valve manufacture, has been associated with calcification in vivo. In an attempt to reduce this issue and maintain its biocompatibility, this study assesses the physical properties and cytotoxicity of lyophilized BP treated with poly (vinylpyrrolidone-co-acrolein) (PVPAC-BP), a novel copolymer, as a substitute for glutaraldehyde. For that, PVPAC-BP surface ultrastructure, elastic function, water uptake and tissue calcification were evaluated. For the analysis of biocompatibility, fibroblasts (3T3-L1) and endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured on PVPAC-BP, Untreated-BP and Glut-BP. Nitric oxide (NO) release assay, fluorescence and SEM images of endothelial cells adhered on scaffolds were also performed. As results, the data show some advantages of PVPAC-BP over the Glut-BP. The PVPAC-BP maintains partially the original ultrastructure and elastic properties, improves scaffold hydration, and presents less calcium phosphate deposits. The cells demonstrated strong attachment, high proliferation rate, and formation of a monolayer on PVPAC-BP. Attached cells were also able to release NO de-monstrating regular metabolism. In conclusion, PVPAC may be considered as a promising alternative to BP treatment improving the efficiency of cell attachment and proliferation and also avoid immunogenicity. PMID:24123957

Barros, Janaina Aline Galvão; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabiola Branco; de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; Campa, Ana; Catalani, Luiz Henrique; Pitombo, Ronaldo de Nogueira Moraes; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw

2014-04-01

175

POME is treated for removal of color from biologically treated POME in fixed bed column: applying wavelet neural network (WNN).  

PubMed

As Malaysia is one of the world's largest producer of palm oil, large amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated. It was found that negatively charged components are accountable for POME color. An attempt was made to remove residual contaminants after conventional treatment using anion base resin. Adsorption experiments were carried out in fixed bed column. Various models such as the Thomas, the Yoon-Nelson, the Wolborska and BDST model were used to fit the experimental data. It was found that only the BDST model was fitted well at the initial breakthrough time. A wavelet neural network model (WNN) was developed to model the breakthrough curves in fixed bed column for multicomponent system. The results showed that the WNN model described breakthrough curves better than the commonly used models. The effects of pH, flow rate and bed depth on column performance were investigated. It was found that the highest uptake capacity was obtained at pH 3. The exhaustion time appeared to increase with increase in bed length and decrease in flow rate. PMID:24021163

Bello, M M; Nourouzi, M M; Abdullah, L Chuah; Choong, Thomas S Y; Koay, Y S; Keshani, S

2013-11-15

176

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

177

Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

178

The presence of acidic and neutral drugs in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in the Cornwallis and Annapolis River watersheds and the Mill CoveSewage Treatment Plant in Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are designed to have physiological effects on target organisms. Their presence and effect in aquatic ecosystems in the Annapolis Valley in Nova Scotia is relatively unknown. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs are continually introduced to aquatic ecosystems through treated sewage effluent outflows into rivers and other bodies of water. Fouracidic and two neutral pharmaceuticals were monitored in the effluents from nine sewage treatment plants in the Annapolis Valley and Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) in Nova Scotia. Naproxen and ibuprofen, two highly used OTC drugs, were the most prominent and were detected at high ng/L to low ?g/L levels. Caffeine, salicylic acid (a metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid) and cotinine were detected in the ng/L range. Warfarin was not detected above the detection limits. The urban sewage treatment plant in Mill Cove, HRM showed much higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals than rural facilities in the Annapolis Valley, despite the fact that more advanced facilities are used at the urban plant. Receiving waters both downstream and upstream from STP effluent outfalls were also studied, and trace levels of caffeine at several sites indicate some degree of pollution propagation into surrounding aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22178020

Crouse, Brian A; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Tong, Anthony Z

2012-01-01

179

Performance of conventional and antimicrobial-treated filtering facepiece respirators challenged with biological aerosols.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the filtration performance of four commercially available models of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) against both biological and inert aerosols at a flow rate of 85 L/min. Conventional N95 and P100 FFRs and two antimicrobial (AM)-treated FFRs (an N95 and a P95, both with iodine-based AM treatments) were tested for both physical penetration (PEN(P)) and viable penetration (PEN(V)) with three different bioaerosols, including MS2 bacteriophage virus, and the spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria, in addition to inert sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol. For each FFR model, the PEN(P) measured with NaCl was predictive of its MS2 PEN(P), and it was observed that spores and bacteria aerosols were also filtered similarly to the inert aerosol. For both conventional FFRs, up to a 1-log reduction in PEN(V) in comparison with PEN(P) was observed and attributed to the experimental variability of the test system. For both models of AM-FFRs, no statistically significant differences between PEN(V) and PEN(P) for any of the three different bioaerosol challenges were observed. Thus, no bioaerosol filtration enhancement over the conventional FFRs was detected for either iodine-based AM-FFR. In the absence of any standardized test methods, we recommend that future studies evaluating the filtration performance of AM-treated FFRs incorporate the experimental best practices described herein. PMID:22206440

Lore, Michael B; Sebastian, John M; Brown, TeAnne L; Viner, Andrew S; McCullough, Nicole V; Hinrichs, Steven H

2012-01-01

180

200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

Fernandez, L.

1995-03-13

181

Degradation of diethyl phthalate in treated effluents from an MBR via advanced oxidation processes: Effects of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot?scale AOP operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study was to delineate the oxidation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water, using bench?scale UV\\/H2O2 and O3\\/H2O2 processes, and to determine the effects of nitrate (NO3 ?N, 5 mg L) on this oxidation. The oxidation of DEP was also investigated through a pilot?scale advanced oxidation process (AOP), into which a portion of the effluent from

J. H. Park; C. G. Park; J. W. Lee; K. B. Ko

2010-01-01

182

Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

2004-01-01

183

Increased dielectric constant in the water treated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and its possible biological implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the most abundant compound on the surface of the Earth, and can be considered to be the most important molecule in living systems. Water plays a variety of cellular functions, being the solvent of most biological molecules, a substrate and product of enzymatic catalysis, an important component of macromolecules, and more. Because of importance of water in life, many physical and chemical treatments were invented to improve the quality of drinking water. Among them, the treatment with electromagnetic field is a well-known, but much debatable physical method. Although electromagnetic field has been utilized for treating water for 80 years, many reports on beneficial biological effect of electromagnetic field-treated water were either anecdotal or less convincing. To explore if there is any physical base for understanding possible biological effects of electromagnetic field-treated water, dielectric relaxation spectra of deionized water treated with an extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELFEM) field were measured and compared with that of untreated water. It was surprisingly found that the dielectric constant of the ELFEM field-treated water was 3.7% higher than the control over the frequency range of 1-10 GHz, which indicates a higher molecular polarization occurs in the ELFEM field-treated water. Electrostatic and thermodynamic analysis shows that proteins or other biomacromolecules would have more reduced free energy when they are hydrated in high dielectric constant water. Since free energy is of crucial importance for stability of proteins, protein folding and its conformational change, as well as catalytic activity of enzymes, the free energy reduction of the biomacromolecules hydrated with higher dielectric constant water may be responsible for many possible biological effects of electromagnetic field treated water.

Shen, Xun

2011-12-01

184

Effects of municipal effluent on algal growth  

E-print Network

stream. The result is the eventual return of some eighty percent of *he removed phosphorus back to the effluent. Biological methods therefore may only result in a partial reduc*ion of phosphorus. 2. Chemical Methods: In 1944, C. N. Sawyer developed.... "Nitrogen Removal from Waste Effluent. " Journal of Public Works, 97(2 ) 90-92 (1966) 12, Ivy, J ~ T. . "Eutrophication Potential of' Secondary and Tertiary Wastewater Effluent Masters Thesis, Texas AEcM University (1972 ) 1g. Sawyer, C. N...

Sung, Yeh-Min

2012-06-07

185

Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological phosphorus removal process was not optimized until after the study was completed. Total nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater treatment facility contributed a relatively small percentage (14 to 15 percent) to the annual nutrient load in the upper Blue River, but contributed substantially (as much as 75 percent) to monthly loads during seasonal low-flows in winter and summer. During 2007 and 2008, annual discharge from the wastewater treatment facility was about one-half maximum capacity, and estimated potential maximum annual loads were 1.6 to 2.4 times greater than annual loads before capacity upgrades. Even when target nutrient concentrations are met, annual nutrient loads will increase when the wastewater treatment facility is operated at full capacity. Regardless of changes in annual nutrient loads, the reduction of nutrient concentrations in the Blue River Main wastewater effluent will help prevent further degradation of the upper Blue River. The Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility wastewater effluent caused changes in concentrations of several water-quality constituents that may affect biological community structure and function including larger concentrations of bioavailable nutrients (nitrate and orthophosphorus) and smaller turbidities. Streambed-sediment conditions were similar along the upstream-downstream gradient and measured constituents did not exceed probable effect concentrations. Habitat conditions declined along the upstream-downstream gradient, largely because of decreased canopy cover and riparian buffer width and increased riffle-substrate fouling. Algal biomass, primary production, and the abundance of nutrient-tolerant diatoms substantially increased downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Likewise, the abundance of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa and Kansas Department of Health and Environment aquatic-life-support scores, derived from macroinvertebrate data, significantly decreased downstream from the wastewater

Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

2010-01-01

186

Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa  

PubMed Central

Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

2013-01-01

187

Collagen tissue treated with chitosan solutions in carbonic acid for improved biological prosthetic heart valves.  

PubMed

Calcification of bovine pericardium dramatically shortens typical lifetimes of biological prosthetic heart valves and thus precludes their choice for younger patients. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the calcification is to be mitigated by means of treatment of bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with carbon dioxide at high pressure. This acidic aqueous fluid unusually combines antimicrobial properties with absolute biocompatibility as far as at normal pressure it decomposes spontaneously and completely into H2O and CO2. Yet, at high pressures it can protonate and dissolve chitosan materials with different degrees of acetylation (in the range of 16-33%, at least) without any further pretreatment. Even exposure of the bovine pericardium in pure carbonic acid solution without chitosan already favours certain reduction in calcification, somewhat improved mechanical properties, complete biocompatibility and evident antimicrobial activity of the treated collagen tissue. The reason may be due to high extraction ability of this peculiar compressed fluidic mixture. Moreover, exposure of the bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid introduces even better mechanical properties and highly pronounced antimicrobial activity of the modified collagen tissue against adherence and biofilm formation of relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Yet, the most important achievement is the detected dramatic reduction in calcification for such modified collagen tissues in spite of the fact that the amount of the thus introduced chitosan is rather small (typically ca. 1wt.%), which has been reliably detected using original tritium labelling method. We believe that these improved properties are achieved due to particularly deep and uniform impregnation of the collagen matrix with chitosan from its pressurised solutions in carbonic acid. PMID:24582232

Gallyamov, Marat O; Chaschin, Ivan S; Khokhlova, Marina A; Grigorev, Timofey E; Bakuleva, Natalia P; Lyutova, Irina G; Kondratenko, Janna E; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Khokhlov, Alexei R

2014-04-01

188

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents.  

