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1

Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.  

PubMed

Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045Abs/cm, respectively. PMID:25463225

Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

2015-03-01

2

Performance of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Adsorption and Biofiltration in the Treatment of Biologically Treated Sewage Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the performance of GAC adsorption and biofiltration systems in treating biological treated sewage effluent (BTSE) was evaluated in terms of organic removal efficiency, organic fractions, and molecular weight distribution (MW) of organic matter (OM) removed. The GAC biofilter removed 23.5% and 61% of the hydrophobic fractions and hydrophilic fractions of OM in the BTSE respectively. MW distribution

S. Vigneswaran; H. K. Shon; J. Kandasamy; W. G. Shim

2007-01-01

3

Identification of key water quality characteristics affecting the filterability of biologically treated effluent in low-pressure membrane filtration.  

PubMed

There are many water quality characteristics which could influence the filterability of biologically treated effluent from Melbourne's Western Treatment Plant (WTP). Statistical correlation was used to identify the key water characteristics affecting the microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) filterability in terms of permeate volume of the treated effluent. The models developed showed that turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended solids (TSS) were the key factors which influenced the MF and UF filterability. Turbidity was the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the model for MF filterability while DOC was the major factor affecting the accuracy of the model for UF filterability. A prediction accuracy of 85% was obtained for MF and 86% for UF filterability of the WTP effluent. The characteristics of the organic components of the wastewater were demonstrated by EEM spectra to have seasonal variation which would have reduced the prediction accuracy. As turbidity, DOC and TSS can be determined on-line, the models would be useful for rapid prediction of the filterability of WTP effluent and this may assist the control of low-pressure membrane filtration processes. PMID:20962408

Nguyen, T; Fan, L; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

2010-01-01

4

Evaluation of ion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic matter from biologically treated paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken while employing LC-OCND for characterising resin-treated effluents, as the resin degradation is expected to contribute some organic carbon moieties misleading the actual performance of resin. PMID:23116827

Bassandeh, Mojgan; Antony, Alice; Le-Clech, Pierre; Richardson, Desmond; Leslie, Greg

2013-01-01

5

Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters  

SciTech Connect

Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake waters occurs slowly under gentle conditions, while mill EROM is generated from lignocellulosics by faster and harsher processes. Similarity of the environmental effects of NOM and pulp and paper mill EROM are examined. Changes occurring over 4 months in biologically treated effluent from two modern Canadian mills and lake NOM when sealed in gas- and light-permeable bags and placed in a pristine Quebec lake are reported. Addition of microbial co-metabolites significantly improved the dark mineralization of organochlorines surviving mill biological treatment. Mill EROM was light sensitive, nonacutely toxic in the Microtox assay, and similar to NOM in the surrounding lake in most bulk properties. There was no evidence to suggest that placing specific limits on mill EROM (COD) emissions would be environmentally beneficial.

Archibald, F.; Roy-Arcand, L.; Methot, M.; Valeanu, L.

1998-11-01

6

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species  

SciTech Connect

Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni exhibited marked induction of P4501A compared to reference whitefish (rw), as measured by both catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein content. Similar P4501A induction was observed 4 d after rw were treated with 20 mg/kg [beta]-naphthoflavone. Whitefish P4501A levels have declined from a peak in spring 1991, following mill process modifications and concurrent with reductions in body burdens of hydrophobic compounds. Whitefish collected near the mill, moved upstream of effluent discharges, and held for 8 d showed no significant loss of hepatic P4501A-related (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) enzyme activity or P4501A protein levels. For spring 1991, correlations were found between EROD activity and measures of chronic exposure to BKME, but not between EROD and measures of acute exposure. These and other lines of evidence indicate that the P4501A-inducing agent(s) at this site may be neither waterborne nor rapidly eliminated. A second species, longnose sucker, collected near the mill exhibited modest P4501A induction. For both species, no significant correlations between P4501A induction and trends in other biological responses were found. Burbot (Lota lota) had hepatic EROD activities generally in the range of reference values, despite substantial exposure to mill-related compounds. In contrast to studies at historically degraded pulpmill sites, P4501A induction is the only major biological response observed to date at this site. As P4501A induction is not related to adverse effects, it is classified as an indicator of exposure to BKME.

Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Benton, E. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Environmental Science Dept.)

1994-09-01

7

Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

2000-03-08

8

Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

Wolverton, B. C.

1988-01-01

9

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality\\/sediment parameters, as

A. B. Jones; M. J. O'Donohue; J. Udy; W. C. Dennison

2001-01-01

10

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

11

Forage subsurface drip irrigation using treated swine effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

12

FORAGE SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION USING TREATED SWINE EFFLUENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

13

300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

CAMPBELL, L.R.

1999-01-15

14

Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent. ; 2: Induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and other species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the hepatic detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A has been observed in fish exposed to bleached-kraft mill effluents (BKME). P4501A content was examined in 3 species of fish exposed to BKME in a western Canadian river as part of an program that included chemical monitoring, fish population studies, and other fish biochemical and physiological measurements. The Rocky Mountain whitefish Prosopium

P. J. Kloepper-Sams; E. Benton

1994-01-01

15

Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

CJ Chou; VG Johnson

2000-04-04

16

Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 ?g/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high. PMID:24211569

Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

2013-12-15

17

Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of bleach plant effluents treated anaerobically.  

PubMed

As part of an experimental project on the treatment of bleach plant effluents the results of biodegradability and toxicity assessment of effluents from a bench-scale horizontal anaerobic immobilized bioreactor (HAIB) are discussed in this paper. The biodegradability of the bleach plant effluents from a Kraft pulp mill treated in the HAIB was evaluated using the modified Zahn-Wellens test. The inoculum came from a pulp mill wastewater treatment plant and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was used as the indicator of organic matter removal. The acute and chronic toxicity removal during the anaerobic treatment was estimated using Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii respectively. Moreover, the evaluation of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus frequencies (MN) and mitotic index (IM) in Allium cepa cells were used as genotoxicity indicators. The results indicate that the effluents from the anaerobic reactor are amenable to aerobic polishing. Acute and chronic toxicity were reduced by 90 and 81%, respectively. The largest CA and MN incidence in the meristematic cells of A. cepa were observed after exposure to the raw bleach plant effluent. The HAIB was able to reduce the acute and chronic toxicity as well as chromosome aberrations and the occurrence of micronucleus. PMID:20861545

Chaparro, T R; Botta, C M; Pires, E C

2010-01-01

18

Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

19

POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

20

Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

2004-09-01

21

Treated mine drainage effluent benefits Maryland and West Virginia fisherman  

SciTech Connect

In January of 1994, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Freshwater Fisheries Division and Mettiki Coal Corporation of Oakland, Maryland entered into a cooperative agreement to construct a trout rearing facility within Mettiki`s 10 million gallons per day acid mine drainage treatment system to supplement the DNR stockings in the newly revitalized North Branch of the Potomac River. Due to pyrite oxidation and a lack of alkaline buffering capacity in the Freeport coal strata, seven thousand gallons per minute of acidic water containing oxidized sulfide minerals must be pumped through Mettiki`s AMD treatment systems and elevated to Federal standards prior to discharge into the Upper North Branch of the Potomac River. Utilizing hydrated lime, aeration, flocculation, sedimentation, and sludge recirculation, Mettiki`s treatment imparts superior trout propagation qualities to the discharge (pH of 8.1, dissolved oxygen of 8.0 ppm, temperature ranges of from 52 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and has allowed for weight gain throughout the typically dormant winter months. Presently, 30,000 brown, rainbow, and cutthroat trout are suspended in floating net pens within the systems` discharge collection pond where pH, flow, temperature, feed assimilation, and growth rates were compared with typical stream diversion hatcheries. Growth rates, lack of significant disease, and quality parameters coupled with ideal temperatures suggests treated acidic mine effluent can offer successful fish propagation opportunities.

Ashby, J.C. [Mettiki Coal Corp., Oakland, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

22

[AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].  

PubMed

The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. PMID:25158498

Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

2014-06-01

23

Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents  

SciTech Connect

Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

Krier, K.; Pontasch, K. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Environmental Science Program

1995-12-31

24

Characteristics of treated effluents and their potential applications for producing concrete.  

PubMed

Conservation and preservation of freshwater is increasingly becoming important as the global population grows. Presently, enormous volumes of freshwater are used to mix concrete. This paper reports experimental findings regarding the feasibility of using treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater in mixing concrete. Samples were obtained from three effluent sources: heavy industry, a palm-oil mill and domestic sewage. The effluents were discharge into public drain without danger to human health and natural environment. Chemical compositions and physical properties of the treated effluents were investigated. Fifteen compositional properties of each effluent were correlated with the requirements set out by the relevant standards. Concrete mixes were prepared using the effluents and freshwater to establish a base for control performance. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to setting time, workability, compressive strength and permeability. The results show that except for some slight excesses in total solids and pH, the properties of the effluents satisfy the recommended disposal requirements. Two concrete samples performed well for all of the properties investigated. In fact, one sample was comparatively better in compressive strength than the normal concrete; a 9.4% increase was observed at the end of the curing period. Indeed, in addition to environmental conservation, the use of treated effluents as alternatives to freshwater for mixing concrete could save a large amount of freshwater, especially in arid zones. PMID:22705857

Noruzman, Ainul Haezah; Muhammad, Bala; Ismail, Mohammad; Abdul-Majid, Zaiton

2012-11-15

25

Biological treatment of the effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill using basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.  

PubMed

Three white-rot fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and one soft-rot fungi (Rhizopus oryzae) species confirmed their potential for future applications in the biological treatment of effluents derived from the secondary treatment of a bleached kraft pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus. Among the four species P. sajor caju and R. oryzae were the most effective in the biodegradation of organic compounds present in the effluent, being responsible for the reduction of relative absorbance (25-46% at 250 nm and 72-74% at 465 nm) and of chemical oxygen demand levels (74 to 81%) after 10 days of incubation. Laccase (Lac), lignin (Lip) and manganese peroxidases (MnP) expression varied among fungal species, where Lac and LiP activities were correlated with the degradation of organic compounds in the effluent treated with P. sajor caju. The first two axes of a principal component analysis explained 88.9% of the total variation among sub-samples treated with the four fungus species, after different incubation periods. All the variables measured contributed positively to the first component except for the MnP enzyme activity which was the only variable contributing negatively to the first component. Absorbances at 465 nm, LiP and Lac enzyme activities were the variables with more weight on the second component. P. sajor caju revealed to be the only species able to perform the biological treatment without promoting an increment in the toxicity of the effluent to the Vibrio fischeri, as it was assessed by the Microtox assay. The opposite was recorded for the treatments with the other three species of fungus. EC(50-5 min) values ranging between 28 and 57% (effluent concentrations) were recorded even after 10 to 13 days of treatment with P. chrysosporium, R. oryzae or with T. versicolor. PMID:19269018

Freitas, A C; Ferreira, F; Costa, A M; Pereira, R; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Diniz, M S; Castro, L; Peres, I; Duarte, A C

2009-05-01

26

A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.  

PubMed

Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. PMID:24374244

Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

2014-01-15

27

Irrigation of eucalyptus plantation using treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent.  

PubMed

The use of treated pulp mill effluent on eucalyptus plantation appears to be an attractive option for plant nutrition and water supply. It also constitutes a supplementary treatment process and a final disposal option for the mill effluent. This study aimed at the investigation and evaluation of the effects of bleached kraft pulp mill treated effluent on three typical Brazilian soils used for eucalyptus plantation. The effluent was characterized and five different application rates, defined according to the load of sodium, were tested in controlled environment experiments (greenhouse). After effluent application over a six month period an increase in the salinity of the studied soils was observed, although no soil dispersion was detected. The low content of some nutrients in the treated effluent indicated the need for fertilizer complementation. In general, the best biomass productivity and plant growth results were obtained in fine textured soil at a loading rate of 6.49 t Na ha(-1). The good response of the soil-plant system under different effluent application rates showed the feasibility for the eucalyptus irrigation if adequate management practices and monitoring are carried out. PMID:21045344

Rezende, A A P; de Matos, A T; Silva, C M; Neves, J C L

2010-01-01

28

Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

2013-11-15

29

Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to

Larry B. Barber; Kathy E. Lee; Deborah L. Swackhamer; Heiko L. Schoenfuss

2007-01-01

30

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

31

The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper  

EPA Science Inventory

This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

32

Biochemical responses in the gills of Meretrix meretrix after exposure to treated municipal effluent.  

PubMed

The biochemical effects in marine bivalves exposed to increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluent (TME), as discharged into receiving marine waters, are investigated. The effluent was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) in Qingdao (China). Meretrix meretrix were exposed to effluent volume ratio (EVR, ratio of effluent volume accounted for tailwater seawater mixture) 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (v/v) TME for 15 days and the following biochemical responses in gills were measured: (1) the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) content, and lipid peroxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress biomarkers; (2) the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and gluthathione S-transferase (GST), as phase I and phase II conjugation enzymes, respectively; (3) acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as a biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins (MTs), as proteins strongly induced by heavy metals. Most of the biochemical indices present high and significant variation frequency (above 50%). There is enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes, EROD, GST, AChE, and MTs, as well as consumption of GSH. The current experimental results suggest that effluent with concentrations less than 20% (v/v) do not cause lipid peroxidation damage. This implies that the activated defense is sufficient to protect the bivalves' gill tissues from cytotoxicity produced by the effluent. Furthermore, GSH, GPx, MTs, and GR are suitable, and sufficiently sensitive, biomarkers to indicate the pollution levels in marine environments receiving such effluent. PMID:25450918

Wan, Ru; Meng, Fanping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Su, Enping

2015-01-01

33

Mechanism of aerobic biological destabilisation of wool scour effluent emulsions.  

PubMed

Wool scouring effluent is a highly polluted industrial wastewater in which the main pollutant, wool wax, is held in a stable oil-in-water emulsion by non-ionic detergent. The use of microbial action to cause emulsion destabilisation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy for this effluent stream. This strategy aims at improving aerobic treatment performance by physically removing the high-COD, slowly bio-degradable wool wax from the system without bio-degradation. The mechanism by which an aerobic-mixed culture destabilises the wool scouring effluent emulsion was investigated. Our results show that destabilisation is due to partial bio-degradation of both the scouring detergent and the wool wax. Cleavage of the wool wax esters was the first stage in wax degradation, when 40-50% of wax was de-emulsified. Over the same period, detergent degradation was low, at 7-21%. With further incubation, detergent degradation increased, aiding further breakdown of the emulsion. The degradation of the detergent, a nonylphenol ethoxylate, resulted in both a reduction in molar concentration (of up to 82%) and a shortening of the ethoxylate chain length. The latter reduced the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) from 12 to approximately 7, thereby reducing the ability of the residual detergent to stabilise the emulsion. Analysis of the emulsified and de-emulsified wax fractions could not identify a group of compounds that were preferentially de-emulsified based on molecular weight or polarity. These findings will assist in using a de-emulsification strategy in both existing and new treatment systems in order to save on aeration costs and treatment times for biological treatment of this highly polluted wastewater. PMID:15979119

Poole, Andrew J; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; William Jones, F

2005-07-01

34

Biological treatment of a synthetic gold milling effluent.  

PubMed

This paper reports on biological sludge acclimatisation and the results concerning the removal of free cyanide, thiocyanate and metallocyanides (copper, iron and zinc) from a synthetic gold milling effluent. The experiments were carried out in a continuous bench-scale bioreactor, and the experimental set-up consisted of two identical units, one of which served as control. The acclimatisation of the biomass was based on a stepwise procedure, in which the proportion of synthetic solution in the influent was gradually increased. The reactors were fed with a mixture of synthetic effluent and sewage, and the treatment efficiency was evaluated through the monitoring of the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD), free cyanide, thiocyanate, copper, iron and zinc concentrations. A well adapted microbial consortium was obtained at the end of the acclimatisation period, which was able to remove more than 95% of free cyanide, thiocyanate, copper and zinc, originally found in the influent. These removal efficiencies were obtained when the reactor was operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of about 8 h. The performance results of experiments carried out with lower HRT (5 h) and higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (6.5 mg litre(-1)) are also presented and discussed in this study. PMID:15091427

Granato, M; Gonçalves, M M; Villas Boas, R C; Sant'Anna, G L

1996-01-01

35

DEMINERALIZATION OF CARBON-TREATED SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY SPIRAL-WOUND REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 56.8 cu m/day (15,000 gallons/day) spiral-wound reverse osmosis pilot plant was operated at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility on the carbon-treated secondary effluent. The specific objectives for this study were (a) to establish the effective membrane l...

36

Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.  

PubMed

Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent. PMID:22319874

Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

2011-09-01

37

Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration of biologically treated leachate.  

PubMed

Experiments of nano-filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted to remove most pollutants from the biological treated leachate. For example, the purified permeate after reverse osmosis treatment with spiral membranes reached effluent water quality as follows: COD of 57 mg O2/l, BOD7 of 35 mg O2/l, and suspended solid of 1 mg/l which satisfies the discharge standards in Estonia. For both RO and NF, conductivity can be reduced by 91% from 6.06 to 0.371 mS/cm by RO and 99% from 200 to 1 mS/cm by NF. To test the service life of the RO spiral membranes, the process was able to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of biologically treated leachate by 97.9% and 93.2% even after 328 and 586 hours, respectively. However, only 39.0% and 21.7% reductions of Ptot and Ntot were achieved. As a result, neither RO (spiral membranes process) nor NF was able to reduce the total nitrogen (TN) to the required discharge limit of 15 mg/l. PMID:25145196

Kuusik, Aare; Pachel, Karin; Kuusik, Argo; Loigu, Enn; Tang, Walter Z

2014-01-01

38

INHIBITION OF ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL SLUDGE BY EFFLUENT CONSTITUENTS OF POLLUTION CONTROL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pollution control laboratories, routine analyses for the characterization of effluents and reactors monitoring use concentrated solutions of H2SO4, containing heavy metals such as chromium, silver and mercury and organic compounds as phenol. The presence of these elements in the laboratory effluent can cause inhibition of the biological activity, especially in the anaerobic treatment processes due to the sensitivity

LARISSA DE CARVALHO ALVES; MAGALI CHRISTE CAMMAROTA; FRANCISCA P; ESSÔA DE FRANÇA

39

Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program.  

PubMed

Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge. PMID:18241892

Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David

2008-01-01

40

Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30 +/- 1 degrees C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45-52%), lignin (30-42%), BOD (40-70%), COD (50-60%), total phenol (32-40%) and PCP (85-90%) within 168 h of incubation. However, the highest reduction in colour (62%), lignin (54%), BOD (70%), COD (90%), total phenol (90%) and PCP (100%) was recorded by mixed culture treatment. The bacterial mechanism for the degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent may be explained by an increase in the cells biomass using added co-substrates resulting liberation of significant amount of chloride due to bacterial dechlorination of chlorolignins and chlorophenols this showed reduction in colour, lignin and toxicity in the effluent. Further, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate-extractable compounds from treated pulp paper mill effluent reinforces the bacterium capability for the degradation of lignin and pentachlorophenol, as many aromatic compounds such as 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, 6-chlorohydroxyquinol and tetrachlorohydroquinone detected which were not present in the untreated effluent. PMID:18622710

Chandra, Ram; Raj, Abhay; Yadav, Sangeeta; Patel, Devendra Kumar

2009-08-01

41

Aquifer Storage and Recovery of Treated Sewage Effluent in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treated sewage effluent (TSE) is becoming a critical resource in arid parts of the world. The high costs of desalinated potable\\u000a water and the depletion of fresh groundwater resources necessitate increased use of TSE as an important component of water\\u000a resource management throughout the Middle East. TSE can replace potable-quality water in irrigation, with the latter becoming\\u000a too valuable a

Robert G. Maliva; Thomas M. Missimer; Frank P. Winslow; Rolf Herrmann

2011-01-01

42

Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of the WWTP effluent. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

2007-01-01

43

Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

2014-09-01

44

Biological responses of marine flatfish exposed to municipal wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern over the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents, yet knowledge of potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. The present study used laboratory exposures to examine estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with 2 degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 d to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone, and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. Contaminants of emerging concern were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems. PMID:24273037

Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Greenstein, Darrin J; Baker, Michael E; Hardiman, Gary; Reyes, Jesus A; Kelley, Kevin M; Schlenk, Daniel

2014-03-01

45

Effect of dissolved organic matter from treated effluents on sorption of atrazine and prometryn by soils  

SciTech Connect

The apparent enhanced transport of soil-applied atrazine following irrigation of treated effluents has been hypothesized to be from complexation of atrazine with effluent-borne dissolved organic matter (DOM). Under long-term effluent irrigation, even small DOM-induced decreases in pesticide sorption can result in significant enhanced pesticide movement due to cumulative effects. The effect of atrazine and prometryn association with DOM extracted from municipal wastewater (MW), swine-derived lagoon wastewater (SW), and dissolved Aldrich humic acid (HA) on sorption by two soils was measured in batch equilibration studies. Individual association of pesticides to DOM, sorption of DOM to soil, and pesticide sorption by soil were also quantified. Pesticide association to DOM normalized to organic carbon (OC) ranged from 30 to 1000 L/kg OC. DOM sorption by soil ranged from 1.5 to 10 L/kg with a silt loam having a higher affinity for the DOM than the sandy loam. DOM up to 150 mg OC/L did not significantly suppress sorption by soils of either atrazine or prometryne in agreement with predictions using the independently measured binary distribution coefficients in a model that assumed linear equilibrium behavior among pesticide, soil, and DOM. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the same model to identify what combination of soil, pesticide, and DOC variables may suppress sorption, resulting in facilitated transport. Results from the sensitivity analysis are presented and the potential for effluent properties other than DOM to facilitate pesticide transport is discussed.

Seol, Y.; Lee, L.S.

2000-01-02

46

Treated wastewater effluent as a source of microbial pollution of surface water resources.  

PubMed

Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O

2014-01-01

47

Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

2013-01-01

48

Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)  

SciTech Connect

This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability.

Wagner, R.N.