PubMed

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

189

Brackish water pond polyculture of estuarine fishes in power plant thermal effluent and their use as biological monitors of water quality  

E-print Network

System. A 9. 8 km discharge canal transports the plant's thermal effluents to a 1053 ha (surface area) cooling lake (Fig. 1). Cooling water from this lake is eventually re- turned to Trinity Bay at ambient temperature. The Cedar Bayou Generating... System. A 9. 8 km discharge canal transports the plant's thermal effluents to a 1053 ha (surface area) cooling lake (Fig. 1). Cooling water from this lake is eventually re- turned to Trinity Bay at ambient temperature. The Cedar Bayou Generating...

Branch, Mark Roy

2012-06-07

190

Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.  

PubMed

Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100 mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75 mg L(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100 mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200 Lux), whereas 0.67 mg L(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg L(-1)). The prevention of dark repair is ensured with 25-50% lower concentration of total oxidants. An increase of the TSS concentration from 11 mg L(-1) to 75 mg L(-1) leads to a triplication of the need of total oxidants from 0.6 mg L(-1) to 1.8 mg L(-1) (3*10(5)E. coli per 100 mL). The energy consumption of the hybrid reactor varies from 0.17 kWh m(-3) to 0.94 kWh m(-3) depending on the TSS concentration (11-75 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, biofilm formation on quartz glass surfaces, of which the sleeves of UV lamps consist, can be suppressed by electrochemically produced total oxidants at a concentration of at least 1 mg L(-1) which ensures high operational safety of the hybrid reactor combined with large maintenance intervals. PMID:24447954

Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

2014-04-01

191

Application of Fenton's reagent as a polishing step for removal of UV quenching organic constituents in biologically treated landfill leachates.  

PubMed

When landfill leachate, with or without biological pretreatment, is discharged to publically owned treatment works (POTWs), it can interfere with the installed treatment facilities. Biological treatment is ineffective for the removal of some of the bio-refractory organic matter, including UV??? quenching substances. Fenton's reagent treatment for biologically treated landfill leachates is examined in this study as a polishing step to make landfill leachates acceptable to POTWs. The optimum conditions for the Fenton's reagent treatment are explored. The molecular weight and hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature based fractions of the Fenton's treated leachate samples are analyzed to provide insight into the leachate fractions targeted by the Fenton's reagent. The results indicate that Fenton's reagent can act as a good compliment to biological treatment as it can remove leachate fractions which are widely considered to be bio-refractory. It exhibited good UV??? absorbance removal by removing larger molecular weight humic substances and thus, can help solve the UV??? quenching problem due to leachates discharged to POTWs. PMID:24457051

Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Douglas Goldsmith, C

2014-06-01

192

Microbial process for the decolorization of textile effluent containing azo, diazo and reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and practical biological process for the decolorization of coloured effluent from a textile company is described. A number of aerobic and anaerobic cultures able to decolorize dyes in textile effluent samples were isolated after prolonged enrichment culture from textile dyes-effluent samples. The decolorization of some component dyes of the effluent and of a mixture of dyes was achieved

Poonam Nigam; Ibrahim M. Banat; Dalel Singh; Roger Marchant

1996-01-01

193

Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.  

PubMed

The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ?2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse. PMID:22814960

Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

2013-04-01

194

The Higher Proportion of Men with Psoriasis Treated with Biologics May Be Explained by More Severe Disease in Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives Moderate to severe psoriasis, once regarded as merely a skin disease, is today seen as an inflammatory systemic disease. The sex ratio of the prevalence of psoriasis is balanced. In recent years several reports have documented that men receive more systemic or UV treatment than women, and different hypotheses were made. In PsoReg, the national registry for systemic treatment of psoriasis in Sweden, we have, like other European registries, observed a predominance of men (59%), especially of men treated with biologics (63%). Biologics are a relatively new group of very effective but high-priced drugs. The objective of this study was to analyse if women are discriminated by not having the same access to the high-priced biologics. Design Population based cohort study using data from a nationwide quality register of psoriasis patients. Population 2294 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis receiving systemic treatment from a specialist in dermatology. Main Outcome Measures Time to initiation of biologic treatment. A multiple Cox proportional hazard’s regression was performed, with time to initiating a biologic treatment as the outcome in order to assess the independent role of the patient’s sex in initiating such therapy. The psoriasis severity was defined as a time-varying variable. Results Men had more severe psoriasis than women according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), regardless of age at enrolment, and throughout the study period. The analysis in the multiple Cox regression show that age, psoriasis severity and psoriasis arthropathy were relevant factors for initiating biologic therapy, whereas sex is not. Conclusions Although as many women as men are believed to suffer from psoriasis, men seem to be more severely affected by psoriasis. The asymmetry in allocation of biologic therapy thereby probably reflects the differing disease activity between the sexes, and is not a discrimination against women per se. PMID:23691076

Hagg, David; Eriksson, Marie; Sundstrom, Anders; Schmitt-Egenolf, Marcus

2013-01-01

195

Occurrence of salivary gland tumours in two patients treated with biological agents.  

PubMed

We report two cases of salivary gland tumors arising in two psoriatic patients treated with an anti- TNF-alpha agent. A clear causal relationship could not be established, but the exceptional onset of a bilateral Warthin's tumor in one of these patients should be emphasized. PMID:22507345

Carlesimo, M; Mari, E; La Pietra, M; Orsini, D; Pranteda, G; Pranteda, G; Grimaldi, M; Arcese, A

2012-01-01

196

Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.  

SciTech Connect

Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

2005-04-01

197

Chemical Analysis and Process Classification of Constituents of Effluents (Organic Nitrogen in Activated Carbon Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research discussed in this report was to characterize by process response and chemical analysis the residual organic constituents in waters, especially the nitrogen-bearing components of wastewater treatment effluents following biologic...

T. B. Helfgott

1975-01-01

198

Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials  

PubMed Central

Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500??mol?g?1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents. PMID:22629157

Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

2012-01-01

199

Simulated cotton dye effluents treatment and reuse by nanofiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The textile industry uses enormous quantities of water which in many cases are disposed to the environment with inadequate treatment. The effluent contains high salts and organics concentrations and they are therefore difficult to be treated. In this work the effluents from the cotton textile industry was treated by nanofiltration membrane in order to reduce the quantity of the disposed

S. A. Avlonitis; I. Poulios; D. Sotiriou; M. Pappas; K. Moutesidis

2008-01-01

200

Nutrient removal of effluent from quail farm through cultivation of Wolffia arrhiza.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the nutrient removal using the Wolffiaarrhiza during the treatment of laying quails farm effluent. The relationship between W. arrhiza biomass and treatment time, the change in water qualities, and nitrogen-balance (N-balance) were evaluated. The results showed that a biomass of 12.0g of W. arrhiza per liter of effluent and a treatment period of 30 days were found to provide the best conditions for W. arrhiza's growth and the quality of the treated effluent in terms of biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, total phosphorus, nitrate, total ammonia nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. The pH and salinity were similar for each level of biomass. The W. arrhiza biomasses of 4.00-12.0g/l of effluent were suitable for W. arrhiza survival over time. Since W. arrhiza can fix N in the atmosphere, it can grow very well in effluent containing a low level of N. PMID:21669519

Suppadit, T

2011-08-01

201

The use of Microtox to assess toxicity removal of industrial effluents from the industrial district of Camaçari (BA, Brazil).  

PubMed

The treatment efficiency, as toxicity removal, of complex effluents from the Industrial District of Camaçari (BA, Brazil), after biological treatment with activated sludge was evaluated using Microtox. Samples of the equalised effluent (EE) were collected prior to treatment together with samples of the treated effluent (TE), which remained 24 h in the treatment plant. Rehydrated colonies of Vibrio fischeri were exposed to sequential dilutions of EE and TE to assess luminosity interference. Values for EC50 were calculated, together with the respective toxicity units. In all, twenty assays of each effluent type were carried out and the mean toxicity removal was 92.71%, while the chemical oxygen demand (COD) presented mean reduction of 83.04%. There was a variability of an order of magnitude between the Microtox results for the two types of effluents. The mean EC50 values were 2.12 for EE and 47.78% for TE. In spite of its weakness in some conditions, the Microtox system demonstrated to work adequately in assessing effluent toxicity removal in this treatment plant and therefore can be used for further toxicity removal programs. PMID:15667847

Araújo, Cristiano V M; Nascimento, Renato B; Oliveira, Carla A; Strotmann, Uwe J; da Silva, Eduardo M

2005-03-01

202

Biologically Effective Dose-Response Relationship for Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To find a biologically effective dose (BED) response for adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) for initial-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Results of randomized trials of RT vs. non-RT were reviewed and the tumor control probability (TCP) after RT was calculated for each of them. Using the linear-quadratic formula and Poisson statistics of cell-kill, the average initial number of clonogens per tumor before RT and the average tumor cell radiosensitivity (alpha-value) were calculated. An {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 4 Gy was assumed for these calculations. Results: A linear regression equation linking BED to TCP was derived: -ln[-ln(TCP)] = -ln(No) + {alpha}{sup *} BED = -4.08 + 0.07 * BED, suggesting a rather low radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells (alpha = 0.07 Gy{sup -1}), which probably reflects population heterogeneity. From the linear relationship a sigmoid BED-response curve was constructed. Conclusion: For BED values higher than about 90 Gy{sub 4} the radiation-induced TCP is essentially maximizing at 90-100%. The relationship presented here could be an approximate guide in the design and reporting of clinical trials of adjuvant breast RT.

Plataniotis, George A. [Department of Oncology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)], E-mail: george.plataniotis@nhs.net; Dale, Roger G. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2009-10-01

203

Molecular Detection of human Noroviruses in Influent and Effluent Samples From Two Biological Sewage Treatment Plants in the Region of Monastir, Tunisia.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for numerous cases of waterborne and foodborne gastroenteritis every year. They are released in the sewage and their detection in this environment can reflect the epidemiology of the viral strains circulating in the community. A three-year (2007-2010) survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of human NoVs using RT-PCR in 518 sewage samples collected at the entrance and exit of two biological sewage treatment plants located in Monastir region, Tunisia. In this study, we aimed to genetically characterize the most prevalent GI and GII NoV strains, in order to obtain a rough estimate of the efficacy of disinfection treatments and to compare the results with clinical data documented in the same area during the same period. This work confirms the wide circulation and the genetic diversity of NoVs in Tunisia and the widespread distribution of NoV variants in both raw and treated wastewater. Indeed, NoV was detected in 192 (37.1 %) sewage samples, among them mixed infections with group A rotavirus were detected in 125 (65.1 %) cases. The genotypes of the GI NoVs were GI.1, GI.2, GI.4, GI.5, and GI of unassigned genotype (GI.UA), and the genotypes of the GII NoVs were all GII.12. This study enhances the currently poor environmental virological data gathered in Tunisia, demonstrates the benefit of environmental surveillance as a tool to determine the epidemiology of NoVs circulating in a given community, and underlines the need for the design and support of similar long-term studies in our country, in order to compensate for the absence of a national surveillance system for gastroenteric viruses. PMID:24818568

Hassine-Zaafrane, Mouna; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Kaplon, Jérôme; Salem, Imen Ben; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia

2014-06-01

204

Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

1981-01-01

205

Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in raw and biologically treated sewage and in groundwater below leaking sewers.  