1994-09-26

49

Effects of treated municipal effluent irrigation on ground water beneath sprayfields, Tallahassee, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater quality data collection began in November 1979 at a spray-irrigation site near Tallahassee, Florida, before the initial application of secondary-treated municipal wastewater in November 1980. Effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality were evident about 1 year after spraying began and have continued to increase during the study period of 1983-85. Chloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater have continued to increase since about 1 year after spraying began. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have increased from 0.03 mg/L to as much as 11 mg/L in water from one well in the surficial aquifer and from 0.07 to 15 mg/L in one well in the Floridan aquifer system. The greatest increases in concentrations have occurred in water from wells that top the surficial and Floridan aquifers. Increase in concentration occurred in water from some wells in the Floridan outside and downgradient of pivots, indicating lateral movement within the Floridan. The increase in sodium concentrations has been similar to the in chloride concentrations. Increases increases in the concentrations of other inorganic constituents have been minor compared to increases in chloride, sodium and nitrate concentrations. Nine volatile organic halocarbon compounds were detected in 18 effluent samples. Low concentrations of two of these halocarbons--chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE)--were detected intermittently in water sampled from six wells. None of the organic compounds detected in effluent or groundwater exceeded Florida drinking water standards. (USGS)

Pruitt, J.B.; Elder, J.F.; Johnson, I.K.

1988-01-01

50

Evaluation of groundwater monitoring results at the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) has operated since June 1995. Groundwater monitoring has been conducted quarterly in the three wells surrounding the facility since 1992, with contributing data from nearby B Pond System wells. Cumulative hydrologic and geochemical information from the TEDF well network and other surrounding wells indicate no discernable effects of TEDF operations on the uppermost aquifer in the vicinity of the TEDF. The lateral consistency and impermeable nature of the Ringold Formation lower mud unit, and the contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between this unit and the vadose zone sediments of the Hanford formation suggest that TEDF effluent is spreading laterally with negligible mounding or downward movement into the uppermost aquifer. Hydrographs of TEDF wells show that TEDF operations have had no detectable effects on hydraulic heads in the uppermost aquifer, but show a continuing decay of the hydraulic mound generated by past operations at the B Pond System. Comparison of groundwater geochemistry from TEDF wells and other, nearby RCRA wells suggests that groundwater beneath TEDF is unique; different from both effluent entering TEDF and groundwater in the B Pond area. Tritium concentrations, major ionic proportions, and lower-than-background concentrations of other species suggest that groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the TEDF bears characteristics of water in the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report recommends retaining the current groundwater well network at the TEDF, but with a reduction of sampling/analysis frequency and some modifications to the list of constituents sought.

Barnett, D.B.

1998-09-01

51

Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological treatment on the extent of degradation of effluents from chlorination (C) and first alkaline extraction (E(1)) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the effluents was attempted in suspended mode using activated sludge from the functional pulp and paper industry effluent treatment plant acclimatized to effluents in question. The photocatalytic treatment was employed using zinc oxide (ZnO) in slurry mode for decontamination of effluents in a batch manner and the degradation was evaluated in terms of reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The biological treatment (24 h) of C and E(1) effluent resulted in 30 and 57 % of degradation, respectively. Solar-induced AOP of C and E(1) effluents resulted in 53 and 43 % degradation under optimized conditions (2.5 g L(-1) ZnO at pH 8.0) after 6 h of exposure. For C effluent, a short duration of solar/ZnO (1 h) prior to biological treatment reduced the time required at biological step from 24 to 12 h for almost same extent (92 %) of degradation. However, sequential biological treatment (24 h) followed by solar/ZnO (2 h) resulted in 85.5 % degradation. In contrast, in the case of E(1) effluent, sequential biological (24 h)-solar/ZnO (2 h) system effectively degrades effluent to 95.4 % as compared to 84.8 % degradation achieved in solar/ZnO (2 h)-biological treatment (24 h) system. In the present study, the sequencing of photocatalysis with the biological treatment is observably efficient and technically viable process for the complete mineralization of the effluents. PMID:22645007

Dhir, Amit; Prakash, Nagaraja Tejo; Sud, Dhiraj

2012-11-01

52

BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BEACH, LEACHATE, AND EFFLUENT SITES AT LAKE TEXOMA  

EPA Science Inventory

A biological assessment of five beach areas, five leachate areas, and four effluent areas was initiated in June 1999. The target sites are being monitored for total and fecal coliform. The average of the total samples taken at each beach site: total coliform ranged from 1877 to...

53

Study of Biological Aerated Filters for the Treatment of Effluents from the Citrus Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research study was to test the applicability and optimize the design parameters of a system of biological aerated filters in order to obtain an optimal effluent from the citrus industry, which would allow its drainage into the municipal sewer system. Expanded clay was used as a support material. After experimenting with both countercurrent and cocurrent

FRANCISCO OSORIO; JUAN C. TORRES; ERNESTO HONTORIA

2006-01-01

54

Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end-of-pipe discharge chemistry. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, ammonia, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and radium are removed from the constituent list. Annual analysis for low-level tritium is added to the constituent list to help confirm that groundwater beneath the TEDF remains isolated from operational influences.

DB Barnett

2000-05-17

55

Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.  

PubMed

Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge. PMID:25051480

Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

56

Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

57

Biochemical responses and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus after exposure to treated municipal effluents.  

PubMed

This study assessed the responses of biochemical biomarkers and metals levels in Ruditapes decussatus exposed to the increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluents (TME) discharged into the Tunisian coastal area. Clams were exposed to 0%, 1%, 3% and 10% for 7 and 14 day and the following biochemical responses were measured: (1) catalase activity and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) as oxidative stress biomarkers, (2) gluthathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a phase II conjugation enzyme; (3) cholinesterase activity (ChE) as biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins as a proteins highly induced by heavy metals. A significant uptake of Cu, Cd and Zn in digestive gland and serious biochemical alterations were observed. Thus, exposure of clams to croissant concentration of TME have the potential to increase the oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, CAT activity) and MT levels; and decrease ChE activity in both gills and digestive gland. Current experimental results suggest that CAT, GST, ChE activities and MT and TBARs levels in gills and digestive gland of clam R. decussatus are sensitive and suitable responses for assessing the effects of anthropogenic contaminants on the aquatic ecosystems, particularly effluent complex mixtures. PMID:22664226

Kamel, Naouel; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Ben Khedher, Sana; Chouba, Lassaad; Boussetta, Hamadi

2012-08-01

58

Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

59

Altered Sexual Maturation and Gamete Production in Wild Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Living in Rivers That Receive Treated Sewage Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption in gonadal development of wild roach living in U.K. rivers receiving large volumes of treated sewage effluent is manifest in a variety of ways, ranging from malformation of the germ cells and\\/or reproductive ducts to altered gamete produc- tion. Intersex fish were also found to have an altered endocrine status and an elevated concentration of plasma vitellogenin. Go- nadal

S. Jobling; N. Beresford; M. Nolan; T. Rodgers-Gray; G. C. Brighty; J. P. Sumpter; C. R. Tyler

2002-01-01

60

An experimental investigation into effects of Pulp mill effluent on structure of biological communities in Alberni inlet, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure of biological communities forming on test panels established at stations progressively removed from a pulp mill outfall indicated simplification, as measured by a number of indices relating to species diversity, and was associated with water transparency as well as other physical factors relating to effluent discharge. A dynamic interaction between influence of dark coloured mill effluent in reducing phytoplanktonic

J. Robin E. Harger; Mary L. Campbell; Roslyn Ellison; W. Peter Lock; Wendy Zwarych

1973-01-01

61

Performance assessment and hydrodynamic analysis of a submerged membrane bioreactor for treating dairy industrial effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) is a relatively advanced technology for waste water treatment that involves integrated aerobic and anaerobic biological processes with membrane filtration. In the present investigation, hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrophilic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber (HF) membranes were tested in an indigenously fabricated SMBR for dairy effluent treatment under aerobic conditions using mixed microbial consortia. Effect of operating parameters such as suction pressure, degree of aeration and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) on membrane performance in terms of flux, rejection of turbidity, BOD and COD besides fouling characteristics was investigated. The observed optimum permeabilities of PVDF and PAN HF membranes were approximately 108 and 115 LMH bar(-1) with high extent of impurity removal. The rejection of COD was found to be 93% for PVDF and 91% for PAN HF membranes whereas corresponding rejection of BOD was observed to be 92% and 86%. A two-dimensional comprehensive model was developed to predict the hydrodynamic profile inside the module. Regression analysis revealed that the simulation results agreed well with experimental data. PMID:24793299

K, Praneeth; Moulik, Siddhartha; Vadthya, Pavani; Bhargava, Suresh K; Tardio, James; S, Sridhar

2014-06-15

62

A new sponge tray bioreactor in primary treated sewage effluent treatment.  

PubMed

The new attached growth sponge tray bioreactor (STB) was evaluated at different operating conditions for removing organics and nutrients from primary treated sewage effluent. This STB was also assessed when using as a pre-treatment prior to micro-filtration (MF) for reducing membrane fouling. At a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 40 min, the STB could remove up to 92% of DOC and 40-56% of T-N and T-P at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.4 kg COD/m(3) sponge day. This OLR is the best for the STB as compared to the OLRs of 0.6, 1.2 and 3.6 kg COD/m(3) sponge day. At 28 mL/min of flow velocity (FV), STB achieved the highest efficiencies with 92% of DOC, 87.4% of T-P, and 54.8% of T-N removal. Finally, at the optimal OLR and FV, the STB could remove almost 90% of organic and nutrient, significantly reduce membrane fouling with HRT of only 120 min. PMID:21112779

Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Jianxin

2011-05-01

63

Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16?:?0), C(17?:?0) cyclo, C(19?:?0) cyclo ?8c and C(14?:?0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) (?=?DSM 25520(T)?=?NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

2014-06-01

64

Biological Therapy to Treat Kaposi Sarcoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with this study are investigating whether bevacizumab (Avastin®), a type of biological agent that blocks the formation and growth of new blood vessels, is effective in the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Blood vessel cells are the main component of KS lesions.

65

A multivariate biological and chemical characterization of industrial effluents connected to municipal sewage treatment plants  

SciTech Connect

Effluents from middle-sized industries, connected to municipal treatment plants in two cities in Sweden were sampled daily during 1 week and were characterized chemically and biologically. The results were evaluated mainly with multivariate statistics to find relations between chemistry and toxicity. The principal component analysis (PCA) overview of the chemical variables displayed three main clusters: nitrogen fractions, metals, and organic parameters. An overview of the biological responses showed that inhibition of nitrification was not correlated to the other biological tests. Bivariate statistics found significant correlations existing between different endpoints of Microtox. In the partial least squares in latent structures (PLS) models created for the biological toxicity tests (Microtox, inhibition of nitrification, and algal growth test with Selenastrum capricornutum), two significant groups causing toxicity were detected, namely inorganic metals and organic pollutants detected by adsorbable organic halogens, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. When characterizing these industrial effluents, the chemical determinations and the various biological toxicity tests complement each other and none can be excluded.

Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research; Eklund, B.; Tarkpea, M. [Stockholm Univ., Nykoeping (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

1998-02-01

66

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 157 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-12-01

67

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

68

Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-03-01

69

Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached. PMID:23985354

Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

2013-10-01

70

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

71

Assessing the relationship between laboratory whole effluent toxicity test data and in-stream biological communities.  

PubMed

The ability of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests to predict in-stream effects to periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in a habitat-impaired stream was assessed. Habitat assessment data were useful in interpreting in-stream conditions for periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Various periphyton and macroinvertebrate metrics identified siltation effects as opposed to water quality effects in-stream. Pathogen effects noted in fathead minnow WET tests were not reflected in the fish community. Overall, in-stream biological conditions confirmed the absence of water quality-related effects as predicted by WET tests. PMID:19009223

Hall, Scott; Beeson, Dave; Kinsey, Mark; Heise, Liza; Lockwood, Rick

2009-03-01

72

Forming microbial anodes with acetate addition decreases their capability to treat raw paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Microbial anodes were formed under polarization at -0.3 V/SCE on graphite plates in effluents from a pulp and paper mill. The bioanodes formed with the addition of acetate led to the highest current densities (up to 6A/m(2)) but were then unable to oxidize the raw effluent efficiently (0.5A/m(2)). In contrast, the bioanodes formed without acetate addition were fully able to oxidize the organic matter contained in the effluent, giving up to 4.5A/m(2) in continuous mode. Bacterial communities showed less bacterial diversity for the acetate-fed bioanodes compared to those formed in raw effluents. Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxonomic group, with a high diversity for bioanodes formed without acetate addition but with almost 100% Desulfuromonas for the acetate-fed bioanodes. The addition of acetate to form the microbial anodes induced microbial selection, which was detrimental to the treatment of the raw effluent. PMID:24862005

Ketep, Stéphanie F; Bergel, Alain; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Achouak, Wafa; Fourest, Eric

2014-07-01

73

Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method.  

PubMed

The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode was investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its colour and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and colour during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and colour removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) and energy consumption 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) to 0.144 kWh x kg(-1) of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD to 12.86 kWh x kg(-1) of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%. PMID:12938980

Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Lokesh, K S; Gowda, T P Halappa

2003-05-01

74

Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

2012-07-01

75

Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of a real textile wastewater effluent treated by an optimized electrocoagulation process.  

PubMed

In this work, the application of an iron electrode-based electrocoagulation (EC) process on the treatment of a real textile wastewater (RTW) was investigated. In order to perform an efficient integration of the EC process with a biological oxidation one, an enhancement in the biodegradability and low toxicity of final compounds was sought. Optimal values of EC reactor operation parameters (pH, current density and electrolysis time) were achieved by applying a full factorial 3(3) experimental design. Biodegradability and toxicity assays were performed on treated RTW samples obtained at the optimal values of: pH of the solution (7.0), current density (142.9?A?m(-2)) and different electrolysis times. As response variables for the biodegradability and toxicity assessment, the Zahn-Wellens test (Dt), the ratio values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) relative to low-molecular-weight carboxylates anions (LMCA) and lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were used. According to the Dt, the DOC/LMCA ratio and LC50, an electrolysis time of 15?min along with the optimal values of pH and current density were suggested as suitable for a next stage of treatment based on a biological oxidation process. PMID:25182075

Manenti, Diego R; Módenes, Aparecido N; Soares, Petrick A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Palácio, Soraya M; Borba, Fernando H; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vilar, Vítor J P

2015-02-01

76

Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.  

PubMed

A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

2010-01-01

77

ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

78

Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could

C. Ménoret; C. Boutin; A. Liénard; F. Brissaud

79

Denitrification in a South Louisiana wetland forest receiving treated sewage effluent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although denitrification has the potential to reduce nitrate (NO3a??) pollution of surface waters, the quantification of denitrification rates is complex because it requires differentiation from other mechanisms and is highly variable in both space and time. This study first measured potential denitrification rates at a wetland forest site in south Louisiana before receipt of secondary wastewater effluent, and then, following 30 months of effluent application, landscape gradients of dissolved nitrate (NO3a??) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured. A computer model was developed to quantify N transformations. Floodwater NO3a?? and N2O concentrations were higher in the forest receiving effluent than in the adjacent control forest. Denitrification rates of NO3a?? -amended soil cores ranged from 0.03a??0.45 g N ma??2 da??1 with an overall mean of 0.10 g N ma??2 da??1. Effluent N is being applied at a rate of approximately 0.034 g N ma??2 da??1, with approximately 95% disappearing along a 1 km transect. In the treatment forest, floodwater NO3a?? concentrations decreased from 1000 M at the inflow point to 50 M along the 1 km transect. Nitrous oxide concentrations increased from 0.25 M to 1.2 M within the first 100 m, but decreased to 0.1 M over the next 900 m. The initial increase in N2O was presumably a result ofin situ denitrification. Model analyses indicated that denitrification was directly associated with nitrification and was limited by the availability of NO3a?? produced by nitrification. Due to different redox potential optima, coupling of nitrification and denitrification was a function of a balance of environmental conditions that was moderately favorable to both processes. N removal efficiency was largely dependent on the proportion of effluent NH4+ to NO3a?? . When NH4+ /NO3a?? was 1, average N removal efficiency ranged from 95a??100%, but ratios that were >1 reduced average efficiencies to as low as 57%. Actual effluent NH4+ /NO3a?? loading ratios at this site are approximately 0.2 and are consistently <1.

Boustany, R.G.; Crozier, C.R.; Rybczyk, J.M.; Twilley, R.R.

1996-01-01

80

Aerobic residential onsite sewage systems: an evaluation of treated-effluent quality.  

PubMed

This retrospective cohort study used existing data to evaluate the quality of effluent from three of the most common types of onsite residential aerobic treatment sewage systems (Multi-Flo, Norweco, and Whitewater) installed in Kitsap County, Washington. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), and fecal-coliform-bacteria parameters were used to determine performance. Although most (77 percent) of the systems were less than one year old at the time of sampling, over a third failed to meet NSF certification standards for BOD5 and TSS in effluent (< 30 milligrams per liter [mg/L]). Over two-thirds of systems failed to meet Washington State Board of Health Treatment Standard 2 criteria for BOD5 and TSS (< 10 mg/L). Furthermore, an average of 59 percent of the systems failed to meet state standards for fecal coliform (< 800 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters). PMID:14556365

Maxfield, Meliss; Daniell, William E; Treser, Charles D; VanDerslice, Jim

2003-10-01

81

USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM DATE SEEDS TO TREAT TEXTILE AND TANNERY EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon from date seed has activated by treatment with zinc chloride and with steam, and sieved into 250, 500 and 1000 ìm particle sizes. Reduction of zinc, nickel and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) from tannery effluent was found to decrease with increase in particle size, and the carbon activated by ZnCl2\\/steam recorded the highest waste removal. The ZnCl2 only activated

M. K. Yakubu; M. S. Gumel; A. M. Abdullahi

82

Gill morphometry and hematology of juvenile chinook salmon chronically exposed to treated (elemental chlorine-free) bleached kraft pulp mill effluent at low temperature to simulate winter exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an on-site mobile laboratory to assess the effects of pulp mill effluent on juvenile (~0.9 g) chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha(Walbaum in Artedi, 1792), that normally overwinter under ice in the upper Fraser River at Prince George, British Columbia. After a 28-day exposure at 0.4-2.7 °C to secondary-treated bleached kraft mill effluent (TBKME; 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, or 16%)

G. M. Kruzynski; A. P. Farrell; K. B. Tierney; S. M. Sanders; I. K. Birtwell

2004-01-01

83

DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL TOXICITY ASSAY FOR PULP MILL EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A chemical analysis procedure was developed to measure within 1.5 hours compounds responsible for the toxicity of pulp mill effluents to fish. Analytical results for 113 samples of raw and biologically-treated bleached and unbleached kraft, sulphite and groundwood effluents were ...

84

Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity. PMID:18538640

Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

2008-08-01

85

A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park.  

PubMed

A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH(4)(+)-N (average in 86.4 mg/L), low in COD/NH(4)(+)-N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD(5)/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably below 100mg/L COD and 20mg/L NH(4)(+)-N, separately, with organic loading rate of 4954 kg COD/d and 92.5 kg NH(4)(+)-N/d. It is found that the BOD(5)/COD ratio could be raised from 0.24 to 0.35, and the production of total VFAs account for 9.57% of the total COD via the treatment of hydrolysis/acidification. MBBR and oxidation ditch represent 35.4% and 60.7% of NH(4)(+)-N removal, 30.2% and 61.5% of COD removal, separately, of the total treatment process. PCR-DGGE is used for microbial community analysis of MBBR and oxidation ditch. PMID:20335031

Lei, Ge; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Wang, Feifei; Zhang, Xingsong

2010-08-01

86

Performance of a pilot-scale nitrifying trickling filter treating municipal aerated lagoon effluent.  

PubMed

Colfax, WA, operates an aerated lagoon to achieve compliance with its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which currently requires biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal. However, ammonia removal may soon be required, and Colfax is considering a nitrifying trickling filter (NTF) that would allow them to also maintain the lagoons. To obtain data from which to ultimately design a full-scale system, a four-year NTF pilot study was performed. Results demonstrated that an NTF would be an effective, reliable NH3 removal method and could produce effluent NH3 concentrations < 1.0 mg/L. NTF performance was characterized by zero- and first-order kinetics; zero-order rates correlated with influent NH3 concentrations and mass load. Utilizing data from these investigations it was determined that the pilot NTF could be reduced by 19%, which demonstrates the value of pilot testing. Finally, pilot data was evaluated to provide a data set that will be useful to engineers designing full-scale NTFs. PMID:25630125

Coats, Erik R; Watson, Ben; Lee, Kiersten; Hammer, Matt

2015-01-01

87

Field-Based Approach for Assessing the Impact of Treated Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Endogenous Metabolites of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)  

EPA Science Inventory

A field-based metabolomic study was conducted during a shutdown of a pulp and paper mill (PPM) to assess the impacts of treated PPM effluent on endogenous polar metabolites in fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) livers. Caged male and female FHMs were deployed at a Great La...

88

The impact of different proportions of a treated effluent on the biotransformation of selected micro-contaminants in river water microcosms.  

PubMed

Attenuation of micro-contaminants is a very complex field in environmental science and evidence suggests that biodegradation rates of micro-contaminants in the aqueous environment depend on the water matrix. The focus of the study presented here is the systematic comparison of biotransformation rates of caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, paracetamol and valsartan in river water microcosms spiked with different proportions of treated effluent (0%, 0.1%, 1%, and 10%). Biotransformation was identified as the dominating attenuation process by the evolution of biotransformation products such as atenolol acid and valsartan acid. Significantly decreasing biotransformation rates of metoprolol were observed at treated effluent proportions ? 0.1% whereas significantly increasing biotransformation rates of caffeine and valsartan were observed in the presence of 10% treated effluent. Potential reasons for the observations are discussed and the addition of adapted microorganisms via the treated effluent was suggested as the most probable reason. The impact of additional phosphorus on the biodegradation rates was tested and the experiments revealed that phosphorus-limitation was not responsible. PMID:25310538

Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Licha, Tobias

2014-01-01

89

Ecological health assessments based on whole effluent toxicity tests and the index of biological integrity in temperate streams influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents.  