PubMed

More than 750 isolates of faecal coliforms (>200 strains), enterococci (>200 strains) and pseudomonads (>340 strains) from three wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and from four groundwater wells in the vicinity of leaking sewers were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics. Most, or at least some, strains of the three bacterial groups, isolated from raw or treated sewage of the three WTPs, were resistant against penicillin G, ampicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, triple sulfa and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Only a few strains of pseudomonads or faecal coliforms were resistant against some of the other tested antibiotics. The antibiotic resistances of pseudomonads, faecal coliforms and enterococci from groundwater varied to a higher extent. In contrast to the faecal coliforms and enterococci, most pseudomonads from all groundwater samples, including those from non-polluted groundwater, were additionally resistant against chloramphenicol and SXT. Pseudomonads from sewage and groundwater had more multiple antibiotic resistances than the faecal coliforms or the enterococci, and many pseudomonads from groundwater were resistant to more antibiotics than those from sewage. The pseudomonads from non-polluted groundwater were the most resistant isolates of all. The few surviving faecal coliforms in groundwater seemed to gain multiple antibiotic resistances, whereas the enterococci lost antibiotic resistances. Pseudomonads, and presumably, other autochthonous soil or groundwater bacteria, such as antibiotic-producing Actinomyces sp., seem to contribute significantly to the gene pool for acquisition of resistances against antibiotics in these environments. PMID:16001254

Gallert, C; Fund, K; Winter, J

2005-11-01

206

Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

Abrunhosa, Viviane M.; Mermelstein, Claudia S.; Costa, Manoel L.; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.

2011-02-01

207

Reduction of biological effluents in purge and trap micro reaction vessels and detection of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (edno) by chemiluminescence.  

PubMed

Various analytical approaches have been used to measure endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). We have detected NO in perfusates with a sample size as low as 2 ml after acidification with 4 N HC1 to pH less than 2 at 25 degrees C by using a Nitric Oxide Analyser (Sievers, Colorado). This procedure had the advantage that the detectable level of NO was enhanced by the self-decomposition of HNO2 when the PH less than pKa of NHO2 (pKa = 3.15) and also the reaction temperature of 25 degrees C substantially increased the half-line of NO. Palmer, et al., measured NO released by cultured porcine endothelial cells by chemiluminescence after passing cell effluents continuously at a rate of 5 ml/min into 75 ml of 1% sodium iodide in glacial acetic acid. The larger volumes involved in this method for continuous refluxing, made it less desirable for the detection of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Feelisch et al. utilized the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, as well as, the quantitative oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin in aqueous solutions by NO as a means of measuring nitric oxide. We describe here a modification of our earlier micromethod which now enables us to detect NO after complete reduction with glacial acetic acid and sodium iodide. A comparison of the two procedures indicate that while freshly prepared NO standard solutions gave identical chemiluminescence response with and without reduction, effluents from bovine intrapulmonary artery under basal conditions gave substantially higher values upon reduction. PMID:1942075

Menon, N K; Patricza, J; Binder, T; Bing, R J

1991-04-01

208

MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF  

SciTech Connect

European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)

1994-01-01

209

Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

210

Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility  

SciTech Connect

This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

Ballantyne, N.A.

1995-10-02

211

Biological wastewater treating system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for operating an activated sludge system to produce a non-bulking sludge having rapid settling characteristics and containing an activated biomass species capable of removing phosphate values which comprises: (a) forming a mixed liquor in a BOD sorption zone, the mixed liquor being formed by mixing an activated biomass with a soluble BOD/sub 5/ containing wastewater influent under conditions such that at least 25% of the soluble BOD/sub 5/ is sorbed by the biomass; (b) oxidizing the BOD/sub 5/ in the mixed liquor, including at least part of the BOD/sub 5/ sorbed in the biomass; in an oxidation zone by contacting the mixed liquor with an oxidizing agent; (c) settling the resulting oxidized mixed liquor in a settling zone thereby forming a supernatent liquor and a dense sludge containing activated biomass; and (d) recycling at least a portion of the dense sludge to the BOD sorption zone. The improvement comprises: incorporating oxidizing agent into the oxidation zone at a rate not substantially exceeding the rate of oxidation.

Chen, M.S.K.; Spector, M.L.

1988-03-15

212

Disinfection of greywater effluent and regrowth potential of selected bacteria.  

PubMed

Chlorination and UV irradiation of RBC (rotating biological contactor)-treated light GW (greywater) was investigated. The ability of chlorine and UV to inactivate indictor bacteria (FC - Faecal Coliforms, HPC - Heterotrophic Plate Count) and specific pathogens (P.a. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp., S.a. - Staphylococcus aureus sp.), was assessed and their regrowth potential was examined. The RBC removed 88.5-99.9% of all four bacteria groups. Nevertheless, the treated GW had to be disinfected. Most of the chlorine was consumed during the first 0.5 h, while later its decay rate decreased significantly, leaving enough residual after 6 h to prevent regrowth and to further inactivate bacteria in the stored GW effluent. Under exposure to low UV doses (?69 mJ/cm(2)) FC was the most resistant bacteria group, followed by HPC, P.a. and S.a. Exposure to higher doses (?439 mJs/cm(2)) completely inactivated FC, P.a. and S.a., while no further HPC inactivation was observed. FC, P.a. and S.a. did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to all the UV doses applied (up to 6 h storage). HPC did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to low UV doses (19-69 mJ/cm2), while it presented statistically significant regrowth in un-disinfected effluent and after exposure to higher UV doses (147-439 mJ/cm(2)). PMID:21411943

Friedler, Eran; Yardeni, Anat; Gilboa, Yael; Alfiya, Yuval

2011-01-01

213

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Cotton Textile Processing: Waste Generation and Effluent Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cotton textile process- ing and methods of treating effluent in the textile industry. Several countries, including India, have introduced strict ecological standards for textile industries. With more stringent controls expected in the future, it is essential that control measures be implemented to minimize effluent problems. Industrial textile processing comprises pretreat- ment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. These

B. Ramesh Babu; A. K. Parande; S. Raghu; T. Prem; Kumar B. R. Babu; T. P. Kumar

2007-01-01

214

Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) in a rotating biological contactor treating high-salinity wastewater.  

PubMed

A lab-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor operated under OLAND conditions was slowly adapted during 178 days to increasing salt concentrations going up to 30 g NaCl L(-1). The reactor performed well during this experimental period. However, the removal capacity of the reactor was lower under high-salinity conditions. A removal efficiency of 84% was achieved at a N loading rate of 725 mg N L(-1) d(-1) and a salt concentration of 30 g L(-1). The effect of salt shock loading and adaptation to 30 g NaCl L(-1) on the specific nitritation and anammox activity of the biomass was investigated in short-term batch experiments. A salt shock loading of 30 g L(-1) caused a 43% decrease in specific nitritation activity and 96% loss of specific anammox activity compared to reference biomass (not exposed to salt). The salt-adapted biomass (3-4 weeks) showed a specific nitritation activity that was 23% lower, and a specific anammox activity that was 58% lower, compared to the reference biomass. Overall, these results demonstrate that the OLAND process can have the potential to treat ammonium-rich brines after adaptation to high salinity. PMID:16225902

Windey, Kim; De Bo, Inge; Verstraete, Willy

2005-11-01

215

USE OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETE, 'LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS', FOR EFFLUENT BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of toxic agents in industria...

216

Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

Gove, George W.

1978-01-01

217

Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

2011-10-01

218

Comparative toxicological studies of distillery effluent treatments such as UASB reactor followed by an oxidizer unit using Cyprinus carpio fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of anaerobically treated distillery effluent and oxidized effluent on freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. The untreated distillery effluent (Sample A) was treated with up?flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (Sample B) and followed by an oxidizer system (Sample C and D) under optimized conditions. The comparative acute toxicity of

Vandana Patil; Vikram Ghole

2010-01-01

219

Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

Graf, F.A. Jr.

1995-02-27

220

Decolourisation of secondary effluent by UV-mediated processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brownish colour of a secondary-treated effluent from a local wastewater treatment plant was shown to be mainly due to a high content of humic acid-like material. The effluent was treated with four different UV-based treatments: UVC and VUV irradiation, with and without the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of these treatments was characterised in terms of the change

P. Puspita; F. A. Roddick; N. A. Porter

2011-01-01

221

Application of a sensitive chemiluminescent technique for comparison of cytochrome P4501A induction in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conjunction with an environmental assessment of biologically-treated bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) in a Western Canadian river, data indicated that lipophilic compounds were transferred to the mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni through ingestion of filter-feeding benthic caddisflies. P4501A induction was correlated with lipophilic body burdens, not with indices of recent BKME exposure. P4501A contents in hepatic and intestinal tissues of

Pamela J. Kloepper-Sams; Elizabeth Benton

1995-01-01

222

Toxicity assessment of textile effluents treated by advanced oxidative process (UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2) in the species Artemia salina L.  

PubMed

Textile industry wastes raise a great concern due to their strong coloration and toxicity. The objective of the present work was to characterize the degradation and mineralization of textile effluents by advanced oxidative processes using either TiO(2) or TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and to monitor the toxicity of the products formed during 6-h irradiation in relation to that of the in natura effluent. The results demonstrated that the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association was more efficient in the mineralization of textile effluents than TiO(2), with high mineralized ion concentrations (NH (4) (+) , NO (3) (-) , and SO (4) (2-) ) and significantly decreased organic matter ratios (represented by the chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon). The toxicity of the degradation products after 4-h irradiation to Artemia salina L. was not significant (below 10 %). However, the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association produced more toxicity under irradiation than the TiO(2) system, which was attributed to the increased presence of oxidants in the first group. Comparatively, the photogenerated products of both TiO(2) and the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association were less toxic than the in natura effluent. PMID:22638725

Garcia, Juliana Carla; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoly; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Ambrósio, Elizangela; Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio

2013-03-01

223

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

224

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

225

Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

1989-01-01

226

High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

1993-03-01

227

Effect of sludge retention time on the biological performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating corn-to-ethanol thin stillage with high lipid content.  