PubMed

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests and ecosystem health assessments, based on test guidelines of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and index of biological integrity (IBI), were conducted on various streams located in Youngsan River watershed, Korea. The WET tests showed that about 33 and 82% of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exhibited significant toxicity to Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, respectively. Small WWTPs with low discharge volumes contributed less than 1% to the total stream toxicity. Fish community compositions and trophic guild analysis showed that the diversity index was greater in the control than in impacted streams, and the proportion of omnivore species was less in the control. Also, ecosystem health assessments, based on the IBI, showed distinct differences between the control and impacted sites of WWTPs. Model values of the IBI, based on 12 stream data sets, averaged 28, which is judged as a fair to poor condition according to the U.S. EPA criteria. The mean IBI in the control sites was 42, indicating good stream condition, whereas the impacted sites was scored 21, indicating poor condition. Overall, WET tests and ecosystem health assessments suggested the WWTP effluents had evident toxic effects on the biota, and impacted the species compositions and trophic guilds, resulting in degradation of the stream ecosystem health. PMID:17705646

Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don; Chang, Nam Ik; An, Kwang-Guk

2007-09-01

90

Combined biological and chemical assessment of estrogenic activities in wastewater treatment plant effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five wastewater treatment plant effluents were analyzed for known endocrine disrupters and estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was determined by using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and by measuring the blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in exposed male rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). While all wastewater treatment plant effluents contained measurable concentrations of estrogens and gave a positive response with the YES, only

Hans-Rudolf Aerni; Bernd Kobler; Barbara V. Rutishauser; Felix E. Wettstein; René Fischer; Walter Giger; Andreas Hungerbühler; M. Dolores Marazuela; Armin Peter; René Schönenberger; A. Christiane Vögeli; Marc J.-F. Suter; Rik I. L. Eggen

2004-01-01

91

A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.  

PubMed

Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD? L?¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD? method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p < 0.001; slope = 0.94) between BOD? and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD? assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD? analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

2013-02-01

92

The relevance of physicochemical and biological parameters for setting emission limit values for plants treating complex industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

The influents of plants treating complex industrial wastewaters from third parties may contain a large variety of often unknown or unidentified potentially harmful substances. The conventional approach of assessing and regulating the effluents of these plants is to set emission limit values for a limited set of physicochemical parameters, such as heavy metals, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogen compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of physicochemical parameters for setting emission limit values for such plants based on a comparison of effluent analyses by physicochemical and biological assessment tools. The results show that physicochemical parameters alone are not sufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of the water treatment plants for removing hazardous compounds and to protect the environment. The introduction of toxicity limits and limits for the total bioaccumulation potential should be considered to supplement generic parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and adsorbable organic halogens. A recommendation is made to include toxicity screening as a technique to consider in the determination of best available techniques (BAT) during the upcoming revision of the BAT reference document for the waste treatment industries to provide a more rational basis in decisions on additional treatment steps. PMID:24142491

Huybrechts, Diane; Weltens, Reinhilde; Jacobs, Griet; Borburgh, Ab; Smets, Toon; Hoebeke, Lut; Polders, Caroline

2014-02-01

93

Performance of a sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur-producing membrane biofilm reactor treating sulfide-containing bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated in mining, petrochemical plants, tanneries, viscose rayon manufacture, and the gasification of coal. Colorless sulfur bacteria can oxidize sulfide to elemental sulfur (S°), which can be recovered, when oxygen is their electron acceptor. This study evaluated sulfide oxidation and S° recovery in an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating the effluent from a sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor. Sulfide oxidation efficiency (37-99%) and S° recovery (64-89% of oxidized sulfide) could be controlled by manipulating the sulfide loading, oxygen pressure to the fibers, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). For example, too-low oxygen pressure decreased S° recovery due to decreased sulfide oxidation, but too-high oxygen pressure lowered S° recovery due to its oxidation to sulfate. Most importantly, high sulfide oxidation (>98%) and conversion to S° (>75%) could be achieved together when the sulfide loading was less than 1.7 mol/m²·d and the O? pressure was sufficient to give an O? flux of at least 1.5 mol/m²·d. However, higher sulfide loading could be compensated by a higher O? pressure, and the best performance occurred when the sulfide loading was high (2 molS/m²·d), the O? pressure was high (?1 atm), and the HRT was short (1.9 h). Membrane fouling caused a low O? flux, which led to low sulfide-oxidation efficiency, but fouling could be reversed by mild acid washing. PMID:21452867

Sahinkaya, Erkan; Hasar, Halil; Kaksonen, Anna H; Rittmann, Bruce E

2011-05-01

94

Bioaugmentation with resin-acid-degrading bacteria enhances resin acid removal in sequencing batch reactors treating pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

Resin acids are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs), and they form pitch interfering with papermaking. Efficient and reliable resin acid removal is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and ensure proper functioning of paper machines. Two resin-acid-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9 and Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35, were tested in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for their ability to enhance resin acid removal by biomass from a full-scale biotreatment system treating PPMEs. Both bacteria enhanced resin acid removal but not removal of total organic carbon (TOC) by either pH-shocked or starved activated sludge. These two bacteria also increased resin acid removal when the sludge was given high concentration (200 microM) of resin acid. A most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) assay showed that these two bacteria were initially not detectable (detection limit: 10(2) bacterial cells/ml) in the sludge community and were persistent after inoculation. Both bacteria did not substantially change the indigenous microbial community composition, as assayed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Our results suggest that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance resin acid removal by bioaugmentation using resin-acid-degrading bacteria such as BKME-9 and DhA-35. PMID:11235883

Yu, Z; Mohn, W W

2001-03-01

95

Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

Vigerstad, T J

1980-01-01

96

300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

NONE

1995-05-01

97

Anaerobic treatment of gasifier effluent: Final report. [Organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been conducted to determine the biological treatability of coal gasification effluent for removal of organic carbon and ammonia. The treatment system consisted of an anaerobic activated carbon filter for organic carbon removal followed by a single stage nitrification system followed by a biological denitrification reactor. Dilute (approx.10%) wastewater was successfully treated over an extended period of time. However,

W. H. Cross; F. G. Pohland; E. S. K. Chian; S. R. Harper; F. Lu; H. Gao; F. M. Saunders; J. Havash; E. Wang

1986-01-01

98

REUSE OF TREATED FRUIT PROCESSING WASTEWATER IN A CANNERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reclamation of the biologically treated effluent by filtration through mixed media pressure filters and disinfection with chlorine was investigated for two processing seasons. The reclaimed water was put to several trial uses: (a) initial product conveying, (b) equipment, floor a...

99

Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.  

PubMed

The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

2013-12-01

100

Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent injected in a saline aquifer, St. Petersburg, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for subsurface storage and recovery of treated effluent into the uppermost producing zone (zone A) of the Upper Floridan aquifer in St. Petersburg, Florida, is being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. A measure of the success of this practice is the recovery efficiency, or the quantity of water relative to the quantity injected, that can be recovered before the water that is withdrawn fails to meet water-quality standards. The feasibility of this practice will depend upon the ability of the injected zone to receive, store, and discharge the injected fluid. A cylindrical model of ground-water flow and solute transport, incorporating available data on aquifer properties and water quality, was developed to determine the relation of recovery efficiency to various aquifer and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area. The reference case for testing was a base model considered representative of the saline aquifer underlying St. Petersburg. Parameter variations in the tests represent possible variations in aquifer conditions in the area. The model also was used to study the effect of various cyclic injection and withdrawal schemes on the recovery efficiency of the well and aquifer system. A base simulation assuming 15 days of injection of effluent at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day and 15 days of withdrawal at a rate of 1.0 million gallons per day was used as reference to compare changes in various hydraulic and chemical parameters on recovery efficiency. A recovery efficiency of 20 percent was estimated for the base simulation. For practical ranges of hydraulic and fluid properties that could prevail in the study area, the model analysis indicates that (1) the greater the density contrast between injected and resident formation water, the lower the recovery efficiency, (2) recovery efficiency decreases significantly as dispersion increases, (3) high formation permeability favors low recovery efficiencies, and (4) porosity and anisotropy have little effect on recovery efficiencies. In several hypothetical tests, the recovery efficiency fluctuated between about 4 and 76 percent. The sensitivity of recovery efficiency to variations in the rate and duration of injection (0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 million gallons per day) and withdrawal cycles (60, 180, and 365 days) was determined. For a given operational scheme, recovery efficiency increased as the injection and withdrawal rate is increased. Model results indicate that recovery efficiencies of between about 23 and 37 percent can be obtained for different subsurface storage and recovery schemes. Five successive injection, storage, and recovery cycles can increase the recovery efficiency to about 46 to 62 percent. There is a larger rate of increase at smaller rates than at larger rates. Over the range of variables studied, recovery efficiency improved with successive cycles, increasing rapidly during initial cycles tyhen more slowly at later cycles. The operation of a single well used for subsurface storage and recovery appears to be technically feasible under moderately favorable conditions; however, the recovery efficiency is higly dependent upon local physical and operational parameters. A combination of hydraulic, chemical, and operational parameters that minimize dispersion and buoyancy flow, maximizes recovery efficiency. Recovery efficiency was optimal where resident formation water density and permeabilities were relatively similar and low.

Yobbi, D.K.

1996-01-01

101

Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the remaining samples were archived. Biological characteristics were determined by using an in-vitro bioassay to determine total estrogenicity in water samples and a caged fish study to determine characteristics of fish from experiments that exposed fish to wastewater effluent in 2009. St. Cloud State University deployed and processed caged fathead minnows at 13 stream sites during September 2009 for the caged fish study. Measured fish data included length, weight, body condition factor, and vitellogenin concentrations.

Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

2011-01-01

102

Observations on Root Disease of Container Whitebark Pine Seedlings treated with Biological Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a non-treated control. Seedlings treated with the biological controls and non-symptomatic seedlings in the control treatment had

R Kasten Dumroese

2008-01-01

103

Biological aerated filter treated textile washing wastewater for reuse after ozonation pre-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of chemical and biological treatment processes is a promising technique to reduce refractory organics from wastewater. Ozonation can achieve high color removal, enhance biodegradability, and reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The biological technique can further decrease COD of wastewater after ozonation as a pre-treatment. In this study the ozonizing- biological aerated filter processes were used to treat

X. J. Wang; S. L. Chen; X. Y. Gu; K. Y. Wang; Y. Z. Qian

2008-01-01

104

Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1?mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

2013-01-01

105

Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.  

PubMed

The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions. PMID:15176911

Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

2004-01-01

106

SITE-SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY STUDIES OF THE STRAIGHT RIVER, MINNESOTA: COMPLEX EFFLUENT TOXICITY, ZINC TOXICITY, AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative laboratory toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were conducted to establish relationships between the toxicity of a sewage treatment plant effluent containing high concentrations of zinc, toxicity of the effluent in t...

107

Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.  

PubMed

In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed. PMID:24620597

Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

2013-04-01

108

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

PubMed Central

Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter, enriched significantly in the biofilter throughout the treatment. Conclusion The silica-bead packed bed biofilm reactor developed and characterized in this study was able to significantly decontaminate anaerobically digested OMWs. Therefore, the application of an integrated anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in an improved system for valorization and decontamination of OMWs. PMID:16595023

Bertin, Lorenzo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Marchetti, Leonardo; Fava, Fabio

2006-01-01

109

Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active culture, and excellent settling velocity. This integrated two-stage design for immobilized hydrogen fermentation and methane production offers a promising approach for modifying current anaerobic wastewater treatment processes to harvest hydrogen from the existing systems.

Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

110

Assessment of whole effluent toxicity on aquatic snails: bioaccumulation of Cr, Zn, and Fe, and individual effects in bioassays.  

PubMed

We used a freshwater gastropod, Lymnaea palustris, in chronic bioassays to assess the toxicity of an industrial effluent containing high levels of metals, particularly Cr, Zn, and Fe. Adult snails were exposed for four weeks to different concentrations of effluent sampled at three successive treatment steps (crude effluent, effluent after physicochemical treatment, and after biological treatment). Dose-dependent responses reflecting exposure (metal bioaccumulation) and effects on survival, fecundity, and malondialdehyde production (a proxy for oxidative stress) were investigated. We found that Cr and Zn were accumulated in snail tissues, whereas Fe was regulated. Body concentrations of Cr and Zn decreased along the effluent-treatment gradient, particularly after the physicochemical treatment. For controls versus treatments, no effect on malondialdehyde production was detected. Significant effects were noted for fecundity. The number of eggs per individual decreased for snails exposed to 20, 30, and 40% concentrations of physicochemically treated effluent and for snails exposed to an 80% concentration of the biologically treated effluent. A hormetic effect on the number of eggs per individual was observed for snails exposed to 10 and 20% concentrations of the effluent that had been biologically treated. Deleterious effects of the effluent on L. palustris fecundity were not correlated with high internal concentrations of metals in the snails, suggesting that toxicity resulted from other factors. PMID:15683184

Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Crini, Nadia; Scheifler, Renaud; Badot, Pierre-Marie

2005-01-01

111

The presence of the top prescribed pharmaceuticals in treated sewage effluents and receiving waters in Southwest Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

From a list of the top prescribed drugs in Canada, 11 pharmaceuticals and two metabolites were selected for study in municipal sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants across Southwest Nova Scotia including the Annapolis Valley, South Shore, and Metropolitan Halifax. Samples were also collected between 100 and 200 m downstream of effluent outflows. Seven pharmaceuticals were found above ?g/L levels with their highest concentrations as follows: metformin (10.6 ?g/L), acetaminophen (28.9 ?g/L), paraxanthine (18.2 ?g/L), cotinine (3.10 ?g/L), caffeine (115 ?g/L), naproxen (29.1 ?g/L), and venlafaxine (2.65 ?g/L). Metformin, paraxanthine, caffeine, naproxen, ramipril, and venlafaxine were detected in every wastewater effluent sample. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in pharmaceutical occurrence by treatment methods, weak dependence of pharmaceutical concentrations on populations, and the co-occurrence of some pharmaceuticals. Experimental results might indicate the limitation of primary only treatment methods in breaking down pharmaceuticals. PMID:25099660

Ghoshdastidar, Avik J; Fox, Shannon; Tong, Anthony Z

2015-01-01

112

Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.  

PubMed

Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. PMID:23774187

Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

2013-09-01

113

Moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa treated with biological therapies.  

PubMed

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating disorder that can be difficult to manage with current conventional treatment strategies. Given its association with proinflammatory cytokines there has been interest in the use of novel biological monoclonal antibodies. We describe our experience with the use of these agents in six patients in whom conventional treatment had failed, with promising response noted in some patients. A growing number of studies now highlight the efficacy of these agents. PMID:24456051

Chinniah, Niranthari; Cains, Geoffrey David

2014-05-01

114

Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Sonically Treated Vi Antigen  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretically purified Vi antigen from Citrobacter freundii 5396/38 was depolymerized by sonic treatment. The treatment caused an 80% reduction in specific viscosity and a reduction in molecular weight from 1.6 × 106 to 3.9 × 104. The O-acetyl and N-acetyl contents of the antigen and its infrared spectrum remained unchanged. The sonically treated antigen was only 1% as effective as the original antigen in eliciting protection in mice against challenge with Salmonella typhi. Sonically treated antigen also elicited lower antibody titers after single injections in mice and rabbits. No loss in ability to precipitate antibody or to sensitize red blood cells for hemagglutination was observed. Images PMID:4964477

Martin, Donald G.; Jarvis, Francis G.; Milner, Kelsey C.

1967-01-01

115

NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

116

Disinfection kinetics of heterotrophic plate count bacteria in biologically treated potable water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection kinetics of biologically and non-biologically treated drinking waters were evaluated at bench-scale using process water from a pilot plant employing pre-ozonation and biologically active carbon (BAC) contactors. The Chick-Watson kinetic model did not describe the inactivation of native heterotrophic plate count bacteria (R2A agar, 7 d at 20°C) with decreasing rates of inactivation seen at extended contact times

David J. Pernitsky; Gordon R. Finch; Peter M. Huck

1995-01-01

117

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

118

From Effluent to New Water: Performance Evaluation and Quality Assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As water reuse becomes increasingly important to satisfy water demand, ensuring the quality of recycled wastewater becomes ever more vital. Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) metabolites are two groups of chemicals that are commonly present in treated effluent and have received attention for their demonstrated or potential biological effects. In this paper we present data on the effects of

Martin Reinhard; John Montgomery-Brown; Jennifer S. Louie; Birgit Gross

2003-01-01

119

Chemical catalytic reaction and biological oxidation for treatment of non-biodegradable textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of a combined reduction–biological treatment system for the decolorization of non-biodegradable textile dyeing wastewater was investigated. In this treatment system, a bisulfite-catalyzed sodium borohydride reduction followed by activated sludge technique was used in order to remove the color at ambient temperature and pressure. This experimental study consisted of two major parts: reduction treatment and biological oxidation. Both synthetic

S. M. Ghoreishi; R. Haghighi

2003-01-01

120

Estimating effluent COD  

SciTech Connect

In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

1995-06-01

121

Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

1980-01-01

122

Phragmites sp. physiological changes in a constructed wetland treating an effluent contaminated with a diazo dye (DR81).  

PubMed

The role of Phragmites sp. in phytoremediation of wastewaters containing azo dyes is still, in many ways, at its initial stage of investigation. This plant response to the long-term exposure to a highly conjugated di-azo dye (Direct Red 81, DR81) was assessed using a vertical flow constructed wetland, at pilot scale. A reed bed fed with water was used as control. Changes in photosynthetic pigment content in response to the plant contact with synthetic DR81 effluent highlight Phragmites plasticity. Phragmites leaf enzymatic system responded rapidly to the stress imposed; in general, within 1 day, the up-regulation of foliar reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (especially superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxidase) was noticed as plants entered in contact with synthetic DR81 effluent. This prompt activation decreased the endogenous levels of H?O? and the malonyldialdehyde content beyond reference values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity intensification was not enough to cope with stress imposed by DR81. GPX activity was pivotal for the detoxification pathways after a 24-h exposure. Carotenoid pool was depleted during this shock. After the imposed DR81 stress, plants were harvested. In the next vegetative cycle, Phragmites had already recovered from the chemical stress. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlights the role of GPX, GST, APX, and carotenoids along catalase (CAT) in the detoxification process. PMID:24809499

Ferreira, Renata Alexandra; Duarte, Joana Gouveia; Vergine, Pompilio; Antunes, Carlos D; Freire, Filipe; Martins-Dias, Susete

2014-08-01

123

Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 ?g/L of THMs and 1140.6 ?g/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively. PMID:23535379

Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

2013-05-15

124

Using combined bio-omics methods to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of mixed chemical wastewater and its treated effluent.  

PubMed

Mixed chemical wastewaters (MCWW) from industrial park contain complex mixtures of trace contaminants, which cannot be effectively removed by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and have become an unignored threat to ambient environment. However, limited information is available to evaluate the complicated toxic effects of MCWW and its effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WTPE) from the perspective of bio-omics. In this study, mice were exposed to the MCWW and WTPE for 90 days and distinct differences in the hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra, respectively. Our results indicated that disruption of lipid metabolism in liver and hepatotoxicity were induced by both MCWW and WTPE exposure. WTPE is still a health risk to the environment, which is in need of more attention. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential ability of bio-omics approaches for evaluating toxic effects of MCWW and WTPE. PMID:24675614

Zhang, Yan; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang

2014-05-15

125

The culture of selected marine fish in ponds receiving thermal effluent from a power station and their use as biological monitors of water quality  

E-print Network

in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE CULTURE OF SELECTED MARINE FISH IN PONDS RECEIVING THERMAL EFFLUENT FROM A POWER STATION AND THEIR USE... AS BIOLOGICAL MONITORS OF WATER QUALITY A Thesis by JOSEPH JOHN PANE Approved as to style and content by: i' (Chairman of Committee) A (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT The Culture of Selected Marine Fish in Ponds...

Pane, Joseph John

2012-06-07

126

Quantification of synthetic organic chemicals in biological treatment process effluent using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a technique that uses a polymer-coated, fused-silica fiber to selectively extract organic analyses from a sample matrix, followed by gas chromatography (GC), was used to quantify selected synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs) in biological reactor effluent. By selecting an appropriate combination of SPME fiber, GC column, and GC detector, assays to quantify either a suite of SOCs or single selected SOCs were developed. Phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4,-dinitrophenol, isophorone, m-toluate, m-sylene, and di-n-butylphthalate were quantified simultaneously using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a flame ionization detector. m-Xylene was quantified using a 100-{micro}m polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, a 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column, and a mass spectrometric detector. Dichloromethane was quantified using an 85-{micro}m polyacrylate SPME fiber, a Carbopack B/1% SP-1000 packed column, and an electron capture detector. All three assays enabled detection of the target analyses to low concentrations ({micro}g/L) with minimal sample volume and processing requirements.

Magbanua, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, D.R.; Fehniger, S.M.; Bowyer, R.L.; Grady, C.P.L. Jr.

2000-02-01

127

Ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate ammonia recovery from high strength agro industry effluents involving significant amounts of ammonia, by applying magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation technology. Two types of industrial effluents have been tested in the study. The first plant was an opium alkaloid processing industry and the second one was a baker's yeast industry. High chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and unacceptable dark brown color characterized effluents from both industries. Effluents from the biologically treated opium alkaloid and baker's yeast industries were both applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1:1:1) and above the stoichiometric ratio (Mg:NH4:PO4 = 1.1:1:1.1) to MAP precipitation. NH4 removals of 61-80% were achieved at the pH of 9.2 at the stoichiometric ratio, whereas 83% NH4 removal was obtained at the pH of 9.2 above the stoichiometric ratio. Experimental studies performed on both anaerobically and/or aerobically treated baker's yeast and opium alkaloid industry effluents have clearly indicated that MAP precipitation was an appropriate treatment option for NH4 removal or struvite recovery from high ammonia content agro industry effluents. Additional ammonia recovery studies were conducted on ozonated and Fenton's oxidation applied effluents and these have also indicated that the amounts of struvite and the quality of MAP precipitate was increased significantly. In this framework, MAP sludge recovered from combined biological and Fenton's oxidation treatment effluents were considered as a more valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:12201102

Altinbas, M; Ozturk, I; Aydin, A F

2002-01-01

128

Optimization of the aerobic biological treatment of thermophilically treated refractory wastewater.  