PubMed

The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich wastewaters by granular sludge bed reactors. The AnMBRs achieved high COD removal efficiencies up to 99% and excellent effluent quality. Although higher organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 8.0 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) could be applied to the reactors operated at shorter SRTs, better biological degradation efficiencies, i.e. up to 83%, was achieved at increased SRTs. Severe long chain fatty acid (LCFA) inhibition was observed at 50 days SRT, possibly caused by the extensive dissolution of LCFA in the reactor broth, inhibiting the methanogenic biomass. Physicochemical mechanisms such as precipitation with divalent cations and adsorption on the sludge played an important role in the occurrence of LCFA removal, conversion, and inhibition. PMID:24238260

Dereli, Recep Kaan; van der Zee, Frank P; Heffernan, Barry; Grelot, Aurelie; van Lier, Jules B

2014-02-01

228

Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation : A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial disposal of effluents on land and subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands is a relatively new area of research. Environmenal and socio-economic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domesticsewage based irrigation practices, at least for developing countries like India. Disposal of treated and untreated industrial effluents on land has become

Sacchidananda Mukherjee; Prakash Nelliyat

2006-01-01

229

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

230

Evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated Parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, ?-?rabinofuranosidase and ? xylosidase, respectively. The saccharification of alkali and biologically treated carrot grass by culture extract of M. cinnamomea was further enhanced by supplementation of ?-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus sp. mutant "O". The resultant hydrolysates containing glucose/xylose were fermented efficiently to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to presence of xylose isomerase (0.8 units/gds) activity in culture extract of M. cinnamomea resulting in production of 16.5 and 15.0 g/l of ethanol from alkali treated rice straw and carrot grass, respectively. PMID:24835742

Mahajan, Chhavi; Chadha, B S; Nain, Lata; Kaur, Amarjeet

2014-07-01

231

Evaluation of nitrogen retention and microbial populations in poultry litter treated with chemical, biological or adsorbent amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production. Successful management to reduce ammonia and its harmful side-effects on poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of litter amendments. In this study, three acidifiers, two biological treatments, one chemical urease inhibitor and two adsorber amendments were added to poultry litter. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of

Kimberly L. Cook; Michael J. Rothrock; Mark A. Eiteman; Nanh Lovanh; Karamat Sistani

2011-01-01

232

BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 65, 913920 (2001) Infertility and Testicular Atrophy in the Antiestrogen-Treated Adult Male Rat1  

E-print Network

greater importance in the male reproductive system. The ERKO male has abnormal rete testes and efferent913 BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 65, 913­920 (2001) Infertility and Testicular Atrophy in the adult male rat to test, in another species, the hypothesis that estrogen regulates fluid reabsorption

Hess, Rex A.

233

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

DOEpatents

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06

234

40 CFR 419.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pollutant or pollutant property and process type BAT effluent limitation...commingled or treated with process wastewater, it may be discharged...analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated...commingled or treated with process wastewater, or...

2013-07-01

235

Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF approximately 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Angel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

2013-01-01

236

Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: Lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the addition of activated carbon in the photocatalytic oxidation of biologically pretreated greywater and of a polar aliphatic compound gives synergy, as previously demonstrated with phenol. Photocatalytic oxidation kinetics were recorded with fivefold concentrated biologically pretreated greywater and with aqueous tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether solutions using a UV lamp and the photocatalyst TiO2 P25 in the presence and the absence of powdered activated carbon. The synergy factor, SF, was quantified as the ratio of photocatalytic oxidation rate constant in the presence of powdered activated carbon to the rate constant without activated carbon. No synergy was observed for the greywater concentrate (SF ? 1). For the aliphatic compound, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, addition of activated carbon actually had an inhibiting effect on photocatalysis (SF < 1), while synergy was confirmed in reference experiments using aqueous phenol solutions. The absence of synergy for the greywater concentrate can be explained by low adsorbability of its organic constituents by activated carbon. Inhibition of the photocatalytic oxidation of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether by addition of powdered activated carbon was attributed to shading of the photocatalyst by the activated carbon particles. It was assumed that synergy in the hybrid process was limited to aromatic organics. Regardless of the lack of synergy in the case of biologically pretreated greywater, the addition of powdered activated carbon is advantageous since, due to additional adsorptive removal of organics, photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a 60% lower organic concentration when activated carbon was present after the same UV irradiation time. PMID:24191472

Gulyas, Holger; Argáez, Ángel Santiago Oria; Kong, Fanzhuo; Jorge, Carlos Liriano; Eggers, Susanne; Otterpohl, Ralf

2013-01-01

237

Evaluation of Fenton method and ozone-based processes for colour and organic matter removal from biologically pre-treated swine manure.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the efficiency of different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton method, O3, H2O2 and O3/H2O2) for removing total COD (TCOD) and colour from biologically pre-treated swine manure. The Fenton process with a dosage of 100mgL(-1) of Fe(2+) and 800mgL(-1) of H2O2 resulted in about 78% TCOD and 96% colour reductions at an initial pH=3 after a reaction time of 30min. Coagulation, rather than oxidation process, was identified as a crucial mechanism for removing pollutants. Otherwise, single ozonation achieved only 27-30% TCOD and 53-88% colour removals for ozone dosages ranging between 0.7 and 4.3gO3h(-1) at the original wastewater pH (pH=8.1) after 30min reaction time. The combined treatment with O3/H2O2 at pH=8.1 did not produce any significant TCOD or colour reduction improvement. Therefore, direct reactions with ozone rather than radical reactions were elucidated as the main removal mechanisms in the ozone-based processes. Finally, a rough estimation of the operational costs involved in each process was also performed to compare their economic feasibility. The findings suggested that the Fenton process was more suitable than ozonation for reducing TCOD and colour from the biologically pre-treated swine manure. PMID:25058844

Riaño, Berta; Coca, Mónica; García-González, Mari Cruz

2014-12-01

238

The potential of a salt-tolerant plant (Distichlis spicata cv. NyPa Forage) to treat effluent from inland saline aquaculture and provide livestock feed on salt-affected farmland.  

PubMed

Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle. PMID:23333515

Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C

2013-02-15

239

Mycoplasma hyorhinis markedly degrades ?-amyloid peptides in vitro and ex vivo: a novel biological approach for treating Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) peptides (predominantly A?40, 42) and their aggregation into plaques in the brain are thought to be the one of the major causes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Originally discovered in our Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) (CHO/APPwt) cultures devoid of A? production, we found that Mycoplasma selectively degrades soluble A? in a time and dose (colony forming unit) dependent manner. Moreover, we fully characterized the Mycoplasma species as Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) by genetic and colony morphological analyses by light microscopy. Most interestingly, we attenuated the pathogenicity of M. hyorhinis by ? irradiation (3.5 Gy), and found that its ability to degrade A? was retained. On the other hand, heated and sonicated M. hyorhinis failed to retain this ability to degrade A?, suggesting that this degradation requires viable cells and likely a biologically active signaling pathway. In addition, we found that M. hyorhinis can degrade A? produced in AD model mice (PSAPP mice) ex vivo. Finally, we found that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis also can degrade A? produced in PSAPP mice in vivo. These studies suggest that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis can be a novel and alternative biological strategy for AD treatment. PMID:24093060

Habib, Ahsan; Deng, Juan; Hou, Huayan; Zou, Qiang; Giunta, Brian; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Obregon, Demian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Li, Song; Mori, Takashi; Tan, Jun

2013-01-01

240

Coupled photocatalytic-biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol: effects of photolytic and photocatalytic effluent composition on bioreactor process performance, community diversity, and resistance and resilience to perturbation.  

PubMed

Sequentially coupled advanced oxidation-biodegradation systems have proven effective for treating a variety of wastewaters, but in several cases the pretreatment did not improve, or even hindered, subsequent biodegradation. Therefore, investigating the relationship between advanced oxidation pretreated effluent and subsequent bioreactor performance can help to optimize these systems. Here, a photocatalytic reactor was used to produce four unique effluents from 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) by varying light wavelength, catalyst presence, and reaction time, demonstrating that the conditions of photocatalytic pretreatment can be tuned to achieve a variety of treatment objectives. The photocatalytic effluents were characterized for chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride release, aromaticity, and residual TCP concentration. The four effluents were normalized to 40 mg COD/L, combined with biological medium components, and fed to continuous bioreactors. Bioreactors were assayed for COD removal, TCP removal, optical density (OD), and microbial diversity via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In general COD removal in the bioreactors increased as aromatic character of the photoeffluent decreased, but the least aromatic effluent performed poorly indicating the nuanced relationship between photoreactor effluent composition and bioreactor performance. While neither indicator of community diversity, richness nor evenness, correlated with COD removal or biomass accumulation, each effluent produced a unique community as indicated through similarity indices. All conditions demonstrated strong overall TCP removal. After two weeks at steady state, the reactors were perturbed with a 120-?M spike of TCP. Overall the most aromatic photoeffluent produced the most resistant community to the perturbation, while the optimum effluents at steady state produced communities with poor resistance in terms of biomass accumulation and COD removal. These results highlight the tradeoffs between steady state performance and resistance to perturbation that are necessary to optimize a combined advanced oxidation-biodegradation treatment strategy. PMID:24361703

Marsolek, Michael D; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Gray, Kimberly A; Rittmann, Bruce E

2014-03-01

241

Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF(R)), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

2012-01-01

242

Novel synthesis of dihydropyrimidines for ?-glucosidase inhibition to treat type 2 diabetes: in vitro biological evaluation and in silico docking.  

PubMed

A convenient and efficient new method has been established for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidines by inexpensive and non-toxic N-acetyl glycine (NAG) catalysed reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ethyl acetoacetate and urea/thiourea. This method is applicable for various substituted aldehydes as well as urea and thiourea. It has also been used to synthesize bicyclic oxygen-bridged pyrimidine derivatives (4d, 4j). The biological assay revealed that the majority of compounds synthesized displayed modest inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase at low micro-molar concentrations. Molecular docking studies were also performed on the most active compound, 4f (with IC50 value 112.21±0.97 ?M), to show the enzyme - inhibitor interactions. PMID:24880489

Yar, Muhammad; Bajda, Marek; Shahzadi, Lubna; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Ahmed, Maqsood; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alam, Umber; Khan, Islam Ullah; Khan, Ather Farooq

2014-06-01

243

Vadose Zone Microbial Transport Below At-Grade Distribution of Wastewater Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation of Escherichia coli and total coliform from secondary treated wastewater effluent under two “at-grade” effluent distribution systems was evaluated\\u000a in a sandy silt vadose zone in a cold climate. The two at-grade distribution lines had different designs and hydraulic loading\\u000a rates. Effluent transport was examined using chloride as a tracer. Coliform fate was evaluated relative to the chloride

Erin C. Motz; Edwin Cey; M. Cathy Ryan; Angus Chu

244

Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

245

Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds. PMID:23361176

Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

2013-08-01

246

Biological treatment and ozone oxidation: Integration or coupling?  

PubMed

Wastewaters generated by many economically relevant industrial activities contain recalcitrant organic compounds which pass unaltered through biological stage of the treatment plant making it difficult to meet the discharge limits currently in force. Therefore, an additional treatment is usually required to remove these compounds. In this study, the application of ozonation together with biological treatment was investigated. In particular, the effectiveness of biological degradation followed by or integrated with ozonation for treating the effluents produced by three environmentally relevant activities (i.e., leather and textile processing and municipal waste landfilling) are compared in the present paper. The results show that biological treatment followed by ozonation does not guarantee depurative levels sufficient for discharge for landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. On the contrary, thanks to the synergy between biological degradation and ozonation, integrated treatment significantly improves the process performance for all the investigated wastewaters, thus allowing the discharge limits to be met. PMID:22206914

Di Iaconi, Claudio

2012-02-01

247

Biodegradability enhancement of a pesticide-containing bio-treated wastewater using a solar photo-Fenton treatment step followed by a biological oxidation process.  