PubMed

A pilot scale conventional activated sludge was operated for over 600 days to study its effectiveness at further remediating the effluent of an existing industrial site's thermophilic biological treatment stage. During the course of the study, the activated sludge was able to further biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming industrial wastewater in terms of both BOD and nitrogen reductions at varying hydraulic and solids retention times, despite elevated concentrations of soluble copper being present. A limiting hydraulic retention time (HRT) for BOD removal of 1.5 days was observed as well as the loss of nitrification occurred at a solids retention time (SRT) of approximately 6 days. Biokinetic coefficients were determined with the maximum rate of substrate utilization per unit mass of microorganisms, k, of 0.14 mgVSS/(mgsBOD-d) and the Monod half velocity constant, K(s), of 9.4 mgsBOD/L. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) of the nitrogenous compounds found in this wastewater was observed throughout the majority of the experimentation while the bulk DO in the system was greater than 1 mg/L. The activated sludge was estimated to contain soluble copper on the order of 1 mg/L throughout the course of operation with no apparent detriment to nitrification. Additionally, the activated sludge was able to biologically remove the main solvents found in the influent wastewater. The removals of trace levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were also observed. PMID:16005148

Quesnel, David; Nakhla, George

2005-10-17

129

Effect of solids retention time on membrane fouling intensity in two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs) treating palm oil mill effluent were analysed in terms of membrane fouling dynamics when working at three different sludge retention times (SRTs of 15, 30 and 60 d). The average permeate flux was fixed at 2.4 L x m(-2) x h(-1). During operation, the membrane was regenerated by using two steps: membrane wiping during each experiment as soon as trans-membrane pressure reached 125-130 mbars, and complete membrane cleaning including backwash and chemical cleaning at the end of each experiment when analysing the membrane surface and foulant material. Whatever the SRT, the cake formation was the dominant effect on membrane fouling dynamics. The concentration of suspended solids in the SAnMBRs, depending on the SRT, was then a determining criterion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that fouled membrane surfaces were covered with a cake layer containing organic and inorganic elements whose concentrations were higher when working at a higher SRT; the higher concentrations of such elements gave to the cake layer a denser and more compact structure. In these experiments, the soluble fractions played a secondary role because of the dominant effect of cake layer structuring. PMID:25145221

Annop, S; Sridang, P; Puetpaiboon, U; Grasmick, A

2014-01-01

130

[Clinical and biological prognostic factors in 135 patients affected by sinonasal carcinoma treated in Piedmont].  

PubMed

Clinical and biological prognostic factors in 135 patients affected by sinonasal carcinoma treated in Piedmont. Long-term survival of patients with sinonasal carcinoma remains disappointing in spite of aggressive treatment. The aim of the study is the assessment of overall survival in a group of patients treated with a fixed protocol and the positivity of proliferation and neoangiogenesis markers (Ki-67 and VEGF). From our data it comes out that staging, histological type and treatment are the most important clinical and pathological prognostic factors, moreover surgery +/- radiotherapy is the first line treatment for these tumors. Proliferation index and neoangiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the natural history of such neoplasms. PMID:23393815

Raimondo, L; Garzaro, M; Naqe, N; Zanardi, F; Lauria, A; Pecorari, G; Giordano, C

2011-01-01

131

Detoxification of kraft pulp ECF bleaching effluents by catalytic hydrotreatment.  

PubMed

Two different effluents from the D(1) and E(1) stages of the ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were treated by catalytic hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor using commercial and homemade Pd/AC catalysts. The reactor was fed with the bleaching effluent and a H(2)/N(2) gas stream. The variables studied were space-time (1.4-5g(cat)min/mL), gas to liquid flow ratio (286-1000vol.), gas feed concentration (H(2):N(2), 1:1-1:7.3vol.), temperature (25-100 degrees C) and pressure (1-11bar). Hydrotreatment performance was evaluated in terms of ecotoxicity, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and colour removal. In all the runs, the ecotoxicity of the effluents decreased as a result of the treatment, achieving reductions that ranged from 70% to 98%. Simultaneously to the reduction of toxicity, the hydrotreatment led to a decrease of the colour of the effluents, being the decrease significantly higher in the case of E(1) effluent. The AOX content was reduced by 85% and 23% for E(1) and D(1) effluents, respectively. In the case of D(1) effluent the removal of ecotoxicity was significantly higher than that of AOX, which indicates that much of the toxicity of the effluent must be associated to non-chlorinated organics. In spite of the important reduction of ecotoxicity, the biodegradability of the effluents only increased slightly. The homemade catalysts, prepared from activated carbons with a high external or non-microporous surface area and mesopore volume and a convenient surface chemistry showed a higher efficiency than the commercial one. PMID:17223158

Calvo, L; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Mohedano, A F; Rodríguez, J J

2007-02-01

132

Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs

Lorenzo Bertin; Maria Chiara Colao; Maurizio Ruzzi; Leonardo Marchetti; Fabio Fava

2006-01-01

133

Associations between macrofauna and sediment hydrocarbons from treated ballast water effluent at a marine oil terminal in Port Valdez, Alaska.  

PubMed

Sediment-dwelling macrofauna, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and abiotic parameters were monitored annually in benthic marine sediments from 1989-2007 in Port Valdez, a period of declining routine discharge of treated marine ballast water containing residual PAH from a major crude oil loading facility. The resulting dataset was used to evaluate associations between macrofauna and environmental characteristics including PAH concentrations. The influences of natural abiotic gradients on macrofauna were stronger than associations between macrofauna and sediment PAH. Though overall associations of PAH with macrofaunal community structure were weak, effects were greater for the tube-dwelling polychaete worms Galathowenia oculata and Melinna cristata which responded negatively to low PAH values near sediment quality criteria (threshold effects concentration: TEC and field-based sediment quality criterion: fb-SQG: ?300 ng g(?-1)). Effects of PAH on benthic fauna may be strongest through poor survival of juveniles and failed recruitment over multiple years. Comparison of measured PAH concentrations to the TEC and field-based fb-SQG suggest that the observed levels of change in Port Valdez are minor and the criteria are ecologically appropriate for environmental monitoring. By demonstrating positive responses of sensitive fauna to reduction of PAH concentration, this study contributes to understanding the temporal change, ecological importance, and size of effects expected on benthic fauna in the presence of continuous exposure to low levels of hydrocarbons. PMID:20878230

Blanchard, Arny L; Feder, Howard M; Shaw, David G

2011-07-01

134

Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

2014-01-01

135

Management of patients with psoriasis treated with biological drugs needing a surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a cytokine that plays a critical role in inflammatory and immune processes and in the control of infections and sepsis. Data on the perioperative management of patients treated with biologic drugs are limited and mainly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This retrospective study assesses variations in the incidence of side effects between psoriatic patients who temporarily discontinue or continue biological therapy before surgical treatment. Despite the immunosuppressive risk, our results suggest that postoperative complications are not influenced by the suspension of biologic therapies. As TNF-? plays a role in promoting collagen synthesis and wound healing, we suggest that anti-TNFs should be discontinued before major surgery, whereas for minor surgery, the lower rates of infections favor anti-TNF-? continuation, particularly since suspending anti-TNF therapy is known to induce psoriasis relapse. PMID:25381969

Fabiano, Antonella; De Simone, Clara; Gisondi, Paolo; Piaserico, Stefano; Lasagni, Claudia; Pellacani, Giovanni; Conti, Andrea

2014-11-01

136

A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch (Perca flavescens).  

PubMed

The development of integrated ecotoxicological approaches is of great interest in the investigation of global concerns such as impacts of municipal wastewater effluents on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a major wastewater municipal effluent on fish using a multi-level biological approach, from gene transcription and enzyme activities to histological changes. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were selected based on their wide distribution, their commercial and recreational importance, and the availability of a customized microarray. Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10 km downstream from its point of discharge in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals/trace elements in whole body homogenates were comparable to those from other industrialized regions of the world. Genomic results indicated that the transcription level of 177 genes was significantly different (p<0.024) between exposed and non-exposed fish. Among these genes, 38 were found to be differentially transcribed at both downstream sites. Impacted genes were associated with biological processes and molecular functions such as immunity, detoxification, lipid metabolism/energy homeostasis (e.g., peroxisome proliferation), and retinol metabolism suggesting impact of WWTP on these systems. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were more elevated in perch collected at the 4 km site. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism, biosynthetic activity, and aerobic capacities were significantly lower (p<0.05) in fish residing near the outfall of the effluent. Histological examination of the liver indicated no differences between sites. Correlations between PFAS, PBDE, and metal/trace element tissue concentrations and markers of peroxisomal proliferation, oxidative stress, and retinoid metabolism were found at the gene and cellular levels. Present results suggest that relating transcriptomic analyses to phenotypic responses is important to better understand impacts of environmental contamination on wild fish populations. PMID:25137380

Houde, Magali; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Bougas, Bérénice; Couture, Patrice; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Lair, Stéphane; Verreault, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Gagnon, Christian

2014-11-01

137

Removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater by chlorine dioxide or peracetic acid.  

PubMed

Removal of six active pharmaceutical ingredients in wastewater was investigated using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or peracetic acid (PAA) as chemical oxidants. Four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid) and two lipid-regulating agents (gemfibrozil and clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate) were used as target substances at 40 microg/L initial concentration. Three different wastewaters types originating from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were used. One wastewater was collected after extended nitrogen removal in activated sludge, one after treatment with high-loaded activated sludge without nitrification, and one from the final effluent from the same plant where nitrogen removal was made in trickling filters for nitrification and moving-bed biofilm reactors for denitrification following the high-loaded plant. Of the six investigated compounds, only clofibric acid and ibuprofen were not removed when treated with ClO2 up to 20 mg/L. With increasing PAA dose up to 50 mg/L, significant removal of most of the pharmaceuticals was observed except for the wastewater with the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD). This indicates that chemical oxidation with ClO2 could be used for tertiary treatment at WWTPs for active pharmaceutical ingredients, whereas PAA was not sufficiently efficient. PMID:22720432

Hey, G; Ledin, A; Jansen, J la Cour; Andersen, H R

2012-01-01

138

Bioremediation of metal-rich effluents: could the invasive bivalve work as a biofilter?  

PubMed

Industrial effluents are important sources of contamination of water and sediments, frequently causing serious damage at different levels of biological organization. Management and treatment of harmful industrial wastes is thus a major concern. Metal-bearing effluents, such as acid mine drainage (AMD), are particularly problematic because metals can easily bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify across the trophic chain. Several solutions have been proposed to treat AMD, including active methods involving the addition of neutralizing agents and passive techniques that use natural energy sources for remediation. However, increasing environmental and economic requirements lead the constant search for more sustainable solutions. The present study explores the possibility of using , an invasive freshwater bivalve, as a bioremediation tool using AMD as a model, metal-bearing effluent. The study compares untreated and biotreated effluents at two dilution levels (4 and 10% v/v) following two distinct approaches: (i) chemical characterization of the metal concentrations in water complemented by determination of the accumulation in the clams' soft tissues and shells; and (ii) ecotoxicity assessment using standard organisms (the bacterium , the microalgae , and the cladoceran ). Significant removal of metals from water was recorded for both effluent dilutions, with higher purification levels found for the 4% effluent. The environmental toxicity of the effluents generally decreased after the treatment with the clams. Thus, this study provides evidence for the suitability of as a bioremediator for metal-bearing effluents, especially if the treatment can be materialized in a multistage configuration system. PMID:25603239

Rosa, Inês Correia; Costa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Joana Luísa

2014-09-01

139

Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools.  

PubMed

Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. PMID:22717564

Filloux, E; Labanowski, J; Croue, J P

2012-08-01

140

Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.  

PubMed

Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the polishing of secondary effluents. Elimination of bacteria (total and coliforms, faecal streptococci) and their relationship with the hydraulic load and the temperature were investigated. PMID:11464749

Makni, H

2001-01-01

141

In vitro assessment of retinoic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity of treated effluent from 39 wastewater-treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia, in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity of the dissolved phase using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays. More than 90% of the effluents examined in this study elicited RAR activity (<0.5-198 ng/l a-t-RA equivalents [EQ]). All of the effluents had AhR activity (16-279 ng/l ?NF EQ). Notwithstanding the paucity of comparative data, on the whole, the levels of RAR and AhR activity observed in this pilot survey of Victorian WWTP effluents were greater than those recently reported internationally. One assumption commonly made is that WWTP discharges will be diluted significantly in the receiving environment, further decreasing the potential risk of the discharges. Making this assumption may not be appropriate for some of Victoria's more ephemeral waterways or where effluent is discharged to an enclosed water body, such as a lake or terminal wetland. However, even where WWTP discharges represent all of the environmental flow in the warmer months, the observed RAR and AhR activity (as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] EQ, respectively) was still significantly lower than the concentrations of RA, and 2,3,7,8-TCCD known to cause developmental malformations in fish larvae after short-term exposure to these chemicals. Of perhaps greater concern, WWTP effluent can contain significant suspended solids (essentially biosolids), which may be a considerable sink for some hormonally active, hydrophobic compounds, and which may in turn increase the long-term exposure risk for aquatic fauna. Further studies of the nuclear and AhR activity of WWTP effluent suspended soilds are required to address this hypothesis. PMID:21461931

Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

2011-11-01

142

In vitro and immunological assessment of the estrogenic activity and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and ethinyl estradiol in treated effluent from 45 wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

The project was conducted between May 2006 and September 2007, and involved the collection of effluent samples from 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The 45 WWTPs included 16 lagoon-based plants and 29 with activated sludge-based processes. Permission was obtained from all the relevant water authorities to collect samples of final effluent at point of discharge to the environment, whether that was to a creek, a river, the ocean, or the land. Samples were collected on two occasions, namely, in August 2006 (winter) and late February-early March 2007 (summer), and subjected to a number of biological and chemical analyses, including toxicity tests, measurement of hormonal (estrogenic) activity using yeast-based bioassays, and measurement of specific hormonal concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Almost all of the effluents examined showed estrogenic activity: in winter, no activity to 73 ng/l 17beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ); and in summer, no activity to 20 ng/l EEQ. On the whole, the levels of estrogenic activity observed were comparable with the range recently reported in Australia and New Zealand using human estrogen receptor-based assays ("not detected" to approximately 10 ng/l EEQ). The low/no bioassay response was confirmed by the chemical assessment of estradiol, estrone, and ethinyl estradiol concentrations by ELISA, which returned concentrations of these compounds for the most part below 10 ng/l. PMID:20130850

Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

2010-04-01

143

The effect of sewage effluent on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the Sand River, Limpopo, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population growth in urban areas is putting pressure on sewage treatment plants. The improper treatment of sewage entering the aquatic ecosystems causes deterioration of the water quality of the receiving water body. The effect of sewage effluent on the Sand River was assessed. Eight sampling sites were selected, site 1 and 2 were upstream of the sewage treatment plant along the urbanised area of Polokwane, whilst sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were downstream. The physico-chemical parameters and coliform counts in the water samples were determined. The suitability of the water for irrigation was also determined. Hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis produced two clusters, grouping two sites above the sewage treatment works and six sites downstream of the sewage effluent discharge point. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified total nitrogen, total phosphorus, conductivity and salinity as the major factors contributing to the variability of the Sand River water quality. These factors are strongly associated with the downstream sites. Canonial correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Belastomatidae, Chaoborus and Hirudinea being strongly associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity and temperature. Escherichia coli levels in the Polokwane wastewater treatment works maturation ponds, could potentially lead to contamination of the Polokwane aquifer. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio was between 1.5 and 3.0 and residual sodium carbonate was below 1.24 Meq/l, indicating that the Sand River water is still suitable for irrigation. The total phosphorus concentrations fluctuated across the different site. Total nitrogen concentrations showed a gradual decrease downstream from the point of discharge. This shows that the river still has a good self-purification capacity.

Seanego, K. G.; Moyo, N. A. G.

144

Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

Engelsman, Martijn, E-mail: mengelsman@partners.or [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S. [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2011-02-01

145

Lack of protection against bacterial infections in patients with advanced cancer treated by biologic response modifiers.  

PubMed Central

A survey of patients with advanced cancer treated by biologic response modifiers (BRMs), including (i) recombinant interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells, (ii) recombinant interleukin-2 and alpha interferon, and (iii) tumor necrosis factor, was done. A total of 52 patients were reviewed. A total of 73 courses of BRMs were administered. Prior to the initiation of therapy, all patients were infection free and not receiving antibiotics. Twelve patients developed bacteremia during treatment with these BRMs. Five of these 12 patients had catheter-related bacteremia. Six patients had bacteremic infections without an obvious source, and one patient had a urinary tract infection with bacteremia. Staphylococcus epidermidis accounted for six of the isolates. Other organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, viridans group streptococci, and gram-negative bacilli. This was an unexpectedly high incidence of bacterial infections in patients treated with BRMs. These BRMs have been previously shown to be efficacious against infections (by bacteria and other intracellular organisms) in experimental animals. In this study BRMs did not influence host defense mechanisms or offer protection against bacterial infections. PMID:2584381

Maoleekoonpairoj, S; Mittelman, A; Savona, S; Ahmed, T; Puccio, C; Gafney, E; Skelos, A; Arnold, P; Coombe, N; Baskind, P

1989-01-01

146

Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.  

PubMed

This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water. PMID:25320856

Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y

2014-01-01

147

Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.

1995-11-01

148

Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

2004-01-01

149

Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa  

PubMed Central

Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

2013-01-01

150

Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents  

SciTech Connect

Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

1981-01-01

151

Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.  

PubMed

This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment. PMID:25277708

Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

2014-10-01

152

Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

2013-01-01

153

Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report, April 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems addressed are the protection of uranium will workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses

Eidson

1982-01-01

154

VALIDITY OF EFFLUENT AND AMBIENT TOXICITY TESTING FOR PREDICTING BIOLOGICAL IMPACT ON FIVE MILE CREEK, BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an investigation to determine the validity of laboratory toxicity tests to predict biological impact in receiving water. The first site visit in February 1983 was adversely affected by heavy rainfall immediately preceding and during the visit. Two of the trea...

155

standing the biology of obesity and how best to treat it. The propensity of obese persons to  

E-print Network

standing the biology of obesity and how best to treat it. The propensity of obese persons to sit the sedentary behavior of obese individuals. The negative relationship between fat mass and movement (Fig. 1B) raises the intriguing possibility that body fat releases a factor that slows physical activity in obesity

Gore, Jeff

156

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 147,445-450 (1991) Altered Cell Fate in LiCI-Treated Sea Urchin Embryos  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 147,445-450 (1991) Altered Cell Fate in LiCI-Treated Sea Urchin Embryos in the sea urchin, Strongykxentrotus purpuratus. We have examined the effects of various concentrations of lithium chloride, awell-known vegetalizing agent, on End016 expression in whole sea urchin embryos. Our

Ernst, Susan G.

157

Bioaugmentation with the resin acid-degrading bacterium Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35 to counteract pH stress in an aerated lagoon treating pulp and paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

Efficient and reliable removal of resin acids such as dehydroabietic acid (DhA), which are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents and form pitch interfering with papermaking, is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and failure of paper machines. Low- and high-pH stresses sometimes occur in effluent treatment systems due to the use of large amounts of acids and alkalines in the pulping processes. We found that both low- and high-pH stresses (pH 3 and 10, respectively) decreased the removal of total organic carbon and completely inhibited the removal of DhA by the biomass of an aerated lagoon treating pulp mill effluent. The pH stresses caused changes in the bacterial community structure as assessed by ribosomal intergenic spacer length polymorphism. The pH stresses greatly reduced the indigenous DhA-degrading populations in the lagoon community. Bioaugmentation with Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35, a DhA-degrading bacterium originally isolated from a pulp mill treatment system, restored the DhA removal by both the low- and high-pH-stressed lagoon biomass. This bacterium was persistent after introduction into the lagoon microbial community, and its cellular rRNA:rDNA ratio increased during the period of DhA removal. The introduction of strain DhA-35 changed the microbial community structure, but did not adversely affect the TOC removal by the community. This study suggests that it is feasible and potentially useful to use bioaugmentation with resin-acid-degrading bacteria such as DhA-35 to restore and enhance resin acid removal by aerated lagoon microbial communities. PMID:12146867

Yu, Zhongtang; Mohn, William W

2002-06-01

158

Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents  

PubMed Central

Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054?µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40?mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

2013-01-01

159

Wastewater reclamation by advanced treatment of secondary effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were the investigation of the performance of an advanced treatment system, for the reclamation of secondary municipal effluents, and the study of the environmental quality of treated effluents. The secondary effluents from a conventional activated sludge process were fed to an advanced wastewater treatment system, consisting of a moving-bed sand filter, a granular activated carbon

M. Petala; V. Tsiridis; P. Samaras; A. Zouboulis; G. P. Sakellaropoulos

2006-01-01

160

Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.  

PubMed

Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100 mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75 mg L(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100 mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200 Lux), whereas 0.67 mg L(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg L(-1)). The prevention of dark repair is ensured with 25-50% lower concentration of total oxidants. An increase of the TSS concentration from 11 mg L(-1) to 75 mg L(-1) leads to a triplication of the need of total oxidants from 0.6 mg L(-1) to 1.8 mg L(-1) (3*10(5)E. coli per 100 mL). The energy consumption of the hybrid reactor varies from 0.17 kWh m(-3) to 0.94 kWh m(-3) depending on the TSS concentration (11-75 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, biofilm formation on quartz glass surfaces, of which the sleeves of UV lamps consist, can be suppressed by electrochemically produced total oxidants at a concentration of at least 1 mg L(-1) which ensures high operational safety of the hybrid reactor combined with large maintenance intervals. PMID:24447954

Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

2014-04-01

161

Coal fly ash as adsorptive material for treatment of a real textile effluent: operating parameters and treatment efficiency.  

PubMed

The experimental results performed after the application of one single-stage treatment by sorption onto coal fly ash are evaluated in order to decolorize a real textile effluent of a private company specializing in manufacturing of cotton fabrics (i.e., sorption performance applied for a real textile effluent collected after the fabric dyeing, rinsing, and final finishing steps). The experiments are focused on studying the effect of initial textile effluent pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and adsorption time, considered as operating parameters of sorption process for high pollutant removals (e.g., organic pollutants as dyes, phenols, polymeric, and degradation compounds), and decoloration. The results indicate high values of decoloration degree (55.42-83.00%) and COD removal (44.44-61.11%) when it is worked at pH ?2 with coal ash dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature higher than 20-25 °C, and continuous static operating regime (with an initial agitation step of 3-5 min). The treated textile effluent fulfills the quality demand, and is recyclable, inside reused or discharged after a stage of neutralization (standard pH of 6.5-8.5 for all textile effluent discharges). Also, the final effluent is able to follow the common path to the central biological treatment plant (i.e., a centralized treatment plant for all companies acting in the industrial site area with mechanical-biological steps for wastewater treatment) or may be directly discharged in the nearly watercourse. PMID:22814960

Zaharia, Carmen; Suteu, Daniela

2013-04-01

162

The new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis applied to treat and prevent breast cancer.  

PubMed

The successful use of high-dose synthetic estrogens to treat postmenopausal metastatic breast cancer is the first effective 'chemical therapy' proven in clinical trial to treat any cancer. This review documents the clinical use of estrogen for breast cancer treatment or estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal hysterectomized women, which can either result in breast cancer cell growth or breast cancer regression. This has remained a paradox since the 1950s until the discovery of the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis at the end of the 20th century. The key to triggering apoptosis with estrogen is the selection of breast cancer cell populations that are resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation. However, estrogen-independent growth occurs through trial and error. At the cellular level, estrogen-induced apoptosis is dependent upon the presence of the estrogen receptor (ER), which can be blocked by nonsteroidal or steroidal antiestrogens. The shape of an estrogenic ligand programs the conformation of the ER complex, which, in turn, can modulate estrogen-induced apoptosis: class I planar estrogens (e.g., estradiol) trigger apoptosis after 24?h, whereas class II angular estrogens (e.g., bisphenol triphenylethylene) delay the process until after 72?h. This contrasts with paclitaxel, which causes G2 blockade with immediate apoptosis. The process is complete within 24?h. Estrogen-induced apoptosis is modulated by glucocorticoids and cSrc inhibitors, but the target mechanism for estrogen action is genomic and not through a nongenomic pathway. The process is stepwise through the creation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory responses, which then initiate an unfolded protein response. This, in turn, initiates apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway (mitochondrial) with the subsequent recruitment of the extrinsic pathway (death receptor) to complete the process. The symmetry of the clinical and laboratory studies now permits the creation of rules for the future clinical application of ERT or phytoestrogen supplements: a 5-year gap is necessary after menopause to permit the selection of estrogen-deprived breast cancer cell populations to cause them to become vulnerable to apoptotic cell death. Earlier treatment with estrogen around menopause encourages growth of ER-positive tumor cells, as the cells are still dependent on estrogen to maintain replication within the expanding population. An awareness of the evidence that the molecular events associated with estrogen-induced apoptosis can be orchestrated in the laboratory in estrogen-deprived breast cancers now supports the clinical findings regarding the treatment of metastatic breast cancer following estrogen deprivation, decreases in mortality following long-term antihormonal adjuvant therapy, and the results of treatment with ERT and ERT plus progestin in the Women's Health Initiative for women over the age of 60. Principles have emerged for understanding and applying physiological estrogen therapy appropriately by targeting the correct patient populations. PMID:25339261

Jordan, V Craig

2015-02-01

163

Application of Fenton's reagent as a polishing step for removal of UV quenching organic constituents in biologically treated landfill leachates.  

PubMed

When landfill leachate, with or without biological pretreatment, is discharged to publically owned treatment works (POTWs), it can interfere with the installed treatment facilities. Biological treatment is ineffective for the removal of some of the bio-refractory organic matter, including UV??? quenching substances. Fenton's reagent treatment for biologically treated landfill leachates is examined in this study as a polishing step to make landfill leachates acceptable to POTWs. The optimum conditions for the Fenton's reagent treatment are explored. The molecular weight and hydrophobic-hydrophilic nature based fractions of the Fenton's treated leachate samples are analyzed to provide insight into the leachate fractions targeted by the Fenton's reagent. The results indicate that Fenton's reagent can act as a good compliment to biological treatment as it can remove leachate fractions which are widely considered to be bio-refractory. It exhibited good UV??? absorbance removal by removing larger molecular weight humic substances and thus, can help solve the UV??? quenching problem due to leachates discharged to POTWs. PMID:24457051

Gupta, Abhinav; Zhao, Renzun; Novak, John T; Douglas Goldsmith, C

2014-06-01

164

Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 ?g L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

2012-04-15

165

Biological nitrogen removal in a step-feed CAST with real-time control treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

The performance of a 18 L step-feed cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST) combined with real-time control treating real municipal wastewater was evaluated. The operation strategies employed pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) as on-line control parameters, which can control the durations of oxic and anoxic phases flexibly. The obtained results showed that the studied process had achieved advanced and enhanced nitrogen removal by several phases of consecutive oxic/anoxic periods. Total nitrogen in effluent was lower than 2 mg/L and the average TN removal efficiency was higher than 98%, while only requiring small amount of external carbon source. Unexpected characteristic points in pH and ORP profiles denoting the depletion of nitrate were also observed during the last anoxic phase. Denitrification rate was found to be more dependent on the system temperature compared to nitrification rate. Moreover, a stable and efficient phosphorus removal rate above 90% was achieved by using step-feed strategy which enabled the influent carbon source to be fully used and the favourable condition for phosphorus releasing to be created during the anoxic phases. PMID:20418630

Juan, Ma; Chengyao, Peng; Li, Wang; Shuying, Wang; Yang, Liu; Ningping, Ma; Xia, Yu; Yongzhen, Peng

2010-01-01

166

Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer.  

PubMed

Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O, MAP) precipitation was studied on up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pretreated poultry manure wastewater in a lab-scale batch study. To recover high strength of ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N=1318 mg/L) from UASB effluent, three combinations of chemicals including MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O+NaHPO(4).7H(2)O, and MgO+85% H(3)PO(4) were first applied at the stoichiometric ratio (Mg(2+):NH(4)(+)-N:PO(4)(3-)-P=1:1:1) and at different pH levels ranging from 4.45 to 11. Preliminary test results indicated that maximum NH(4)(+)-N removal, as well as maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reductions, were obtained as 85.4%, 53.3% and 49.8% at pH 9.0 with the addition of MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4), respectively. The paired experimental data obtained from batch studies were statistically evaluated by a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and a two-sample t-test. Based on the previous results, another batch experiments were then performed at pH 9.0 using MgCl(2).6H(2)O+KH(2)PO(4) for different molar ratios applied as overdose (1.2:1:1, 1.5:1:1, 1:1:1.2, 1:1:1.5) and underdose (0.5:1:1, 0.8:1:1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:0.8). In the final step, the fertility of the MAP precipitate as struvite was also tested on the growth of three test plants including purslane (Portulaca oleracea), garden cress (Lepidum sativum) and grass (Lolium perenne). Findings of this experimental study clearly confirmed the recovering of NH(4)(+)-N from UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation, and also the application of recovered MAP sludge as a valuable slow release fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:19097699

Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra

2009-07-15

167

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-01-01

168

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

169

Adherence and resource use among patients treated with biologic drugs: findings from BEETLE study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Systemic administration of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF alpha) leads to an anti-inflammatory and joint protective effect in pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s disease. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to therapy, persistence in treatment (no switches or interruptions), and consumption of care resources (drugs, outpatient services, hospitalizations). Methods We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of five local health units. Patients filling at least one prescription for anti-TNF alpha between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 were included and followed up for 1 year. Patients were defined as adherent if >80% of the follow-up period was covered by drugs dispensation. Results A total of 1,219 patients were analyzed (mean age 49.6±14.6, male 47%). Among enrolled patients, 36% were affected by rheumatoid arthritis, and 31% and 10% were affected by psoriasis and Crohn’s disease, respectively; other indications remained below these percentages. Thirty-four percent of patients (420) were treated with adalimumab, 51% (615) with etanercept, and 15% (184) with infliximab. Among the 94% of patients who did not switch, those treated with infliximab had a higher rate of adherence across all indications (51% overall) when compared to that observed in patients treated with etanercept (27%) or adalimumab (23%). The mean annual nonpharmacological expenditure for each patient in analysis was €988 for adherent and €1,255 for nonadherent patients. Infliximab was associated with the lowest cost for all indications as determined by the multivariate generalized linear model. Conclusions Patients treated with infliximab were associated with higher adherence and persistence in treatment and lower costs, as compared to those treated with adalimumab or etanercept. PMID:25258545

Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Perrone, Valentina; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Perone, Francesco; Buda, Stefano

2014-01-01

170

Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor  

PubMed Central

The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell’Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

2013-01-01

171

Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials  

PubMed Central

Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500??mol?g?1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents. PMID:22629157

Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

2012-01-01

172

Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.  

PubMed

For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of excess P accumulation in waste-amended soils. PMID:19202028

Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

2009-01-01

173

Census of cultivable bacterial community in common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tannery discharge and computational scrutiny on their leading residents  

PubMed Central

Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) for tannery effluent, is the combination of physical, chemical and biological treatment to facilitate the degradation of industrial waste water. Obviously, the biomass which survives in this extreme environment may have the ability to utilize the effluent as the sole carbon source for its survival. The ultimate aim of the present investigation is to expose the microbial diversity in each stage of the CETP through the culture dependent way. Bacterial diversity in the effluent were analysed through 16S rRNA gene. The community study revealed the dominance of firmicutes and the dominant genus was Bacillus sp, with variable species diversity. Notably, Putative Bacillus sp, B. firmus and B. licheniformis were observed in all stages of treatment. The dominant residents were analysed by BProm and TF site scan to prove their uniqueness. This species richness indicates the capability of liveliness in treatment plant and whose can be exploited for treating the effluent by using modern molecular approach. Abbreviations CETP - Common Effluent Treatment Plant, PTIET - Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company Ltd. PMID:23390354

Suganya, Thangaiyan; Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Arunprasanna, Vimalanathan; Shanmugam, Ponnusamy; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

2013-01-01

174

A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.  

PubMed

Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic. PMID:17583772

Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

2007-08-01

175

Treatment of industrial effluent water  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a thematic exhibition on ''New Developments in Treatment of Natural and Effluent Water'' in the Sanitary-Technical Construction Section at the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR. The exhibition acquainted visitors with the achievements of leading organizations in different branches of industry with respect to treatment of natural and industrial effluent water. The Kharkov ''Vodkanalproekt'' Institute and the Kharkov affiliate of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water and Geodesy has jointly developed a ''Polymer-25'' filter for removal of oil products from nonexplosive effluent water discharged by machine building plants. A Baku affiliate has developed a new ShFP-1 screw-type press filter for dewatering the sediments from water treatment plants as well as for sediments from chemical, food, and other types of plants. The State Institute for Applied Chemistry has designed a continuous process plant for treating effluent water and removing toxic organic waste by converting them into mineral salts with high efficiency.

Levitskii, Yu.N.

1982-09-01

176

Recovery and biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluent from UASB treatment of municipal sewage using a two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge system.  

PubMed

A two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used as a post-treatment to prevent methane being emitted from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents containing unrecovered dissolved methane. The performance of the closed DHS reactor was evaluated using real municipal sewage at ambient temperatures (10-28 °C) for one year. The first stage of the closed DHS reactor was intended to recover dissolved methane from the UASB effluent and produce a burnable gas with a methane concentration greater than 30%, and its recovery efficiency was 57-88%, although the amount of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent fluctuated in the range of 46-68 % of methane production greatly depending on the temperature. The residual methane was oxidized and the remaining organic carbon was removed in the second closed DHS reactor, and this reactor performed very well, removing more than 99% of the dissolved methane during the experimental period. The rate at which air was supplied to the DHS reactor was found to be one of the most important operating parameters. Microbial community analysis revealed that seasonal changes in the methane-oxidizing bacteria were key to preventing methane emissions. PMID:25576697

Matsuura, Norihisa; Hatamoto, Masashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

2015-03-15

177

Biologically Effective Dose-Response Relationship for Breast Cancer Treated by Conservative Surgery and Postoperative Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To find a biologically effective dose (BED) response for adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) for initial-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Results of randomized trials of RT vs. non-RT were reviewed and the tumor control probability (TCP) after RT was calculated for each of them. Using the linear-quadratic formula and Poisson statistics of cell-kill, the average initial number of clonogens per tumor before RT and the average tumor cell radiosensitivity (alpha-value) were calculated. An {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 4 Gy was assumed for these calculations. Results: A linear regression equation linking BED to TCP was derived: -ln[-ln(TCP)] = -ln(No) + {alpha}{sup *} BED = -4.08 + 0.07 * BED, suggesting a rather low radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells (alpha = 0.07 Gy{sup -1}), which probably reflects population heterogeneity. From the linear relationship a sigmoid BED-response curve was constructed. Conclusion: For BED values higher than about 90 Gy{sub 4} the radiation-induced TCP is essentially maximizing at 90-100%. The relationship presented here could be an approximate guide in the design and reporting of clinical trials of adjuvant breast RT.

Plataniotis, George A. [Department of Oncology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)], E-mail: george.plataniotis@nhs.net; Dale, Roger G. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2009-10-01

178

Bacterial community dynamics in a rotating biological contactor treating 2-fluorophenol-containing wastewater.  

PubMed

One of the main factors affecting the performance of rotating biological contactors (RBC) is the biofilm characteristics. Therefore, a deep understanding of the microbial population dynamics and structure of the biofilm is mandatory if optimization of organic matter and nutrients removal is targeted. This study focused on the effects of organic shock loads of 2-fluorophenol (2-FP) on the microbial diversity present in an RBC biofilm. The RBC was seeded with activated sludge from a conventional wastewater treatment plant and was operated during 496 days. During the first 126 days, the RBC was subjected to intermittent 2-FP shocks of 25 mg l(-1) and no degradation occurred. Therefore, the reactor was subsequently augmented with a 2-FP-degrading strain (FP1). Afterwards, the RBC had a stable performance when subjected to 2-FP shocks up to 50 mg l(-1) and to a starvation period, as indicated by removal of the compound. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed large shifts in microbial communities present in the first and fifth stages, although no clear relation between the sample collection time and spatial factor was found. Phylogenetic affiliation of some predominant members was assessed by direct sequencing of correspondent DGGE bands. Affiliations to ?-, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria were found. Several bacterial strains isolated from the reactor showed capacity for 2-FP degradation. Strain FP1 was successfully recovered from the biofilm by plating and by DGGE, reinforcing that bioaugmentation was successfully achieved. PMID:24276477

Duque, Anouk F; Bessa, Vânia S; Castro, Paula M L

2014-01-01

179

MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF  

SciTech Connect

European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)

1994-01-01

180

Bioaugmentation with the resin acid-degrading bacterium Zoogloea resiniphila DhA35 to counteract pH stress in an aerated lagoon treating pulp and paper mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient and reliable removal of resin acids such as dehydroabietic acid (DhA), which are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents and form pitch interfering with papermaking, is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and failure of paper machines. Low- and high-pH stresses sometimes occur in effluent treatment systems due to the use of large amounts of acids

Zhongtang Yu; William W Mohn

2002-01-01

181

TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Cotton Textile Processing: Waste Generation and Effluent Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses cotton textile process- ing and methods of treating effluent in the textile industry. Several countries, including India, have introduced strict ecological standards for textile industries. With more stringent controls expected in the future, it is essential that control measures be implemented to minimize effluent problems. Industrial textile processing comprises pretreat- ment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. These

B. Ramesh Babu; A. K. Parande; S. Raghu; T. Prem; Kumar B. R. Babu; T. P. Kumar

2007-01-01

182

EVAPORATIVE PROCESS FOR TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE CONTAINING EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A unique evaporation/humidification process for treating wastewater effluent has been developed at Alcoa Laboratories. A major portion of the effluent is recovered as water of high purity suitable for recycle or reuse, and the small volume of concentrated chemicals can be either ...

183

Nitrogen removal in a submerged filter with no effluent recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a partly aerated submerged filter in treating high nitrogenous wastewaters such as industrial effluents after anaerobic treatment was investigated in this study. The filter was operated without effluent recycling and its response to various test conditions of aeration rates, hydraulic loads, COD\\/N ratios and hydraulic retention times was evaluated. Results indicated that for an influent concentration of

P. C. Chui; Y. Terashima; J. H. Tay; H. Ozaki; S. Jeyaseelan

184

Dissolved metal contamination in the East RiverLong Island sound system: potential biological effects  

E-print Network

Dissolved metal contamination in the East River­Long Island sound system: potential biological-5000, USA Abstract A suite of dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cu and Pb), inorganic nutrients (NO3, PO4 system receives large volumes of treated sewage and industrial effluent as a result of the heavy urbani

Johnsen, Sönke

185

Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. PMID:21835466

Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

2011-10-01

186

Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

2009-08-01

187

Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: a review.  

PubMed

Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. PMID:19458999

Carey, Richard O; Migliaccio, Kati W

2009-08-01

188

Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

Abstract—Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM) h, at 320 C. Keywords- Dye effluent degradation; biokinetics; anaerobic. I.

Natarajan Rajamohan; Manivasagan Rajasimman

189

USE OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETE, 'LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS', FOR EFFLUENT BIOMONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a simple, inexpensive static bioassay technique using the aquatic oligchaete (earthworm), Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller), to screen cooling-water effluents for environmental toxicity. (Biological approaches to the early detection of toxic agents in industria...

190

Deammonification reaction in digested swine effluents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers that would like to implement biological nitrogen (N) removal from the effluent of anaerobic digesters (AD) – for example to comply with regional surplus nitrogen regulations or to take advantage of environmental nutrient credit programs – are often limited by the low amount of endogenous ca...

191

Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

Gove, George W.

1978-01-01

192

Implementation of a minimal set of biological tests to assess the ecotoxic effects of effluents from land-based marine fish farms.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30 min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC(5), EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC(20), efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms. PMID:22137361

Carballeira, C; De Orte, M R; Viana, I G; Carballeira, A

2012-04-01

193

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests on wastewater treatment plants with Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum.  

PubMed

Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests, with Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, were introduced to evaluate the biological toxicities of effluents from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. In WET tests of WWTPs effluents, 33.3% (33/99) for D. magna and 92.6% (75/81) for S. capricornutum revealed greater than 1 toxic unit (TU), even though all the treatment plants investigated were operating in compliance with the regulations, as assessed using conventional monitoring methods (i.e., BOD and total concentration of N or P, etc). There were only minor differences in toxicities according to the types of influents (municipal and agro-industrial) in all treatment plants. However, the effluents treated by an activated sludge treatment process were found to exhibit significantly lower toxicity than those treated by rotating biological contactor (RBC) and extended aeration processes. The seasonal variations in the toxicity were lower in the summer compared to winter, which may have been due to the rainfall received to the sewage intake system during the former period. The impact of WET on river water was also investigated based on the discharge volume. At sites A and B, the total impact of toxicity to stream and river waters was observed to be 70.9% and 90.4% for D. magna and S. capricornutum, respectively. The other four small treatment plants (sites F, G, H and I), with relative discharging volumes between 0.001 and 0.002, contribute less than 1% to the total toxicity. PMID:17106776

Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Hyun Koo; Chang, Nam Ik; Kim, Sang Don

2007-06-01

194

Decolourisation of secondary effluent by UV-mediated processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brownish colour of a secondary-treated effluent from a local wastewater treatment plant was shown to be mainly due to a high content of humic acid-like material. The effluent was treated with four different UV-based treatments: UVC and VUV irradiation, with and without the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of these treatments was characterised in terms of the change

P. Puspita; F. A. Roddick; N. A. Porter

2011-01-01

195

Application of a sensitive chemiluminescent technique for comparison of cytochrome P4501A induction in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conjunction with an environmental assessment of biologically-treated bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) in a Western Canadian river, data indicated that lipophilic compounds were transferred to the mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni through ingestion of filter-feeding benthic caddisflies. P4501A induction was correlated with lipophilic body burdens, not with indices of recent BKME exposure. P4501A contents in hepatic and intestinal tissues of

Pamela J. Kloepper-Sams; Elizabeth Benton

1995-01-01

196

Rarely has anything so energized scientists and the lay public alike as the enormous potential of stem-cell biology to treat human disease. The  

E-print Network

of stem-cell biology to treat human disease. The ability to mobilize endogenous progenitor cells in organs or to introduce and differentiate exogenous stem cells for tissue repair could have an impact on many diseases the foundation of future approaches to cardiac regeneration. Cardiac and ES-cell-derived progenitor cells

Cai, Long

197

Phosphorus leaching in soils amended with piggery effluent or lime residues from effluent treatment.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) in wastes from piggeries may contribute to the eutrophication of waterways if not disposed of appropriately. Phosphorus leaching, from three soils with different P sorption characteristics (two with low P retention and one with moderate P retention) when treated with piggery effluent (with or without struvite), was investigated using batch and leaching experiments. The leaching of P retained in soil from the application of struvite effluent was determined. In addition, P leaching from lime residues (resulting from the treatment of piggery effluent with lime to remove P) was determined in comparison to superphosphate when applied to the same three soils. Most P was leached from sandy soils with low P retention when effluent with or without struvite was applied. More than 100% of the filterable P applied in struvite effluent was leached in sandy soils with low P retention. Solid, inorganic forms of P (struvite) became soluble and potentially leachable at pH<7 or were sorbed after dissolution if there were sufficient sorption sites. In sandy soils with low P retention, more than 39% of the total filterable P applied in recycled effluent (without struvite) was leached. Soil P increased mainly in surface layers after treatment with effluent. Sandy soils pre-treated with struvite effluent leached 40% of the P retained in the previous application. Phosphorus decreased in surface layers and increased at depth in the soil with moderate P retention after leaching the struvite effluent pre-treated soil with water. The soils capacity to adsorb P and the soil pH were the major soil properties that affected the rate and amount of P leaching, whereas the important characteristics of the effluent were pH, P concentration and the forms of P in the effluent. Phosphorus losses from soils amended with hydrated lime and lime kiln dust residues were much lower than losses from soils amended with superphosphate. Up to 92% of the P applied as superphosphate was leached from sandy soils with low P retention, whereas only up to 60% of the P applied in lime residues was leached. The P source contributing least to P leaching was the lime kiln dust residue. The amount of P leached depended on the water-soluble P content, neutralising value and application rate of the P source, and the pH and P sorption capacity of the soil. PMID:15091693

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1994-01-01

198

Comparing biological effects and potencies of estrone and 17 B-estradiol in mature fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of endocrine active compounds such as estrogens in treated wastewater effluent and their effects on aquatic life are causing concern among aquatic resource managers. In contrast to 17B-estradiol (E2), the steroid hormone produced by all vertebrates, the biological effects of estrone (E1...

199

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

SciTech Connect

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01

200

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

201

Microbial composition and structure of a rotating biological contactor biofilm treating ammonium-rich wastewater without organic carbon.  

PubMed

High nitrogen losses were observed in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) treating ammonium-rich (up to 500 mg NH4(+)-N/L) but organic-carbon-poor leachate from a hazardous waste landfill in Kölliken, Switzerland. The composition and spatial structure of the microbial community in the biofilm on the RBC was analyzed with specific attention for the presence of aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) involves the oxidation of ammonium with nitrite to N2. First the diversity of the biofilm community was determined from sequencing cloned PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments. This revealed the presence of a number of very unusual 16S rDNA sequences, but very few sequences related to known ammonium or nitrite oxidizing bacteria. From analysis of biofilm samples by fluorescence in situ hybridization with known phylogenetic probes and by dot-blot hybridization of the same probes to total RNA purified from biofilm samples, the main groups of microorganisms constituting the biofilm were found to be ammonium-oxidizing bacteria from the Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha group, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria of the "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" type, filamentous bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes, and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from the genus Nitrospira. Aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were present in similar amounts of around 20 to 30% of the biomass, whereas members of the CFB phylum were present at around 7%. Nitrite oxidizing bacteria were only present in relatively low amounts (less than 5% determined with fluorescence in situ hybridization). Data from 16S rRNA dot-blot and in situ hybridization were not in all cases congruent. FISH analysis of thin-sliced and fixed biofilm samples clearly showed that the aerobic nitrifiers were located at the top of the biofilm in an extremely high density and in alternating clusters. Anammox bacteria were exclusively present in the lower half of the biofilm, whereas CFB-type filamentous bacteria were present throughout the biofilm. The structure and composition of these biofilms correlated very nicely with the proposed physiological functional separations in ammonium conversion. PMID:12704553

Egli, K; Bosshard, F; Werlen, C; Lais, P; Siegrist, H; Zehnder, A J B; Van der Meer, J R

2003-05-01

202

Nitrogen dioxide and ultrafine particles dominate the biological effects of inhaled diesel exhaust treated by a catalyzed diesel particulate filter.  