PubMed

This work proposes an efficient combined treatment for the decontamination of a pesticide-containing wastewater resulting from phytopharmaceutical plastic containers washing, presenting a moderate organic load (COD=1662-1960 mg O? L?¹; DOC=513-696 mg C L?¹), with a high biodegradable organic carbon fraction (81%; BOD?=1350-1600 mg O? L?¹) and a remaining recalcitrant organic carbon mainly due to pesticides. Nineteen pesticides were quantified by LC-MS/MS at concentrations between 0.02 and 45 mg L?¹ (14-19% of DOC). The decontamination strategy involved a sequential three-step treatment: (a) biological oxidation process, leading to almost complete removal of the biodegradable organic carbon fraction; (b) solar photo-Fenton process using CPCs, enhancing the bio-treated wastewater biodegradability, mainly due to pesticides degradation into low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions; (c) and a final polishing step to remove the residual biodegradable organic carbon, using a biological oxidation process. Treatment performance was evaluated in terms of mineralization degree (DOC), pesticides content (LC-MS/MS), inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions (IC) concentrations. The estimated phototreatment energy necessary to reach a biodegradable wastewater, considering pesticides and low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions concentrations, Zahn-Wellens test and BOD?/COD ratio, was only 2.3 kJ(UV) L?¹ (45 min of photo-Fenton at a constant solar UV power of 30 W m?²), consuming 16 mM of H?O?, which pointed to 52% mineralization and an abatement higher than 86% for 18 pesticides. The biological oxidation/solar photo-Fenton/biological oxidation treatment system achieved pesticide removals below the respective detection limits and 79% mineralization, leading to a COD value lower than 150 mg O? L?¹, which is in agreement with Portuguese discharge limits regarding water bodies. PMID:22796005

Vilar, Vítor J P; Moreira, Francisca C; Ferreira, Ana C C; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R

2012-10-01

248

Advanced electro-Fenton degradation of biologically-treated coking wastewater using anthraquinone cathode and Fe-Y catalyst.  

PubMed

The electrocatalytic activity of bare and 2-ethyl anthraquinone-modified graphite felt (2-EAQ/GF) toward oxygen reduction was investigated using a cyclic voltammetry technique in a neutral solution. The prepared cathodes were tested for electrogeneration of H2O2 and electro-Fenton oxidation (EFO) treatment of neutral coking wastewater (CW) after biological process, using a graphite anode and Fezeolite Y catalyst. The results showed that (i) H2O2 yield and current efficiency greatly depended on cathodic potential and materials; (ii) hydroxyl radicals, generated from Fe-zeolite Y-catalyzed H2O2 decomposition, played a great role in EFO treatment, while anodic direct and indirect oxidation was insignificant; (iii) chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon (TOC) and acute toxicity of wastewater decreased by 40-50, 30-40 and 50-60%, respectively, and biodegradability increased after 1 h of EFO treatment. Due to the free-pH adjustment, EFO presents a potential engineering application for advanced treatment of CW. PMID:22053459

Li, Haitao; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Yi

2011-01-01

249

Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species  

PubMed Central

Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species. PMID:23737943

Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

250

Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated in inflow, effluent and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial resistance is a phenomenon of increasing importance. Sewage treatment processes are a vehicle for dissemination of resistant bacteria in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To assess the number of antimicrobial resistant E. coli present in the wastewater inflow, effluent and sludge from urban sewage treatment plants in Portugal, 42 samples of crude inflow, treated effluent and sludge were collected

P. Martins Da Costa; P. Vaz-Pires; F. Bernardo

2007-01-01

251

Supply of organic matter and bacteria to aquatic ecosystems through waste water effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the impact on the river Seine of the waste water effluents from the city of Paris and its suburbs, a detailed characterisation was made of both raw and treated effluents from the three main treatment plants in this area which differ both in size and type of treatment. The waste water samples were subjected to analyses

Pierre Servais; Josette Garnier; Nadia Demarteau; Natacha Brion; Gilles Billen

1999-01-01

252

Treatment of combined bleaching effluent by membrane filtration technology for system closure in paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out for the treatment of combined bleaching effluent of an Indian pulp and paper mill. The Chlorination, extraction, Hypo-1 & Hypo-2 (CEHH) sequence is being used for the bleaching of hardwood pulp in the mill. Effluent was treated by the Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). Thin film composite spiral-wound modules, having crass

Sudheer Kumar Shukla; Vivek Kumar; M. C. Bansal

2010-01-01

253

Management Options Supporting a Dual Discharge Strategy for a Major Municipal Wastewater Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (METRO) discharges ~80 MGD of treated effluent to the waters of Onondaga Lake, the outflow of which is received by the Seneca River. Trophic conditions in the lake are severely degraded by this input. A dual discharge strategy has been proposed under which the effluent would be diverted to the river. This, together with

Daniel K. Rucinski; Martin T. Auer; David W. Watkins; Steven W. Effler; Rakesh K. Gelda; Susan M. Doerr O'Donnell; David M. O'Donnell

254

Biological considerations in locally advanced breast cancer treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy: thymidine labelling index is an independent indicator of clinical outcome.  

PubMed

The present retrospective study aims to determine the clinical value of thymidine labelling index (TLI) together with other established clinical and biological factors in 116 locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. TLI was determined in 71 LABC patients with a median of 2.62% (0-23.64%) and a mean of 4.71% +/- 5.54. As a result of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 85 patients (73%) responded to chemotherapy (CT), whereas 31 patients were unresponsive (27%). No relationship has been found between the pretreatment biological variables including TLI, estrogen receptor (ER), progesteron receptor (PgR) status and clinical parameters such as the chemotherapy response rates and axillary lymph node involvement following chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 35 months (18-97 months) and the 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates were 71.6% and 52.2%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with inflammatory breast cancer, high TLI-index (> or = 2.62%), lymph node (LN) positivity or > 3 positive lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and without any response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were found to have worse DFS and OS-rates and high local and systemic recurrence rates. In multivariate analysis, TLI was estimated as the most powerful independent factor affecting the OS in LABC patients among the other established clinical and biological parameters (p = 0.02). These results suggest that TLI is an important independent indicator of clinical outcome in patients with LABC and these patients with high TLI levels require more effective treatment modalities. PMID:11688518

Ozmen, V; Cabioglu, N; Dolay, K; Bilir, A; Kecer, M; Aydiner, A; Muslumanoglu, M; Igci, A; Bozfakioglu, Y; Dagoglu, T

2001-07-01

255

Effluent blending in constructed wetlands: Pollution prevention applications at a coal yard treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

Effluent blending, in combination with constructed wetland biotechnology, is a promising method for reducing the loading rates of pollution to receiving streams. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a project is underway to demonstrate this principle. An 8:2 ratio of sewage treatment plant to coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) effluent will be polished by 2 constructed wetland cells containing emergent wetland plants in saturated pea gravel at a rate of 3600 gallons per day. The relatively high concentration of nutrients in the STP effluent should stimulate biological processes leading to the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and the conversion of excess sulfate (in the CYRTF effluent) to alkalinity. Chlorine, which is added to the STP effluent to control bacteria, should also be eliminated. Measurements of wastewater toxicity, before and after the effluent blend has passed through the constructed wetlands, will be used to assess the technology`s effectiveness at reducing pollution.

Carder, J.P.; Hoylman, A.M.; Sparks, B.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

256

Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents  

SciTech Connect

A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1994-05-01

257

A genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of epilepsy prognosis in a prospective cohort of newly treated epilepsy.  

PubMed

We present the analysis of a prospective multicentre study to investigate genetic effects on the prognosis of newly treated epilepsy. Patients with a new clinical diagnosis of epilepsy requiring medication were recruited and followed up prospectively. The clinical outcome was defined as freedom from seizures for a minimum of 12 months in accordance with the consensus statement from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Genetic effects on remission of seizures after starting treatment were analysed with and without adjustment for significant clinical prognostic factors, and the results from each cohort were combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. After quality control (QC), we analysed 889 newly treated epilepsy patients using 472 450 genotyped and 6.9 × 10(6) imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Suggestive evidence for association (defined as Pmeta < 5.0 × 10(-7)) with remission of seizures after starting treatment was observed at three loci: 6p12.2 (rs492146, Pmeta = 2.1 × 10(-7), OR[G] = 0.57), 9p23 (rs72700966, Pmeta = 3.1 × 10(-7), OR[C] = 2.70) and 15q13.2 (rs143536437, Pmeta = 3.2 × 10(-7), OR[C] = 1.92). Genes of biological interest at these loci include PTPRD and ARHGAP11B (encoding functions implicated in neuronal development) and GSTA4 (a phase II biotransformation enzyme). Pathway analysis using two independent methods implicated a number of pathways in the prognosis of epilepsy, including KEGG categories 'calcium signaling pathway' and 'phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway'. Through a series of power curves, we conclude that it is unlikely any single common variant explains >4.4% of the variation in the outcome of newly treated epilepsy. PMID:23962720

Speed, Doug; Hoggart, Clive; Petrovski, Slave; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Coffey, Alison; Jorgensen, Andrea; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; De Iorio, Maria; Todaro, Marian; De, Tisham; Smith, David; Smith, Philip E; Jackson, Margaret; Cooper, Paul; Kellett, Mark; Howell, Stephen; Newton, Mark; Yerra, Raju; Tan, Meng; French, Chris; Reuber, Markus; Sills, Graeme E; Chadwick, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Bentley, David; Scheffer, Ingrid; Berkovic, Samuel; Balding, David; Palotie, Aarno; Marson, Anthony; O'Brien, Terence J; Johnson, Michael R

2014-01-01

258

Environmental testing. [Bioassay of effluents from solvent refined coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling of chemical separation and fractionation with environmental testing is able to identify those materials most biologically active, at least, in acute toxicity. In the case of the (SRC) solvent refined coal effluent the primary activity was attributed to the acidic organic fraction, where the phenolics are located. Because of the relative removal efficiency of phenolics through chemical stripping and

C. W. Gehrs; B. R. Parkhurst; D. S. Shriner

1978-01-01

259

Removal of phosphorus from secondary effluents by coagulation and ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary effluents of municipal wastewater in Israel contain on average 10 mg\\/L phosphorus, a concentration that is twice as high as a limit recently legislated by the Israeli Ministry of Environment. Reduction of phosphorus concentration to the required level is often performed by biological methods, or by flocculation followed by sand filtration. The current study explores a different path of

Tomer Nir; Elizabeth Arkhangelsky; Inna Levitsky; Vitaly Gitis

2009-01-01

260

Reutilization of effluents from laccase-mediator treatments of kraft pulp for biobleaching.  

PubMed

Several effluents from laccase-mediator treatments of kraft pulp were recovered and subsequently reused with fresh pulp in order to simulate recirculation of effluents during biobleaching. The effluents were used as a new bleaching stage without any modification except enzyme addition. Pulp treated with effluents were afterwards chemically bleached by using the simple sequence LQPo, where L represents the treatment with effluent and laccase addition, Q is a chelating stage and Po is an alkaline peroxide stage. This system showed a promising potential on delignification, with kappa number ranging from 5.5 to 6.6 after LQPo sequence, depending on the type of effluent employed in L stage. Improvements on pulp brightness were also reported compared with control experiment. PMID:21111614

Moldes, D; Vidal, T

2011-02-01

261

The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (< 10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ?X174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

2012-11-01

262

The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils.  

PubMed

An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ?X174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (<10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ?X174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent. PMID:22300802

O'Luanaigh, N D; Gill, L W; Misstear, B D R; Johnston, P M

2012-11-01

263

Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour. PMID:24031372

de Oliveira, Patricia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lucia Regina

2009-01-01

264

Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs were present in both WWTP effluents and receiving streams, (3) some effluents may be important sources of estrogenicity in weakly diluted streams, (4) measured levels of biological estrogenicity were often higher than estimated levels of chemical estrogenicity, and (5) the type of treatment had a large effect on the removal efficacy, and consequently, the estrogenicity levels observed in treated effluents.

Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

2014-01-01

265

Application of Trapa bipinosa for the treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent.  

PubMed

The ability of aquatic plants to absorb, translocate and concentrate metals has led to the development of various plant-based treatment systems. The potential to accumulate metals like iron, nickel, manganese and copper by Trapa bipinosa was assessed by subjecting them to different effluent concentrations of pulp and paper industry under laboratory conditions. Trapa showed the ability to accumulate substantial amounts of the metals during a short span of one week. When the plants were grown in different concentrations they caused significant reduction in various parameters like dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride and sulphate. While there was an increase in biomass, no visible phytotoxic symptoms were shown by treated plants. PMID:20136044

Kousar, Hina; Puttaiah, E T

2009-09-01

266

The effects of soil type and effluent pre-treatment on soil aquifier treatment  

SciTech Connect

A matrix of three different levels of effluent pre-treatment and four different soil types was used in a study on the effects of soil type and effluent pre-treatment on Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of SAT for the recharge of groundwater and indirect potable reuse. The soils represented a wide range of hydrological and physicochemical characteristics from a proposed recharge site in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Effluents studied included denitrified and conventional secondary effluents. These effluents contain different levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}), organic carbon, ammonia, and nitrate. Ten 2.6 m columns were operated under different wetting/drying cycles. For the effluents studied, results indicate that effluent pre-treatment does not impact organic carbon removal efficiencies. Under optimal wetting/drying cycle times, BOD{sub 5} can be removed efficiently although a residual organic carbon concentration of 5-6 mg/l persists. Ammonia is effectively nitrified under most conditions but denitrification does not readily occur even when denitrified effluent is applied. Soil Aquifer Treatment appears to be a robust treatment system for denitrified effluent producing total nitrogen concentrations less than 8 mg/L and organic carbon concentrations less than 6 mg/L.

NONE

1996-12-31

267

Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

NONE

1994-11-01

268

Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT. PMID:19151500

Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

2009-01-01

269

Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks). Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. PMID:22884373

Filloux, Emmanuelle; Gallard, Hervé; Croue, Jean-Philippe

2012-11-01

270

Fate of effluent organic matter and DBP precursors in an effluent-dominated river: A case study of wastewater impact on downstream water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of treated wastewater discharges on downstream water quality was evaluated in an effluent-dominated stream in the Southwest USA. The fate and transport of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors was studied. Nitrification and biodegradation were important mechanisms. Changes in DBP formation potential along the river appeared to correlate with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic

Baiyang Chen; Seong-Nam Nam; Paul K. Westerhoff; Stuart W. Krasner; Gary Amy

2009-01-01

271

Drug Discovery Using Chemical Systems Biology: Repositioning the Safe Medicine Comtan to Treat Multi-Drug and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The rise of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis around the world, including in industrialized nations, poses a great threat to human health and defines a need to develop new, effective and inexpensive anti-tubercular agents. Previously we developed a chemical systems biology approach to identify off-targets of major pharmaceuticals on a proteome-wide scale. In this paper we further demonstrate the value of this approach through the discovery that existing commercially available drugs, prescribed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, have the potential to treat MDR and XDR tuberculosis. These drugs, entacapone and tolcapone, are predicted to bind to the enzyme InhA and directly inhibit substrate binding. The prediction is validated by in vitro and InhA kinetic assays using tablets of Comtan, whose active component is entacapone. The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC99) of entacapone for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) is approximately 260.0 µM, well below the toxicity concentration determined by an in vitro cytotoxicity model using a human neuroblastoma cell line. Moreover, kinetic assays indicate that Comtan inhibits InhA activity by 47.0% at an entacapone concentration of approximately 80 µM. Thus the active component in Comtan represents a promising lead compound for developing a new class of anti-tubercular therapeutics with excellent safety profiles. More generally, the protocol described in this paper can be included in a drug discovery pipeline in an effort to discover novel drug leads with desired safety profiles, and therefore accelerate the development of new drugs. PMID:19578428

Tonge, Peter J.; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E.

2009-01-01

272

Purification of aqueous effluents  

SciTech Connect

Raw synthesis gases produced by the gasification of coal are treated to remove tars and oils by direct and indirect cooling to produce condensate streams which are treated under high pressure viz 5 to 150 bar to rapidly separate out aqueous and organic phases. Elevated temperatures may then be used to further minimize residence time. The invention is further characterized in that the size of the separation vessels is of several orders of magnitude smaller than used in conventional ambient pressure separation procedures.

Wild, K.R.

1985-04-23

273

Petroleum refinery secondary effluent polishing using freezing processes--toxicity and organic contaminant removal.  

PubMed

A petroleum refinery secondary effluent was treated using two freezing techniques--spray freezing and unidirectional downward freezing (UDF). The freezing processes were effective to remove toxicity and total organic carbon (TOC)- and chemical oxygen demand (COD)-causing materials in the effluent. Agitation of the liquid during UDF significantly improved the impurity separation efficiency; 85 to 96% removal of TOC and COD was achieved without any pretreatment and freezing only 70% of the feed water. The treatment efficiency of the spray freezing was at the same level as that of UDF without mixing. The spray ice with longer storage time released more contaminants with early meltwater. The initial contaminant concentration of the feed water and the freezing temperatures (-10 degrees C and -25 degrees C) had no significant influence on the treatment efficiency. A small fluctuation in effluent TOC concentration caused a dramatic change in effluent toxicity (Microtox). The effective concentration (EC20) (Microtox) was effective in detecting effluent toxicity. PMID:18686927

Gao, W; Smith, D W; Habib, M

2008-06-01

274

Inflammatory properties of municipal effluents to Elliptio complanata mussels — lack of effects from anti-inflammatory drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in freshwater mussels (Elliptio complanata) exposed to a primary-treated municipal effluent. Mussel specimens were injected with either increasing concentrations of ibuprofen or with a municipal effluent extract, and then left to stand for 24 h at 15 °C. They were also exposed to dilutions of a

F. Gagné; E. Bérubé; M. Fournier; C. Blaise

2005-01-01

275

Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.  

PubMed

The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

2011-01-01

276

Removing textile mill effluent recalcitrant COD and toxicity using the H2O2/UV system.  

PubMed

The potential of the H2O2/UV process for improving quality of an industrial textile effluent before biological treatment was evaluated in the laboratory using a multivariate experimental design to determine the effects of pH, H2O2 dose and reaction time on colour, COD and toxicity removal efficiencies. Increasing reaction time (from 10 to 120 min) and H2O2 dose (from 0 to 5 mmol L(-1)) significantly improved removal efficiencies, while increasing pH (from 4 to 10) had a negative effect on colour and toxicity removals. Laboratory H2O2/UV treatment of the mill effluent under optimum conditions (pH 7, 5 mmol L(-1) H2O2, 120 min) resulted in decreases in colour (70%), COD (21%) and toxicity (67%), without lowering BOD. H2O2 was consumed within the first 30-60 min, while the effluent average oxidation state stabilized after 60 min. Decreasing reaction time to 60 min resulted in similar colour (63%) and COD (20%) removals but lower toxicity removal (44%). Spectrophotometric monitoring of the optimized reaction indicated partial destruction of residual aromatic azo dyes. H2O2 and residual peroxide and average oxidation state of the effluent Effluent biodegradability (BOD/COD) increased by 28% after the H2O2/UV treatment. Improvements observed in effluent quality are expected to enhance combined AOP-biological treatment efficiency of the mill effluent. PMID:19809153

Mounteer, A H; Leite, T A; Lopes, A C; Medeiros, R C

2009-01-01

277

The sublethal effects of petroleum refinery effluents: Mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction in rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

Canada uses a single biological parameter which is based on the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to survive a 24 hour exposure to assess and regulate the toxicity of refinery effluents. The acute toxicity of Canadian refinery effluents is generally well controlled. Long term exposures to sublethal toxicants, which are not covered by the current regulations, could have adverse ecological effects. Since PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, can occur in refinery effluents, the authors tested the hypothesis that refinery effluents can induce mixed-function oxygenase measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) activity in fish. Two end of pipe effluent samples were collected from each of four Ontario refineries. All effluents induced EROD activity in young trout in a dose dependent manner. The EROD parameter has potential as a bioindicator of exposure to refinery effluents. The samples were also tested for toxicity to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and to a fish cell line (Ictalurus nebulosus). Fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by six out of eight samples, and larval survival was affected by one sample. The in vitro data were less consistent: weak toxicity was detected in some samples but the dose response relationship was poor. Direct acting mutagens were detected in two effluents using the Ames Fluctuation assay.

Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Parrott, J.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

278

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

279

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Borax Production Subcategory § 415.272 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.653 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.362 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.472 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Salts Production Subcategory § 415.367 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.477 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

291

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

292

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.123 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.122 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.432 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

297

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Insulation Fiberglass Subcategory § 426.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.552 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

312

40 CFR 415.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Fluoride Production Subcategory § 415.237 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

313

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

1985-05-01

314

Hydrodynamique d'un filtre biologique en systeme insature avec nitrification d'un effluent septique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamics of a biological unsaturated filtration system with nitrification of a septic effluent: Most of the on site waste-water treatment plant designed by means of empirical relations, do not answer to the European quality guide-line for waste-water effluent. Further more, the classical process based on a pretreatment combining settling and liquefaction of suspended solids followed by an aerobic filtration in

A Lakel; M Baudu; C Dagot

1998-01-01

315

Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review.  

PubMed

The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a "substance" approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a "matrix" approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals (replacement of toxic products by less pollutant ones, etc.). PMID:23545489

Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

2013-06-01

316

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

317

Study on quality of effluent discharge by the Tiruppur textile dyeing units and its impact on river Noyyal, Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In Tiruppur, 729 textile dyeing units are under operation and these units generate 96.1 MLD of wastewater. The untreated effluent was discharged into the Noyyal River till 1997. After the issuance of directions by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) in 1997, these units have installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment units. Some of the units have installed individual ETP (IETP). The treated effluent was finally discharged into the river. The dyeing units use sodium chloride in the dyeing process for efficient fixing of dye in the fabric efficiently. This contributes high total dissolved solids (TDS) and chlorides in the effluent. CETPs and IETPs failed to meet discharge standards of TDS and chlorides and thereby significantly affected the river water quality. TDS level in the river water was in the range of 900 - 6600 mg/L, and chloride was in the range of 230 - 2700 mg/L. Orathupalayam dam is located across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. The pollutants carried by the river were accumulated in the dam. TDS in the dam water was in the range of 4250 - 7900 mg/L and chloride was in the range of 1600 - 2700 mg/L. The dam sediments contain heavy metals of chromium, copper, zinc and lead. In 2006, the High Court has directed the dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant and to stop discharging of effluent into the river. Accordingly, the industries have installed and commissioned the ZLD plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system in 2010. The effluent after secondary treatment from the CETP is further treated in RO plant. The RO permeate is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE)/ mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR). The concentrate is crystallized and centrifuged to recover salt. The salt recovered is reused. The liquid separated from the centrifuge is sent to solar evaporation pan. The salt collected in the solar pan is bagged and stored in secure land fill facility. Thus, the discharge into the river is now stopped. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil contamination in the river basin is yet to be restored. PMID:22312804

Rajkumar, A Samuel; Nagan, S

2010-10-01

318

Study of performances of ceramic microfiltration membrane from Tunisian clay applied to cuttlefish effluents treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfiltration membrane is increasingly used in wastewater treatment to produce a higer quality effluent. In this study a microfiltration membrane from Tunisian clay (JM18\\/SI2) was used to treat cuttlefish effluents generated from the conditioning (freezing and washing) seawater food industry which consume a great amount of water. In Sfax (Tunisia), about 1000 m3\\/day are usually discharged in the littoral. The

S. Khemakhem; A. Larbot; R. Ben Amar

2006-01-01

319

Elimination of fuel spills from effluent using cloud point extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud point extraction procedure was used to remove hydrocarbons from aqueous streams coming from fuels storage centre. This real effluent was characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD=7000mgO2\\/L) due to significant concentration of hydrocarbons as gasoline diesel and kerosene. Two biodegradable non-ionic surfactants (Lutensol AO7 and Triton X-114) were employed to treat this effluent. First, the phase diagrams of

H. Ghouas; B. Haddou; H. Bouabdesselam; Z. Bouberka; Z. Derriche

2010-01-01

320

Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.  