PubMed

We studied the impact of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) on the toxicity of diesel exhaust. Rats inhaled exhaust from a Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine, with and without DPF after-treatment, or HEPA-filtered air for 4h, on 1 day (single exposure) and 3 days (repeated exposures). Biological effects were assessed after 2h (single exposure) and 20h (single and repeated exposures) recovery in clean air. Concentrations of pollutants were (1) untreated exhaust (-DPF), nitric oxide (NO), 43 ppm; nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 4 ppm; carbon monoxide (CO), 6 ppm; hydrocarbons, 11 ppm; particles, 3.2×10(5)/cm(3), 60-70nm mode, 269 ?g/m(3); (2) treated exhaust (+DPF), NO, 20 ppm; NO2, 16 ppm; CO, 1 ppm; hydrocarbons, 3 ppm; and particles, 4.4×10(5)/cm(3), 7-8nm mode, 2 ?g/m(3). Single exposures to -DPF exhaust resulted in increased neutrophils, total protein and the cytokines, growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lung lavage fluid, as well as increased gene expression of interleukin-6, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, metallothionein 2A, tumor necrosis factor-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, glutathione S-transferase A1, heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in the lung, and ET- 1 in the heart. Ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 peptide increased in plasma in conjunction with a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the lungs after exposure to diesel exhaust, suggesting endothelial dysfunction. Rather than reducing toxicity, +DPF exhaust resulted in heightened injury and inflammation, consistent with the 4-fold increase in NO2 concentration. The ratio of bigET-1 to ET-1 was similarly elevated after -DPF and +DPF exhaust exposures. Endothelial dysfunction, thus, appeared related to particle number deposited, rather than particle mass or NO2 concentration. The potential benefits of particulate matter reduction using a catalyzed DPF may be confounded by increase in NO2 emission and release of reactive ultrafine particles. PMID:23897985

Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Thomson, Errol M; Kumarathasan, Prem; Guénette, Josée; Rosenblatt, Debbie; Chan, Tak; Rideout, Greg; Vincent, Renaud

2013-10-01

203

GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology....

204

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

205

200 Area TEDF effluent sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This sampling analysis sets forth the effluent sampling requirements, analytical methods, statistical analyses, and reporting requirements to satisfy the State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST4502 for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. These requirements are listed below: Determine the variability in the effluent of all constituents for which enforcement limits, early warning values and monitoring requirements; demonstrate compliance with the permit; and verify that BAT/AKART (Best Available Technology/All know and Reasonable Treatment) source, treatment, and technology controls are being met.

Alaconis, W.C.; Ballantyne, N.A.; Boom, R.J. [and others

1995-06-01

206

Biomonitoring hospital effluents by the Allium cepa L. test.  

PubMed

Hospital effluents are serious problems in developing countries like Brazil, and when not treated adequately, can cause mutagenic effects on live organisms. Biomonitors, like Allium cepa L., which is one of the most used plant species when monitoring effluent genotoxicity, have been used to alert the world population about environmental contamination and genotoxic chemical emissions. The Allium cepa test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of a hospital effluent in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. During the study, chromosomal disruptions, anaphasic bridges, and micronuclei during telophase were observed, indicating environmental toxicity risk. PMID:19224103

Bagatini, M D; Vasconcelos, T G; Laughinghouse, H D; Martins, A F; Tedesco, S B

2009-05-01

207

Biomonitoring Hospital Effluents by the Allium cepa L. Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital effluents are serious problems in developing countries like Brazil, and when not treated adequately, can cause mutagenic\\u000a effects on live organisms. Biomonitors, like Allium cepa L., which is one of the most used plant species when monitoring effluent genotoxicity, have been used to alert the world\\u000a population about environmental contamination and genotoxic chemical emissions. The Allium cepa test was

M. D. Bagatini; T. G. Vasconcelos; H. D. Laughinghouse; A. F. Martins; S. B. Tedesco

2009-01-01

208

Comparative whole effluent toxicity assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents using Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

An approach to compare the toxicities employing the whole effluent toxicity (WET) test, using Daphnia magna and chemical analysis with GC/MS and ICP/MS, was conducted to the nine South Korean wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). From the chemical analysis and bioassay experiments, heavy metals (i.e., Cu and Zn) were found to be the major compounds causing toxic effects toward D. magna. In the whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using D. magna, toxicities were observed in 34% of the effluent samples. However, the biological toxic unit (TU) value showed a non-toxic response (i.e., 0 TU) in many samples despite the response indicated by the chemical TU values. This may be due to the species sensitivity, environmental parameters, mixture effects, and limitation of the chemical analyses. PMID:18193142

Ra, Jin Sung; Lee, Byoung Cheun; Chang, Nam Ik; Kim, Sang Don

2008-03-01

209

Evaluation of glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic fungi for their potential in bioconversion of alkali and biologically treated Parthenium hysterophorus weed and rice straw into ethanol.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate glycosyl hydrolases produced by diverse thermophilic fungal strains for saccharification of alkali and biologically (Trametes hirusita/Myrothecium roridum) treated Parthenium hysterophorus and rice straw. The compositional analysis of hydrolysates by HPLC showed distinct profiles of hexose, pentose and oligomeric sugars. Malbranchea cinnamomea was most efficient source of glycosyl hydrolases producing 283.8, 35.9, 129.6, 27,193, 4.66, 7.26(units/gds) of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, ?-?rabinofuranosidase and ? xylosidase, respectively. The saccharification of alkali and biologically treated carrot grass by culture extract of M. cinnamomea was further enhanced by supplementation of ?-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus sp. mutant "O". The resultant hydrolysates containing glucose/xylose were fermented efficiently to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae owing to presence of xylose isomerase (0.8 units/gds) activity in culture extract of M. cinnamomea resulting in production of 16.5 and 15.0 g/l of ethanol from alkali treated rice straw and carrot grass, respectively. PMID:24835742

Mahajan, Chhavi; Chadha, B S; Nain, Lata; Kaur, Amarjeet

2014-07-01

210

Coupled photocatalytic-biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol: effects of photolytic and photocatalytic effluent composition on bioreactor process performance, community diversity, and resistance and resilience to perturbation.  

PubMed

Sequentially coupled advanced oxidation-biodegradation systems have proven effective for treating a variety of wastewaters, but in several cases the pretreatment did not improve, or even hindered, subsequent biodegradation. Therefore, investigating the relationship between advanced oxidation pretreated effluent and subsequent bioreactor performance can help to optimize these systems. Here, a photocatalytic reactor was used to produce four unique effluents from 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) by varying light wavelength, catalyst presence, and reaction time, demonstrating that the conditions of photocatalytic pretreatment can be tuned to achieve a variety of treatment objectives. The photocatalytic effluents were characterized for chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride release, aromaticity, and residual TCP concentration. The four effluents were normalized to 40 mg COD/L, combined with biological medium components, and fed to continuous bioreactors. Bioreactors were assayed for COD removal, TCP removal, optical density (OD), and microbial diversity via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In general COD removal in the bioreactors increased as aromatic character of the photoeffluent decreased, but the least aromatic effluent performed poorly indicating the nuanced relationship between photoreactor effluent composition and bioreactor performance. While neither indicator of community diversity, richness nor evenness, correlated with COD removal or biomass accumulation, each effluent produced a unique community as indicated through similarity indices. All conditions demonstrated strong overall TCP removal. After two weeks at steady state, the reactors were perturbed with a 120-?M spike of TCP. Overall the most aromatic photoeffluent produced the most resistant community to the perturbation, while the optimum effluents at steady state produced communities with poor resistance in terms of biomass accumulation and COD removal. These results highlight the tradeoffs between steady state performance and resistance to perturbation that are necessary to optimize a combined advanced oxidation-biodegradation treatment strategy. PMID:24361703

Marsolek, Michael D; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Gray, Kimberly A; Rittmann, Bruce E

2014-03-01

211

BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 65, 913920 (2001) Infertility and Testicular Atrophy in the Antiestrogen-Treated Adult Male Rat1  

E-print Network

913 BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION 65, 913­920 (2001) Infertility and Testicular Atrophy- trol). The effects of ICI included testicular atrophy and infertility, similar to terminal effects mouse lacking a functional ER ( ERKO) is infertile [6, 7]. The absence of ER has no apparent effect

Hess, Rex A.

212

Biological functioning of PAH-polluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of soil bioindicators were used to assess biological diversity and activity in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the same soil after thermal desorption (TD) treatment. Abundance and biodiversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods, as well as functional parameters such as enzymatic activities and soil respiration, were assessed during a two year period

Aurélie Cébron; Jérôme Cortet; Stéven Criquet; Asmaa Biaz; Virgile Calvert; Cécile Caupert; Céline Pernin; Corinne Leyval

213

NITRIFICATION OF SECONDARY MUNICIPAL WASTE EFFLUENTS BY ROTATING BIO-DISCS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of nitrifying secondary effluent with rotating biological surfaces (RBS). Two municipal effluents were evaluated; one was from a high rate trickling filter and the other was from two-stage, flow through lagoon. RBS pilot pla...

214

Membrane filtration and reverse osmosis purification of sewage: Secondary effluent for re-use at Eraring Power Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the membrane filtration and reverse osmosis (RO) process currently being adopted for purification and re-use of secondary treated effluent at Pacific Power's Eraring Power Station. Reasons for selection of this purification scheme and plant design considerations are described. Secondary treated effluent is being made available by the Hunter Water Corporation from a new sewage plant being installed

M. Masson; G. Deans

1996-01-01

215

Drug-specific risk of tuberculosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR)  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is thought to be increased following anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy, with a proposed differential risk between the anti-TNF drugs etanercept (ETA), infliximab (INF) and adalimumab (ADA). Objective To compare directly the risk between drugs, to explore time to event, site of infection and the role of ethnicity. Methods Data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR), a national prospective observational study, were used to compare TB rates in 10 712 anti-TNF treated patients (3913 ETA, 3295 INF, 3504 ADA) and 3232 patients with active RA treated with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Results To April 2008, 40 cases of TB were reported, all in the anti-TNF cohort. The rate of TB was higher for the monoclonal antibodies ADA (144 events/100 000 person-years) and INF (136/100 000 person-years) than for ETA (39/100 000 person-years). After adjustment, the incidence rate ratio compared with ETA-treated patients was 3.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 9.5) for INF and 4.2 (1.4 to 12.4) for ADA. The median time to event was lowest for INF (5.5 months) compared with ETA (13.4 months) and ADA (18.5 months). 13/40 cases occurred after stopping treatment. 25/40 (62%) cases were extrapulmonary, of which 11 were disseminated. Patients of non-white ethnicity had a sixfold increased risk of TB compared with white patients treated with anti-TNF therapy. Conclusion The rate of TB in patients with RA treated with anti-TNF therapy was three- to fourfold higher in patients receiving INF and ADA than in those receiving ETA. PMID:19854715

Dixon, W G; Hyrich, K L; Watson, K D; Lunt, M; Galloway, J; Ustianowski, A; Symmons, D P M

2010-01-01

216

BIOLOG  

EPA Science Inventory

BIOLOG contains more than 43,000 citations to literature on microbial degradation and toxicity of more than 6,000 chemicals. Records are organized by CAS Registry Number and by 6 categories (i.e., biodegradation/toxicity; oxygen condition (anaerobic/aerobic); culture type (pure e...

217

BTEX biodegradation by bacteria from effluents of petroleum refinery.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) has been increasing, thus requiring an urgent development of methodologies that are able to remove or minimize the damages these compounds can cause to the environment. The biodegradation process using microorganisms has been regarded as an efficient technology to treat places contaminated with hydrocarbons, since they are able to biotransform and/or biodegrade target pollutants. To prove the efficiency of this process, besides chemical analysis, the use of biological assessments has been indicated. This work identified and selected BTEX-biodegrading microorganisms present in effluents from petroleum refinery, and evaluated the efficiency of microorganism biodegradation process for reducing genotoxic and mutagenic BTEX damage through two test-systems: Allium cepa and hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. Five different non-biodegraded BTEX concentrations were evaluated in relation to biodegraded concentrations. The biodegradation process was performed in a BOD Trak Apparatus (HACH) for 20 days, using microorganisms pre-selected through enrichment. Although the biodegradation usually occurs by a consortium of different microorganisms, the consortium in this study was composed exclusively of five bacteria species and the bacteria Pseudomonas putida was held responsible for the BTEX biodegradation. The chemical analyses showed that BTEX was reduced in the biodegraded concentrations. The results obtained with genotoxicity assays, carried out with both A. cepa and HTC cells, showed that the biodegradation process was able to decrease the genotoxic damages of BTEX. By mutagenic tests, we observed a decrease in damage only to the A. cepa organism. Although no decrease in mutagenicity was observed for HTC cells, no increase of this effect after the biodegradation process was observed either. The application of pre-selected bacteria in biodegradation processes can represent a reliable and effective tool in the treatment of water contaminated with BTEX mixture. Therefore, the raw petroleum refinery effluent might be a source of hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:20655572

Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Levy, Carlos Emílio; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

2010-09-15

218

Efficacy of Varunadi Ghritha (polyherbal compound) in treated head and neck cancer cases as a biological response modifier  

PubMed Central

Background: Persistent immune suppression is reported in Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) even after treatment and a higher recurrence rate was observed in patients with poor CD3 count. Loco regional recurrences and second primary tumours are the common forms of failure in head and neck cancers. Several agents have been tried to overcome this problem without much benefit. In Ayurveda, several plant based products have been reported to have anti-tumour and immunomodulatory properties. Aim: To test the role of Varunadi Ghritha, as an immunomodulator in apparently healthy, treated and controlled HNC patients and to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing locoregional relapses and development of second primary tumours. Materials and Methods: Total 78 patients of treated head and neck cancers were randomly selected for intervention and control group. Patients in the intervention group (n = 38) received Varunadi Ghritha, 5gms twice daily for one year and followed up to two years. Patients in the control group (n = 40) were followed up at regular intervals. Immune parameters were assessed in the peripheral blood at base line and at the end of administration of the study compound. Results: In the intervention group, mean percentage increase in CD3, CD19 and CD16 positive cells were significantly higher after the administration of the study compound compared to the control group indicating an immunomodulatory effect of the study compound. A non-significant improvement in disease control was observed in patients with advanced stage of disease in the intervention group. Conclusion: Administration of Varunadi Ghritha resulted in an increase in T cell counts in patients with treated HNC.

Ravindran, Divya; Hariharan, Indhu; Muwonge, Richard; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna; Ramadas, Kunnambath

2014-01-01

219

Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.  

PubMed

The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural industry that can obliterate ecosystem surrounding the tanneries. PMID:22522427

Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

2012-09-01

220

Reactivation of human polyomavirus JC in patients affected by psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis and treated with biological drugs: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) are inter-related heritable inflammatory skin diseases. Psoriatic lesions develop as a result of abnormal immune responses, hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes, and a notable subset of psoriatic patients develops PsA, characterized by joints inflammation. Recently, biological drugs were introduced to treat these diseases. However, this therapy has already been associated with the development of serious life-threatening infections, such as the reactivation of human polyomavirus JC (JCV), responsible for the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a lethal demyelinating disease caused by oligodendrocytes lytic infection. Therefore, the aims of our study were the investigation of the possible JCV reactivation in PsV and PsA patients treated with adalimumab, etanercept, and methotrexate, performing quantitative real-time PCR in sera and skin biopsies at the time of recruitment (T0) and after 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months of treatment, and the sequencing analysis of the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR). We found JCV DNA in 5/15 PsV patients and in 2/15 PsA patients and JCV NCCR sequence analysis always showed a structure similar to non-pathogenic CY archetype, with random occurrence of a few irrelevant point mutations. Nevertheless the poor number of patients analyzed, our preliminary data can pave the way for taking into account that the follow-up of JCV DNA detection and the JCV NCCR sequence analysis in psoriatic patients may be important to evaluate the risk of PML onset, considering that patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologics continue to rise. PMID:22422468

Nardis, Chiara; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Rodio, Donatella M; De Pità, Ornella; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

2012-12-01

221

Epicardial Fat Thickness as Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Therapeutic Target in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Biological and Nonbiological Therapies  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness may act as a therapeutic target during treatments with drugs modulating the adipose tissue. We evaluate EAT thickness in RA patients treated with biological and nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a cohort of 34 female RA patients and 16 controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed. EAT thickness and left ventricular mass (LVM) were measured by echocardiography. No significant differences in waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, basal insulin, and lipid parameters were found between the groups. The control group showed lower concentrations (P = 0.033) of hs-CRP and LVM (P = 0.0001) than those of the two RA groups. Patients treated with TNF-? inhibitors showed significantly lower EAT thickness than those treated with nonbiological DMARDs (8.56 ± 1.90?mm versus 9.71 ± 1.45?mm; P = 0.04). Women with no RA revealed reduced EAT thickness (5.39 ± 1.52?mm) as compared to all RA patients (P = 0.001). Results suggest that RA patients have greater EAT thickness than controls regardless of BMI and WC. PMID:25574390

Lima-Martínez, Marcos M.; Paoli, Mariela; Maldonado, Irama; Acosta, Carlota; Rodney, Marianela; Contreras, Miguel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio O.

2014-01-01

222

Computational Intelligence Techniques for Supervision and Diagnosis of Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) are based on complex, dynamic, and highly nonlinear processes. Depending on the design\\u000a and the specific application, these systems can achieve biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, besides removal of organic\\u000a carbon substances. Also, depending on the type\\/quantity of effluent to be treated, different configurations can be proposed\\u000a being the most common the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic

Ana M. A. Dias; Eugénio C. Ferreira

223

Biological treatment and ozone oxidation: Integration or coupling?  

PubMed

Wastewaters generated by many economically relevant industrial activities contain recalcitrant organic compounds which pass unaltered through biological stage of the treatment plant making it difficult to meet the discharge limits currently in force. Therefore, an additional treatment is usually required to remove these compounds. In this study, the application of ozonation together with biological treatment was investigated. In particular, the effectiveness of biological degradation followed by or integrated with ozonation for treating the effluents produced by three environmentally relevant activities (i.e., leather and textile processing and municipal waste landfilling) are compared in the present paper. The results show that biological treatment followed by ozonation does not guarantee depurative levels sufficient for discharge for landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. On the contrary, thanks to the synergy between biological degradation and ozonation, integrated treatment significantly improves the process performance for all the investigated wastewaters, thus allowing the discharge limits to be met. PMID:22206914

Di Iaconi, Claudio

2012-02-01

224

Propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), an innovative chemically and biologically reproducible pharmaceutical compound for treating wounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF(®)), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

2012-01-01

225

Phosphorus removal from piggery effluents of varying quality using lime and physico-chemical treatment methods.  

PubMed

The choice of management practices for the treatment of piggery effluent prior to its disposal to waterways or land is governed by the desire to simultaneously minimise the cost of treatment whilst minimising pollution of the environment. Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the removal of total and total filterable phosphorus (P) (<0.45 microm) from ortho-phosphate solutions or piggery effluent by hydrated lime or lime kiln dust alone, or from recycled piggery effluent by lime and physico-chemical treatment methods. In addition, the ability of lime to remove P from recycled piggery effluent at an intensive piggery was assessed. Most P in lime treated effluent was present in the >0.45 microm fraction because of the presence of unsettled flocs of P impregnated lime. The efficiency of total P removal by hydrated lime and lime kiln dust decreased as effluent quality declined. The efficiency of removal of total filterable P by hydrated lime or lime kiln dust was not affected by effluent quality. Hydrated lime was more efficient in removing P from effluent or ortho-phosphate solutions, but lime kiln dust was more cost effective. More than 95% of total P was removed from recycled piggery effluent when physico-chemical treatment followed settling with or without lime. The physico-chemical treatment decreased total P mainly by decreasing the number of suspended particles in the effluent and by precipitating some total filterable P as iron, aluminium or calcium compounds. PMID:15091694

Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

1994-01-01

226

Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions.  

PubMed

A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm process to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan. The components of VOC were identified to be toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA). The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series, respectively, using 10- and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility. Experimental results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 +/- 605) mg/L of COD. A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m3 packing x d) was determined for the packed bed, in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow. A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 +/- 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system. Moreover, the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula, based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship, and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model. Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation revealed that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) were aerated into a gaseous phase, and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene were aerated. PMID:20108681

Cheng, Wen-Hsi

2009-01-01

227

Advanced electro-Fenton degradation of biologically-treated coking wastewater using anthraquinone cathode and Fe-Y catalyst.  

PubMed

The electrocatalytic activity of bare and 2-ethyl anthraquinone-modified graphite felt (2-EAQ/GF) toward oxygen reduction was investigated using a cyclic voltammetry technique in a neutral solution. The prepared cathodes were tested for electrogeneration of H2O2 and electro-Fenton oxidation (EFO) treatment of neutral coking wastewater (CW) after biological process, using a graphite anode and Fezeolite Y catalyst. The results showed that (i) H2O2 yield and current efficiency greatly depended on cathodic potential and materials; (ii) hydroxyl radicals, generated from Fe-zeolite Y-catalyzed H2O2 decomposition, played a great role in EFO treatment, while anodic direct and indirect oxidation was insignificant; (iii) chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon (TOC) and acute toxicity of wastewater decreased by 40-50, 30-40 and 50-60%, respectively, and biodegradability increased after 1 h of EFO treatment. Due to the free-pH adjustment, EFO presents a potential engineering application for advanced treatment of CW. PMID:22053459

Li, Haitao; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Yi

2011-01-01

228

Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.  

PubMed

Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels. PMID:17928137

Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

2008-05-01

229

Treatment of effluents from cardboard industry by coagulation–electroflotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to optimize the treatment of the cardboard industry wastewater generated in the process of machine washing. This type of effluent is usually treated by traditional physicochemical processes such as coagulation\\/flocculation and sedimentation. These processes give a limited purifying efficiency, particularly for the COD reduction. In this work, the treatment by coagulation–electroflotation process was

L. Ben Mansour; I. Kesentini

2008-01-01

230

Washoe County stakes its claim on effluent reuse  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the design and construction of the South Truckee Meadows Wastewater Treatment Plant in Washoe County, Nevada. The wastewater is collected, treated, and reused within the drainage basin. Topics of the article include site considerations, phased construction, and off season storage of the effluent for use in irrigation during the growing season.

Collins, J. (Utility Div. of Washoe County, Reno, NV (United States)); Appelfeller, F. (Black and Veatch, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-10-01

231

Evaluation of biological removal efficiency in a UCT process treating municipal wastewater during start-up stage.  

PubMed

This study reports the performance of University of Cape Town (UCT) municipal wastewater treatment plant, during the startup stage with the focus on the relationship between hydraulic retention time (HRT) and biological nutrient removal (BNR) efficiency. The entire experimental period was 144 days, divided into four periods. Results showed that the removal efficiency of TN, NH4+-N, and Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) was closely related to the HRT. Furthermore, the biodegradation kinetics analysis was used to calculate the specific degradation rates of pollutants. The GPS-X modeling was also used to examine the effect of the UCT pilot plant on BNR. The UCT pilot plant used in this study achieved high BNR efficiency even during the startup stage. With HRT of 24 hr (Period 1, day 1-40, data set 1-10), the highest levels of TN, NH(4+)-N and KN removal efficiency were approximately 72, 76 and 78%, respectively. The COD showed consistent high removal efficiency, with the highest level of approximately 96% at HRT of 15 hr (Period 3, day 81-120, data set 21-30). The TP removal efficiency rose at first and subsequently decreased abruptly. The maximum removal efficiency was 85% with HRT of 19 hr (Period 2, day 41-80, data set 11-20). With the optimal HRT 19 hr, the average removal efficiency values of COD, TP, TN, NH(4+)-N and KN were 89, 80, 65, 67 and 68%, respectively. The GPS-X modeling results indicated that the UCT process was effective in COD, TP and TN removal. PMID:24620618

Wang, Zhu; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yong-De; Wan, Fujun

2013-04-01

232

Biological Networks for Predicting Chemical Hepatocarcinogenicity Using Gene Expression Data from Treated Mice and Relevance across Human and Rat Species  

PubMed Central

Background Several groups have employed genomic data from subchronic chemical toxicity studies in rodents (90 days) to derive gene-centric predictors of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genes are annotated to belong to biological processes or molecular pathways that are mechanistically well understood and are described in public databases. Objectives To develop a molecular pathway-based prediction model of long term hepatocarcinogenicity using 90-day gene expression data and to evaluate the performance of this model with respect to both intra-species, dose-dependent and cross-species predictions. Methods Genome-wide hepatic mRNA expression was retrospectively measured in B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to twenty-six (26) chemicals (10 were positive, 2 equivocal and 14 negative for liver tumors) previously studied by the US National Toxicology Program. Using these data, a pathway-based predictor model for long-term liver cancer risk was derived using random forests. The prediction model was independently validated on test sets associated with liver cancer risk obtained from mice, rats and humans. Results Using 5-fold cross validation, the developed prediction model had reasonable predictive performance with the area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) equal to 0.66. The developed prediction model was then used to extrapolate the results to data associated with rat and human liver cancer. The extrapolated model worked well for both extrapolated species (AUC value of 0.74 for rats and 0.91 for humans). The prediction models implied a balanced interplay between all pathway responses leading to carcinogenicity predictions. Conclusions Pathway-based prediction models estimated from sub-chronic data hold promise for predicting long-term carcinogenicity and also for its ability to extrapolate results across multiple species. PMID:23737943

Thomas, Reuben; Thomas, Russell S.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Portier, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

233

Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs were present in both WWTP effluents and receiving streams, (3) some effluents may be important sources of estrogenicity in weakly diluted streams, (4) measured levels of biological estrogenicity were often higher than estimated levels of chemical estrogenicity, and (5) the type of treatment had a large effect on the removal efficacy, and consequently, the estrogenicity levels observed in treated effluents.

Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

2014-01-01

234

Physico-chemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study.  

PubMed

This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from a small paper mill which is using wastepaper as a raw material. After analysis it was found that the raw wastewater consisted of 202-294 mg/l and 2010-3200 mg/l of suspended and dissolved solids respectively while pH varied from 6.7-7.3. The BOD and COD values ranged from 210-310, 1680-2340 mg/l respectively. Due to the treatment of raw effluent, the SS and TDS of treated effluent were significantly decreased and the values ranged in between 118 mg L(-1) to 154 mg L(-1) and 645 mg L(-1) to 925 mg L(-1), respectively. The pH values of the treated effluent were higher than the raw effluent. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content of treated effluent were found to be higher after the treatment of paper mill raw effluent. The low amount of nutrient content may be because of the use of chemicals in process section which do not contain such elements. The sodium, calcium and magnesium were found higher in treated effluent, which may be due to addition of chemicals during the pulping and production section. PMID:16649620

Suriyanarayanan, S; Jayakumar, D; Balasubramanian, S

2005-04-01

235

A genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of epilepsy prognosis in a prospective cohort of newly treated epilepsy  

PubMed Central

We present the analysis of a prospective multicentre study to investigate genetic effects on the prognosis of newly treated epilepsy. Patients with a new clinical diagnosis of epilepsy requiring medication were recruited and followed up prospectively. The clinical outcome was defined as freedom from seizures for a minimum of 12 months in accordance with the consensus statement from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Genetic effects on remission of seizures after starting treatment were analysed with and without adjustment for significant clinical prognostic factors, and the results from each cohort were combined using a fixed-effects meta-analysis. After quality control (QC), we analysed 889 newly treated epilepsy patients using 472 450 genotyped and 6.9 × 106 imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Suggestive evidence for association (defined as Pmeta < 5.0 × 10?7) with remission of seizures after starting treatment was observed at three loci: 6p12.2 (rs492146, Pmeta = 2.1 × 10?7, OR[G] = 0.57), 9p23 (rs72700966, Pmeta = 3.1 × 10?7, OR[C] = 2.70) and 15q13.2 (rs143536437, Pmeta = 3.2 × 10?7, OR[C] = 1.92). Genes of biological interest at these loci include PTPRD and ARHGAP11B (encoding functions implicated in neuronal development) and GSTA4 (a phase II biotransformation enzyme). Pathway analysis using two independent methods implicated a number of pathways in the prognosis of epilepsy, including KEGG categories ‘calcium signaling pathway’ and ‘phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway’. Through a series of power curves, we conclude that it is unlikely any single common variant explains >4.4% of the variation in the outcome of newly treated epilepsy. PMID:23962720

Speed, Doug; Hoggart, Clive; Petrovski, Slave; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Coffey, Alison; Jorgensen, Andrea; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; De Iorio, Maria; Todaro, Marian; De, Tisham; Smith, David; Smith, Philip E.; Jackson, Margaret; Cooper, Paul; Kellett, Mark; Howell, Stephen; Newton, Mark; Yerra, Raju; Tan, Meng; French, Chris; Reuber, Markus; Sills, Graeme E.; Chadwick, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Bentley, David; Scheffer, Ingrid; Berkovic, Samuel; Balding, David; Palotie, Aarno; Marson, Anthony; O'Brien, Terence J.; Johnson, Michael R.

2014-01-01

236

Application of Trapa bipinosa for the treatment of pulp and paper industry effluent.  

PubMed

The ability of aquatic plants to absorb, translocate and concentrate metals has led to the development of various plant-based treatment systems. The potential to accumulate metals like iron, nickel, manganese and copper by Trapa bipinosa was assessed by subjecting them to different effluent concentrations of pulp and paper industry under laboratory conditions. Trapa showed the ability to accumulate substantial amounts of the metals during a short span of one week. When the plants were grown in different concentrations they caused significant reduction in various parameters like dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride and sulphate. While there was an increase in biomass, no visible phytotoxic symptoms were shown by treated plants. PMID:20136044

Kousar, Hina; Puttaiah, E T

2009-09-01

237

Effects of Operation Parameters on Nitrification in UpFlow Biological Aerated Filter Coupled with Zeolite Media at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lab scale biological aerated fiter(BAF) reactor with an effective volume of 12.1 L and zeolite as media is operated at 7°C treating synthetic sewage continuously. The nitrification properties and the impacts of different operation parameters such as HRT, effluent recirculation and COD\\/NH3N(C\\/N) on this process are studied respectively. The results suggest that the HRT has a great influence on

Tao Jiang; Junguo He; Xiaonan Yang; Zhiqiang Chen; Jie Zhang

2009-01-01

238

Urban wastewater effluent increases antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in a receiving northern European river.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stångån River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stångån River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:192-196. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25331227

Berglund, Björn; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

2015-01-01

239

Treatment of bleach pulp mill effluent by MF-MBR.  

PubMed

The types of treatment most commonly used by pulp mills are biological treatments in combination with sedimentation or coagulation/flocculation as pretreatment. The main issues faced by these types of treatment are low efficiency in the removal of organic matter and the loss of aggregate value for the recovered fiber. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the use of microfiltration (MF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of bleach pulp mill effluents. The results showed that the use of the MF-MBR system was an excellent alternative for the treatment of bleach pulp mill effluents with an average COD removal of 95%. The microfiltration allowed the recovery of fibers, which can be returned to the production process without losing economic value, and produced a better quality effluent for further treatment in the MBR. The MBR presented high efficiency removal of organic matter. PMID:22876476

Amaral, Miriam C S; Lange, Liséte C; Borges, Cristiano P

2012-07-01

240

Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

NONE

1994-11-01

241

Microbial ecology and performance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological processes treating petrochemical wastewater with high strength of ammonia: effect of Na(2)CO(3) addition.  

PubMed

This study evaluated nitrification performance and microbial ecology of AOB in a full-scale biological process, powder activated carbon treatment (PACT), and a pilot-scale biological process, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), treating wastewater collected from a petrochemical industry park. The petrochemical influent wastewater characteristics showed a relative low carbon to nitrogen ratio around 1 with average COD and ammonia concentrations of 310 mg/L and 325 mg-N/L, respectively. The average nitrification efficiency of the full-scale PACT process was around 11% during this study. For the pilot-scale MBBR, the average nitrification efficiency was 24% during the Run I operation mode, which provided a slightly better performance in nitrification than that of the PACT process. During the Run II operation, the pH control mode was switched from addition of NaOH to Na(2)CO(3), leading to a significant improvement in nitrification efficiency of 51%. In addition to a dramatic change in nitrification performance, the microbial ecology of AOB, monitored with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular methodology, was found to be different between Runs I and II. The amoA-based TRFLP results indicated that Nitrosomonas europaea lineage was the dominant AOB population during Run I operation, while Nitrosospira-like AOB was dominant during Run II operation. To confirm the effects of Na(2)CO(3) addition on the nitrification performance and AOB microbial ecology observed in the MBBR process, batch experiments were conducted. The results suggest that addition of Na(2)CO(3) as a pH control strategy can improve nitrification performance and also influence AOB microbial ecology as well. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear at this time, the results showing the effects of adding different buffering chemicals such as NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) on AOB populations have never been demonstrated until this study. PMID:19182331

Whang, L M; Yang, K H; Yang, Y F; Han, Y L; Chen, Y J; Cheng, S S

2009-01-01

242

Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF  

SciTech Connect

The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

SIMMONS, F.M.

1999-09-01

243

Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-02-01

244

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: excluding dyes. January 1983-January 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1983-January 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile-industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic-fiber manufacture and wool-scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 300 citations, 84 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-02-01

245

LANDFILLS EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS GUIDELINES DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: This resource served as the main information source for national characteristics of landfills for the landfills effluent guidelines. The database was developed based on responses to the "1994 Waste Treatment Industry Questionnaire: Phase II Landfills" and...

246

Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent  

SciTech Connect

Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

1985-05-01

247

Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.  

PubMed

The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:21473275

Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

2011-01-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.427 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.343 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.143 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.227 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chromic Acid Production Subcategory § 415.352 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.142 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.632 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2014-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bromine Production Subcategory § 415.292 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

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...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Electrolytic Manganese Products Subcategory § 424.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

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Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2010-07-01

296

40 CFR 415.657 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cobalt Salts Production Subcategory § 415.657 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

2011-07-01

297

33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. 159...POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents in Certain Alaskan Waters...Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater....

2010-07-01

298

Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 ?g L(-1) for influent and 0.08 ?g L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 ?g kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). PMID:25048887

Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

2014-10-01

299

Enumeration and Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteria in Effluent from Municipal, Hospital, and Secondary Treatment Facility Sources?  

PubMed Central

We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples. PMID:20525867

Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

2010-01-01

300

NEW MEMBRANES FOR TREATING METAL FINISHING EFFLUENTS BY REVERSE OSMOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Long-term reverse osmosis tests were conducted with electroplating wastes on a new membrane referred to as NS-100. This membrane consists of a polyurea layer, formed by the reaction of tolylene diisocyanate with polyethylenimine, deposited on a porous polysulfone support film. Th...

301

Land application of poultry lagoon effluent  

E-print Network

This research studied the effects of three poultry lagoon effluent application rates on two Sol 'I types and two vegetation systems. The purpose of this research was to determine the environmental impacts from the land application of effluent from...

Aldrich, Lance John

1996-01-01

302

[Full-scale experiments of municipal sewage treated by symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbes].  

PubMed

A symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe was formed when tubifex was incubated in the biological contact oxidation process,the tubifex attached to the outer layer of the carriers. When the density of tubifex was about 31.3 g/L, a recycling food chain between corpse of tubifex and excrement and wastewater and microbe and sludge was formed and it could reach balance. The large scale control experimental system for treating 20,000 m3 x d(-1) municipal sewage was carried out for a long time. The result showed that tubifex could improve water quality in the effluent. When the concentration in the influent of COD,NH4+ -N,TP and SS were 130-459, 14.21-27.46, 1.60-6.93, 60-466 mg x L(-1), respectively,the removal rates of COD and SS can be improved by 8.7% and 13.6%. However, tubifex can also increase the concentration of NH4+ -N in the system,but a proper operation can make the effluent concentration of NH4+ -N below 5 mg x L(-1) stably. The symbiotic system consisting of tubifex and microbe has very good phosphorus removal efficiency. The reactor has a high toleration to loading shock and it could keep the effluent quality stable. PMID:20187394

Lou, Ju-qing; Guo, Mao-xin; Sun, Pei-de; Wu, Ge; Song, Ying-qi

2009-12-01

303

Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM) was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA), hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW) distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF), humic-like fluorescence (HLF), the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation) and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation. PMID:22315538

Park, Min-Hye; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Bo-Mi; Hur, Jin; Park, Dae-Hee

2010-01-01

304

Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.  

PubMed

Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

2005-04-15

305

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04

306

Characterizing shipboard bilgewater effluent before and after treatment.  

PubMed

Operational discharges from oceangoing vessels, including discharges of bilgewater, release oil into marine ecosystems that can potentially damage marine life, terrestrial life, human health, and the environment. Bilgewater is a mix of oily fluids and other pollutants from a variety of sources onboard a vessel. If bilgewater cannot be retained onboard, it must be treated by an oily water separator before discharge for larger ocean-going vessels. We evaluated the effectiveness of bilgewater treatment systems by analyzing land-based type approval data, collecting and analyzing shipboard bilgewater effluent data, assessing bilgewater effluent concentrations compared to regulatory standards, evaluating the accuracy of shipboard oil content monitors relative to analytical results, and assessing additional pollution reduction benefits of treatment systems. Land-based type approval data were gathered for 20 treatment systems. Additionally, multiple samples of influent and effluent from operational bilgewater treatment systems onboard three vessels were collected and analyzed, and compared to the land-based type approval data. Based on type approval data, 15 treatment systems were performing below 5 ppm oil. Shipboard performance measurements verified land-based type approval data for the three systems that were sampled. However, oil content monitor readings were more variable than actual oil concentration measurements from effluent samples, resulting in false negatives and positives. The treatment systems sampled onboard for this study generally reduced the majority of other potentially harmful pollutants, which are not currently regulated, with the exception of some heavy metal analytes. PMID:24420560

McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra; Danesi, Robin; Albert, Ryan

2014-04-01

307

REVERSE OSMOSIS RENOVATION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the performance and economics of reverse osmosis treatment of municipal secondary effluent on a sufficient scale to project large plant costs was attempted. The desalted effluent was blended with additional secondary effluent and used for irrigation through an ...

308

(Bi*ol"o*gy) n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. The science of life; that branch of knowledge which treats of  

E-print Network

of the water column and seabed) and by marine organisms for communication and prey detection (as monitoredBiology (Bi*ol"o*gy) n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. biologie.] The science of life; that branch and plants. science of life Introduction This course will provide lecture- and practical-based instruction

Brierley, Andrew

309

Investigating the relationship between toxicity and organic sum-parameters in kraft mill effluents.  

PubMed

Elaborate toxicity diagnostics, such as toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effects-directed analysis (EDA) have helped in identifying the causative agents of effluent wastewater toxicity. However, simpler means of relating ecotoxicological effects to effluent composition could be useful for effluent management practices when there is no scope for more complex procedures. The aim of this work was to investigate and isolate the relationship between biological responses and commonly measured organic sum-parameters, such as chemical- and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD, respectively) in kraft mill effluents. In a top-down approach, the whole effluent toxicity (WET) of effluent samples was first determined from Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays. The theoretical toxicity that could be attributed to the metal content was then estimated, via a combination of equilibrium chemical speciation- and metal toxicity modelling. By assuming concentration addition, the metal toxicity was subtracted from the WET, isolating the toxicity thought to be caused by the organics. Strong and significant correlations between the 'corrected' toxicity and organic sum-parameters were found for both species. The growth of P. subcapitata was negatively associated with increasing COD concentrations, whereas reproduction of C. dubia was negatively associated with increasing BOD concentrations. The linear relationships, along with robust estimations of their uncertainty bounds, can provide valuable, albeit rough, guidance for kraft mill effluent management practices. PMID:25213683

Raptis, Catherine E; Juraske, Ronnie; Hellweg, Stefanie

2014-12-01

310

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

NONE

1996-09-11

311

Remediation of phenol, lignin and paper effluents by advanced oxidative processes.  

PubMed

The tremendous environmental impact of pulping and bleaching effluents and the relatively low efficiency of the current biological remediation processes represent one of the most important problems of the paper industry. In this work the efficiency of heterogeneous and homogeneous advanced oxidative processes was evaluated toward the degradation of model substrates (phenol and lignin) and the remediation of paper effluents. Best results were found by application of the UV-H2O2 system, with almost total discoloration of both pulping and bleaching effluents and typical COD removal higher than 60%, at reaction times of 120 min. In view of the reported results, and mainly on account of the simplicity of the UV-H2O2 system, shows good potential for the advanced process to remediation of recalcitrant effluents like those studied in this present work. PMID:15691193

Peralta-Zamora, P; Wypych, F; Carneiro, L M; Vaz, S R

2004-12-01

312

Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish.  

PubMed

A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant-bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent. PMID:25464312

Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Jagadale, Ashwini D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

2015-02-11

313

Anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents--status quo and new developments.  

PubMed

Since the early 1980s, anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents has found widespread application in the pulp and paper industry. Over 200 installations are treating a large variety of different pulp and paper mill effluents. Amongst various anaerobic systems the UASB and IC are the most applied anaerobic reactor systems. Anaerobic treatment is well feasible for effluents originated from recycle paper mills, mechanical pulping (peroxide bleached), semi-chemical pulping and sulphite and kraft evaporator condensates. The advantages of anaerobic pre-treatment are (1) net production of renewable energy (biogas), (2) minimized bio-solids production, (3) minimal footprint and (4) reduced emission of greenhouse gases. Via in-line application of anaerobic treatment in closed circuits (paper kidney technology) further savings on cost of fresh water intake and effluent discharge levies are generated. PMID:17486855

Habets, Leo; Driessen, Willie

2007-01-01

314

Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

Reichenbaugh, R.C.

1977-01-01

315

Controlled decomposition and oxidation: A treatment method for gaseous process effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safe disposal of effluent gases produced by the electronics industry deserves special attention. Due to the hazardous nature of many of the materials used, it is essential to control and treat the reactants and reactant by-products as they are exhausted from the process tool and prior to their release into the manufacturing facility's exhaust system and the atmosphere. Controlled decomposition and oxidation (CDO) is one method of treating effluent gases from thin film deposition processes. CDO equipment applications, field experience, and results of the use of CDO equipment and technological advances gained from the field experiences are discussed.

Mckinley, Roger J. B., Sr.

1990-01-01

316

Application of biological samples treated by wet-digested mineralization to cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column reaction by 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol.  

PubMed

To quantify metals in biological samples, we tried to find good conditions for wet-digested mineralization of the samples and for separation of metal ions in chromatography. A 500 microliters volume of aliquot was transferred to a glass tube, and was evapolated at 100 degrees C for 2 hours. A 5.5 ml volume of a mixture of concentrated nitric acid-70% perchloric acid (10: 1, v/v) was added and heated, consecutively, at 80 degrees C for 12 hours, at 140 degrees C for 2 hours, at 180 degrees C for 2 hours, and finally at 190 degrees C for 1 hour to evapolate the residual acids. After addition of 500 microliters of 10 mM nitric acid, the metals were extracted by a suspension mixer (32 r.p.m., 1 hour). One hundred microliters of the extracted solution was applied to the chromatographic system: cation-exchange column, TSKgel IC-Cation SW (Tosoh Co.); eluent, 0.35 M lactic acid-0.35 M sodium lactate (pH 3.0); flow rate, 0.7 ml/minute; column temperature, 30 degrees C. After adding a color-forming reagent (100 mg/l 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol in 40 g/l Na2CO3; flow rate, 0.7 ml/minute) to the effluent, five different metal ions of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were detected at 520 nm. The peaks were separated in approximately 25 minutes, and were quantified even at the 1-10 ppb levels. The present procedures were considered to provide simultaneous detection and accurate quantitation of the above five metals in the biological samples. PMID:1798062

Sudo, J; Hayashi, T; Suzue, T; Terui, J

1991-11-01

317

Impact of green algae on the measurement of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in lagoon-treated wastewater with an algae online analyser.  