PubMed

Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L?¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

2012-07-01

321

Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems.  

PubMed

Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic+aerobic). All selected xenobiotics were detected in gray water samples in the low microg L(-1) range. Generally, lower concentrations were measured after biological treatment and removal efficiencies were higher under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions. However, most of the xenobiotics were still detected in biologically treated gray water. The most persistent compounds were the fragrance tonalide and the UV-filters 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. Estimated estrogenic potential of the effluent ranged between 0.07 and 0.72 ng L(-1) of 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Depending on the application of the effluent and its environmental risk, physical-chemical processes might be required to increase the removal efficiency of these compounds from gray water. PMID:20681737

Leal, Lucía Hernández; Vieno, Niina; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

2010-09-01

322

NEW MEMBRANES FOR TREATING METAL FINISHING EFFLUENTS BY REVERSE OSMOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term reverse osmosis tests were conducted with electroplating wastes on a new membrane referred to as NS-100. This membrane consists of a polyurea layer, formed by the reaction of tolylene diisocyanate with polyethylenimine, deposited on a porous polysulfone support film. Th...

323

Chromium speciation in tannery effluent—II. Speciation in the effluent and in a receiving estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forms and transformations of chromium were characterised in the effluent of an Irish tannery before and after discharge into an estuary. The three primary effluent streams in the tannery were studied, i.e. the chrome and sulphide streams and the final composite effluent. Chromium was fully speciated in the final effluent, the discharge plume, and in the estuary outside discharge

Andrew R. Walsh; John O'Halloran

1996-01-01

324

Exposure to municipal wastewater effluent impacts stress performance in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to examine the impact of municipal wastewater effluents on the functioning of the cortisol stress axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were caged upstream (reference) and downstream (100% and 10% effluent) of a tertiary-treated municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall and sampled at 14d later (0 time samples). A second set of fish were then subjected to a 5 min handling disturbance and sampled at 1 and 24h post-stressor exposure. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations, liver and brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels, head kidney mRNA abundances of corticosteroidogenesis genes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc), 11?-hydroxylase and melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), and key liver metabolic enzyme activities, were measured. Exposure to effluent for 14d significantly elevated plasma cortisol and lactate levels in 100% effluent group compared to the reference and 10% effluent sites. There was a significantly higher StAR mRNA abundance in the effluent groups compared to the upstream control. GR protein levels in the liver, but not the brain, were significantly higher in the 100% effluent group compared to the upstream control group. Chronic exposure to 100% effluent for 14d significantly lowered liver hexokinase and glucokinase activities, but did not affect glycogen content or the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase compared to the other two groups. Subjecting these fish to a secondary acute stressor elicited a physiological stress response, including significant transient elevation in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels at 1h which dropped to pre-stress levels at 24h after stressor exposure, in the control and 10% effluent groups, but this conserved stress response was impaired in the 100% effluent group. The 100% effluent group fish also had significantly higher StAR and P450scc mRNA abundances at 1h post-stress, while transcript abundances of all the major corticosteroidogenesis genes were suppressed at 24h post-stressor compared to the control and 10% effluent groups. Considered together, exposure to full-strength MWWE for 14d elicits a chronic stress response in rainbow trout, and perturbs the conserved adaptive response to an acute stressor. Our results reveal that the impact of tertiary-treated MWWE on stress performance in rainbow trout is abolished by 90% effluent dilution. PMID:21392498

Ings, Jennifer S; Servos, Mark R; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

2011-05-01

325

Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents  

EPA Science Inventory

Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility?s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

326

Tory IIC effluent gas sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declassified 28 Nov 1973. Isokinetic gas and particulate samples were ; collected from reactor effluent during the two Tory IIC power runs to determine ; the loss of fuel-element materials and the release of radioactive fission ; products. The dual sampling system, designed to withstand a blast velocity of ; 600 ft\\/sec at 500 deg F, was located 164 ft

Ackerman

1965-01-01

327

Spectroscopic Imaging of Effluent Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the possibilities of imaging effluent gases in atmosphere, using a passive gas-correlation technique in the UV and visible region. The experiments have been focused on SO/sub 2/ but some measurements of NO/sub 2/ have also been car...

P. Ragnarson

1988-01-01

328

In vitro immunotoxicity of untreated and treated urban wastewaters using various treatment processes to rainbow trout leucocytes.  

PubMed

Municipal effluents are known to impede the immune system of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunotoxicity of urban wastewaters before and after 6 treatment processes from 12 cities toward trout leucocytes. Freshly prepared trout leucocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of solid phase (C18) extracts of wastewaters for 24 hr at 150C. Immunocompetence was determined by following changes in leucocyte viability and the proportion of cells able to ingest at least one (immunoactivity) and at least three (immunoefficiency) fluorescent beads. The influents were treated by six different treatment strategies consisting of facultative aerated lagoons, activated sludge, biological aerated filter, biological nutrient removal, chemically-assisted physical treatment and trickling filter/solid contact. Water quality parameters of the wastewaters revealed that the plants effectively removed total suspended solids and reduced the chemical oxygen demand. The results revealed that the effluents' immunotoxic properties were generally more influenced by the properties of the untreated wastewaters than by the treatment processes. About half of the incoming influents decreased leucocyte viability while 4 treatment plants were able to reduce toxicity. The influents readily increased phagocytosis activity for 8/12 influents while it was decreased in 4/12 influents. This increase was abolished for 4/12 of the effluents using treatments involving biological and oxidative processes. In conclusion, municipal effluents have the potential to alter the immune system in fish and more research will be needed to improve the treatments of wastewaters to better protect the quality of the aquatic environment. PMID:24218853

Gagné, François; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel; Smyth, Shirley-Anne

2013-07-01

329

Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on lemon trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is focused on evaluating the effects of applying treated wastewater on citrus trees. Two experimental plots irrigated with two different treated wastewater effluents were compared. The experimental sites were located in Murcia, southeastern Spain. The first experimental plot was located in Cartagena, where the treated wastewater had received a secondary treatment. The second experimental plot was located in

Francisco Pedrero; Juan José Alarcón

2009-01-01

330

Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

2014-01-01

331

Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.  

PubMed

The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants. PMID:19039187

Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

2008-01-01

332

Bioremediation of a Complex Industrial Effluent by Biosorbents Derived from Freshwater Macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Biosorption with macroalgae is a promising technology for the bioremediation of industrial effluents. However, the vast majority of research has been conducted on simple mock effluents with little data available on the performance of biosorbents in complex effluents. Here we evaluate the efficacy of dried biomass, biochar, and Fe-treated biomass and biochar to remediate 21 elements from a real-world industrial effluent from a coal-fired power station. The biosorbents were produced from the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyta) that is native to the industrial site from which the effluent was sourced, and which has been intensively cultivated to provide a feed stock for biosorbents. The effect of pH and exposure time on sorption was also assessed. These biosorbents showed specificity for different suites of elements, primarily differentiated by ionic charge. Overall, biochar and Fe-biochar were more successful biosorbents than their biomass counterparts. Fe-biochar adsorbed metalloids (As, Mo, and Se) at rates independent of effluent pH, while untreated biochar removed metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) at rates dependent on pH. This study demonstrates that the biomass of Oedogonium is an effective substrate for the production of biosorbents to remediate both metals and metalloids from a complex industrial effluent. PMID:24919058

Kidgell, Joel T.; de Nys, Rocky; Hu, Yi; Paul, Nicholas A.; Roberts, David A.

2014-01-01

333

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

334

[Full-scale experiments of municipal sewage treated by symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbes].  

PubMed

A symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe was formed when tubifex was incubated in the biological contact oxidation process,the tubifex attached to the outer layer of the carriers. When the density of tubifex was about 31.3 g/L, a recycling food chain between corpse of tubifex and excrement and wastewater and microbe and sludge was formed and it could reach balance. The large scale control experimental system for treating 20,000 m3 x d(-1) municipal sewage was carried out for a long time. The result showed that tubifex could improve water quality in the effluent. When the concentration in the influent of COD,NH4+ -N,TP and SS were 130-459, 14.21-27.46, 1.60-6.93, 60-466 mg x L(-1), respectively,the removal rates of COD and SS can be improved by 8.7% and 13.6%. However, tubifex can also increase the concentration of NH4+ -N in the system,but a proper operation can make the effluent concentration of NH4+ -N below 5 mg x L(-1) stably. The symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe has very good phosphorus removal efficiency. The reactor has a high toleration to loading shock and it could keep the effluent quality stable. PMID:20187394

Lou, Ju-qing; Guo, Mao-xin; Sun, Pei-de; Wu, Ge; Song, Ying-qi

2009-12-01

335

Disruptive Sublethal Effects of Insecticides on Biological Control: Altered Foraging Ability and Life Span of a Parasitoid after Feeding on Extrafloral Nectar of Cotton Treated with Systemic Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions in integrated pest management on the compatibility of an insecticide with biological control often are based on incomplete screening tests. While measuring levels of mortality from direct insecticide exposure is a very common screening method, possible sublethal effects as a result of either direct or indirect insecticide exposure remain relatively unknown. The impact of sublethal effects on the success

J. O. Stapel; A. M. Cortesero; W. J. Lewis

2000-01-01

336

An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method  

SciTech Connect

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

Osteen, D.V.

1999-12-17

337

Positively charged filters for virus recovery from wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed Central

Positively charged Zeta Plus filters were used to concentrate enteroviruses from 19 liters of effluent from activated sludge units. Neither the addition of salts nor the acidification of the effluent was required for adsorption of viruses to the filters. Viruses adsorbed to the filters were eluted by treating the filters with a solution of 4 M urea buffered at pH 9 with 0.05 M lysine. Eluted viruses were concentrated into final volumes of 1 to 2 ml by using a two-step concentration procedure that employed inorganic and organic flocculation. Approximately 50% of the viruses added to effluents could be recovered in the final sample. The procedure was used to monitor effluents from activated sludge units at two wastewater treatment plants for the presence of enteroviruses. PMID:6274257

Chang, L T; Farrah, S R; Bitton, G

1981-01-01

338

(Bi*ol"o*gy) n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. The science of life; that branch of knowledge which treats of  

E-print Network

papers selected for core interest or recent developments will be presented by each student with a class of knowledge which treats of living matter as distinct from matter which is not living; the study of living and population structure have all become possible. This course will cover the differnet markers commonly used

Brierley, Andrew

339

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

340

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

341

Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

Shipers, Larry R.