PubMed

Tests on the algae online analyser (AOA) showed that there was a strong direct linear correlation between cell density and in vivo Chl-a concentration for M. aeruginosa over the range of interest for a biologically treated effluent at a wastewater treatment plant (25,000-65,000?cells?mL(-1), equivalent to a biovolume of 2-6?mm(3?)L(-1)). However, the AOA can provide an overestimate or underestimate of M. aeruginosa populations when green algae are present in the effluent, depending on their species and relative numbers. The results from this study demonstrated that the green algae (e.g., Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sp.) in the field phytoplankton population should be considered during calibration. In summary, the AOA has potential for use as an alert system for the presence of M. aeruginosa, and thus potentially of cyanobacterial blooms, in wastewater stabilization ponds. PMID:25204421

Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

2015-03-01

318

Determination of the androgenic potency of whole effluents using mosquitofish and trout bioassays.  

PubMed

This study combined bioassay-derived and direct chemical analysis of steroidal compounds in pulp and paper and municipal sewage effluent in order to determine the cause of masculinization of female mosquitofish. The bioassays used in this study consisted of androgen and estrogen receptor binding, and aromatase inhibition using tissues from rainbow trout. This study observed no masculinization of female mosquitofish from a pulp and paper mill effluent that was previously observed to cause this effect. Mosquitofish sampled from the receiving environment of the same mill verified that masculinization was not occurring in the wild. The municipal sewage effluent also had no masculinizing effect. In vitro bioassays indicated significant sources of both androgens and estrogens in the effluents tested with sewage effluent having both the highest estradiol (41 ng/L) and testosterone (182 ng/L) equivalent concentration. These results could not be attributed to any particular compounds measured in the effluents. Two compounds implicated in the masculinization of mosquitofish by pulp and paper effluent, androstenedione and androstadienedione required relatively large (10-100 microg/L) waterborne concentrations to elicit a masculinizing effect and neither of these compounds are likely to occur at levels this high in the natural environment. The potent aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione also did not cause masculinization at 100 microg/L indicating that masculinization did not occur through this mechanism. The mammalian anti-androgen, cyproterone acetate was only partially effective in mosquitofish and reduced the severity of masculinization in the presence of methyl testosterone. While neither effluent masculinized mosquitofish, there was a significant reduction of in vitro ovarian steroid production with the most severe effects observed with the sewage effluent. Overall, this study found the disappearance of a masculinizing effect that had been previously observed; concluded that based on 21 days aqueous exposures androstenedione and androstadienedione are not likely candidates for mosquitofish masculinization, and showed that masculinization and in vitro steroid production are unrelated biological endpoints. PMID:16996625

Bandelj, E; van den Heuvel, M R; Leusch, F D L; Shannon, N; Taylor, S; McCarthy, L H

2006-12-01

319

Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg?L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam. PMID:23179219

Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

320

Sex and low-level sampling stress modify the impacts of sewage effluent on the rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of chronic exposure to municipal sewage treatment effluent at environmentally relevant concentrations on immune parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), including the assessment of potential differences in reactivity between sexually mature male and female fish. Trout were exposed to 1.5 and 15% (v\\/v) secondary treated municipal sewage effluent for

Birgit Hoeger; Bettina Hitzfeld; Bernd Köllner; Daniel R. Dietrich; Michael R. van den Heuvel

2005-01-01

321

Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.  

PubMed

Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

2012-01-01

322

Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams. PMID:23657583

Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

2014-01-01

323

Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

Wolverton, B. C. (inventor)

1983-01-01

324

Evaluation of effluent toxicity as an indicator of aquatic life condition in effluent-dominated streams: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The types and quality of data needed to determine relationships between chronic whole effluent toxicity (WET) test results and in-stream biological condition were evaluated using information collected over a 1.5-y period from 6 different sites across the United States. A data-quality-objectives approach was used that included several proposed measurement quality objectives (MQOs) that specified desired precision, bias, and sensitivity of methods used. The 6 facilities used in this study (4 eastern and 2 western United States) all had design effluent concentrations >60% of the stream flow. In addition to at least quarterly chronic Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and Selenastrum capricornutum (green algae) WET tests, other tests were conducted to address MQOs, including splits, duplicates, and blind positive and negative controls. Macroinvertebrate, fish, and periphyton bioassessments were conducted at multiple locations upstream and downstream of each facility. The test acceptance criteria of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were met for most WET tests; however, this study demonstrated the need to incorporate other MQOs (minimum and maximum percent significant difference and performance on blind samples) to ensure accurate interpretation of effluent toxicity. More false positives, higher toxicity, and more "failed" (noncompliant) tests were observed using no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) as compared to the IC25 endpoint (concentration causing > or =25% decrease in organism response compared to controls). Algae tests often indicated the most effluent toxicity in this study; however, this test was most susceptible to false positives and high interlaboratory variability. Overall, WET test results exhibited few relationships with bioassessment results even when accounting for actual effluent dilution. In general, neither frequency of WET noncompliance nor magnitude of toxicity in tests were significantly related to differences in biological condition upstream and downstream of a discharge. Periphyton assessments were most able to discriminate small changes downstream of the effluent, followed by macroinvertebrates and fish. Although sampling methods were robust, more replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of each facility were needed to increase detection power. In general, macroinvertebrate and periphyton assessments together appeared to be sufficient to address project objectives. PMID:18597571

Diamond, Jerry; Stribling, James; Bowersox, Marcus; Latimer, Henry

2008-10-01

325

Emerging Contaminant Sources Fate in Recharged Treated Wasterwater, Lake Havasu City, Arizona  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2008 the City of Lake Havasu, Arizona, began a subsurface, effluent injection program to store treated wastewater effluent, which will eventually be seasonally recovered to balance the demand for irrigation during the summer months. As a proactive measure, the City decided to ...

326

Waste monitoring system for effluents  

SciTech Connect

The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

1995-07-01

327

Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

Shipers, Larry R.

1993-01-01

328

Toxicity assessment of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry by bioassay tests in Trigonella foenumgracum.  

PubMed

A rapid bioassay test was conducted to study heavy metal accumulation and biochemical changes in Trigonella foenumgracum (methi) irrigated with 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluent from flash light manufacturing industry at 60 days after sowing. Total metal concentration in effluent samples was: Cr = 0.12 < Cd = 0.18 < Pb = 0.24 < Cu = 2.68 mg l(-1) whereas, metals were not detected in control. An increase in photosynthetic pigments of exposed plant was noticed up to 50% concentrations of the effluent followed by a decrease at higher concentration as compared to their respective control.An enhanced lipid peroxidation in the treated plants was observed, which was evident by increased level of antioxidants: proline, cysteine, malondialdehyde and ascorbic acid content. The treated plants accumulated metals in the following order: Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd in the roots and shoots. PMID:25522513

Kumari, Narendra; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Dwivedi, Neetu; Singh, D P; Barman, S C

2014-11-01

329

Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis  

SciTech Connect

Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

Lowe, S.S.

1994-09-27

330

Use of plant genotoxicity bioassay for the evaluation of efficiency of algal biofilters in bioremediation of toxic industrial effluent.  

PubMed

The toxicity and efficacy of an algal-based bioremediation technology were assessed through bioassays for ecological risk of contaminated industrial effluents. The algal bioremoval of heavy metals was evaluated using an in vitro approach. Phytogenotoxicity tests were conducted with Allium cepa and Vicia faba plants to evaluate the genotoxicity of the industrial effluents before and after treatment with different kinds of algal biofilters (BF). Root cells were exposed for 24 h to different dilutions of both raw and treated effluent of a chemical fertilizer factory. Three cytogenetic endpoints were used to assess the mutagenic potencies of the industrial effluent: mitotic inhibition, mitotic chromosome aberrations, and nuclear irregularities in interphase cells. Before algal treatment, the industrial effluent caused strong genotoxic effects represented by severe inhibition in mitotic activity of meristematic cells and high frequency of both chromosome and nucleus abnormalities. After algal treatment, the cytotoxic effects of 30% and 60% concentrations of the treated effluent were comparable to those of 5% and 10% concentrations before treatment, respectively, and the frequency of both chromosome and nuclear abnormalities declined by approximately 50%. Statistical analysis of the data indicates a significant reduction in genotoxicity associated with a remarkable reduction in heavy metal concentrations after bioremediation by algal BF. The Allium and Vicia genotoxicity approach was effective in monitoring bioremediated effluent for toxicity. PMID:16376989

Abdel Migid, Hala M; Azab, Yehia A; Ibrahim, Waeel M

2007-01-01

331

40 CFR Table 4 to Part 455 - BAT and NSPS Effluent Limitations for Priority Pollutants for Direct Discharge Point Sources That...  

...Point Sources That use End-of-Pipe Biological Treatment 4 Table 4 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 455—BAT and NSPS Effluent...

2014-07-01

332

Prediction analysis of effluent removal in a septic sludge treatment plant: a biomimetics engineering approach.  

PubMed

Effluent discharge from septic tanks is affecting the environment in developing countries. The most challenging issue facing these countries is the cost of inadequate sanitation, which includes significant economic, social, and environmental burdens. Although most sanitation facilities are evaluated based on their immediate costs and benefits, their long-term performance should also be investigated. In this study, effluent quality-namely, the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solid (TSS)-was assessed using a biomimetics engineering approach. A novel immune network algorithm (INA) approach was applied to a septic sludge treatment plant (SSTP) for effluent-removal predictive modelling. The Matang SSTP in the city of Kuching, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, was selected as a case study. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 were used for training, validating, and testing purposes using MATLAB 7.10. The results showed that the BOD effluent-discharge prediction was less than 50% of the specified standard after the 97(th) month of operation. The COD and TSS effluent removals were simulated at the 85(th) and the 121(st) months, respectively. The study proved that the proposed INA-based SSTP model could be used to achieve an effective SSTP assessment and management technique. PMID:25005632

Chun, Ting Sie; Malek, M A; Ismail, Amelia Ritahani

2014-09-20

333

Quantitative and qualitative impact of hospital effluent on dissemination of the integron pool.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that human activity, and especially the resulting effluent, has a major role in the dissemination of bacterial antibiotic-resistance determinants in the environment. Hospitals are the major antibiotic consumers and thus facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. Questions are increasingly being raised about the management of hospital effluents, but their involvement in antibiotic-resistance dissemination has never been assessed. Integrons are a paradigm of genetic transfer between the environmental resistome and both commensal and pathogenic bacteria. In order to assess the impact of hospital activities on antibiotic-resistance dissemination in the environment, we monitored integrons and their gene cassettes in hospital effluents, and their release in the environment. We found that bacterial communities present in a hospital effluent contained a high proportion of integrons. In terms of both their gene cassette diversity and gene cassette arrays, the urban effluent and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent were most similar, whereas the hospital effluent and recirculation sludge exhibited very specific patterns. We found that anthropogenic activities led to the release of abundant integrons and antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, but we observed no specific impact of hospital activities on the receiving environment. Furthermore, although the WWTP did not reduce the normalized integron copy number, it reduced the diversity of gene cassette arrays contained in the raw wastewater, underlining the effect of the biological treatment on the anthropogenic integron pool arriving at the WWTP. PMID:24152716

Stalder, Thibault; Barraud, Olivier; Jové, Thomas; Casellas, Magali; Gaschet, Margaux; Dagot, Christophe; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

2014-04-01

334

Genotoxicity evaluation of effluents from textile industries of the region Fez-Boulmane, Morocco: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the biological hazard of effluents from textile industries of Fez-Boulmane region in Morocco, mutagenicity and phytotoxicity tests were performed on different biological systems. Moreover, the efficiency of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system, working by activated sludge on a laboratory scale, was estimated by comparing the ecotoxicity results observed before and after wastewater treatment. Evaluation of

Lucia Giorgetti; Hakima Talouizte; Mohammed Merzouki; Leonardo Caltavuturo; Chiara Geri; Stefania Frassinetti

2011-01-01

335

Using ozone to reduce recalcitrant compounds and to enhance biodegradability of pulp and paper effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ozone based oxidation on removing recalcitrant organic matter (ROM) and enhancing the biodegradability of alkaline bleach plant effluent was investigated. A bubble column ozonation tower was used in the study. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures (20°C and 60°C) and pH (9 and 11), with a number of biological and chemical parameters being monitored including

L. Bijan; M. Mohseni

336

Posttreatment of effluent from coke-plant wastewater treatment system in sequencing batch reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for the treatment of effluent from a conventional coke-plant wastewater biological treatment system has been evaluated. The results showed that an operating mode that incorporated two anoxic portions, one ahead of the aeration period and one after the aeration, was superior to the other modes (prearranged denitrification and postarranged denitrification) for nitrogen removal.

Hanqing Yu; Guowei Gu; Leping Song

1997-01-01

337

Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.  

PubMed

A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 ?g/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory. PMID:21644165

Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

2011-01-01

338

Effluent impact assessment using microarray-based analysis in common carp: a systems toxicology approach.  

PubMed

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants to the aquatic environment, and can cause ecotoxicological effects at different levels of biological organization. Since gene expression responses represent the primary interaction site between environmental contaminants and biota, they provide essential clues to understand how chemical exposure can affect organismal health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the applicability of a microarray approach for unraveling modes of action of whole effluent toxicity and impact assessment. A chronic toxicity test with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was conducted where fish were exposed to a control and 100% effluent for 21 days under flow-through conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that effluent treatment mainly affected molecular pathways associated with the energy balance of the fish, including changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as digestive enzyme activity. These gene expression responses were in clear agreement with, and provided additional mechanistic information on various cellular and higher level effects observed for the same effluent. Our results demonstrate the benefit of toxicogenomic tools in a "systems toxicology" approach, involving the integration of adverse effects of chemicals and stressors across multiple levels of biological complexity. PMID:17267021

Moens, Lotte N; Smolders, Roel; van der Ven, Karlijn; van Remortel, Piet; Del-Favero, Jurgen; De Coen, Wim M

2007-05-01

339

Assessment of peracetic acid disinfected effluents by microbiotests.  

PubMed

Bioassays were performed by commercially available kits on peracetic acid (PAA) solutions, at different concentrations, and on secondary effluents (from two different wastewater treatment plants) after disinfection at bench-scale, considering both samples containing residual active PAA and the same samples where residual PAA was quenched. Four indicator organisms were used: Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornutum. The experiments lead to conclude that Thamnocephalus platyurus is a very sensitive organism, probably not adequate to perform a reliable toxicity assessment of effluents for monitoring purposes. The presence of specific organic compounds deriving from human metabolism and urban pollution, even at very low concentrations, can affect the results of bioassays, especially those performed on Vibrio fischeri. PAA is toxic for bacteria and crustaceans even at concentrations lower than the ones commonly used in wastewater disinfection (2-5 mg/L), while its effect on algae is smaller. The toxic effect on bacteria was expected, as PAA is used for disinfection, but its possible influence on biological processes in the receiving aquatic environment should be considered. Toxicity on crustaceans would confirm the fact that discharging disinfected effluents could raise some environmental problems. PMID:19764220

Antonelli, M; Mezzanotte, V; Panouillères, M

2009-09-01

340

Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.  

PubMed

The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent. PMID:24355852

Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

2013-01-01

341

Opsonic deficiency of peritoneal dialysis effluent in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opsonic deficiency of the peritoneal cavity: A risk factor for peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococcus epidermidis peritonitis frequently complicates the clinical course of patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Since bacterial opsonization is critical to the effective defense of the peritoneal cavity by phagocytic cells, we prospectively evaluated the opsonic activity of peritoneal dialysis effluent obtained

William F Keane; Christina M Comty; Henri A Verbrugh; Phillip K Peterson

1984-01-01

342

Nanofiltration of textile plant effluent for color removal and reduction in COD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane based separation process (nanofiltration, NF) is used to treat the effluent from a textile plant. The dye mixture contains reactive black dye (Cibacron Black B) and reactive red dye (Cibacron Red RB). An organic membrane with molecular weight cut-off of 400 is used for the experiments. The experiments are conducted in an unstirred batch and a rectangular cross

S. Chakraborty; M. K. Purkait; S. DasGupta; S. De; J. K. Basu

2003-01-01

343

Ammonia removal from pretreated methane fermentation effluent through a soil trench system: A column experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the optimal running conditions and mechanisms of ammonia removal through a soil trench system that is designed for treating pretreated methane fermentation effluent, a soil column whose structure was similar to the soil trench system was prepared, and irrigated with wastewater below 30°C. At the beginning, ammonia was mainly adsorbed by the soils, and the ammonia

Xiaohui Lei; Haruyuki Fujimaki; Yifeng Lu; Zhenya Zhang; Takaaki Maekawa

2007-01-01

344

REMOVAL OF LAGOON EFFLUENT SUSPENDED SOLIDS BY A SLOW-ROCK FILTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to examine the removal of algae cells and other suspended solids contained in the effluents from facultative lagoons treating domestic wastewaters by means of rock filters. Two rock filters were constructed and operational over a 16 month period ...

345

Bioavailability and characterization of dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus in wastewater effluents.  

PubMed

There is still a great knowledge gap in the understanding of characteristics and bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in wastewater effluents, which surmise implications related to both discharge regulation and treatment practice. In this study, we simultaneously investigated the characteristics and bioavailability of both DON and DOP, with separated hydrophilic versus hydrophobic fractions, in highly-treated wastewater effluents for the first time. The tertiary effluents from two wastewater treatment plants were separated into two fractions by XAD-8 resin coupled with anion exchange resin based on the hydrophobicity. Results showed that the majority of DON was present in hydrophilic forms while more DOP existed in hydrophobic forms. Hydrophilic DON contributed to 64.0%-72.2% of whole DON, while hydrophobic DOP accounted for 61.4%-80.7% of total DOP for the two plants evaluated. The effluents and their fractions were then subject to bioavailability assay based on 14-day algae growth. The results indicated that majority (~73-75%) of the effluent DOP, particularly the hydrophobic fraction with lower C/P ratio was more likely to be bioavailable for algal growth. The bioavailable fraction of DON varied widely (28%-61%) for the two plants studied and the hydrophilic fraction with lower C/N ratio seemed to exhibit higher bioavailability than the hydrophobic portion. The differences in bioavailable DON and DOP distributions of effluents from those two plants could be attributed to different receiving effluent compositions and wastewater treatment processes. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were used to characterize the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater effluent, which provided insights into the nature of organic matter in wastewater samples with different characteristics and originating sources. PMID:25527968

Qin, Chao; Liu, Haizhou; Liu, Lei; Smith, Scott; Sedlak, David L; Gu, April Z

2015-04-01

346

Medically-derived 131I in municipal sewage effluent.  

PubMed

This work presents (131)I (t(½) = 8.04 d) concentrations in sewage effluent from the Stony Brook Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), a small plant serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY, USA. The concentrations detected in sewage effluent ranged from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 227 ± 2 Bq L(-1). The primary source of (131)I is excreta from thyroid cancer inpatients treated at the Stony Brook University Medical Center. Based on several time series measurements following known inpatient treatments, the mean sewage half-life (T(s)) of iodine is 3 d in this plant. The T(s), analogous to a radioactive half-life, describes the time it takes for half of a wastewater component to be removed from a WPCP. Flow recycling, or activated sludge, used to maintain bacterial populations necessary for sewage treatment causes iodine to remain in this plant far longer than its hydraulic retention time. The experimental results suggest that most (131)I entering the Stony Brook WPCP leaves in sewage effluent, not in sewage sludge. Patient treatments can result in continuous discharges of (131)I to surface waters where it can be used as a tracer of sewage-derived material and to understand the behavior of (131)I in aquatic environments. PMID:22925394

Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence; Cochran, J Kirk

2012-11-01

347

Modelling the steady-state effluent characteristics of the TNCU process under different return mixed liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) was employed and modified to predict the effluent qualities of the modified enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) system – TNCU. The TNCU process was composed of anaerobic\\/anoxic\\/oxide (A2O) process and rotating biological contactors (RBC) in each reactor. There were three modifications for the model in this study: (1) the biosorption effect of the

T. Y. Pai; C. F. Ouyang; J. L. Su; H. G. Leu

2001-01-01

348

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

349

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

350

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

351

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

353

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2010-07-01

354

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2011-07-01

355

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2012-07-01

356

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2014-07-01

357

40 CFR 415.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.332 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

2013-07-01

358

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

359

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

360

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

361

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

362

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

363

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

364

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

365

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2013-07-01

367

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

368

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

369

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

370

40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

371

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

372

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

373

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2011-07-01

374

40 CFR 427.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2014-07-01

375

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2012-07-01

376

40 CFR 427.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

377

40 CFR 427.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

2010-07-01

378

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

379

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

380

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

381

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

382

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

383

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

384

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

385

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

386

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

387

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

389

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 440.95 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.95 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

391

40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

392

40 CFR 440.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.93 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

393

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

394

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

395

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

396

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

397

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

399

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

400

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

403

40 CFR 422.42 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.42 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

404

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2014-07-01

405

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2013-07-01

406

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2010-07-01

407

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2011-07-01

408

40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia Subcategory § 418.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

2012-07-01

409

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

410

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

412

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

413

40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

414

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

415

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

416

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

417

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

418

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

419

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

420

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

421

40 CFR 440.55 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.55 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

423

40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

424

40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

425

40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

426

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

427

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

428

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

429

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

430

40 CFR 440.45 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.45 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

431

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2013-07-01

432

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2010-07-01

433

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2014-07-01

434

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2012-07-01

435

40 CFR 440.65 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.65 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

2011-07-01

436

40 CFR 461.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

437

40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2010-07-01

438

40 CFR 420.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2012-07-01

439

40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

440

40 CFR 430.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

441

40 CFR 430.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2010-07-01

442

40 CFR 421.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

443

40 CFR 421.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

444

40 CFR 461.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

445

40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

446

40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2012-07-01

447

40 CFR 464.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

448

40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

449

40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

450

40 CFR 421.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

451

40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

452

40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

453

40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2011-07-01

454

40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 421.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2010-07-01

456

40 CFR 419.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2014-07-01

457

40 CFR 421.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2012-07-01

458

40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...operations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

459

40 CFR 420.97 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2012-07-01

460

40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

461

40 CFR 430.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...dischargers Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2014-07-01

462

40 CFR 421.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2013-07-01

463

40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2010-07-01

464

40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...  

...limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

465

40 CFR 471.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

466

40 CFR 430.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2014-07-01

467

40 CFR 420.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values...

2010-07-01

468

40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...not be subject to the maximum day and average of 30...

2010-07-01

469

40 CFR 471.41 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...  

...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...operations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for monthly...

2014-07-01

470