1993-01-01

342

40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

343

40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application...

2012-07-01

344

40 CFR 434.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application...

2013-07-01

345

Quality assessment of treated tannery wastewater with special emphasis on pathogenic E. coli detection through serotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of treated tannery effluent discharged from Common Effluent Treatment\\u000a Plant (CETP), Unnao, India, to various water bodies and agricultural lands. The physico-chemical analyses revealed that the\\u000a effluent was yellowish-brown in colour, having alkaline pH, high BOD, COD values and contained large quantities of organic\\u000a and inorganic constituents well above the prescribed

Tuhina Verma; Pramod W. Ramteke; Satyendra Kumar Garg

2008-01-01

346

Effect of anaerobic biological activity on the adsorptive capacity of granular activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

The impact of anaerobic biological activity on the capacity of granular activated carbon (GAC) to adsorb organic compounds has not received much attention. In this study, the capacities of GAC for o-cresol obtained from bottle-point isotherm experiments were compared with the capacities measured in a completely mixed, biologically active, anaerobic GAC reactor treating a high-strength synthetic wastewater containing acetic acid, phenol, and o-cresol. O-cresol was not biodegraded in the reactors and was removed solely by adsorption. Because of the low concentrations of phenol measured in the effluents from the reactors, no competition for adsorption between phenol and o-cresol was observed. Also, the role of biological activity in the regeneration of GAC was demonstrated by preloading GAC with phenol and recovering the adsorbed phenol after the establishment of an active bacterial film on the GAC surface. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Nakhla, G.F.; Suidan, M.T. [Kinh Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-11-01

347

Prediction analysis of effluent removal in a septic sludge treatment plant: a biomimetics engineering approach.  

PubMed

Effluent discharge from septic tanks is affecting the environment in developing countries. The most challenging issue facing these countries is the cost of inadequate sanitation, which includes significant economic, social, and environmental burdens. Although most sanitation facilities are evaluated based on their immediate costs and benefits, their long-term performance should also be investigated. In this study, effluent quality-namely, the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solid (TSS)-was assessed using a biomimetics engineering approach. A novel immune network algorithm (INA) approach was applied to a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP) for effluent-removal predictive modelling. The Matang SSTP in the city of Kuching, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, was selected as a case study. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 were used for training, validating, and testing purposes using MATLAB 7.10. The results showed that the BOD effluent-discharge prediction was less than 50% of the specified standard after the 97(th) month of operation. The COD and TSS effluent removals were simulated at the 85(th) and the 121(st) months, respectively. The study proved that the proposed INA-based SSTP model could be used to achieve an effective SSTP assessment and management technique. PMID:25005632

Chun, Ting Sie; Malek, M A; Ismail, Amelia Ritahani

2014-09-20

348

Long-lived radicals in irradiated apatites of biological interest: an e.s.r. study of apatite samples treated with 13CO2.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite is used as a model for studying radical formation in the mineral compartment of irradiated calcified tissues. Treating this material with 13C-enriched CO2 confirms that radiogenic long-lived radicals correspond to carbon centred species. It is shown, however, that these radicals are not located on the carbonate ions which substitute either the phosphate or the hydroxyl groups. The conditions which allow the formation and the trapping of these radicals are investigated (role of humidity, CO2 and temperature) and this paramagnetic species is identified as CO-2 adsorbed at the surface of apatite crystallites. PMID:2995266

Geoffroy, M; Tochon-Danguy, H J

1985-10-01

349

Effluent impact assessment using microarray-based analysis in common carp: A systems toxicology approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants to the aquatic environment, and can cause ecotoxicological effects at different levels of biological organization. Since gene expression responses represent the primary interaction site between environmental contaminants and biota, they provide essential clues to understand how chemical exposure can affect organismal health. The aim of the present study

Lotte N. Moens; Roel Smolders; Karlijn van der Ven; Piet van Remortel; Jurgen Del-Favero; Wim M. De Coen

2007-01-01

350

Assessment of peracetic acid disinfected effluents by microbiotests.  

PubMed

Bioassays were performed by commercially available kits on peracetic acid (PAA) solutions, at different concentrations, and on secondary effluents (from two different wastewater treatment plants) after disinfection at bench-scale, considering both samples containing residual active PAA and the same samples where residual PAA was quenched. Four indicator organisms were used: Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornutum. The experiments lead to conclude that Thamnocephalus platyurus is a very sensitive organism, probably not adequate to perform a reliable toxicity assessment of effluents for monitoring purposes. The presence of specific organic compounds deriving from human metabolism and urban pollution, even at very low concentrations, can affect the results of bioassays, especially those performed on Vibrio fischeri. PAA is toxic for bacteria and crustaceans even at concentrations lower than the ones commonly used in wastewater disinfection (2-5 mg/L), while its effect on algae is smaller. The toxic effect on bacteria was expected, as PAA is used for disinfection, but its possible influence on biological processes in the receiving aquatic environment should be considered. Toxicity on crustaceans would confirm the fact that discharging disinfected effluents could raise some environmental problems. PMID:19764220

Antonelli, M; Mezzanotte, V; Panouillères, M

2009-09-01

351

Periphyton photosynthesis as an indicator of effluent toxicity: Relationship to effects on animal test species  

SciTech Connect

The use of freshwater and marine plants in effluent toxicity evaluations is uncommon despite the presence of test methods and recommendations for their use. It has been assumed that aquatic plants are less sensitive than animal test species and consequently, results from toxicity tests with invertebrates and fish have been used often as a surrogate data base. The study evaluated the ability of these animal toxicity tests to provide safe concentrations for in-stream periphyton. The toxicity of several samples of a treated municipal effluent were determined during a five-month period by monitoring short-term changes in periphyton photosynthesis (carbon-14 uptake) and by observing the effects on young production and survival of cultured daphnids and the fathead minnow. The effect levels from the various tests were compared. The effluent was seldom acutely toxic to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) but it was consistently acutely and chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic effect levels ranged between 17 and 71% effluent. Significant inhibition and stimulation of periphyton photosynthesis occurred at concentrations of 6 to 39% effluent. Periphyton photosynthesis was a more sensitive effect parameter than animal survival and in some cases than Ceriodaphnia reproductive performance. The results indicate that effluent toxicity tests conducted routinely with daphnids and fish may not be sufficient to predict effects on indigenous flora in receiving waters.

Lewis, M.A.

1992-01-01

352

Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

2013-06-01

353

Vancomycin resistant enterococci: from the hospital effluent to the urban wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Vancomycin is an important antibiotic to treat serious nosocomial enterococci infections. Human activities, in particular those related with clinical practices performed in hospitals, can potentiate the transfer and selection of clinically-relevant resistant bacteria such as vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE). Indeed, previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of VRE in urban wastewater treatment plants and related environments (e.g. sewage, rivers). In this study, the occurrence of VRE in a hospital effluent and in the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Vancomycin and ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria occurred in the hospital effluent and in raw municipal inflow at densities of 10(3) to 10(2) CFU mL(-1), being significantly more prevalent in the hospital effluent than in the urban wastewater. Most of the VRE isolated from the hospital effluent belonged to the species Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and presented multidrug-resistance phenotypes to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and high-level gentamicin. The same pattern was observed in clinical isolates and in enterococci isolated from the final effluent of the urban wastewater treatment plant. These results show that hospital effluents discharged into urban wastewater treatment plants may be a relevant source of resistance spread to the environment. PMID:23474261

Varela, Ana Rita; Ferro, Giovanna; Vredenburg, Jana; Yan?k, Melike; Vieira, Lucas; Rizzo, Luigi; Lameiras, Catarina; Manaia, Célia M

2013-04-15

354

Identification of the isoflavonoid genistein in bleached kraft mill effluent.  

PubMed

Plants synthesize many phytochemicals, including flavonoids, which may be present in the heartwood of trees used in the pulp and paper industry. Extracts were prepared from wood pulp and mill effluent collected from a bleached kraft mill in Ontario, Canada, and these extracts were subfractionated by LH-20 gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and LC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). Initial LC-MS analysis in negative ion mode was conducted by monitoring ions corresponding to the deprotonated molecular ions of a range of flavonoid compounds. The presence of chromatographic peaks generated by selected ion monitoring (SIM) in samples of both mill effluent and wood pulp encouraged further analysis. Of the compounds highlighted by LC-ESI-MS-SIM analysis, the isoflavonoid genistein was positively identified by LC-ESI-MS-MS. Genistein was quantified at a concentration of 30.0 microg/kg in air-dried wood pulp and concentrations of 13.1 microg/L and 10.5 microg/L in untreated and treated (final) effluent, respectively. Genistein is a known endocrine disruptorsubstance and,therefore, could contribute to the alterations in sex steroid levels and reduced reproductive capacity observed in fish captured near the discharges of pulp mills. PMID:11432543

Kiparissis, Y; Hughes, R; Metcalfe, C; Ternes, T

2001-06-15

355

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

356

Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

2013-07-03

357

40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.117 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

358

40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

359

40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.15 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

360

40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.15 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

361

40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

362

40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

363

40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

364

40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

366

40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

367

40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

368

40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

369

40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

370

40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

371

40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

372

40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

373

40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

374

40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

375

40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

376

40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

377

40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

378

40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

379

40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...0 at all times. (5) Subpart C—Battery Wash (with Detergent). BPT Effluent...0 at all times. (6) Subpart C—Battery Wash (Water Only). BPT Effluent...

2010-07-01

380

40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...0 at all times. (5) Subpart C—Battery Wash (with Detergent). BPT Effluent...0 at all times. (6) Subpart C—Battery Wash (Water Only). BPT Effluent...

2011-07-01

381

40 CFR 430.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

382

40 CFR 430.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.23 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

383

40 CFR 430.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.22 Effluent...Subpart B [BPT effluent limitations for soda facilities where pulp and paper are produced...Subpart B [BPT effluent limitations for soda facilities where pulp and papers are...

2011-07-01

384

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

385

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

386

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

387

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

388

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

389

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

393

40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wheat Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

394

40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.142 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

395

40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.142 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

396

40 CFR 440.142 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gold Placer Mine Subcategory § 440.142 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

397

40 CFR 467.67 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.67 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

2011-07-01

398

40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

401

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

402

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

403

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

404

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

405

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

406

40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

407

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

408

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

410

40 CFR 411.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

411

40 CFR 411.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Leaching Subcategory § 411.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

412

40 CFR 467.67 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.67 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

413

40 CFR 467.57 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Drawing With Neat Oils Subcategory § 467.57 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

414

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

417

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

418

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

420

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

421

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

423

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

424

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

425

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

426

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

427

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

428

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

429

40 CFR 408.277 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.277 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

430